Alabama Historical Markers

 

A County Older Than the State – Autauga County

Created in 1818 by an act of Alabama Territorial Legislature. Autauga Indians lived on the creek from which the county takes its name. Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe. They sent many warriors to resist Andrew Jackson's invasion in the Creek War. This county was part of the territory ceded by the Creeks in the Treaty of Ft. Jackson in 1814. Prattville has been the county seat since 1868. Earlier seats include: Jackson's Mill, Washington, Kingston.

Albert J. Pickett

(1810-1858) Scholar, planter, and trader, Alabama's first historian lived on the plantation nearby. From traders and Indians he gathered materials for his authentic history of early Alabama and the Southeast.

Alibamo Indians

Alabama was named for this tribe which lived along the Alabama River. About 1702 the French found them settled here. The Treaty of Ft. Jackson forced them to move east of the Coosa River in 1814.

Buena Vista, Montgomery-Janes-Wittaker Home

(circa 1830) This antebellum plantation house was completed by Capt. William Montgomery, a contemporary of Prattville's founder, Daniel Pratt. This "Deep South" architecture reflects the Federal style with the later addition of a Colonial Revival facade that includes a portico with Ionic Columns and a cast ironwork balcony. Interesting features of this structure are the delicately crafted fanlights over the front entrance and in the gable ends. A circular staircase spiraling 24 feet highlights the interior along with the elaborate plaster cornice moldings and spectacular ceiling medallions. The home is presently owned by the Union Camp Corporation and is maintained by the Autauga County Heritage Association. Buena Vista was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.

Daniel Pratt Cemetery

Final resting place of early Alabama industrialist Daniel Pratt, 1799-1873, and wife Ester Ticknor Pratt, 1803-1875. He was from New Hampshire and she, Connecticut. Married 1827 at Fortville, Jones County, Georgia. The former carpenter's apprentice practiced his craft in Milledgeville, GA, where he gained skill in building and design. In 1832 Pratt came to Alabama to build cotton gins. Ester encouraged Pratt to remain in Alabama in order for him to establish a manufacturing complex and the village of Prattville, founded 1839. In 1847 Pratt was the recipient of the University of Alabama's first honorary degree. His design strongly influenced the 1851 rebuilding of the State Capitol. Pratt served as a legislator during the Civil War period.

Daniel Pratt Historic District

Listed on the National Register 1984. Marker placed by Historic Prattville Redevelopment Authority and Autauga County Heritage Association for the City of Prattville.

George Cooke

Southern itinerant painter was born in Maryland in 1793; married Maria Heath of Virginia in 1815. His wide range of work included landscapes, portraits, and religious and historical subjects. Many of his works, including "Interior of St. Peter's- Rome," are owned by the University of Georgia. Cooke studied in Europe, 1826-1831, where he met poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a lifelong friend. Cooke's 1849 death occurred in New Orleans, he was buried here near the Pratt gallery which has displayed his art as a tribute to his life and work.

Indian Springs Post Office

Location of considerable community activity in the early nineteenth-century Autauga County.

Line 32° 28' North Latitude

Northern Boundary of: British West Florida, 1764-83; Spanish West Florida, 1783-95; Mississippi Territory, 1798-1804; Washington County, 1800-12; Clarke County, 1812-15. Southern Boundary of: British Illinois, 1764-83; United States, 1783-95. This line fixed in 1764 by the British king across present Alabama-Mississippi. France had ceded area to Britain in 1763.

Mulbry Grove Cottage McWilliams-Smith-Rice House

Built circa 1840s by A.K. McWilliams, this story and one-half Federal-style raised cottage with Greek Revival elements was the residence of Amos Smith, who named the town of Prattville. Occupied for many years by George L. and Abbie Holt Smith, the house remained in the hands of their descendants until 1995. Charles Rice, a nephew by marriage of George and Abbie Smith's son, Frederick D. Smith, donated it to the Autauga County Heritage Association and the City of Prattville for use as a museum. This antebellum home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as inclusive in the Daniel Pratt Historic District.

Old Autauga County Courthouse

1870 The county's third courthouse was used until 1906. George Littlefield Smith, an early citizen of Prattville, designed and built the Italianate-style structure. Earlier county seats were Washington, then Kingston.

Old Plank Road

Circa 1840's The plank road was constructed of large pine logs, sawed lengthwise and laid round-side down. Daniel Pratt built the road for public benefit and to provide transportation from the Pratt Cotton Gin Factory to Washington on the Alabama River. Over four-miles long, the road cost between eight- and ten-thousand dollars to construct. Cotton gins from Pratt's factory were shipped all over the globe. Under the name "Continental Eagle," this factory remains the largest cotton gin manufacturer in the world.

Pratt Gin Mill

Once the world's largest plant manufacturing cotton gins. Founded 1833 by Daniel Pratt, the greatest industrialist of Alabama prior to 1860. Pratt's many industries were of great aid to Confederacy during Northern blockade.

Pratt Homesite

Circa 1842 Daniel Pratt, Prattville's founding father, constructed an imposing home and garden within a quarter-mile of this site on Autauga Creek, near his industrial complex. The large home was designed and erected by Pratt himself, a noted architect/builder. The white frame house featured New England architectural elements characteristic of Pratt's style and incroporated a narrow, two-story portico and balcony. Pratt also added an art gallery to the home displaying paintings by George Cooke, a southern artist supported by Pratt. The grape vineyard on the hillside behind the house provided wine for entertaining the Pratt home. Erected during the 1999 Daniel Pratt "Alabama Year of Industry" Celebration in Honor of Daniel Pratt's 200th Birthday.

Prattville Male and Female Academy Site

The 1859 Italianate-style brick structure was built by Daniel Pratt. The bell which hung in the belfry above the second floor now may be seen in the school yard on Washington Street. In April 1861 the Prattville Dragoons mustered here before departing for encampment and were presented a silk flag by the young women of the Academy. In 1927 the original building was replaced by the present structure, one of several in Alabama built on the same plan. The architect is unknown but the design has been attributed to Frank Lockwood. Reverse Sidney Lanier 1842-1881 The poet and musician, born in Macon, Georgia, was Academy principal in 1867-68. He married Mary H. Day of Macon in December 1867. In Prattville, they lived at the Mims Hotel and later in Dr. S.P. Smith's home. Following a brief legal career in Georgia, Lanier became first flutist in 1873 with the Peabody Orchestra in Baltimore and in 1879 was appointed as lecturer in English Literature at Johns Hopkins University. He wrote the words for the American Centennial Cantata and his poetry includes, "The Marshes of Glynn" and "Song of the Chattahoochee." The poet's experiments with musical sound in verse were a significant literary contribution. Lanier died at the age of 39 from the tuberculosis he had contracted as an imprisoned Confederate soldier during the Civil War. He was buried in Greenmount Cemetery in Baltimore.

Spanish West Florida, 1764-83

Colony's north boundary crossed present-day Alabama-Mississippi at this point on 32° 28' by edict of the British king. Colony extended south to the Gulf. France had ceded area in 1763. Spain invaded and seized area in 1780. Britain ceded to Spain in 1783. Spain ceded part to U.S. in 1795.

Thomas Hill House

Site of first Court after Autauga became a County Union Baptist Meeting House 1830s forerunner of First Baptist Church The above sites were located within ½ mile radius of this spot.

A County Older Than the State–Baldwin County

Third oldest county in Alabama. Created in 1809 while still part of Mississippi Territory. Named for Abraham Baldwin (1754-1807), founder of the University of Georgia, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, member of Congress, 1789-1807. This county once lay west of the Tombigbee River; but, after series of boundary changes, it now lies east of the Mobile and Alabama Rivers. County seat at Bay Minette since 1901; earlier seats at McIntosh Bluff, Blakely, and Daphne. It has long been a center of conflicting claims: by Spain, France, and England; by royal governors of Florida, Louisiana, Carolina, Georgia, and West Florida until the Mississippi Territory formed in 1798 and from it, the Alabama Territory in 1817. In struggle for control of the Southeast, many armies have camped in this area: 1528–Narvez, Spanish conquistador 1588–DeLuna, Spanish colonizer 1719–Bienville, French colonizer 1780–Galvez, Spanish conqueror 1813–Red Eagle, Indian revolter 1814–Jackson, American defender 1815–Packenham, British invader 1864–Maury, Confederate defender 1865–Canby, Federal invader.

Confederate Rest Cemetery

The Grand Hotel and the Gunnison House served as a hospital for wounded Confederate soldiers from the Battle of Vicksberg during the Civil War. The Confederate Rest Cemetery commemorates more than 300 Confederate soldiers who died while in the hospital. The original tract of seven acres included markers erected to the Unknown Confederate Dead. The records of the soldiers were kept in the hotel until a fire in 1869, when the identities of those buried in Confederate Rest were lost.

Ellicot's Stone

Erected April 9th, 1799 Marks 1st Southern Boundary of the United States and the Mississippi Territory created in 1798 900 feet East Stone marked 31° North Latitude separating the U.S. & Spanish Florida. This line of demarcation ran from the Mississippi east, along the 31° parallel to the Chattahoochie River, thence down that river to the mouth of the Flint River, thence on a line to the headwaters of the St. Mary's River, thence down that river to the Atlantic Ocean. Major Andrew Ellicott, appointed by George Washington as U.S. Commissioner to survey the boundary as defined in the Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795), was engaged in this expedition from 1796-1800. Esteban Minor was appointed Commissioner on the Spanish side. In 1803, the Ellicott Stone was selected as the Initial Point to begin the U.S. Public Land Surveys which control land boundaries in southern Alabama & Mississippi (St. Stephens Meridian).

Fort Bowyer

Built during War of 1812. 1803 United States claimed Mobile and the bay as part of Louisiana Purchase. 1813 On order of President Madison, this point seized from Spain by U.S. Regulars under Gen. James Wilkinson and militia under Col. John Bowyer. This act extended Mississippi Territory to Bay area. Fort Bowyer, a wooden fort, was built here. 1814 British with Indian allies attacked Fort by land and sea. After three days of fierce assault, the British ship Hermes was sunk; the enemy withdrew to friendly Spanish port of Pensacola. 1815 After Battle of New Orleans, British under Gen. Pakenham attacked here with 500 men from land and 38 war ships. Maj. Lawrence, U.S.A. surrendered with 360 men on the third day. Since peace treaty had already been signed, British retained Fort Bowyer only a few weeks. Americans again occupied the Fort. 1819 work begun on construction of brick fort. 1822 Fort greatly strengthened as urged by President James Monroe. Later renamed Fort Morgan.

Fort Morgan

1833 This fort replaced Fort Bowyer. Built on the star-shaped design of Michelangelo, it is one of the finest examples of military architecture in the New World. 1861 Seized by Alabama troops on order of Governor Moore. 1861-1864 Strengthened and garrisoned by Confederates guarding the pass against Federal blockading fleet. Guns of fort protected blockade-runners in and out of Mobile Bay. 1864 Admiral Farragut, U.S.N., forcing passage into bay, landed 3000 men. After heavy bombardment by Federal fleet, the interior of Fort lay in smoldering ruins. The garrison surrendered next afternoon. 1865 General Canby U.S.A. landed nearby with 32,500 troops and supplies. He moved up east shore of bay to join 13,200 men from Pensacola and laid siege to defenses of Mobile. 1898 During War with Spain the Fort was strengthened and modernized. 1946 Congress deeded the Fort and 400 acres to Alabama for use as State Park.

Fort Mims Massacre

Here in the Creek Indian War (1813-14) took place the most brutal massacre in American history. Indians took the fort with heavy losses, and then killed all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort. The Creeks had been armed by British at Pensacola in this phase of War of 1812.

Kennedy Mill, C. 1811

Site of one of Alabama's first sawmills. In 1811, Joshua Kennedy engaged Jesse Ember to build two water-powered sawmills, convertible to grist mills, for a total of $1400. The mills were operated by Kennedy through 1820; were burned twice, once by Indians. The mill dam and site were later used by the Bryne Brothers, and then by Hastic & Silver Co. until 1906, when they were abandoned.

The Mound Line

(Ellicott Line) Mile Mound #216 located 1200 feet East Surveyed in 1799 to mark the 31° North Latitude, this line charted the first southern boundary of the United States, separating the U.S. from Spanish Florida. The line was marked at one-mile intervals by earthen mounds approximately fifteen-feet square and three-feet high with a charred lighter-pine post at the center, hence the name Mound Line. Jointly surveyed by Major Andrew Ellicott, U.S. Commissioner, and Esteban Minor, Spanish Commissioner, to determine boundaries as agreed in the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795. The line began at the Mississippi River, ran east along 31° North Latitude to the Chattahoochie River, thence eventually to the Atlantic Ocean. Stockton was divided by this line, with some residents living in the United States and some in Spanish Florida. Although Stockton became a "border town," U.S. law generally prevailed in the area.

Noble Leslie DeVotie

First Alabama soldier to die in the Civil War. Drowned February 12, 1861, while on duty as chaplain of the Alabama troops here. Before enlisting, he was the pastor of Selma Baptist Church. He was 23 at time of death. Noble Leslie DeVotie–First Alabama soldier to lose life in Civil War. DeVotie graduated in 1856 from University of Alabama; Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Princeton in 1859. In 1856 at the University of Alabama, he was chief founder of Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity, the only national social fraternity founded in the Deep South. (Located at Fort Morgan)

School of Organic Education

On this site, a significant educational experiment was launched by Marietta Johnson, who founded the School of Organic Education in 1907. Believing that children should be motivated by natural free development rather than by competition, she did away with examinations and concentrated on the growth of the whole person. In 1909, the Single Tax Corporation provided this 10-acre plot. John Dewey, whose progressive education principles were shared by Johnson, visited the school in 1913. The school reached its zenith during the 1920's. The City of Fairhope acquired the campus in 1987 and leased it to Faulkner State Junior College. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.

Eufaula

Barbour County was incorporated on December 19, 1857. Bluff city on the Chattahoochee River. Lower Creek village of the Eufaula Indians antedating 1733. Early white settlers began moving into the village called Yufala in 1823. Irwinton was chartered in 1832, and was renamed Eufaula in 1843. Since it was a hub of a prosperous plantation region with thriving river trade, many antebellum homes remain as signs of its wealth and culture. After becoming an inland port in 1963, industries began locating here.

Bibb Naval Furnaces Brierfield Furnaces

The principal iron producer for the Confederate foundry at Selma, where naval guns and ironclads were made. 1865–Furnaces destroyed by Wilson's Raiders, U.S.A. 1866–Furnaces rebuilt and operated by Gen. Gorgas, former Ordnance Chief, C.S.A.

Ebenezer Church

April 1, 1865–A cavalry engagement here among fiercest of the Civil War. To defend arsenal of Selma, Forrest (Confederate flag) charged with 1500 into Wilson (U.S. flag), moving south with 7500. Forrest was seeking to delay Wilson pending the arrival of scattered (Confederate flag) units. Forrest, involved in heavy fighting to inspire his men, suffered a saber wound, but killed opponent. Swollen streams and intercepted orders blocked aid for Forrest and forced his retreat. (Located on Alabama Highway 189)

Haysop Baptist Church

In the Lord's Service At this Location Since Summer 1830 Rededicated With Our Prayers In Its 150th Year

A County Older Than the State – Blount County

Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and won the Creek War. Creeks gave up half of their lands in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Some of Jackson's men were first settlers of Blount. County seat moved here in 1889.

Battle Royal

May 1, 1863–Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked Colonel Streight's column as it crossed Locust's swift waters, causing the Federal troops to make tremendous exertions to complete the movement, contributing thereby to Streight's eventual surrender of his entire command to Forrest some forty hours later and seventy-five miles from Battle Royal. (Located on Alabama Highway 26 at Royal near Blountsville)

Blount Springs

Famous Health Resort from 1843-1914. Here fashionable ladies and gentlemen of the South vacationed with their families.

Blountsville

1820-1889–Seat of Blount County, a county older than the State. Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in the Creek Indian War, 1812-1814. Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at the crossing of old Indian trading paths. 1816–Tennesseans began trading post here and called the village Bear Meat Cabin. 1820–Name changed to Blountsville and made county seat. 1819–County seat moved to Oneonta.

Champion Mines

John Hanby came in 1817 and found a rich seam of brown iron ore. Named Champion in 1882 when Henry DeBardeleben & James Sloss bought land and brought L & N Railroad causing county seat to be moved from Blountsville to Oneonta in 1889. Most ore was mined by Shook and Fletcher 1925-1967 from Champion & Taits Gap mines under E. N. Vandergrift, superintendent. Ore was shipped to Woodward, T.C.I. & Sloss furnaces in Birmingham and Republic in Gadsden.

Ebenezer Hearn 1794-1862

Methodist Missionary. First minister assigned to Alabama Territory by Tennessee Conference. Hearn preached his first sermon two blocks west at Bear Meat Cabin (present Bountsville), April 18, 1818. He later organized churches in Shelby, Saint Clair, Jefferson, Tuscaloosa, and Cotaco (present Morgan) counties; this is the beginning of Methodism in central Alabama.

Exploit of Murphree Sisters

Incident of May 1, 1863 during Streight (Union flag)–Forrest (Confederate flag) Campaign. Three prowling Union soldiers invaded the home of sisters-in-law Celia and Winnie Mae Murphree taking food and drink and killing two colts. When soldiers fell asleep, these two young girls took rifles and marched the soldiers to the headquarters of General Forrest, bivouacked at Royal Crossing on Warrior River. (Located on Alabama Highway 26 at Royal near Blountsville)

Federal Raid

May 1, 1863, 1 mile south of marker. General N. B. Forrest captured a wagon train and supplies of Colonel Streight's raiders. Forrest continued his relentless pursuit eastward toward final capture of Streight.

First Baptist Missionary Church

1875 The Macedonia Baptist Church, located between the communities of Midway and Mt. Coney, was contructed by freedmen after the American Civil War, replacing the brush arbors used by the area's antebellum slaves as sites for religious worship. Four seperate congregations grew out of the original church: Antioch Baptist Church; Oak Grove Baptist Church; Mt. Coney Baptist Church; and Second Baptist Church of Midway. First organized in 1875, Second Baptist was built on a one-acre site officially deeded to the church by Taylor N. Cox and wife, M.C. Cox, on April 9, 1885. The original architecture was of the front gable with central tower type. Changes included additional rooms and the enclosing of the vestibule. Church founders included Warren Williams, John Curry, Alfred Boxer Sr., Ed Curry, Aaron Hamilton, Bob Walker, Aaron Jordan, Jack Christian, and Susie Christian, with Donna Pruitt serving as first secretary. Rev. J.H. Smith was pastor in 1910 when the church's name was changed to First Baptist Missionary Church. In 1938, its building began to be used as a site for classes and commencement programs for old Merritt Junior High School. During the 1960s, First Baptist was an important site for African American voter registration and other Civil Rights-related activities. The church also played a significant role in the development of the Mt. Hebron Baptist Convention and the Missionary Baptist Association. As the only black Baptist church in Midway, First Baptist has been the site for conversions, marriages, funerals, religious conventions, and community events throughout its history. Placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage, December 4, 1992.

Fitzpatrick United Methodist Church

(The Church of the Seven Sisters) 1858 Lacking an established church nearby, pioneer families of the Fitzpatrick community into the mid-19th century took turns hosting worship services in their homes on Sunday mornings. "The Church of the Seven Sisters" was established in 1858 by seven women of the community – Mrs. Phillips Bernard Baldwin (Martha Ann Thompson), Mrs. David Graves Fitzpatrick (Sara Ann Hooks), Mrs. John Campbell (Catherine Celia Hooks) Mrs. William Cicero Hufham (Nancy Henry Gholston), Mrs. Gordon Sanford Bunkley (Lucinda Morris Keene), Mrs. John William Templeton Reid (Celia Julia Fitzpatrick) and Mrs. Robert F. Ligon. Three of the "sisters" were Methodist, two were Baptist, one was Presbyterian, and one an Episcopalian, so it was founded as a Methodist Church. Albert G. Wray deeded one-and-one-half acres for the original building for one dollar. After the Montgomery and Eufaula railroad was built through Fitzpatrick in the 1870s, the church building was moved here from its nearby site. Placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage, 1978.

Indian Treaty Boundary Line

The treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9,1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi Territory and the Creek Nation. The line began a point ten miles from the mouth of the Ofucshee Creek directly to the mouth of the Summochico Creek on the Chatahouchie River. The Creek Treaty of Washington, signed on March 24, 1832, ceded the Indian Boundary Line ran across present-day Bullock County from northeast of Mitchell Station, Alabama, to southeast of Pine Grove, Alabama.

Log Cabin Museum

Early settlers of this area cleared land and built their first homes of logs in the early 1830's. This cabin was built by Reuben Rice Kirkland (1829-1915) about 1850. He and his first wife had ten children while living in the log home. At one time an additional bedroom and chimney were on the right side, and the back porch was closed in for cooking and eating. A small log kitchen stood a few feet from the back and was later converted to a smoke house. The milk house beside the well was on stilts to protect butter and milk from animals. In 1981, the Bullock County Historical Society moved the cabin into Union Springs from its original site at Stills Cross Roads in southern Bullock County and restored it as a museum. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Old City Cemetery

(The Confederate Cemetery) Micajah Norfleet Eley donated land in 1849 for the Baptist Church and an adjoining public cemetery. The oldest cemetery in Union Springs, it served the city for 35 years. The Confederate Monument at the center of the cemetery was unveiled at the intersection of Prairie and Hardaway Streets on March 29, 1895 by the Ladies Memorial Association. In 1973, it was moved to its present location. Locally known as the Confederate Cemetery, it includes the tombstones of some twenty-two Confederate soldiers. Below the Confederate soldiers' grave sites is a marker which reads, "Union Prisoners of War, 1861-1865, Victims of Plague."

Midway Baptist Church

Organized July 28, 1852 Midway, a part of Barbour County in the mid-19th century, was also known as Five Points, a small community of a handful of dwellings, two stores, and a Methodist church of logs. In this Methodist church, Joel Willis, J.M. Thornton, Robert G. Hall, M.B. Johnston, W.J. Coleman, and Lorenzo Faulk met in the summer of 1852 to organize the Baptist Church of Five Points. Articles of Faith and Decorum were approved August 31 and Joel Sims was called as the first pastor. By April 1855, the Five Points church was being referred to in its own records as the Baptist Church of Midway. The southwest corner of Feagin's field was selected as a building site in December 1852 and, in February 1853, a frame structure with glass windows, but no steeple, was dedicated. A steeple and bell were added to the building in 1859 and gas lamps replaced candles in 1869. In 1872 the Church was rebuilt with the original materials at hand. Renovations in 1902 and 1930 added stained glass windows, Sunday School rooms, restrooms, and a kitchen but the structure has retained some of its original building materials and rests upon its original site. The Church has been actively associated with other congregations since its beginnings in the Salem Association of Barbour County to the Bullock Centennial Association of the present. It has been associated with the Baptist State Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention since early in its history.

Mt. Hilliard Methodist Church

Organized 1835. Founded by settlers from Virginia, Georgia, and Carolinas. Building erected 1856. It was the central feature of the village of Mount Hilliard. Named in honor of Henry W. Hilliard–who debated William L. Yancey in the 1850's. Revivals held at church inspired ministers who went west to establish churches and colleges in Texas. Marker erected by Friends of Mt. Hilliard.

Old Merritt School, Midway Community Center

Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak and pine construction and two classrooms divided by a partition. The building is one of the few surviving of the more than 5,000 rural black schools built with contributions from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Enlarged twice, then renovated in 1978, it is now used for community activities. Added to the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage, November 2, 1990 and to the National Register of Historic Places, February 20, 1998.

St. James C. M. E. Church

Railroad Street Midway, Alabama St. James Christian Methodist Episcopal Church was founded by Reverend Jack McMillan, a former slave of Midway's Daniel McMillan. Initially meeting outdoors under a brush arbor, ex-slaves and their children constructed a wood-frame church building soon after this lot was purchased in December 1882. A storm subsequently damaged the building which was rebuilt in 1896. Gable-roofed, the structure's original steeple church bell was enclosed in a main entrance enclosed. Placed on the Alabama Register of the Landmarks and Heritage, December 19, 1991.

Samuel Sellers Cemetery

Samuel Sellers (1788-1857) of North Carolina arrived with his large family at Three Notch Road on January 29, 1835. Here, in what was then the Missouri Beat, Pike County, the first post office in the area was established, 2.5 miles west of present-day Perote, Bullock County. Sellers served as Postmaster between 1846-1850. Sellers' original home was located on land near this cemetery. Placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage by the Alabama Historical Commission, November 2, 1976.

Sardis Baptist Church, Cemetery, and School

Side One Settlers from the Edgefield District, South Carolina, organized the Sardis Baptist Church on June 10, 1837. The first building, a log cabin, was constructed in 1841 after John M. and his wife Amy Youngblood Dozier deeded four and one-half acres to the church for a building and cemetery. The present building, constructed in the 1850s, is an exceptionally fine example of rural antebellum church architecture of Greek Revival style. Relatively unaltered since construction, its four columns support a full entablature and low-pitched roof. Each of the two primary entrances has double-paneled doors trimmed with unadorned molding, and each side of the building has four tall, shuttered, 18-light windows. The building was repaired in 1940-41 and 1992-93. As membership declined, Sunday afternoon services were conducted by visiting Methodist ministers from Union Springs. The church became inactive in the early 1950s, but was the setting for a wedding in 1993. Added to the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in 1992, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Sardis Baptist Church, Cemetery, and School Side Two In the cemetery, the oldest tombstone bears the name of Moses E. Martin, died May 18, 1848. Part of the cemetery nearest the church served the Negro community during the early years. As the need arose for more space, William Andrew Martin and his wife Nancy Strom Martin, who had bought the adjoining land from the Doziers in 1860, allowed the church to extend the cemetery southward onto their property. Sardis School, a community school, was located on the church property across the highway from the church on the corner of Highway 223 and County Road 22. Newspaper articles indicate the school was operating in 1861 and 1870. The old Sardis School building was subsequently moved east on County Road 22, where it became, as it remains today, the living room of the Livingston Paulk home. In 1867, the Buena Vista Masonic Lodge #169 was located just north of the church property.

A County Older Than the State – Butler County

Created in1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler killed in Creek Uprising, 1818. Early settlers from Georgia and South Carolina came by Federal Roads built by U.S. Army. County seat first at Fort Dale in 1819, here at Greenville since 1821. Butler County–Flow of settlers was checked in 1818 by Indian revolt against Fort Jackson treaty. Indians committed Ogly, Butler massacres; attacked settlers, drove off livestock. Settlers fled to Forts Bibb, Dale, Gary. With the Indians driven east of Coosa River, settlers poured into area in 1819. In 1821 county seat was moved here. The town was then called Buttsville in honor of Capt. Samuel Butts, a South Carolinian killed in 1814 at Battle of Calabee in Macon County. In 1822 the name changed to Greenville. (Located at the Courthouse in Greenville)

Butler Massacre

Creek Indians, led by Savannah Jack, attacked a well-armed party of settlers carrying dispatches to Fort Dale. After this second massacre in 7 days, settlers sought refuge in forts and stockades.

City Park

The Park was developed as a joint effort of the Father Ryan chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy with the backing of the city government. The United Methodist Church provided the Park site. The sixteen-foot marble statue of a Confederate soldier was erected in 1903. The Park has been maintained by the city with many local citizens and groups helping to make improvements through the years. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Greenville Public School--City Hall

The two-story brick, "Greenville Public School" was built in 1897 on the site where City Hall stands today in Greenville. When its upper story was partially destroyed by fire in 1921, the schol was remodeled into a grammar school. This, too, burned and the buiding was demolished in 1928. The construction of Greenville City Hall was completed in 1936-37.

Creek Confederacy

The Creeks, a confederacy of Indian tribes, used this area as hunting lands. In 1814 these lands ceded by Treaty of Fort Jackson. In 1819 the first Alabama Legislature created Butler County from part of these lands.

Fort Dale

5 miles west of marker. Built in 1818 by the famous Indian scout and guide, Colonel Sam Dale. A stage stop, on Federal Road, from Fort Mitchell on Chattahoochee to Lower Tombigbee settlements. County seat of Butler 1819.

Gary's Stockade

7 miles from marker. Built in 1818 by Thomas Gary as protection from the Indians. Settlers, indignant at the fee charged by Gary, built Fort Dale five miles west of this marker.

Ogly Massacre

Two frontier families were tomahawked, killed, and scalped by Creek Indians, March 13, 1818. This is one of several such raids on frontier families after Indians lost their lands.

Old Depot

--1910 The Depot, part of the West Commerce Street Historic District, highlights the role that the railroad transportation system played in making Greenville a major regional trade center. For many years this was the sole shipping point for a six-county area of south-central Alabama. It is one of the few remaining brick and stucco depot buildings remaining in south Alabama. The Depot was reconstructed in 1924 after being damaged by high winds, then was restored in 1991.

Site of Fort Bibb

Built in 1818 by settlers as refuge from marauding Creek Indians, who resented the loss of their land by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814.

West Commerce Street Historic District

The completion of the railroad in the late 1850s brought this District into being. The District grew into a major trade center between Montgomery and Mobile. The capital accumulated from this trade allowed the construction of brick commercial buildings, most of them completed by 1890. The downtown area was revitalized in the spring of 1997.

10th Alabama Volunteers–Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A.

This regiment took part for four years in major battles of the Virginia theater. It served with distinction for dash and courage, suffering heavy casualties. Officers regiment's organization June 4, 1861, at Montgomery, Alabama: Colonel John H. Forney, Jacksonville; Lieutenant Colonel James B. Martin, Jacksonville; Major Taul Bradford, Talladega. Company A: Captain John H. Caldwell, Saint Clair County. Company B: Captain Alburto Martin, Jefferson County. Company C: Captain Rufus W. Cobb, Shelby County. Company D: Captain Franklin Woodruff, Calhoun County. Company E: Captain John T. Woodward, Talladega County. Company F: Captain James D. Truse, Saint Clair County. Company G: Captain William Henry Forney, Calhoun County. Company. H: Captain Woodford R. Hanna, Calhoun County. Company I: Captain Abner A. Huges, DeKalb County. Company K: Captain J. C. McKenzie, Talladega County. Among officers of regiment killed in action: Colonel John J. Woodward, Lieutenant Colonels James B. Martin and James E. Shelley, Captains Pickens and W. Black, George P. Brown, Henry N. Coleman, Walter Cook, Robert W. Cowan, William Lee, Richard C. Ragan, George C. Whatley. Disbanded at Appomattox, Va., April, 1865, by order of General Robert E. Lee. (Located in Jacksonville)

Governor Thomas E. Kilby

1865 - 1943 Outstanding local industrialist as President, Kilby Steel Company; Chairman, Board of Directors, Alabama Pipe Company; President, City National and Anniston National Banks. Served as Mayor of Anniston (1905-09); state Senator (1911-15); Lieutenant Governor (1915-19); Governor of Alabama (1919-23). His administration as Governor of Alabama notable for sound business principles, for prison reform, for advancement and expansion of charitable institutions, and for constitutional amendments which provided state bond issues for highway and bridge development and for building the State Docks in Mobile. Governor Kilby was a member of Grace Episcopal Church and a member of the vestry. His interment is on the hill, near fence, at Highland Cemetery.

Grace Episcopal Church

Called "A poem of cedar and stone," its history is intimately related to that of Anniston. Town Founders, Daniel Tyler and Samuel Noble, inspired its conception, funded its construction and caused the Woodstock Iron Company to donate the land on which it was built. George Upjohn, Architect, and Master Stonemason, William Jewell, used native pink sandstone and Tennessee knotty cedar to emulate Solomon's Temple. The Gothic Revival edifice, the oldest church in town, was organized on April 8, 1881, built in 1882-5, and consecrated by Bishop Richard H. Wilmer on May 19, 1886. Its first service was conducted on Christmas Eve, 1885.

Jacksonville–First County Seat

1833-99. Town first called Drayton. Renamed in 1834 to honor President Andrew Jackson. Seat moved to Anniston in 1899. Calhoun County originally was Benton County, named for Colonel T. H. Benton, Creek War officer, later U.S. Senator from Missouri. Renamed in 1858 for John C. Calhoun, Champion of South in U.S. Senate. Benton's views by then unpopular in South.

John Horace Forney

1829-1902. Major General, C.S.A. A graduate of West Point, he resigned from U.S. Army to volunteer services to the State of Alabama. Ably lead Confederate forces at Manassas, Pensacola, Vicksburg, Mobile, and Texas.

John Tyler Morgan

1824-1907. Lawyer, Soldier, Senator. Lived here in 1838. 1862-65: Colonel of 51st Alabama Cavalry, which was raised by him in this county. 1863-65: Brigadier General C.S.A. with Wheeler's Cavalry. 1876-1907: United States Senator. Distinguished Statesman of Alabama. (Located in Jacksonville)

Joseph William Burke

1835-1900. Lawyer, Industrialist, Patriot. Brigadier General, U.S.A., General Burke helped rebuild Alabama's mining and manufacturing interests after the Civil War. He helped establish the Catholic Church at Jacksonville. His home, "Bellevue," occupied the present site of Jacksonville State College. (Located in Jacksonville)

Ladiga Calvary Skirmish

October 28, 1864. Last fighting between armies of Hood and Sherman. Here Ferguson turned back Kilpatrick's larger force. These two armies fought all summer from Chattanooga to Atlanta, west to here. To split the South, Sherman turned and led Union forces in March to Sea. Hood withdrew to reoccupy Tennessee, fighting the battles of Franklin and Nashville.

Major John Pelham

Born here September 7, 1838. Commanded Horse Artillery of Northern Virginia, C.S.A. Killed at Kelly's Fort, Virginia, March 17, 1863. Styled "The Gallant Pelham" by Robert E. Lee. (Located in Anniston)

Major John Pelham

1838-1863. "The Gallant Pelham" as called by Robert E. Lee. Commanded Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia. Cited for conspicuous valor many times. Killed in action in Virginia.

Parker Memorial Baptist Church

On July 3, 1887, a congregation of 45 people met at the Opera House on Noble Street to organize a new church. Originally called Second Baptist Church, the name soon was changed to Twelfth Street Baptist Church. In 1889, it became Parker Memorial Baptist Church in memory of Mrs. Cornelia A. Parker, whose husband gave the money for a new building that was dedicated in March of 1891. The mission was and continues to be "Ministering to the World . . . Beginning at Our Own Front Door."

Site of Oxford College

1867-1900. Important in latter 19th century by educating boys and girls of area. Land and two-story brick building provided by sponsoring citizens. Headed by John H. Dodson from founding until 1900, when he became state superintendent of education. Among its noted graduates were state superintendents of education J. W. Abercrombie and H. C. Gunnels. (Located in Oxford)

Tallasseehatchee

Creek Indian War 1813-14, November 3, 1813. General John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded the Indians nearby and killed some 200 warriors. This was the first American victory of the war. It avenged the earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians.

Thomas C. Hindman

1828-1868. The Arkansas Congressman and General had lived here (1833-1844). Veteran of the War with Mexico. Elected to U.S. Congress in 1858 and 1860. Served in Trans-Mississippi Department C.S.A. as Brigadier General from 1861-1862. Served with the Army of Tennessee as Major General from 1862-65. (Located in Jacksonville)

Chambers County

Created December 18, 1832, from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention on 1819, legislature of 1819, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died en route to Washington. County government organized 1833 by Judge James Thompson of Jefferson County. First officers were: Nathaniel Greer, Sheriff; William House, Clerk Circuit Court; Joseph J. Williams, Clerk County Court; Booker Lawson, John Wood, William Fannin, John A. Hurst, Commissioners Roads and Revenue. Permanent court site selected by Commissioners Thomas C. Russell, James Taylor, and Capt. Baxter Taylor. A log courthouse was built here 1833, replaced by brick structure 1837, and used until present courthouse erected 1899. LaFayette, county seat, was formerly known as Chambersville and Chambers Courthouse (Located at courthouse)

Muscogee Indians

Creek Indian villages nearby were affiliated with either Upper or Lower Confederacies of the Creek Nation. In colonial times Spain, France, and England contended for this section. Indian title ceded in 1832.

The Lafayette Presbyterian Church

Organized 1835. This structure was built by early settlers from Virginia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas, and subsequently modified. The original building has stood since 1836. Union Sunday School began here in 1891. Many eminent ministers have filled the pulpit.

West Point Manufacturing Company

Cornerstones of Chattahoochee Manufacturing Company, Langdale Alabama, and Alabama & Georgia Manufacturing Company, River View, Alabama, were laid on August 1, 1866. Mills used Chattahoochee River water power for operation of spindles and looms. Planters and businessmen of Chambers County, Alabama, and West Point, Georgia, invested the capital for these ventures, providing a new way of life to a war-stricken people. In 1880, West Point Manufacturing Company was organized from the Chattahoochee mill. The business genius, enterprise, and vision of LaFayette Lanier (1845-1910), president 1896-1910, were largely responsible for the industrial and civic development of "The Valley." (Located on U.S. Highway 29 in Langdale)

Forrest Defeats Streight

May 3, 1863. Here General Forrest with about 500 men forced the surrender of Colonel Streight's army of about 1500 men. The surrender climaxed a series of running battles from Muscle Shoals. This was one of the most brilliant campaigns of General Forrest, master of stratagem.

Walnut Creek United Methodist Church

Established 1820. Arthur Love, a charter member, was first pastor. Organized as a Methodist Episcopal Church. Became Methodist Protestant, 1828. Changed to Methodist Church, 1939. Affiliated with United Methodist, 1968. In the original church built of logs, Judge James Q. Smith, Montgomery, in 1869, presided at first court held in Baker Co. (now Chilton). Circa 1875, a frame building replaced log church. Present brick building erected 1935. Walnut Creek United Methodist Church has always maintained a progressive Sunday School.

First Oil Well In Alabama

On January 2, 1944, the State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A.R. Jackson Well No. 1 at this location near Gilbertown. Hunt Oil Company was owned by the famous oil man, H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas. Drilling commenced on January 10, 1944, and was completed approximately one month later. The well struck oil at a depth of 2,580 feet in fractured Selma chalk. The discovery of this well led to the creation of the State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama in 1945, and to the development and growth of the petroleum industry in the State.

Choctaw Corner

4 miles from marker. This was the northeast corner of the land first ceded by Indians to whites in the Alabama area. By the 1765 treaty, Choctaws gave to England the area from here to the Gulf. This put the British between the Choctaws and Creeks.

Kimbell House

Isham Kimbell (1797-1881) was the only family member to survive the Kimbell-James Massacre near Fort Sinquefield, during Creek Indian War in 1813. Elected Sheriff of Clarke County and in 1833 Clerk of Circuit Court, serving several terms. He was a successful merchant until his death in 1881. Married Martha T. Carney of Carney's Bluff. Both buried at Pine Crest Cemetery, Jackson. Built circa 1848 by Isham Kimbell on Lower Commerce Street. Given to city by Woodson family and moved to this site in 1977 by Jackson Historical Committee, successors to Jackson Bi-Centennial Committee, with a grant from the M. W. Smith, Jr., Foundation. Restored with funds from public subscription, local civic organizations, and the City of Jackson.

Kimbell-James Massacre

September 1, 1813. Creek Indian War, 1813-14. Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm and incite Indians against the United States. Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors left for dead); pillaged house, and killed livestock.

Clairmont Springs

Formerly Jenkins Springs. A 19th century watering place and mineral springs resort. 1832: Ceded to United States by Creek Indians before being moved to West in 1836. 1841: Bought by William P. Chilton, later Chief Justice of Alabama. 1873: Bought by John T. Morgan, general in C.S.A., long a United States Senator.

Creek Indians

The area, home of Creek Indians, was held by them until 1832 when they were forced to move west of Mississippi River. Remains of aboriginal life show an earlier people lived here before the Creeks.

Boll Weevil Monument

December 11, 1919 In Profound Appreciation Of the Boll Weevil And what it has done As the Herald of Prosperity This Monument was Erected By the Citizens of Enterprise, Coffee County, Alabama.

Clintonville Academy

Chartered as Clintonville Male and Female Academy by Alabama Legislature January 11, 1860. Building constructed 1860, occupied 1861. The first school in Coffee County to teach beyond the sixth grade. Clintonville, for many years, was recognized as the cultural and educational center of the county. This area was first known as Indigo Head. In 1845, one of the first voting precincts in the county was located here. Clintonville post-office established June 16, 1849. Some of the pioneer families were Fleming, Brooks, Hutchinson, Gunter, Sawyer, Goynes, Watson, Carmichael, Moates, Warren, Brock, Harding, Wilks, Peacock, and Helms.

Enterprise Academy

Founded 1904 Beloved leader and principal of this institution, later known as Carroll Street School, was William M. Donald (1870-1941). His philosophy of education was: "Apply yourself. Excellence is attained through self-discipline and hard work. Learn the rules. Gain knowledge. Knowledge is power. No one can take it away from you." Erected 1979 by: Delta Sigma Beta Chapter–Alpha Phi Chi Sorority, Citizens of Enterprise, Coffee County, Alabama.

FIRST UNITED METHODIST CHURCH Earliest Church in Elba

A congregation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South existed in Elba even before Rev. Robert Shaw Rabb was assigned as the first minister to the Elba Circuit on December 15, 1853. This site was purchased in 1909 and the Church officially opened on February 12, 1911. Large panels of stained glass windows are a memorial to Confederate soldiers from Coffee County. The historic Church bell was cast on February 21, 1908 in Hillsboro, Ohio.

Historic Court Square

The first Coffee County Courthouse was at Wellborn and burned in 1851. This site was given by John B. Simmo when Elba was selected the county seat, polling 58 more votes than Indigo Head (Clintonville) in a county election on October 5, 1852. The first building erected on this site was a two-story frame structure burned by Ward's Raiders on September 3, 1863. A new courthouse was completed in 1867. This building served Coffee County until 1881 and was sold at an auction. A third building completed in 1882 was enlarged in 1889. Failing to meet the needs of Coffee County it was replaced by the present courthouse in 1903. Listed in National Register of Historic Places.

Holloway Tabernacle Church

Established 1912 The first congregational meetings were held in a small former dwelling house. In 1915 this congregation joined with the Alabama District of The Assemblies of God. First pastors were: Rev. Elijah Spence and Rev. Wayne Tomlin. First deacons were: G. W. Grimes, Jim Holloway, A. D. Grimes and Dan Stinson. Charter members were: Joe and Mary T. Holloway, George and Anna Grimes, Dan and Georgan Stinson, John W. Holloway, Dewey P. Holloway, Jim Holloway, Andrew and Mary Bell Grimes, Melinda J. Kennedy, Francis Anderson, Oscar and Mattie Weeks, Ellen Wooten and Alice Grimes.

Mount Pleasant Missionary Baptist Church

1874: Founded near Double Bridges Creek (LeCompte Place) three miles southwest of the present location. First pastor: J. W. Bullard. Charter members: Mr. and Mrs. Tom Mathis, Mr. and Mrs. Tom Barbee, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Nichols, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Jones, Mr. Bob Howell, Miss Lizzie Gilbert, and Mr. Lige Cobb. "I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the house of the Lord." Psalm 122:1

Providence Baptist Church

Organized May 26, 1849 First Pastor: Ruben E. Brown First Deacons: William P. Bryan, Jesse Pouncey, Jonas P. Bell Charter Members: William Green, David Kelly, Kader Powell, Elizabeth Kelly, Ardilla Green, Winny Lacy, Bill Fowler, Nancy Fowler. Bellwood, Cool Springs, County Line, Daleville, Shady Grove, Midway, New Hope, Shiloh, and Mount Moriah were formed under the sponsorship of Providence Church. "I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the house of the Lord." Psalm 122:1

Rawls Hotel

Original two-story brick structure built 1903 by Japheth Rawls, developer of some of the earliest turpentine plants in Coffee County. Building remodeled 1928 and three-story wings added by Jesse P. Rawls, founder of the first electric power system in Enterprise. Hotel was center for business and social gatherings until its closing in early 1970's. Listed on National Register of Historic Places 1980.

Wellborn

Approximately two miles east. The First Seat of Justice for Coffee County, Alabama. Named for General William Wellborn, an Alabama Commander during the Creek Indian War of 1836-37. Under the Act of December 29, 1841, establishing Coffee County, Commissioners Britton T. Atkinson, James Claxton, Thomas Cole, John B. Cruise, and Amos Wiggins were named to secure a "seat of justice" not exceeding 160 acres, not more than six miles from the center of the county, and to erect thereon a court house and jail and lay off the remaining lots for sale. The court house burned in March, 1851. In 1852, by election, Elba was chosen as permanent location for the court house. Wellborn The first seat of justice for Coffee County was located approximately 500 yards southeast of this site. The community was named for Gen. William Wellborn, an Alabama commander during the Creek Indian War of 1836-37. Under the Act of December 29, 1841 establishing Coffee County, Commissioners Britton T. Atkinson, James Claxton, Thomas Cole, John B. Cruise, and Amos Wiggins were named to secure a "seat of justice" not exceeding 100 acres, and not more than six miles from the center of the county, and erect thereon a courthouse and jail, and lay off the remaining land into lots for sale. The Court House burned March 1851. By election, Elba was chosen as the permanent location for the Court House in 1852.

Chickasaw Indian Agency

Was moved by Benjamin Smith from Pontotoc, Mississippi in 1825 to this site, known as Bennkhinah, where it remained until 1837. Bennkhinnah Post Office, established at the Agency in 1829, was named Newport in 1837. In 1856 with D. C. Oates as postmaster, it was moved to Cherokee, Alabama. Benjamin Reynolds replaced Smith as Indian Agent in 1830. From this Agency he worked with Indian leaders arranging for the removal of the Chickasaw nation from Alabama and Mississippi in 1837.

Civil War Skirmishes at Barton

In 1862-63, Confederate forces fought several sharp skirmishes near Barton as they sought to repel or delay Union expeditions invading the Tennessee Valley from the Federal stronghold at Corinth, Mississippi.

Civil War Skirmish at the Barton Cemetery

Bullet-marked tombstones in this cemetery show evidence of a brisk skirmish here October 26, 1863, when Gen. P.J. Osterhaus' first division of Sherman's Corps came under fire from Gen. S.D. Lee's Confederate troop. CSA artillery on a hill near a frame church (now Zion No. 1) opened fire at dawn and Union artillery replied from the cemetery. CSA forces retreated to Little Bear Creek. USA forces briefly occupied Tuscumbia, then retreated to Cherokee and abandoned attempt to advance along the railroad.

St. John's Episcopal Church

This congregation was organized in the 1830s, with services being held in private homes and the Methodist meeting house. The present building was first used in October 1852 and completed the following year. During the Civil War, Union troops occupied the church and destroyed some of the parish records. St. John's is an early example of the "Carpenter's Gothic" style popular for many Episcopal churches during the mid-19th century. Damaged by a tornado in 1874, the church afterward was refurbished and strengthened with iron tie-rods spanning the nave. Memorial windows also were installed. Concrete buttresses were added in 1956. A tall spire originally topped the belltower.

The Old Brick Presbyterian Church

1820 Old Brick Church began in 1820 as the Mt. Pleasant Cumberland Presbyterian Church and met in a frame building which burned in 1824. The present building has undergone few changes since its construction in 1828 when the congregation was officially chartered. In 1906 the congregation joined with what became the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. It officially took its present name in 1961. In 1983 Old Brick became part of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Sunday services have been conducted regularly since 1820, except during the Civil War.

Tuscumbia Railroad – First Railroad West of Alleghenies

1832: Began here; completed to Decatur, 45 miles east, in 1834. Cotton shipped by this line around nearby Muscle Shoals, then by boat down Tennessee-Mississippi River to world markets. 1851: Expanded to Memphis-Charleston Railroad. A vital line in the Civil War, it changed hands several times. 1898: Became part of Southern Railway.

Village One

In 1918, during World War I, the U.S. Government built this unique village of 85 bungalows, school, and officers barracks to house personnel at nearby Nitrate Plant #1. Prefabricated and standard size materials were used in construction along with red tile roofs and stucco exteriors. Streets were laid out in an unusual "Liberty Bell" design. Reverse Village One The village was owned by TVA from 1933-1949. Its employees occupied the houses and their children attended a progressive school in the barracks building 1934-1941. TVA sold the houses at auction and gave and the school and parks to the City of Sheffield in 1949.

William Winston Home

Construction on the home which became the center building of Deshler High School was begun in 1824 by Clark T. Barton, William Winston purchased and completed the Georgian-style dwelling in 1833. The largest remaining antebellum house in Tuscumbia, it features a winding staircase, eight fireplaces, and ten original closets along with an inscription on the cellar wall written during the Union occupation saying: "It is a damn shame to destroy this mansion." Original log kitchen placed at N.W. rear corner to avoid having fire too close to the house. Listed on the National Register of Historic places in 1982. House and property purchased by the city of Tuscumbia in 1948 for site of new Deshler campus, relocating from property bequeathed by Major David Deshler (from his Main St. residence, 3 blocks north) memorializing his son, Brig. Gen. James Deshler, C.S.A., killed leading charge at Battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 20, 1863. William Winston (1789-1857)-father of Gov. John Anthony Winston; grandfather of Maud Lindsey, famed educator and author of children's books; father-in-law of Robert Burns, only foreign-born governor of Alabama. Winston family cemetery located approximately one mile N.W. of the house.

Yellow Fever Epidemic

1878 Responsible for taking 31 lives in Tuscumbia. Citizens Relief Committee included: F. H. Aydlett, H. M. Finley, J. L. Davis, James Jackson Chmm., J. W. Rand, Jr., P. A. Ross, F. W. Ross, J. N. Sampson, Sec., and C. A. Womble. This committee, together with volunteers, both white and black–assisted by trained nurses brought from Memphis, Tennessee–nursed the sick, carried supplies, prepared the bodies, dug graves, and buried the dead. Doctors serving around the clock: Robert T. Abernathy, Samuel J. Cooper, William C. Cross, William Desprez (who gave his life), and E. P. Rand. The 31 Victims of Yellow Fever who died in Tuscumbia in 1878 included: Crabtree Belcher, Mrs. Amy Boldman, Anna C. Christian, Mr. Clark, W. A. Clark, DeWitt Cooper, Dr. William Desprez, Samuel Finley, Mrs. W. A. Gilbert, Mrs. Bettie Halpine, Miss Bartie Jones, Mrs. W. H. Jones, L. King, F. Manush and wife, Tom Morton, Alexander Newsome, Sandy Osborne, Edward Prout, Mrs. G. T. Rather, Mrs. F. A. Ross, Helen Smoot, Mrs. T. L. Smoot, Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Stamps, Robert Ventress, Mervyn Warren, Charles Williams, Mrs. Yohnka and child, William Young.

The Alabama Baptist Children's Home Site

The Louise Short Baptist Widows' and Orphans' Home, consisting of a 10-room brick residence and related buildings on 80 acres of land fronted on Main Street, Evergreen, for more than 1/4 mile. It was established by the Alabama Baptist State Convention in 1891 and was chartered by the Legislature of Alabama in the same year. The idea had been approved by the Alabama Baptist State Convention in 1863 as a haven for children of soldiers killed in the War Between the States. The Home opened on March 8, 1893, with the Reverend John W. Stewart as the first superintendent. For 30 years it served on this site. On June 14, 1923, it was removed to Troy, Alabama, and in 1938 was renamed The Alabama Baptist Children's Home.

Richard Thomas Baggett

March 30, 1817 - October 26, 1881 Richard Thomas Baggett was born and buried here on the Baggett family farm, NE 1/4 Section 4, Township 4 North, Range 10 East. According to early local histories, Richard, the son of pioneers Jesse Baggett and Zilla T. Godwin Baggett, was the first child born to white settlers in Conecuh County. Richard Baggett married Octavia Olivia Tippins and fathered four sons: James Augustus, Jesse Pinkney, George W., and Phillip Henry Baggett.

Lake Jackson

Andrew Jackson in Seminole War with an army of 1200 camped here in May 1818 en route westward from Fort Gadsden to subdue marauding Indians abetted by Spaniards at Pensacola. Jackson determined to seize Pensacola and thus altered the course of history on the continent. (Located on shore Lake Jackson in Florala)

New Providence Primitive Baptist Church Site

Constituted in 1833 about 1 mile northwest of this location with 10 charter members. The Church was admitted to the Conecuh River Baptist Association in November 1833. In 1863, the Church moved to this location on land bought from Benjamin Dorman where a building was erected. Services continued until August 1981, when the building was destroyed by arson.

Battle of Day's Gap

April 30, 1863. Here Gen. Forrest overtook larger force of Col. Streight. Forrest attacked three times. Streight fled toward Rome to destroy Confederate railroad.

Battle of Hog Mountain

April 30, 1863. Here Gen. Forrest overtook Col. Streight's raiders in hand-to-hand battle after dark. 3 horses short from under Forrest. Union force fled southward with Forrest in relentless pursuit.

Battleground

Named after a Civil War battle fought April 30, 1863, between Confederate troops commanded by General Nathan Bradford Forrest and Union troops commanded by Colonel Abel D. Streight. Confederates lost 50 to 75 men killed or wounded. Union lost 30 men. Shortly after the battle Union forces fled to Hog Mountain pursued by the Confederates.

Clarkson Covered Bridge

Sometimes called Legg Bridge. This 270 foot bridge was constructed in 1904, destroyed by a flood in 1921 and rebuilt the following year. The only remaining covered bridge in Cullman County, it was restored by the Cullman County Commission in 1975 as an American Revolution Bicentennial Project. Named to Register of Historic Places, June 25, 1974.

Cullman Railroad Depot

The Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company completed building this Mission Style depot in 1913. When the tracks were laid below ground level, it replaced Cullman's first station located on First Avenue at Third Street, SW. Passenger service was discontinued in 1968. This building then was used by CSX section crews until it was purchased by the City of Cullman, March 23, 1990. Restoration began in February, 1991, funded by donations from Cullman County Historical Society, citizens of Cullman County, and public grants. Added to the National Register of Historic Places, June 17, 1976.

Evangelical Protestant Church

The first church in the City of Cullman was established on this block of land donated by the North and South Railroad in February 1874. Lots 154, 155, 180 and 181 were granted to Henry Dietz, August Henning, and George Stoback as trustees of the Evangelical Protestant Church for the sole purpose of constructing a church building. Col. John Cullman, land agent, was a charter member of the church. The church building was made into a dwelling house after the congregation moved to a new location, 512 Second Avenue East, in 1881.

General Forrest's Pursuit and Union Colonel Streight's Defense

From Battle Ground (26 m.–NW) to capture at Lawrence (80 m.–East)–said to be greatest cavalry fight in modern warfare. It passed here May 1, 1863. (Located on U.S. 31 at Johnson's Crossing)

Sand Mountain Plateau

Thrifty German colonists, led by Col. John G. Cullman, in 1873 settled this thinly populated plateau. This section, previously thought unproductive, became famous for its diversified crops.

St. Johns Evangelical Protestant Church

The first church at the town site of Cullman. Founded May 1, 1874, at the beginning of the second year of settlement. An ethnic German church formed by immigrant families. Services held exclusively in the German language until 1932. In 1937, the Evangelical German churches merged with the Reformed churches and the national Evangelical and reformed denomination was established. St. John's became a part of the United Church of Christ in 1957.

Daleville

Originally called Dale Court House. County Seat of Dale County 1831-41. William Harper, Probate Judge. Dale County originally included: present Coffee County until 1841, present Geneva County until 1868, part of Houston County until 1903. Dale County named for General Sam Dale, foremost pioneer guide, scout, messenger, leader of settlers through Creek and Choctaw Nations of Southeast and Gulf Coast. General Dale, cautious and cool in emergencies, was the right arm of frontiersmen and settlers. He led Tombigbee troops in Creek War, 1813-14, was messenger of British invasion and defeat, 1814-15, led Alabama Territorial Militia in Seminole War, 1818, served in Alabama Legislature from Monroe County, 1819-30. (Located in Daleville)

Providence Baptist Church

Organized May 26, 1849 First Pastor: Ruben E. Brown. First Deacons: William P . Bryan, Jesse Pouncey, Jonas P. Bell. Charter Members: William Green, David Kelly, Kader Powell, Elizabeth Kelly, Ardilla Green, Winny Lacy, Bill Fowler, Nancy Fowler. Bellwood, Cool Springs, County Line, Daleville, Shady Grove, Midway, New Hope, Shiloh, and Mount Moriah were formed by members of the Providence Church. "I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the house of the Lord." Psalms 122:1

Battle of Selma

April 2, 1865--On the day Richmond fell General Nathan Bedford Forrest, his men, home guards and civilians manned earthworks about this city. They were overwhelmed by veterans of General James H. Wilson who burned Confederate facilities and many homes. After a week of destruction Wilson raided on to Montgomery.

Cahawba

Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-1866. Confederate Prison during War Between States 1863-65. Located 5 1/2 miles south on Alabama and Cahawba Rivers.

Childers Chapel

Established circa 1819 as Childers Meeting House on land given by George Childers. Patent for the land was issued to George Childers March 16, 1819. This Methodist Church was later known as Childers Chapel. Church burned in 1842. Congregation rebuilt church in Valley Creek (Summerfield), construction beginning October 25, 1845. This site has continued as the burying ground for the Summerfield Methodist Church congregation and the early families of the Summerfield Community. The Church was originally a part of the Cahawba Circuit and was placed in the Montgomery District in 1837/38.

Edmund Winston Pettus - House Site

Edmund Winston Pettus, lawyer, general C.S.A., U.S. Senator, was born Limestone County, Alabama, 1821. Admitted to bar, 1842. Moved to Cahaba, 1858. Major, C.S.A., 1861. Brigadier General, 1863. U.S. Senator, 1897-1907. Resided here from 1866 until death, 1907. When in Senate, with John T. Morgan, Selma was home of both U.S. Senators from Alabama.

Live Oak Cemetery

East portion reserved for graveyard, 1829; west part purchased by City of Selma, 1877. Here are buried: William Rufus King, 1786-1853, Vice President of U.S. 1853. John Tyler Morgan, 1824-1907, U.S. Senator, Brig. Gen. C.S.A. Edmund Winston Pettus, 1821-1907, U.S. Senator, Brig. Gen. C.S.A. Nathaniel H.R. Dawson, 1829-1895, U.S. Commissioner of Education. William J. Hardee, 1815-1873, Lt. Gen. C.S.A., author "Hardee's Tactics."

Prosperity Cemetery

Prosperity Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church Cemetery is the resting place of many members of the church from 1846 until 1961. The Church was organized in 1822 by Isaac Grier. A church building stood on this site from 1844 until 1891, constructed on five acres of land donated by William Johnston. The cemetery includes the graves of two early pastors, Rev. James M. Young (1844-67) and Dr. James A. Lowry (1867-98). Dr. Lowry previously served as a Confederate chaplain. His is one of several veterans' graves in the cemetery, which also includes that of James Chisolm, who died June 16, 1864, as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Atlanta.

Selma Historic and Civic Building

Central Alabama Masonic Institute of Alabama acquired property, 1847, and erected building. Used as female academy. Confederate hospital during Civil War. Dallas County Courthouse on removal of county seat from Cahaba, 1866-1901. Presbyterian high school for boys early 1900's. Acquired by Vaughan Estate, 1904. Vaughan Memorial Hospital, in memory of Samuel Watkins Vaughan, MD, 1911-1960. 1969, under Mayor Joseph T. Smitherman, City of Selma purchased property. Dallas County and City restored original structure.

Summerfield Methodist Church

Organized before 1837, first under charge of Charles McLeod and next, Asbury H. Shanks. Contract for present building was let October 23, 1844; dedicated October 5, 1845. Greenberry Garrett was Presiding Elder of Summerfield District. Original building committee composed of Greenberry Garrett, A. H. Mitchell, T. B. Goldsby, John Paulling, George A. B. Walker. Original trustees were George Childers, Noel Pitts, John Paulling, David Mims. Here worshipped Bishop J. O. Andrew and other prominent Methodist leaders and educators. This church absorbed the congregation at Childers Chapel, south of this site, where a Medthodist congregation existed as early as 1824.

Sturdivant Hall

One of the finest examples of neo-classic architecture in the South; designed by Thomas Helm Lee for Edward T. Watts. Completed in 1853. Sold in 1864 to John M. Parkman, 1870 to Emile Gillman. Purchased in 1957 through a bequest from Robert Daniel Sturdivant and operated by the Sturdivant Museum Association.

Valley Creek Presbyterian Church

One of the state's first Presbyterian churches. Established in 1816 by eight families from Rocky River Presbyterian Church in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. In 1859 this two-story brick building replaced original wooden structure. Sanctuary and former slave gallery are on second floor. In nearby cemetery lie heroes of Alabama's wars since 1776. (Located on Alabama Highway 22, 3 miles north of Selma)

William Rufus De Vane King

1786-1853 Native Sampson County, North Carolina. Admitted to bar, 1806. North Carolina House of Commons 1807-1809. U.S. Congressman 1811-1816. Secretary U.S. Legation Naples and St. Petersburg 1816-1818. Moved to Dallas County, Alabama, 1818. A founder of Selma; named city. Delegate Alabama Constitutional Convention 1819. U.S. Senator 1819-1844, 1848-1853. U.S. Minister to France 1844-1846. President pro tempore U.S. Senate 1836-1840, 1850-1852. Vice President of United States 1853.

Former Site of Battelle

Thriving iron ore and coal mining community of early 1900's Established by Colonel John Gordon Battelle Five miles north of Valley Head

Fort Payne's Fort

The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians. Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain John C. Payne, for whom the fort was named. Indians in the DeKalb County area who refused to move westwards voluntarily were gathered and held in the stockade pending their forceful removal to the Indian territory. Chimney still standing on site of fort near the railroad at 4th Street S.E.

Fort Payne Opera House

Opened September1890. Built during local boom period. Converted into theatre during era of silent movies. Closed as a theatre in October 1935. Purchased by Landmarks of DeKalb County, Inc., 1969. Renovated, restored, and reopened to public in 1970. The oldest theatre in Alabama located in a building originally constructed as a theatre. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places and the National Register of 19th Century Theatres in America.

Indian Mound, Inn, and Church Site

Cheroke Indians first inhabited this mound site, subsequently settled by A.H. Lamar, a captian in the Seminole War and first constable (1836) of DeKalb County. Lamar and his Cherokee wife operated trading post and stage coach stop on site, selling the property to Alfred Collins, ca. 1842. Collins, for whom Collinsville was named, built home and operated inn on the stage coach line here between Rome and Guntersville. Daughter Sallie and her husband, G.W. Roberts, became owners in 1886. Collinsville Baptist Church purchased property in 1924, erecting building on site two yeras later.

Lebanon Courthouse

Lebanon Courthouse was constructed during the 1840s when Lebanon, the county seat of DeKalb County was a thriving community with inns, taverns, and government offices. This building, built for courthouse use, remained in use as a courthouse until 1876, when the stagecoaches serving Lebanon gave way to progress. The county seat was then moved to Fort Payne, were railway service was available. This marker was erected as a part of DeKalb 150 Sesquicentennial Celebration, 1836-1986.

Sequoyah

(1760-1843) Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818. Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States.

Sequoyah

1760-1843. Nearby lived the inventor of written language of Cherokees. Nation adopted it, became only literate Indians with written language. (Sequoyah, maker Cherokee Alphabet)

Wills Town Mission

The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838. Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, marks the location of the mission near the corner of 38th Street and Godrey Avenue.

First Presbyterian Church Wetumpka Alabama

Founded 1836. Built, 1856, dedicated 1857, combining exterior Gothic style with Greek Revival interior. Original part designed as a rectangular block. Wings were added on eastern and western sides in the middle 1900's. At that time a choir rail replaced original balustraded corner section. The balcony and chandeliers are outstanding. The church has served its members continuously and has been used for civic and patriotic assemblies significant in Wetumpka's history. In 1861 it served as a departure point for the Wetumpka Light Guard upon enlistment in the Confederate Army. Entered in National Register, Historic Places 1976.

The Hank Williams / Kowaliga Cabin

1952 At this site stands the cabin where country music legend Hank Williams composed the song "Kaw-liga" in August, 1952. The song's title was derived from the name of a Creek Indian town located on the banks of the Kowaliga Creek until 1836. Hank's September 23, 1952 recording of "Kaw-liga" reached number one on the country music charts in 1953 and has since been recorded by numerous country and popular music artists. Built in 1946 by Darwin and Nell Dobbs, the cabin was restored to its original condition in 2001 by Russell Lands, Inc. as a tribute to Hank Williams and his music.

Tallassee Armory

Only Confederate armory not destroyed by Federal forces. Colonel Gorgas (Conf. Flag) ordnance chief, had carbine shop moved here into Tallassee Manufacturing Company mill in spring 1864 as war threatened Richmond, Virginia armory. War ended before plant neared goal of 6,000 carbines per year. In 1864 Rousseau's raid bypassed it–1865: forces under General Wilson (U.S. Flag) misled by faulty map, marched 10 miles east; threat of Forrest (Conf. Flag) barred their return. (Located in Tallassee)

Washington County

First county in Alabama. Northern boundary 32° 28', ran through this point. County extended south to 31°, present Florida line; from Jackson, Miss., to Columbus, Ga. Then in Mississippi Territory, it included 25,000 square miles. Since subdivided into counties; 29 in Alabama, 16 in Mississippi.

Wetumpka's Bridges

(side one) In 1834, the Wetumpka Toll Bridge Co. built the first of four bridges spanning the Coosa River at this site. It was destroyed in a flood in 1844. A second toll bridge was completed the same year by John Godwin whose slave, Horace King, designed and supervised construction of this covered bridge. Emancipated in 1846, King built numerous bridges in the South and his services were much in demand by the CSA during the Civil War. After the war, he was elected to the state legislature twice by the citizens of Russell Co. Toll charges for the new bridge were 5¢ for pedestrians or $1 per month for unlimited passage. Passage to church was free. Since the wagon gate closed at 9 PM, an extra charge of 25¢ was due the gatekeeper if he was called to open the gate. Wetumpka's Bridges (side two) Three lighted lanterns hanging from the rafters were the last things seen of the bridge as it washed away in the flood of March 1886. A ferry operated while an iron bridge was built by the Southern Bridge Co. of Birmingham in 1887. By 1927, bridge deterioration led to a joint $177,440 state-county project resulting in the construction of the fourth bridge in 1931. Denmark-native Edward Houk designed the graceful Bibb Graves Bridge, named for then-Governor Graves. The bridge became the picturesque centerpiece for the "City of Natural Beauty."

Wetumpka Impact Crater

The ridges located here are the remnants of a six-mile diameter circular feature created some 85 million years ago by an estimated 1,000-foot diameter asteroid. The area at the time of impact was a shallow sea. The ridges consist of a variety of metamorphic rocks and surround a central area comprised of large jumbled blocks of younger geologic strata. Drilling in the central area of the crater recovered fragments of rocks showing characteristic mineral alteration only associated with impact structures. The structure, although known for more than a century, was first identified as an impact crater in the 1970s.

Wetumpka Methodist Church

Organized 1837. Completed in 1854, this building was the third Methodist Church building erected in Wetumpka and served both black and white congregations. Transitional exterior and interior architecture features elegant simplicity of Greek revival styles. Interior plaster work is outstanding. Original nave provided space for 500 persons. Renovation in 1910 included more space for choir loft, installation of pipe organ, stained glass windows and pews to follow curve of chancel rail. In 1954 chandeliers were added and basement remodeled for Sunday School rooms. Chancel area enlarged again in 1972. Listed in National Register of Historic Landmarks 1972.

William Wyatt Bibb

1781-1820, First Governor of Alabama. Only governor of Alabama Territory 1817-1819. First Governor of state 1819-1820. Died in office after riding accident. Succeeded by brother, Thomas.

William Wyatt Bibb

First Governor of Alabama 1819-1820. Only governor of Alabama Territory 1817-1819. Born in Amelia County, Va., Oct. 2, 1781. In U.S. Congress from Georgia 1805-1813. Moved here from Elbert County, Ga., 1817. Buried in private cemetery near home. Succeeded by brother, Thomas Bibb, presiding officer of state senate.

Downing-Shofner School

East Brewton, 1906-1943 Dr. J. M. Shofner (1863-1926) founder, dedicated his life to–"Give boys and girls a chance." Dr. Elisha Downing–Humanitarian First building erected named in honor of Mrs. Esther Downing. Trustees–1906: J. M. Shofner, D. Gillis, J. E. Finley, W. W. Hinote, J. M. Davidson, J. F. Jones, James K. Kyser.

Ritz Theatre

The Ritz Theatre opened its doors on this site September 14, 1936, and for more than fifty (50) years prided itself as the "Hub of the Brewton Community." Between its first feature, "YOURS FOR THE ASKING," and its last, "CROCODILE DUNDEE," shown January 22, 1987, the Ritz served as stage for fashion shows, beauty pageants, dances, and various other community events. Stars of the "Grand Ole Opry" and "Hollywood" made live appearances at the Rtiz. The Ritz was the community's prime source of reliable news from the battle-front during World War II. With a seating capacity for 761, the Ritz was the place to be on Saturday afternoon for generations of children. This legacy of the Ritz Theatre has been perpetuated with the construction of this community message center in March 1996.

Site of Fort Crawford

Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under order from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities. Named after Second Lieutenant Joel Crawford, the fort was occupied by units of the regular U.S. Infantry and the Alabama Territorial Militia. It was abandoned in 1819 after the United States purchased Florida from Spain and the Indian menace abated.

Site of Pollard

Located 1½ miles south, town of Pollard established in 1861 at juncture of Alabama & Florida and Mobile & Great Northern railroads. One of the largest military training camps of Confederacy located here during Civil War. Also site of major Confederate stores depot. Town suffered much destruction in Federal raids of December 1864 and March 1865. Served as first county seat of Escambia County from 1868 until 1883 when county government moved to Brewton.

Emma Samson

May 2, 1863. Here girl heroine led Forrest's men across Black Creek on way to capture Streight's raiders. This saved the railroad supplying Confederate Army of Tennessee.

North Alabama Conference

The North Alabama Conference of the United Methodist Church was organized on this site in the Methodist Episcopal Church South, of Gadsden, Alabama, November 16, 1870–Bishop Robert Paine, presiding. The Centennial Convocation of the Conference was held here November 16, 1970–Bishop W. Kenneth Goodson, presiding.

Cedar Creek Furnace

Erected 1840, 8 mi. north. Second producer of pig iron built in Alabama. Iron made here was shipped to Mobile for Mexican War ordnance; later to Selma and Rome for Confederate Arsenals. 1864 Furnaces destroyed by Federal Cavalry raiders under General Rousseau.

Jackson's Military Road

Built by Andrew Jackson, 1816-20. Shortened by 200 miles the route from Nashville to New Orleans. Provided much-needed road to Gulf for supply wagons and artillery. Built with U.S. funds and troops. Jackson's road served as model for 11 such roads built in 1820's. This road replaced narrow Indian trails. Lack of supply roads had hindered Jackson in Creek Indian War and campaigns against Spanish Florida, British at New Orleans.

A County Older Than the State – Greene County

Named for Revolutionary War hero, General Nathaniel Greene, who drove British from Southeast. Area explored by DeSoto, 1540. Claimed as French Louisiana, 1699. Ceded to England, 1763. Ceded by Choctaw Nation, 1816. Made a territorial county, 1819. Eutaw, county seat, is named for Greene's victory at Eutaw Springs, South Carolina.

Beulah Baptist Church

Organized February 23, 1833 Charter members were–Elizabeth Brooks, David S. Brooks, Thomas J. Drummond, Nancy Leatherwood, John Leopard, Albert M. Tandy, Matilda Tandy, Ralph Tandy, Luke Thornton, Sarah Thornton, Rev. Matthew Pickett Smith. The first building was of hewn logs but today, on the same property, are located the red brick sanctuary and educational rooms erected 1948. Rev. Matthew Pickett Smith served as pastor 1836-1881. The first Sunday School was organized 1877 with Thomas J. Nix serving as superintendent. Throughout the years, members have gone from this church to serve as leaders in various places.

First Presbyterian Church

Eutaw, Alabama. Erected 1851, D. B. Anthony Contractor. Organized by Tuscaloosa Presbytery in 1824 as Mesopotamia Presbyterian Church. John H. Gray first minister 1826-1836. Educational Building Erected 1959.

Pleasant Ridge Presbyterian Church

By appointment of Tuscaloosa Presbytery, Nov. 18, 1848 Rev. J. L. Kirkpatrick and Rev. C. A. Stillman organized a Presbyterian Church at Pleasant Ridge, Alabama. There were 13 charter members. Services were held in a home near site of present church. The first pastor, Rev. J. P. McMullen, served from 1855 until he was killed while serving the Confederacy at Resaca, Ga. 1864. The church building erected 1859, has been a blessing to all who have worshipped here through the years.

Saint John's Church (Episcopal)

Organized "in the Prairie" south of Greensboro in 1834 by the Rev. Caleb Ives, pioneer missionary to the old Southwest. Admitted to parish status in 1838 by the Rt. Rev. Jackson Kemper, Provisional Bishop of Alabama. First rector was the Rev. John Avery, D.D. Present building designed by Mr. Richard Upjohn, renowned American architect and founder of the American Institute of Architects. Erected in 1859 and moved across the Warrior River to its present location in 1878.

Spanish West Florida

Spain seized colony, 1780, from British during American Revolution. Ceded to Spain in 1783. 32 28 , northern boundary, crossed present Alabama-Mississippi River. In 1795 Spain ceded area to U.S. but kept Mobile and Pensacola.

Dr. Benjamin M. Dugger

, 1872-1956 Discoverer of antibiotic, Aureomycin Son of a beloved country doctor, he carried a dedicated spirit to the frontiers of science. Having won degrees at Alabama, Auburn, Missouri, Harvard, and Cornell, he taught at Cornell, Missouri, Wisconsin, completing his researches and discoveries at Lederle Laboratories. His discoveries opened a new era in medicine helping physicians save the lives of millions. Site of birthplace and boyhood home-300 yards.

Forrest's Railroad

Building of Selma, Marion & Memphis Railroad was completed to this point in 1870 during the presidency (1869-1874) of the distinguished Confederate cavalry leader, General Nathan Bedford Forrest. His fellow officer, Gen. E. W. Rucker, served as superintendent of construction. An extension to Akron was finished in 1882. This railroad is now part of the Southern Railway System. (Located at Greensboro)

Gayle-Tunstall House

Built in 1828-29 by John Gayle, sixth governor of Alabama. Birthplace of Amelia Gayle Gorgas, wife of Gen. Josiah Gorgas, Chief of Ordnance, CSA, mother of Wm. Crawford Gorgas, US Surgeon General who freed Canal Zone of yellow fever. For many years was the home of Hobson-Tunstall famliy; Wiley C. Tunstall, Alabama legislator for 39 years and twice Speaker of House. (Located in Greensboro)

Greene Springs School

1847-1884–2 miles–One of State's academies. Called "Rugby" of the South. It prepared exceptional number of Alabama leaders. Founded by Dr. Henry Tutwiler, one of State's foremost educators. Closed upon his death. One of the first schools to add study of science and government to the usual classics. (Located on Alabama Highway 60)

Greensboro Presbyterian Church

Organized 1823 by Rev. James Hillhouse of South Carolina with Patrick Norris and William Hilhouse, veterans of American Revolution, as founding elders. Original wooden structure replaced by brick building in 1841 under pastorate of Rev. Thomas Sydenham Witherspoon. Present building erected in 1859 when Rev. J. C. Mitchell was pastor. Old slave gallery may still be seen. (Located at Greensboro)

Hobson Bethel Methodist Church

Newbern Methodists held services in Presbyterian Church until 1884. Present site selected and church building completed in the fall of 1884. Cornerstone placed in northeast foundation. Fine, walnut altar rail is original and hand-hewn. Pulpit and chairs donated when church erected. Lumber used in construction of building hand-hewn and mortised. Pews and lighting system have been replaced. Services held on first Sunday monthly. Rev. J. Bancoft, presiding elder, and Rev. J.A. Moore, minister, called meeting of members in 1883 including the names: Hobson, Holcroft, Walker, Scott, Huggins, Moor, True, Sadler, Turpin. Building committee consisted of Mr. Will Sadler, Mr. E.B. Holcroft, and Mr. J.A. Moore. Mrs. Sallie L. Hobson granted privilege of naming church as she raised and donated largest amount of funds for construction.

Magnolia Grove

Birthplace, ancestral home of Richmond Pearson Hobson–1870-1937–Spanish-American War Hero. Admiral Hobson, as a naval officer, statesman, lecturer, and author, urged national preparedness; championed human welfare causes. Alabama made this home a state shrine to Admiral Hobson in 1943. House built in 1858 by Col. Isaac Groom. (Located in Greensboro)

Moundville

Site of Prehistoric Indian Village built by Indians of unknown tribe as a ceremonial center about 1200 to 1400 AD. Here are preserved ruins of their village, temple mounds, burials of their dead. Mound State Monument. (Located at Moundville)

Newbern Baptist Church

Church organized in 1848 by Rev. Thomas Chilton. Sanctuary stands as built in 1849 with original columns of solid poplar. Education building added in 1959. Baptist Historical Society has records of church's first 111 years on deposit in library of Howard College at Birmingham. Newbern Baptist Church–Organized in April, 1848 by the Rev. Thomas Chilton, moderator; John R. Hendon, clerk; John G. Huckabee, Wm. F. Hendon, John Dial, Gray Huckabee, Thomas H. Croom, R. S. Tinker, C. C. Huckabee, L. A. Seawell, Mary A. Paul, Martha Huckabee, G. A. Huckabee, Maria Hendon, Hannah Hendon, Maria P. Hendon, Susan Hendon, Martha Donna Hendon, Elizabeth Driver, Martha Croon, and Mary Ann Tinker. Town bell, 500 feet south of this marker, has called all Newbern congregations to worship services since 1868 and also served as town fire bell. (Located in Newbern)

Newbern Presbyterian Church

Organized 1844 by North Carolinians who settled area in 1830's. Built in 1848, church typifies rural church architecture of "Old South." Building stands in near-original form: hand-hewn lumber joined with wooden pegs. Early membership included slaves who sat on benches flanking pulpit. Church always without resident minister but has monthly service, active church life. Newbern Presbyterian Church–Organized November 16, 1844 under Presbytery of South Alabama by the Rev. Thomas Witherspoon and 21 charter members. Petition to Presbytery signed by T. A. Borden, Anne Borden, Wm. Ervin, Eliza Ervin, Mrs. Rebeccah Hanna, A. &. S. Hardin, Mrs. Martha Jenkins. Names of Croom, Tinker, Mendow, Pearce, and Huckabee also among charter members. Two women served on early Board of Elders contrary to Presbyterian rules of order. (Located in Newbern)

Old Erie

First county seat 1819-1839 of Greene County. This area of Hale since 1867. Town incorporated December 18, 1820, and had about 1,500 inhabitants a few years later. Floods and Yellow Fever forced removal of county seat to Eutaw. Town gradually deserted, and last remaining home (Dorroh) burned in 1933. The Greene County Gazette published here as early as 1823 by Thomas Eastin. Rev. James Monette, who preached first sermon in Greene County in 1818 at Troy (then Greensboro) moved to Erie in 1818. He died in 1834, and tombstone is here today. First county seat of Greene County, which then included what is now Hale. Incorporated in 1820, with Town Council composed of James A. Tolbert, Thomas H. Herndon, Francis L. Gaines, Durrett White, Anthony D. Kinnard, Howell L. Kennon and Hiram Shortridge. Among early families: Dorroh, Constantine, McAlpine, Lavergy, Moore, Brown, Edgerly, Bird, Melton, Monette, Hampton, Steele, Craig, Snedecor, Grant, Jennings, Kimbrough, Inge, Kennon, Murphy, Moody, Whitehead, Hobson, Williams, May, McGee, Phares.

Saint Paul's Episcopal Church

This parish established 1830. Third oldest in Alabama diocese. Church consecrated in 1843 by Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana, (later a Confederate general). Here Nicholas H. Cobbs was chosen first Bishop of Alabama in 1844. First vestrymen: Dr. Richard E. Meade, Dr. R. C. Randolph, Dr. R. W. Withers, J. Bell, J. B. Strickney, Dr. R. Inge, Frank Inge, William Murphy, Col. Samuel Pickens.

Southern University

Founded here in 1856 by the Methodist Church. Weathered War and Reconstruction to prosper in late 1800's. Moved to Birmingham in 1918 on merger with Birmingham College, founded 1898 by Methodists, to become Birmingham-Southern College.

The Alabama Baptist State Convention

October 28-29, 1823. Was founded here at Salem Church by 15 messengers from seven missionary societies. They met to promote missions, education and closer cooperation among Baptist churches in Alabama.

A County Older Than the State – Henry County

Created in 1819 by Alabama Territorial Legislature. Named for Patrick Henry of Virginia, colonial statesman and orator: "Give me liberty or give me death." This area ceded by Creek Indian Nation in 1814 under Treaty of Ft. Jackson. Had been part of Lower Creek Confederacy. Abbeville made county seat in 1833. Abbe an Indian name of nearby creek.

Henry County Training School

, Established 1914 Founded by Laura L. Ward. Building designed and constructed by Jim McCauley on land given by Glass Maybin. Classes began Sept., 1917. Principals who served school were: J. H. Jackson, W. R. Rosser, Felix Blackwood, Sr., and William B. Ward, Sr. First teachers were: Laura L. Ward, Bertha Matthews and Mattie Belle. School operated for 53 years until closed June 30, 1970. During this time it served as principal educational center for black citizens of Henry County, graduating a total of 1297 students.

Pilgrim Rest Baptist Church – East

Constituted to the glory of God by early settlers in 1859, in then Henry County, Ala. Originally with the West Florida Baptist Association, joined Columbia Baptist Association in 1887. First church built of logs. First members were Nathan Whiddon, Mary Whiddon, Elizabeth Stephens, Sarah Parker, A.B. Williams, Moses Parker, Aner M. Blackwell, Sarah Stapleton, Mary Parker. First deacons were Nathan Whiddon, A.B. Williams. Church became part of Houston Co. in 1903. Present church built in 1911, with improvements since added. Church cemetery began circa 1904, previous burials were in nearby church and family graveyards.

Bridgeport

Vital Memphis-Charleston railroad, "backbone of Confederacy," spanned Tennessee River here. Bridge burned several times, 1862-63. General Mitchell (U.S. Flag), occupying Huntsville after Battle of Shiloh, seized Bridgeport in April 1862 and held it until August. Federals recaptured town in July 1863 as Rosecrans (U.S. Flag) took Chattanooga (upriver). As end of usable railway from Nashville, town became key base of operations in U.S. victory at Chickamauga and lifting siege of Chattanooga. (Located in Bridgeport on U.S. Highway 72)

Decatur County

1821-1825 Created by an Act of the Legislature on December 7, 1821, Decatur County was comprised of portions of Madison and Jackson Counties. "Old Woodville," two miles north along County Highway 7, was designated as the County Seat. An 1823-'24 completed survey revealed that it did not contain the constitutionally required number of square miles. The county was abolished by an Act of the Legislature on December 28, 1825, and the territory was returned to Madison and Jackson Counties.

Robert Thomas Scott

, 1800-1863 Planter, tavern operator, newspaper editor, legislator, and land developer, he sought in vain to have the Jackson County Seat moved from Bellefront to the settlement that bore his name. After his death in 1863, his widow reached an agreement in 1868 with the county government whereby the site for the courthouse and jail was deeded to Jackson County on condition that Scottsboro become the county seat. Incorporated by the state legislature on January 20, 1870, the town became an important commercial center and shipping point on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad.

Sequoyah

1760-1843. Inventor of system of characters representing syllables in Cherokee language. This give them the only written Indian language. Adopted here at Sauta in 1822, Cherokees used new written language to print the Bible, hymns and a newspaper named Cherokee Phoenix.

A County Older Than the State – Jefferson County

Created by Alabama Territorial Legislature in 1819 from land of Creek Indian Nation ceded in 1814 by Treaty of Ft. Jackson. Named for Thomas Jefferson 1743-1828 author of Declaration of Independence founder of University of Virginia third President of the United States. Settled by soldiers who fought in Alabama with Andrew Jackson in Creek War, 1813-14. County seat at Elyton, 1821 to 1871: at Birmingham since 1871.

The Birmingham Public Library

Birmingham's first library was organized in 1886 and in 1891 became a subscription library for the general public. In 1908 the Birmingham Public Library Association established a free public library, and the City created an independent Library Board in 1913. For decades the library was housed in various locations including the old City Hall where it was destroyed by fire in 1925. Libraries throughout the U.S. sent books and local citizens contributed for a new building. It opened April 11, 1927, was peacefully desegregated in 1963, served as the main library until 1984, and was renovated and reopened in 1985 as the Linn-Henley Research Library. --------------------Reverse----------------------

The Linn-Henley Research Librar

y This four-story Neo-Classical structure, designed by architects Miller, Martin, & Lewis, was built of Indiana limestone in 1927. A model facility when completed, the library served as a cornerstone of Birmingham's cultural and educational development. The building was renovated in 1984 by architects Kidd, Plosser, & Sprague and renamed the Linn-Henley Research Library. Special collections housed here include extensive southern history resources, maps, and the city's first municipal archives. Significant interior features include murals and decorative ceilings painted and installed in the 1920s by nationally known artist Ezra Winter.

Cahaba Project "Slagheap Village"

A government project under President Franklin D. Roosevelt A total of 243 houses and 44 duplex units were constructed from 1936-1938 at an overall cost of $2,661,981.26. Cahaba residents rented from the government until 1947, when the houses and duplexes were sold to individuals at prices ranging from $4,400 to $9,000 each.

First Baptist Church of Trussville

Organized at Cahawba Baptist Church, 1821. Elder Sission Blythe, pastor. Anderson Robertson, Sherwood Holley, deacons. John Stovall, Jordan Williams, trustees. Members of Canaan (now Birmingham) Baptist Association since its beginning in 1833. This marker dedicated at the church's 140th Anniversary, July 16, 1961. (Located in Trussville)

Hosea Holcombe

1780-1841. "Alabama's first church historian." In 1840 he published his study, History of Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Alabama. Also an evangelist and missionary. In 1818 moved to Alabama from Carolinas, organizing five churches in vicinity. President of Alabama Baptist Convention 1833-38, he was delegated to write church history. Lack of cooperation led him to travel over state to get material for book. He died at Jonesboro home in 1841, buried in Sadler Cemetery 1 mile south. (Located Alabama Highway 150-4/10 miles southeast Bessemer)

Howard College

Liberal Arts–1842–founded at Marion by Baptist Church. 1887–moved to East Lake now part of Birmingham. 1957–moved to new campus here in Shades Valley. Civil War did not stop its classes. (Located on campus in Birmingham)

Howard College

(#2) In the valley to the north is the Georgian-Colonial campus of Howard College–Liberal arts institution founded in 1842 by Alabama Baptists–Alumni serve throughout the world. (Located on Shades Mt. on U.S. Highway 31)

Jefferson County Courthouses

Territorial legislature designated home of Maj. Moses Kelly (in Jones Valley) as site of first court in this area of Alabama, 1818. After creation of Jefferson County, 1819, court held at Carrolsville (Powderly) until county seat established at Elyton, 1820. County seat moved to Birmingham, 1873. Two story brick Courthouse completed 1875 on NE corner 3rd Ave. and 21st St., North. Replaced 1887 by elaborate three story structure which served county until 1931. Separate Bessemer Division of Circuit Court established 1915. Bessemer Courthouse completed 1920. Present courthouse completed 1931. Designed by Holabird and Root of Chicago. Constructed of reinforced concrete faced with granite and limestone. North Annex built 1964. Sculptured reliefs on west face depicting history of Jefferson County by Leo Friedlander. Murals in west foyer representing "Old South" and "New South" by John Norton. Bronze statues of Thomas Jefferson by Birmingham artist George Bridges.

Jefferson County Courthouse Site

The county seat of Jefferson County was moved from Elyton to Birmingham in 1873. On this site stood the first Courthouse in the City of Birmingham. The Italianate style structure was designed by architect W.K. Ball. Completed in 1875, the two-story red brick building cost $30,500. In 1887 it was condemned as unsafe, and a new Courthouse was planned.

Jefferson County Courthouse Site

In 1889 a second Jefferson County Courthouse was constructed on this site. Charles Wheelock and Sons of Birmingham and H. Wolters of Louisville were the architects. Charles Pearce of Indianapolis was contractor. Constructed in the Romanesque style, the four-story brick building had a central clock tower rising 180 feet. Total cost was $300,000. This Courthouse was built several blocks to the north. The structure was raised in 1937.

Jefferson Warriors

In honor of the men from Mt. Pinson who formed the "Jefferson Warriors" in mid-July, 1861. Marching to Huntsville, they were mustered into the Confederate army on August 12th as Company C of the Nineteenth Alabama Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Joseph Wheeler. Engaged in momentous battles at Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Nashville, and Bentonville, N.C., the 19th suffered such losses that only 76 members of this Regiment were present at the surrender in April, 1865.

Jordan Home

2834 Highland Avenue Dr. Mortimer Harvie Jordan and his wife, Florence E. Mudd, constructed their home between 1906 and 1908. After service in the Confederate army, Jordan studied medicine in Cincinnati and New York (under Alabama's famous gynecologist, Dr. J. Marion Sims). As a doctor in Jefferson County, he is especially remembered for his tireless work in the 1873 cholera epidemic. He served on the State Board of Health (1879-83), as president of the State Medical Association (1884), and as chair of material medical and therapeutics and clinical medicine in the Medical College of Alabama at Mobile (1886 for two terms). Jordan authorized numerous publications on surgery, epidemiology, and gynecology and read many papers on these subjects before medical association. Florence Mudd Jordan was the daughter of Judge William S. Mudd, builder of Arlington plantation. The Jordan home was sold in 1928 and was restored to its original condition in 1969. A fine example of neo-classic architecture, the house features a wide portico with four Ionic columns and elaborate detail work on the pediment.

The Linn-Henley Research Library

This four-story Neo-Classical structure, designed by architects Miller, Martin, & Lewis, was built of Indiana limestone in 1927. A model facility when completed, the library served as a cornerstone of Birmingham's cultural and educational development. The building was renovated in 1984 by architects Kidd, Plosser, & Sprague and renamed the Linn-Henley Research Library. Special collections housed here include extensive southern history resources, maps, and the city's first municipal archives. Significant interior features include murals and decorative ceilings painted and installed in the 1920s by nationally known artist Ezra Winter.

Birmingham-Southern College

Created in 1918 on this site by merger of two colleges; Southern University a Methodist college founded in 1856 at Greensboro. Birmingham College founded by Methodists as N. Alabama Conference College on this site in 1898.

Oxmoor Iron Furnaces

1863-1928 Fire blast furnace in Jefferson County erected near this site (1863) by Red Mountain Coal & Iron Co. Destroyed (1865) by Federal troops: rebuilt (1873) and second furnace added. Successful experimental run made in Furnace No. 2 (1876) using local coke and Red Mountain iron ore: this assured future growth of coal and iron industry in Birmingham area. Owned by a succession of companies, the furnaces were acquired by U.S. Steel Corp. (1907) and later dismantled (1928).

Roebuck Springs Historic District

Roebuck Springs was the first large residential suburb in Birmingham where planning and development were tied to the automobile, and the first community in the city associated with a golf course development. The 1910 land plan was designed to complement the steep, rolling topography, reminiscent of narrow country lanes in rural England. The use of local native stones unified the diverse architectural styles--Craftsman, Tudor Revival, and Colonial Revival--and contributed to the natural, distinctive feel of the community. Roebuck Springs is on the National Register of Historic Places.

Ruhama Baptist Church

Constituted in 1819 by pioneer settlers in Territory of Alabama. Oldest church in Birmingham Baptist Association. Elder Hosea Holcombe served as first pastor. First meeting house was log cabin. Present building is on fourth site.

Samford University

In the valley to the north is the Georgian-Colonial campus of Samford University founded in 1841 as Howard College by Alabama Baptists at Marion, Alabama. Alumni serve throughout the world.

Samford University

Multiple purpose Christian university founded 1842 as Howard College by Alabama Baptists at Marion. Moved to East Lake, Birmingham, 1887. Established on this campus 1957. Acquired Cumberland School of Law, Lebanon, Tennessee 1961. College rechartered 1965 as Samford University in honor of Frank Park Samford and his family. (Located on Lakeshore Drive at campus entrance. This marker replaces old Howard College marker at same location.)

School of Medicine

Opened as Alabama Medical College in 1859 in Mobile by Josiah C. Nott and other physicians as part of the University of Alabama. Closed by the Civil War in 1861, it reopened in 1868. Reorganized in 1897, it became the Medical Department and in 1907 the School of Medicine of the University of Alabama. The Mobile School was closed and moved to Tuscaloosa in 1920 as a two-year basic medical science program, which was offered through 1944. The Medical College of Alabama opened in Birmingham with a four-year program in 1945 and became the School of Medicine in 1969. The Medical Center gradually emerged as other schools were established: Dentistry 1948, Nursing 1966, Optometry and Community and Allied Health 1969, and Public Health 1981. The Medical Center and University College, which evolved out of The University of Alabama Extension Center established in 1935, formed the nucleus of The University of Alabama at Birmingham in 1966.

Site of Howard College

1887-1957 In the four block area south of this point Howard College developed a campus, 1887-1957. Founded 1842 by Alabama Baptists at Marion. Relocated 1957 on a site in Shades Valley, Birmingham, ten miles west. Rechartered 1965 as Samford University in honor of Frank Park Samford and his family. (Located in East Lake on Second Avenue, South)

Tannehill Ironworks

(1829-1865) Established 1829 with forge built on Roupes Creek (one mile south) by Daniel Hillman. First blast furnace built on site in 1850's by Moses Stroup. Two other furnaces erected in 1863 by William Sanders to provide iron for Confederate Arsenal at Selma. The only three-furnace ironworks in Alabama during Civil War, Tannehill was one of the largest producers of iron in Confederacy. Ceased operations after being partially destroyed by Federal troops March 31, 1865. Named for one of former owners, Ninion Tannehill. Also known as Roupes Valley Ironworks and Sanders Ironworks.

United States Pipe and Foundry Company

On March 3, 1899, the United States Pipe and Foundry Company was incorporated consolidating 14 iron and steel foundries in 9 states. One of these foundries, the Howard-Harrison Iron Company of Bessemer, was founded in 1889. In 1911, the Dimmick Pipe Company, located in North Birmingham, became part of the company. U.S. Pipe led the industry with its introduction of the deLavaud centrifugal casting technology in 1921. The process revolutionized the U.S. pipe-making industry and remained the standard production technology over 75 years later. In 1952, U.S. Pipe merged with Sloss-Sheffield Steel and Iron Company, founded in 1881, then relocated to this site in 1953. A subsidiary of Walter Industries of Tampa, Florida, U.S. Pipe remains an industry leader as the largest producer of Ductile Iron Pipe in the United States.

Wilson's Raiders

Headquarters March 28-31, 1865. Gen. James H. Wilson, USA, having crossed the Tennessee River with a large force of well equipped cavalry, grouped them here at Elyton. Their mission: to destroy Alabama's economic facilities for supporting the War. From these headquarters he sent; (a) cavalry unit to burn the military school, foundries and bridges at Tuscaloosa. (b) soldiers to destroy mines and furnaces in Jefferson, Bibb, and Shelby Counties. (c) cavalry to dash south to destroy railroads and factories at Selma. (Located at Arlington, in Birmingham)

A County Older Than the State – Lauderdale County

Created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature. (Alabama became a state in 1819) Named for Col. James Lauderdale, cavalryman under Gen. John Coffee and Andrew Jackson, War of 1812; killed in battle of New Orleans. Coffee planned Florence, the county seat. Jackson, President Madison owned lots.

Daniel White

Settled Here in 1818 Daniel White, native of North Carolina, purchased land here in 1818, a year before Alabama became a state. His home and stagecoach stop, "Wayside Inn," was a large two-story log house located on the north side of the highway from this site. In 1834 he set aside the original two acres in this burial ground for a church and cemetery. Daniel White and his wife, Margaret, are believed to be buried here. Also buried here is a son, Sherwood White, who operated a grist mill on Second Creek a few miles west of Rogersville.

Earliest Methodist Congregation in Lauderdale County, Alabama

Organized June 1818 near mouth of Blue Water Creek by Circuit Riders and became part of Richland Circuit of Giles County, Tenn. Church later moved to Center Star (Originally known as Masonville) and named Driskel's Chapel until circa 1893, then relocated one mile east and renamed Center Star Methodist. Six locations have been used by congregation since organized.

Edward A. O'Neal Home Home of Father-Son Governors

Built in 1840's, acquired 1857 by Edward Asbury O'Neal. Occupied various times during Civil War by Federals and Confederates. Edward A. O'Neal (1818-1890) attended LaGrange College; lawyer; Colonel of the 26th Alabama Regiment, C.S.A.; appointed brigadier general. Governor, 1882-1886. Emmet O'Neal (1853-1922); lawyer; Governor, 1911-1915; lived in nearby Courtview.

Florence State Teachers College

Oldest state-supported teachers college south of Ohio R. 1830–opened as LaGrange College (Methodist) at nearby Leighton. First chartered college in state. 1855–moved here and re-named Florence Wesleyan University. Flourished until closed by war in 1865. 1872–deeded to State by church; became Florence State Normal School. 1926–present name adopted.

Florence Wagon Company

Moved here from Atlanta in 1889, this industry made Florence a household word throughout the South. It was the largest wagon factory in the South, reportedly second largest in the U.S., with 250 employees and annual production of 12,000 wagons. World War I army wagons were made here and sent all over U.S. and to France. Increasing use of motorized vehicles caused gradual reduction in activity of factory. The firm was liquidated in 1930's.

General John Coffee

Home site and grave. Cavalry commander under Andrew Jackson throughout War of 1812: (Creek War, Pensacola, New Orleans). Negotiated many treaties ceding Indian lands to U.S. Made original surveys of Tennessee Valley.

Governor Hugh McVay Home Site and Cemetery

McVay (1766-1851), South Carolina native, built a three room log house at head of Cox's Creek about 1818. Community later called Mars Hill. He was a member of Mississippi Territorial Legislature, delegate to convention of 1819, which framed Alabama's first constitution for many years member of Alabama House and Senate, briefly Governor of Alabama in 1837. Buried near home.

Grassy Memorial Chapel and Cemetery

Established in 1894 as New Salem Presbyterian Church. Originally affiliated with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, the first recorded meeting was held in 1897, William White, Pastor. The Church became affiliated with Presbyterian U.S.A. in 1907. In 1976, it became the property of the Grassy community under the direction of New Salem Cemetery Inc. Grassy Memorial Cemetery Inc. was formed in 1998 by the Grassy community to direct the operation of the Chapel and Cemetery. May this Chapel continue to serve the families of Grassy in the future as it has in the past.

Indian Mound

This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was build about 1200 to 1500 A.D. by Indians of the Mississippian Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This one was originally encircled by an earthen wall, and there were villages and cultivated fields nearby. Height: 42 feet; width at base, 180 feet.

Indian Mound

Largest in Tennessee Valley. It stands 42 feet high; served as base for temple. Built by unknown Indians who lived here long before Columbus discovered America. Builders perhaps related to Indians who built mounds at Moundville.

Jackson's Military Road

Built by Andrew Jackson 1816-20. Shortened by 200 miles the route from Nashville to New Orleans for movement of supply wagons and artillery. Built with U.S. funds and troops. Followed in part Doublehead's Road from Columbia, Tenn., to Muscle Shoals. After 1819 mail route was transferred from Natchez Trace to pass through Florence via Military Road. A portion of Hood's army followed the road to Franklin and Nashville in 1864. In later years called Jackson Highway.

John McKinley

Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court John McKinley (1780-1852), native of Virginia, prominent attorney, member of Cypress Land Company, built a large three-story mansion near this site in 1820's which later burned. McKinley served in Alabama Legislature, U.S. Senate (1826-31), U.S. House (1833-35); was appointed Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court, by President Van Buren: served 1837-52. Died in Louisville, Ky.

Sweetwater

1828 Home of Major John Brahan, veteran of War of 1812, Major General, Alabama Militia, who owned 4,000 acres here. Built of bricks made on the place, marble mantels imported from Italy, boxwood hedge from London. Named for spring nearby. Federals and Confederates quartered here at various times during the Civil War. Home of Brahan's son-in-law, Robert M. Patton, Governor of Alabama, 1865-1868.

Trail of Tears

Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears." Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the encampment several births and deaths occurred. One party of 1,070 Cherokees traveled overland from Ross' Landing in Tennessee due to low water in the upper river. Following the general route of U.S. Hwy.72 to Florence, they arrived here July 10, 1838, in miserable conditions after a 23-day journey. About 17,000 Cherokees were driven from their homeland in the southern Appalachian Mtns. Most traveled by land through Tennessee and on to Oklahoma. Great suffering and about 4,000 deaths occurred along the Trail, especially during the winter of 1838-39.

A County Older Than the State–Lawrence County

Created by Territorial Legislature in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians. Named for U.S. Navy hero of War of 1812 Capt. James Lawrence. Fatally wounded, his famous command was, "Don't give up the ship." County seat since 1820 has been at Moulton which was named for hero of Creek Indian War, 1813-14.

Home of General Joseph Wheeler

1836-1906. "Fighting Joe Wheeler" Confederate Cavalry Commander of Army of Tennessee. Major-General Cavalry U.S.A. in Spanish American War. Soldier-Statesman-Author-Planter. One of Alabama's representatives in the Statuary Hall in Washington.

Shackleford's Red Rovers

Dr. Jack Shackelford, Courtland physician, named captain of Volunteer company to aid Texas in seeking independence. In first action Rovers were with regiment cut off, captured near Goliad, March 20, 1836. Surrendered on promise of return to U.S. On March 27, regiment and others, 365 men, executed at Goliad by order of General Santa Ana. Shackelford and three other doctors spared. He later escaped, returned to Courtland. His son and nephew among those executed. Only 8 of 60 Rovers survived. Incident, plus Alamo, rallied U.S. support. *Captain J. Shackelford, *Lt. William C. Francis, Sgt. F. G. Shackelford, Sgt. A. J. Foley, *Sgt. J. D. Hamilton, Sgt. C. M. Short, Cpl. J. H. Barkley, Cpl. H. H. Bentley, Cpl. David Moore, Cpl. Andrew Winter, Patrick H. Anderson, John N. Barnhill, Joseph Blackwell, *George W. Brooks, *L. M. Brooks, T. E. Burbridge, F. T. Burt, J. W. Cain, Thomas Cantwell, Seth Clark, John G. Coe, *D. Cooper, Harvey Cox, R. T. Davidson, George L. Davis, H. D. Day, A. Dickson, Alfred Dorsey, H. L. Douglas, W. C. Douglas, J. W. Duncan, James E. Ellis, Samuel Farley, *Joseph Fenner, Robert Fenner, J. G. Ferguson, E. B. Franklin, D. Gamble, M. C. Garner, I. E. Grimes, William Gunter, William Hemphill, John Hyser, John Jackson, John N. Jackson, H. W. Jones, John Kelly, Charles McKinley, John H. Miller, D. A. Murdock, William Quinn, W. F. Savage, J. N. Seaton, W. S. Shackelford, *Wilson Simpson, B. Strunk, James Vaughan, Wm. E. Vaughan, James S. Wilder, Robert W. Wilson. *Escaped at execution, on patrol, or on leave when unit captured (Located at Coutland)

Auburn

Site of Alabama Polytechnic Institute. A Land Grant College, East Alabama Male College (Methodist) 1857. Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama, 1872. Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1899. (Located on campus of Auburn University)

Auburn University

Alabama's Land-Grant University. This title given by Legislature in 1960 followed start of second century of growth in diverse services to state, nation. This act confirmed name "Auburn" used popularly from its founding by Methodists as East Alabama Male College in 1856. Methodists deeded college to State in 1872 to become under the Land Grant Act, Agricultural & Mechanical College of Alabama. In 1899, with growth, name changed to Alabama Polytechnic Institute. "Owing much to the past, Auburn's mission makes its greater debt ever to the future." (Located on campus Auburn University)

Line 32 28 North Latitude

Northern Boundary of: British W. Florida 1764-83, Spanish W. Florida 1783-95, Mississippi Territory 1798-1804, Washington County 1800-12, Clarke County 1812-15. Southern Boundary of: British Illinois 1764-83, United States 1783-95. Line fixed in 1764 by British king across present Alabama-Mississippi. France had ceded area to Britain in 1763.

Sigma Alpha Epsilon

The Alpha Mu chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was founded on June 15, 1878 at the Agricultural & Mechanical College of Alabama (now Auburn University). John E.D. Shipp came to Auburn as a student determined to organize a chapter at a time when fraternities were forbidden on campus. Working in secrecy with SAE brothers in Georgia, Shipp had two members of Mercer University's chapter, William H. Felton and Frank H. Greaves, travel to Auburn to install the chapter behind Old Main in a cornfield where Samford Hall now stands. The first fraternity on Auburn's campus, Sigma Alpha Epsilon remains a place for "The True Gentleman."

A County Older Than the State–Limestone County

Created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed) which runs through county. Few settlers here until Indian treaties. Athens became county seat in 1818. Limestone was the first Alabama county to be occupied by Federal troops during the Civil War.

Albert S. Johnston

General, CSA. March 9-20, 1862. In a dash to repel invasion of Mississippi Valley he led Army of Tennessee across the river here. While here he planned campaign for the Battle of Shiloh. (Located on U.S. Highway 31)

Athens College

A liberal arts college. 1822 Athens Female Academy founded by patriotic citizens. 1843 Raised to college level under Methodist patronage. First college building, Founders Hall (1842-3), still used for classes. Unbroken service since 1822.

General N. B. Forrest, C.S.A.

North Alabama Raid, September 23-30, 1864. Hemmed in by superior forces Forrest's fast moving cavalry, raided and destroyed Union supply lines and strong points, captured 2,360 men, valuable stores. By swift action, surprise and bluff Forrest disrupted Union military plans from Decatur to Columbia. (Located on U.S. Highway 31)

Oakland United Methodist Church

Generations of African-American families have worshiped here, beginning with services held under a brush arbor prior to the Civil War. In August of 1879, the land for the Oakland Methodist church was deeded to parishioners In a wooden one-room building, they worshiped and operated their own private school, serving the surrounding communities and producing a number of ministers and educators. The Limestone County Board of Education took charge of the school in 1929 until it closed at the end of the 1952 school year. After the original structure was destroyed by a tornado, the Oakland Methodist Episcopal church – which became the Oakland United Methodist Church in 1972 – was rebuilt. Renovations to the structure were completed in 1990.

Fort Deposit

The original "Fort Deposit" was established as a supply depot by General Ferdinand L. Claiborne in 1813 during the Creek Indian War. It served as a base of operations when General Claiborne engaged the Creeks at the Battle of the Holy Ground. The Fort was located just northeast of the present Myrtlewood Cemetery in the Gilmer Hills area. The community of Fort Deposit, once known as Ballard's Precinct, arose on its present site during the territorial and early statehood periods of Alabama history. The legislature incorporated the town of Fort Deposit on February13, 1891.

Hayneville

Founded in 1820 by settlers from the Edgefield, Abbeville, and Colleton Districts of South Carolina on property purchased from the U.S. Land Office at Cahaba. Officially named Hayneville in 1831 to honor South Carolina Senator Robert Y. Hayne. Hayne's 1830 debates with Daniel Webster in the U.S. Senate over the nature of the federal union earned fame for the South Carolinian across the South and remain classics in American political discourse.

Lowndesboro

Settled before 1820 by planters from South Carolina and Virigina. First called McGill's Hill, it was incorporated, 1832, as Lowndesboro in honor of William Lowndes. There was a brief skirmish here between Forrest's troops and Wilson's raiders, April 10, 1865. (Located at intersection of U.S. Highway 80 and Alabama Highway 97)

Shiloh Primitive Baptist Church

Organized in 1850 as Shiloh Baptist Church on the Pritchett Plantation, later known as the R.D. Spann Place on Highway 21, North, 3 miles north of Hayneville. Primitive later added to the name. Building originally constructed of logs, then a wooden-board structure added as the community grew. Understanding the need to educate blacks in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the church served as both a school and a place to worship God on the Lord's Day. In 1875 the Pilgrim Rest Primitive Baptist Association was organized at the Spann Place site, the Elder Morris Jaree, Pastor. Church remodeled in 1960 under the leadership of Elder J.H. Betts. 1970 building addition made under the leadership of Elder J.S. Johnson. Congregation in 1990 decided to purchase parcel of land to relocate some 3 miles north of original site. New building dedicated 1995. Congregation has taken active role in social ministry contributing to the well being of the community. Cornerstone reflects its philosophy: "We've come this far by Faith."

George Stiggins

, 1788-1845 Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent, and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A Historical Narrative of the Genealogy, Traditions, and Downfall of the Ispocoga or Creek Indian Tribe of Indians" from his firsthand knowledge of the Creeks, their leaders, and the Creek War of 1813-14. His sister, Mary, was married to William Weatherford (Red Eagle).

Little Texas Tabernacle and Campground

The "Little Texas" Methodist Tabernacle and Campground site of Camp meetings since the 1850's. The Tabernacle–a place of worship–was built by black and white settlers of the area. The original structure was made of hand-hewn timbers, wooden pegs, handsplit shingles and sawdust floor. Sides were open except for fence-rail barriers. Worshipers camped in open air or in temporary wooden barracks called "tents" during long revivals. When revivals were in progress, the campground was governed by camp rules adopted and enforced by religious leaders. Williams Chapel was built later.

Mississippi Territory

Northern boundary here at 32° 28'. From Georgia line to Mississippi River, territory extended south to 31°, present Florida line. Created by Congress in 1798. 1802 Georgia gave up claim. 1804 Enlarged north to Tennessee. 1817 Alabama Territory created. 1819 Alabama became 22nd state.

Union Christian Church

Union Christian Church began in spring 1897, under a brush arbor approximately 4 miles northeast of this site. Two acres were donated by future Congressman Charlie W. Thompson, of Tuskegee. Rev. John Allen Branch was the first minister. The original church building was completed in 1899. Worship services continued there until June 1937 when fire destroyed the building. After a vacant school building and 5 ½ acres of land were purchased from the State Board of Education at this site, a new church was dedicated on September 19, 1937. That facility was replaced by the present church building, dedicated March 19, 1963. The vision of its founders has provided a strong faith community in Union Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).

Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University

Normal, Alabama Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Hooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 in a rented building; moved 1881 to first school-owned property on West Clinton Street. Land-grant funds received 1891 for training of Negroes in agriculture and mechanic arts enables school to enlarge and re-establish at present location. Evolved from a normal school to a University in ninety-four years. Former names 1873 - Colored Normal School at Huntsville 1885 - The Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School 1896 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes 1919 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute for Negroes 1948 - Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College 1969 - University status achieved

The Big Spring

This inexhaustible source of pure water was a marvel to Indian and frontiersman alike prior to the 19th century. John Hunt, an early settler, built a cabin near this site by 1805. The spring became a major attraction at the land sales of 1809, when LeRoy Pope outbid all others. By 1823, spring water was being pumped 96 feet through hollowed cedar logs to a reservoir on the town square. This was one of the earliest waterworks in the country. --------------------Reverse---------------------- The Big Spring (continued from other side) In 1843, LeRoy Pope's son, William H. Pope, deeded the site to Huntsville for one dollar. Until 1957, the spring was the main source of fresh water for Huntsville's citizens, and for thirty years prior to 1950, revenue from the sale of water was the largest single source of income for the city's General Fund. A park/picnic ground was developed around the spring in 1898. Before that and for many years afterward, great crowds attended religious baptisms held below the small dam at the spring.

Buckhorn Tavern

Located in Section 18, Township 2, Range 2 East, this site was an early wayside stop for pioneer settlers as they traveled the road from Winchester, Tennessee into Madison County. The tavern predates the creation of the county, Dec. 13, 1808. During the Creek Indian War (1813-1814), the Deposit Road was created at this point and stretched southeastward through Cherokee lands to Fort Deposit near Gunter's Landing. This became the supply route for General Andrew Jackson's forces. His deputy, Colonel John Coffee, stored supplies opposite the tavern and camped his troops (Nov. 22-Dec. 8, 1813). By tradition, the tavern took its name "Buckhorn" in 1858 when William L. Fanning killed a buck near the site and presented its antlers to the innkeeper. The antlers are now displayed at Buckhorn High School. The original building was demolished in the early 1950s.

Buckhorn Tavern Skirmish

Buckhorn Tavern was the site of the skirmish on Oct. 12, 1863. Confederate General Phillip D. Roddey's Alabama Cavalry Brigade was moving south from New Market when it intercepted Union General Robert Mitchell's Cavalry Brigade, advancing northeast from Huntsville. A brisk firefight broke out, the opposing forces so close they could see each others' faces by the muzzle flashes. Both sides hesitated to advance in the approaching darkness and heavy rain. The Union troops camped for the night in the woods; the Confederates retired to New Market. The next morning, Rodney's Brigade rode on to Athens. The union cavalry did not pursue.

Calhoun House

On this site stood the Calhoun House, used as a Federal Courthouse, where desperado Frank James was tried and found not guilty, by jury trial, on April 25, 1884, for robbery of a government payroll near Muscle Shoals, Alabama. May 11, 1881. One of his defense attorneys was Huntsville's LeRoy Pope Walker, first Secretary of War of the Confederate States of America.

Central Presbyterian Church

This church which had its origins in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was first mentioned at a meeting of the Presbytery on April 7, 1812. It became known as First Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Huntsville, Alabama. In 1828 the first building was constructed on Greene Street north of Holmes Street. In 1845 a second building, designed by George Steele, was erected at this site. The present building was begun in 1899. In 1906 this church became known as Central Presbyterian Church when united with the Presbyterian Church, USA.

Chickasaw Old Fields

This place has been known by three names: Chickasaw Old Fields-1769. Cherokee Indians attacked Chickasaws who were invading their lands. After severe battle Chickasaws withdrew. Ditto's Landing–Early boat landing on Tennessee River established by John Ditto, Indian trader. Town of Whitesburg–Old river port, incorporated 1824 by James White, Abington, Va., "Salt King." (Located on U.S. Highway 431 near Tennessee River)

The Church of the Nativity, Episcopal

The Church of the Nativity congregation was organized December 17, 1842--the name chosen because of the approaching Christmas season. The Convention of the Diocese of Alabama, Protestant Episcopal Church, approved the congregation on February 16, 1843. The original brick church, erected in 1847, stood east of the present structure. The present church building, an outstanding example of Gothic Revival architecture, was designed by Frank Wills and Henry Dudley of New York. Erected at a cost of $37,500, it was dedicated Easter Eve, April 13, 1859, and consecrated January 29, 1860. Bibb Chapel was consecrated in 1886 as a memorial to Wilson Carey Bibb. Ridley Hall, for parish functions, was completed in 1953 as a memorial to Dr. James L. Ridley. Joffrion Hall, dedicated in 1983 as an educational building, was named for the Rev. A. Emile Joffrion, ninth rector. For 150 years, Nativity was served by only ten rectors, two of whom became bishops. The Rev. Henry C. Lay, second rector, was consecrated Missionary Bishop of the Southwest (1859). The Rev. Randolph R. Clairborne, Jr., seventh rector, was consecrated Suffragan Bishop, Diocese of Alabama (1949) and became Bishop of Alabama (1953).

City of Madison

Established in 1856 as a shipping station on the Memphis and Charleston R.R., the town was plotted on land owned by James Clemens and incorporated by vote of its citizens in 1869. First officials included William R. Johnson, mayor; and five aldermen, William B. Dunn, first depot agent; Thomas J. Clay, first postmaster; George W. Martin, first merchant; James H. Bibb, planter; and Dr. George R. Sullivan. The community remained small until the growth of industries associated with Redstone Arsenal and the Jetport in the 1950's and 1960's transformed Madison intro a thriving city.

Councill Training School

(1919 - 1970) In 1919, the first building was erected nearby with funds provided locally and supplemented with a Julius Rosenwald Foundation grant. Named for William H. Councill, Alabama A&M University founder, the three-room structure was built for black students in grades 1-6. Traditionally county black students were taught in churches and lodge halls. Many would continue their education at the University's Laboratory School. The second school was erected on this site in 1948. This structure accommodated 600 students, grades 1-12. The first class graduated in 1949. The principals were: Dr. Charles Orr (1948-53), Mr. J.H. Richards (1953-59), and Mr. A.G. Adams (1959-70). In 1952, the school was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Enrollment increased from 600 to 950; faculty from 22 to 32. Additional classrooms were constructed in 1958 and 1962. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 impacted the future of the school. As black students attended neighborhood schools due to integration, enrollment declined. In 1968, the school became a senior high school, limited to grades 10-12. The school closed in 1970 as full integration took effect. The land and property reverted to Alabama A&M University in 1971 to accommodate University needs.

Dallas Mills & Village

1892-1949 Chartered in 1890 by T.B. Dallas, Dallas Mills began operation in 1892 as Alabama's largest cotton mill, manufacturing sheeting. The mill village extended from Oakwood Ave. South to Dallas St. Employees were provided homes, medical care, churches, library, lodge building, YMCA, concerts, a kindergarten, and schools. The mill closed in 1949 and the village was incorporated into Huntsville in 1955.

Dallas (Optimist) Park

1928-1949 Built in 1928, Dallas Park served as the baseball field for the Dallas Mill teams coached by H.E. "Hub" Myhand, who came to Huntsville in 1927 as physical director for Dallas Manufacturing Co. Until the 1940s, he was Mr. Baseball in Huntsville. During these years, semi-pro baseball featuring local mill teams drew loyal crowds of up to 6,000 fans. In 1935, the Lincoln and Dallas Mill teams merged to form the Redcaps. The Huntsville Dr. Peppers (1937-1943), a women's semi-pro softball team coached by Cecil Fain, also played here.

(Dallas) Optimist Park

1949- In 1949, the Optimist Club purchased Dallas Park from Dallas Mills, erected lights, and renamed it Optimist Park. The close of the cotton mills ended the mill-team era, though semi-pro baseball returned with Leroy McCollum's Huntsville Boosters (1950-53). The park, one of the few early ball parks open to all races, was used during the 1950s and 1960s for exhibition games by the Birmingham Black Barons and other Negro League teams. With the Park renovated and reopened (1994) by the City of Huntsville, baseball returned to Optimist Park, the self proclaimed "Friend of Youth."

First Bank in Alabama–Merchants and Planters Bank of Huntsville

Housed on this site in brick building 44 ft X 54 ft–Chartered by Mississippi Territorial Legislature December 11, 1816–Commenced operations October 17, 1817, shortly thereafter made depository for Huntsville Federal Land Office funds–Charter voided by Proclamation of Governor Pickens on February 1, 1825–LeRoy Pope, first and only president. (Located on Huntsville-Decatur Highway at intersection of road to new Airport)

First Baptist Church

, Huntsville, Ala. Oldest Baptist Church (Missionary) in Alabama. Organized June 3, 1809 as the West Fork of Flint River Church. Presiding Clergy: John Canterbury, John McCutchen and John Nicholson. Renamed Enon Church and called John Canterbury as 1st pastor 1809. 1st meetinghouse completed 1813, 1 mile NE of Meridianville. 2nd meetinghouse completed 1825, 3 miles NE of Meridianville. Charter member of Flint River Baptist Association 1814. This historical marker erected 1983. Hosted organizational meeting of Liberty Baptist Association November 1838. Built 3rd meetinghouse 1859-1869 at Clinton and Gallatin Sts. Pastor Eugene Strode led church to Huntsville 1861. Renamed First Baptist Church 1893. Dedicated new building 1895. Relocated to this site 1963. Completed new facilities with distinctive, modernistic architecture, and Christian symbolism 1966. Established seven missions of which several became churches. Charter member of Madison Baptist Association 1838. Member of Alabama Baptist State Convention.

First Presbyterian Church

Huntsville, Alabama. Organized June 15, 1818 by the Rev. Gideon Blackburn, D.D. One of the state's oldest Presbyterian churches. This site was selected for the first church building, dedicated on Oct. 13, 1822. The second, and present, sanctuary was dedicated on May 18, 1860. Names of all ministers who have served this church are recorded on plaques in the sanctuary. This marker erected on 150th anniversary of organization.

First United Methodist Church

Huntsville, Alabama Methodism brought into area 1807 Methodist Society organized at Hunt's Spring prior to formation of Madison County, served 1808-1820 by Flint Circuit traveling ministers. First Church built 1821 NW corner Clinton and Gallatin Streets. Present site acquired 1832, church completed 1834, occupied and accidentally burned by Federals 1864. Cornerstone laid 1867 for present sanctuary, dedicated 1874.

Flint River Primitive Baptist Church

Alabama's oldest Baptist church was constituted by Elder John Nicholson on October 2, 1808 in the home of James Deaton in Killingsworth Cove. It was named "The Flint River Baptist Church of Christ." The original building was built circa 1809 on the bank of the Flint River ~ 1 mile east of this site. Circa 1885, the congregation relocated to a new site ~ 2 ½ miles east of the original location. Circa 1937, the present structure was built ~ 3 ½ miles west of the second site. "Primitive" was added to the congregation's name after a division occurred within the Baptist family in the 1830's. Those congregations that embraced new church practices such as mission boards, Sunday Schools, and musical instruments in the church were called "New School" or "Missionary" Baptist. Flint River Baptist Church continued in the simplicity of New Testament worship, thus being called "Old School" or "Primitive" Baptist.

Ford's Chapel United Methodist Church

(Organized 1808) The Western Conference, Oct. 1-7, 1808 in Williamson County, Tenn., sent James Gwinn to the "great bend" of the Tenn. River. Gwinn organized at the home of Richard and Betsy Ford, the first Methodist Society of the six in the Flint Circuit. This circuit, among others, was served for many years by circuit riders. First building was started in 1815. Building and 2½ acres of land deeded to church trustees in 1824 by the Fords. Present sanctuary, begun in 1870 on original foundation, has undergone several renovations and minor alterations.

General Morgan

Birthplace of General Morgan the Rebel Raider. In this house John Hunt Morgan was born June 1, 1825. This dashing cavalry leader of the Confederacy was killed at Greeneville, Tenn., Sept. 4, 1864. This house, built in 1823, was the home, 1849-1949, of the heirs of Stephen Neal, Madison County's first Sheriff. (Located in Huntsville)

Glenwood Cemetery

Glenwood Cemetery replaced the original slave cemetery known as "Georgia," which had been established in 1818 and located north of the present Huntsville Hospital. Glenwood Cemetery was established in 1870 by the City of Huntsville following the purchase of 10 acres from Benjamin W. Blake estate, originally a part of the John Brahan Plantation. Additional land was added in 1875 from the W. W. Darwin family, resulting in the current configuration. Distinguished African Americans buried here include veterans of America's wars beginning with the Civil War, former slaves, accomplished artisans, professionals in many fields, clergymen, educators, entrepreneurs, politicians, and other leaders. Early Community Leaders Buried Here Include: Henry C. Binford, Educator Daniel S. Brandon, Alderman William H. Gaston, Clergyman Charles Hendley, Jr., Editor, Huntsville Gazette C. C. Moore, Post man Burgess E. Scruggs, Physician

Goldsmith-Schiffman Field

On January 25, 1934, Oscar Goldsmith, Lawrence B. Goldsmith, Annie Schiffman Goldsmith, Robert L. Schiffman, and Elsie Strauss Schiffman gave this property to the City of Huntsville for an athletic field. The gift was in memory of Betty Bernstein Goldsmith (wife of Oscar and mother of Lawrence) and Betty Herstein Schiffman (wife of Isaac and mother of other donors). The Civil Works Administration provided $6500 in materials and labor to construct the field, the first in Huntsville to accommodate night athletic games. The Acme Club raised funds for lighting through season ticket sales. Dedication exercises were held during the first night game on October 4, 1934, when 1000 fans saw Coach Milton Frank's Huntsville High team defeat Gadsden High.

Green Academy

Chartered in 1812. Leading educational institution. Long prominent in training leaders of North Alabama. Occupied by Federal troops, 1862. Buildings burned, 1864. Site of city schools since 1882. Location used only for school purposes.

Historic Viduta

"Viduta"-derived from Spanish "vida" meaning "life" In a time when yellow fever, malaria, and cholera threatened, Dr. Thomas Fearn and his brothers Robert and George were drawn by the cool air and medicinal springs to establish a small colony on the northern section of Monte Sano Mountain in 1827. In 1833 the town of Viduta was officially established. This area contains a variety of architectural styles dating from the late 1800's.

Hotel Monte Sano

"Monte Sano"-Spanish for "Mountain of Health" In 1887 the North Alabama Improvement Company, with the assistance of Michael and James O'Shaughnessy, built a 233-room hotel on Monte Sano Mountain. The hotel served as a health resort and haven for industrial giants including the Vanderbilts and Astors. Guests arrived via the Monte Sano Railway which ran up the mountain. The hotel ceased operations in 1900 and was later purchased by the Garth family for their summer residence. It was demolished for salvage in 1944. All that remains of the hotel is the brick chimney on Old Chimney Road.

Howard Weeden Home

Built 1819 by H. C. Bradford, this home was later owned by John Read, John McKinley, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (1837-1852), Bartley M. Lowe, M. C. Betts and Marie Howard Weeden (1847-1905) whose poetry and paintings preserve nineteenth century Southern culture. Marked by D.A.R. 1910; H.A.B.S. 1935 National Register of Historic Places, 1973

Huntsville

City was scene of these "firsts" in Alabama: 1811 first town incorporated 1812 first Masonic Lodge chartered 1816 first bank incorporated 1819 first state constitution drafted 1819 first Governor inaugurated 1819 first session of state legislature held 1824 first cotton mill erected.

Indian Creek Canal

Northern terminus Indian Creek Canal–First canal in Alabama–Incorporated 1820–Completed 1831–This canal was constructed to the Tennessee River to facilitate the transportation of cotton to market. Developers were: Thomas Fearn, LeRoy Pope, Stephen S. Ewing, Henry Cook, and Samuel Hazard. (Located in Huntsville near northern end of canal at Big Spring)

Initial Survey Point

In 1809, Major Thomas Freeman, Deputy U.S. Surveyor, established a marker here on the state line and began surveying south toward the middle of the state. This line, known as the Huntsville Meridian, is the reference for all property surveys in North Alabama. The Initial Point, now in the middle of the highway, was reset in 1977 by the Alabama Society of Professional Land Surveyors.

John Williams Walker

(1783-1823) President of Alabama's First Constitutional Convention 1819 and Alabama's first U.S. Senator 1818-22. Walker County in northwest Alabama, created 1823, named in his honor. Four of his sons, Percy Walker, John James Walker, LeRoy Pope Walker, and Richard Wilde Walker, were prominent in Alabama politics. (Located 2 mi. north of Meridianville on U.S. highway 231 & 431)

Joseph J. Bradley School

1919-1967 The School, named for Joseph J. Bradley, Sr., was built in 1919 on the site of the first mill-sponsored school. Under the leadership of Edward Foyl DuBose, Principal (1921-1967), and with the mill's financial support, the school grew from 6 grades to 12 and served as a social and recreational center for the entire community. In 1951, the mill owners made a gift of the school to the county school system and, in 1956, it became part of the city school system. The elementary school continued operating until it was closed in 1967.

Lincoln School and Village

In 1918 William Lincoln Barrell of Lowell, Ma. purchased Abingdon Mill and transformed it into a large textile center of all concrete construction named Lincoln Mill Village. Phillip Peter served as its superintendent from 1934-1953. Built in 1929 this school became the central core of community life until 1956 when Lincoln Village was annexed to the city of Huntsville. Edward W. Anderson served as its principal for 27 years. Many graduates became local and state leaders. The mill stopped operation in 1957 and burned in 1980.

Madison County

Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory. Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws. This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes.

Maple Hill Cemetery

Established 1818 by the city of Huntsville, Maple Hill Cemetery has become the final resting place of many citizens of this community. Here lie brave men who served in the major wars of our nation, many public servants, and many citizens whose good works may have been known only to God. Scrolls in Cemetery Reception Hall bear the names of some outstanding people. Governors of Alabama who lie buried in this cemetery: Thomas Bibb, 1784-1839, Governor 1820-21–Clement Comer Clay, 1789-1866, Governor 1835-37–Reuben Chapman, 1799-1882, Governor 1847-49–Robert Miller Patton, 1809-1885, Governor 1865-68–David Peter Lewis, 1820-1884, Governor 1872-74. (Located in Huntsville)

Merrimack Mfg. Co. & Village

1900-1992 In 1899, construction started on Merrimack Mill and village. The mill began operation in 1900. A second mill building, added in 1903, made it one of the largest in the South. Under Joseph J. Bradley, Sr., managing agent (1905-1922), the village grew to 279 houses, a hospital, school, company store, and other small businesses. In 1920, the steam-operated mills converted to electricity. Lowenstein fabrics bought the mill (1946), changed its name to Huntsville Mfg. Co., and the village became Huntsville Park. The mill continued to operate until 1989 and in 1992, Huntsville's last operating textile mill was torn down.

Mount Paran Campground and Cemetery

New Market, Alabama "A holy place: symbol of eternity, strength, and stability within the wilderness." One of the earliest known Cumberland Presbyterian campgrounds in Madison County, Mount Paran Cemetery is the resting place for many of the county's pioneer settlers, with the earliest surviving grave stone dated 1826. Originally this six acre site was bequeathed to Mount Paran Presbyterian Church of New Market in 1842 by Samuel Davis. A division within the congregation in 1906 resulted in the dissolution of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church at New Market in 1914, and some of its members joined neighboring congregations. With the decline of its use, Mount Paran Cemetery became known as "Graveyard Hill." Today Mount Paran Cemetery comprises 3.77 acres; approximately 400 grave sites may be found of which 135 have markers remaining. Revolutionary War veterans Samuel Davis and Moses Poor are buried here, along with their families, as well as those of Issac Criner and John Miller. Records indicate the burial of a number of early pioneers, farmers, servants, merchants, physicians, educators, ministers, public officials, veterans of major wars, and those whose good works may be known only to God.

New Market Presbyterian Church

Mary Miller deeded land in 1849 to serve both Methodist and Cumberland Presbyterian congregations. The original building burned and the Methodists in 1882 sold their interest in a second building. This second church destroyed by a tornado in 1884. Present building erected in 1888. In 1906 the Cumberland Presbyterians left to form a new church, and the remaining members affiliated with the First Presbyterian Church, USA; N.J. Powers, Minister. National Register of Historic Places, 1988.

Oak Place

George Gilliam Steele, one of Huntsville's preeminent architects, designed and built Oak Place as his country residence circa 1840 on 320 acres. An outstanding example of Early Greek Revival architecture, it was unique for the period with its split-level style, English basement, sliding pocket doors, and other unusual architectural features. Oak Place was occupied by Union troops during the Civil War and served as headquarters for General Joe Wheeler when a military camp was established in Huntsville during the Spanish-American War. Purchased by the East Huntsville Baptist Church in 1960 and renovated in 1980. Historic American Building Survey (HABS) - 1934 National Register of Historic Places - 1974

Oakwood College

Founded 1896 Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional property secured in 1918 nearly tripled its land holdings. The school underwent several name changes over its history: 1896: Oakwood Industrial School 1904: Oakwood Manual Training School 1917: Oakwood Junior College 1943: Oakwood College In 1958, Oakwood was granted full accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Oakwood prepares students from across America and many nations to serve the world in a variety of positions and careers, reflecting its motto, "Today's College for Tomorrow's Leaders." On this site, too, stood the Peter Blow Plantation which counted Dred Scott among its slaves in 1819. In 1857, Scott captured national attention by virtue of his appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court for his freedom in Missouri after sojourning in the free state of Illinois.

Old Town Historic District

Designated by the City of Huntsville, Alabama, on December 12, 1974, as a Huntsville historic district, it contains houses dating from 1828 onward with the majority dating from 1880 to 1929. Approximate boundaries: East Clinton Avenue north to Walker Avenue; Lincoln Street east to Andrew Jackson Way. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, July 18, 1978.

Original Site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University

(now located at Normal, Alabama) Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Cooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 with sixty-one pupils and two teachers; held in rented buildings until moved 1881 to this site–the first school-owned property. Land-grant funds received 1891 for training of Negroes in agriculture and mechanic arts enabled school to enlarge and re-locate on present campus north of the city. Former names 1873 - Colored Normal School at Huntsville 1885 - The Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School 1896 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes 1919 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute for Negroes 1948 - Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College 1969 - University status achieved

Original Site of Enon Baptist Church

Approximately one-half mile north of here is the original site of the oldest Baptist Church (Missionary) in Alabama. This congregation was organized on June 3, 1809 as the West Fork of Flint River Church and renamed Enon Church shortly thereafter. John Canterbury was called as the first pastor on August 5, 1809. This group became a charter member of Flint River Baptist Association in 1814. Services were held in members' homes until a log meetinghouse was completed in 1813. This building served until 1825 when a brick church was constructed three miles northeast of Meridianville. In 1861 under the leadership of Pastor Eugene Strode, the congregation moved to Huntsville. The Enon Baptist Church was renamed First Baptist Church of Huntsville in 1895.

Original Site of Lakeside United Methodist Church

1866-1968 The Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church purchased this property in 1866, and the congregation erected a frame building with a brick basement in 1867. The Rev. Howell Echols was the first pastor. In 1886, a brick building, constructed from dismantled materials from the original Episcopal Church of the Nativity, was dedicated. The property was sold during urban renewal in the 1960's, and the congregation moved to 3738 Meridian Street in 1968. The building on this site was destroyed by fire, and many items, including church records, stained glass windows, cornerstones, and a chandelier, were lost. For more than a century at this site, Lakeside provided educational, political, and cultural leaders for Huntsville. The first city-supported school for blacks was located in the basement (1867-1890), with Henry C. Binford, Charles Hendley, Jr., and Thomas Cooper as principals. Six of the nine black Aldermen in Huntsville from 1880-1905 were members of the church: Thomas Townsend, Nelson Hendley, David and Daniel Brandon, Dr. Burgess E. Scruggs, and Henry C. Binford . Mary Binford Johnson began the Annual Harvest Cultural Festival in 1901 in the basement and the first public library for blacks was opened there in 1940 by Dulcina DeBerry.

Passenger Depot

Huntsville, Alabama Built 1860 Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company Eastern Division Headquarters in this passenger depot, adjoining yards and shops captured by Union Army April 11, 1862. Vital east-west Confederate rail link severed; C.S.A. soldiers imprisoned here. Depot later used by Federals as base for gathering supplies for Western Theater military operations. After Civil War returned to M. & C. R.R. Co.; acquired by Southern Railway System 1898; since 1971 preserved by City of Huntsville. National Register of Historic Places 1971

Poplar Ridge School

Poplar Ridge School had its beginning in 1858 as a one-room log building. The existing late Classical Revival frame building was built circa 1875. A late Victorian façade was subsequently added. At one time the school had an enrollment of 100 students. It remained active until 1941, when it was consolidated with New Hope High School. The schoolhouse has also been used as a community center and voting place. Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage - 1990

The Public Inn

Constructed circa 1818 by John Adams at the NE corner of Madison St. and Williams Ave. Operated as an inn and boarding house by William E. Phillips from 1819-21; believed to have housed some delegates to the nearby Alabama Constitutional Convention in 1819. Original structure probably enlarged by an 1832 addition. The Inn was rolled on logs to this site in1926, and an addition was built on the rear in 1927. One of the few surviving Federal-period frame structures in Huntsville. National Register of Historic Places - 1980

Rison School

1921-1964 The school, named for mill general manager Archie L. Rison, was the hub of village social life. Cecil Fain, Rison High School principal for 32 years, taught "Discipline Comes From Within." The school, which served educational and social needs of Dallas village for four generations, was located on this site.

Saint Bartley Primitive Baptist Church

Located here 1872-1964 Oldest Negro congregation in Alabama. Organized 1829 by William Harris, a slave, who was minister more than 50 years. Original church, called Huntsville African Baptist, stood 4 blocks south in Old Georgia Graveyard. In 1870, this church and 3 others formed Indian Creek Primitive Baptist Association. Congregation occupied brick church on this site 1872-1964. In 1965, moved to new building 3020 Belafonte Ave., N.W. Present name honors Bartley Harris, saintly second minister. Other pastors: Felix Jordan, Eli Patton, Richard Moore, Amos Robinson. Marker erected in 150th anniversary year.

Saint Mary's Church of the Visitation

Missionaries served Catholics in Huntsville until 1861, when Father Jeremiah F. Trecy was sent by Bishop John Quinlan to organize this parish. Cornerstone for the building was laid in October 1861. Due to the Civil War the church was not completed until 1872. It was dedicated October 1877. This parish helped to form three other parishes, parochial schools, and charitable organizations in the community. National Register of Historic Places 1981.

Schiffman Building Birthplace of Tallulah Bankhead

This was the original site for a building erected by John Brahan before 1817 known as No. 1& No. 2 Cheapside. Erected circa 1845, the present structure is surviving south third of a Federal-style building. In 1895, the Southern Savings and Loan Association acquired the property, and commissioned Architect George W. Thompson of Nashville, Tennessee to transform the building into Huntsville's only surviving example of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture. Isaac Schiffman purchased the property in 1905. His family's businesses have continued here since that date. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

Shiloh United Methodist Church

(Organized 1808) In October, 1808, the Western Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church sent James Gwinn, a circuit rider, to the "great bend" of the Tennessee River to formalize existing Methodist Societies. He organized the Flint Circuit to serve frontier settlers in southern Tennessee and Madison County, Mississippi Territory. The first meetings of the Shiloh Methodist Episcopal Church were held in a private home. In late 1819 legislation was enacted which permitted churches to own land and, in 1820, a one-half-acre plot was added in 1876 to construct a new church. That building burned in the mid 1890's. Its replacement was destroyed by fire in 1931. The present edifice was then constructed. Shiloh remained as a circuit charge until late 1953, when it began full-time worship services with B.M. McElroy as pastor. Shiloh provided a school for the community until 1917.

Site of Alabama's First Constitutional Convention

Here, on July 5, 1819, forty-four delegates from twenty-two counties in the Alabama Territory met to frame a State Constitution which was accepted and signed August 2, 1819. Convention leadership was furnished by two Huntsvillians, John Williams Walker, president, and Clement Comer Clay, chairman of a committee appointed to draft the document. (Located in Huntsville on NW corner Franklin and Gates Streets)

Site of Cabaniss Cotton Spinning Factory

One mile east of here stood the first known Cotton Spinning Factory in Alabama, erected by Charles Cabaniss in 1817-18. (Located on east side of Meridianville Highway near Fisk)

Site of Ditto's Landing and Town of Whitesburg

In 1807 pioneer James Ditto began operating a ferry with landings on both sides of the Tennessee River. Early settlers landed here in order to reach their lands in Madison County. James White, Salt King of Abingdon, Va., established a thriving port at this location, incorporated as Whitesburg on Dec. 23, 1824. Throughout the 19th century this port remained an important cotton shipping center. With the advent of railroads water transportation declined and the town soon disappeared. Its post office closed in 1905.

Site of Huntsville Inn

A three-story brick building erected before 1817–Here, President James Monroe was honored at a public dinner on June 2, 1819, while on a three-day visit to the Alabama Territory–Here, also, the First Alabama Legislature convened on October 25, 1819, while Huntsville was the first Capital. (Located in Huntsville on East Side of Public Square)

Site of the Huntsville Slave Cemetery

On September 3, 1818, the Huntsville City Commissioners purchased two acres of land from LeRoy Pope for a "burying ground" for slaves. This cemetery was located within the NE quarter of Section 1, Township 4, Range 1 West of the Base Meridian. It was affectionately known as "Georgia" within the black community. The cemetery continued to be used from 1818 until 1870 when Glenwood Cemetery was designated as the city's burial ground for African Americans. No known records have survived.

Skirmish

2 miles NW on old Limestone Road during a skirmish August 5, 1862, Federal General Robert L. McCook was killed by men of Capt. Frank Gurley's Confederate unit. In retaliation, the Federal forces burned and pillaged the area. (Located at Pelvna on Winchester Road)

Tallulah Bankhead

(1902-1968) Alabama's Best-Known Actress Tallulah Bankhead was the toast of the London theater in the 1920's, and nationally renowned for her dramatic roles in "The Little Foxes" (1939), "The Skin of Our Teeth" (1942), the movie "Lifeboat" (1944), and as emcee of "The Big Show" (NBC Radio, 1950-52). She was born in Huntsville on January 31, 1902, in an apartment of the Schiffman building. Her father, then Huntsville City Attorney, was Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. A ravishing beauty in her youth, Tallulah was known for her uninhibited exuberance, deep sultry voice, and for calling everyone "Dahling." She appeared in 56 plays, 19 movies, and scores of radio and television productions during her 50-year career. She is buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Kent County, Maryland.

Temple B'nai Sholom

Huntsville's first Jewish citizens arrived during the 1840's. Congregation B'nai Sholom ("Sons of Peace") was founded July 30, 1876 by 32 families. They affiliated in 1877 with the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Reform Movement. Construction of the Temple began in 1898, and it was dedicated on November 26, 1899. Chairman of the Building Committee was Isaac Schiffman. Architecture is primarily of the Romanesque Revival style, with influences of the Renaissance Revival in the west front gable. The Temple was designed by architect R.H. Hunt of Chattanooga. Extensive restoration was completed in 1994. Temple B'nai Sholom is the oldest synagogue in Alabama in continuous use.

The Leroy Pope Mansion

, 1814 During the original Madison County Land Sales of 1809, LeRoy Pope of Petersburg, GA, secured among other purchases a majority of Section 36, Township 3, Range 1 West, the site of the future town of Twickenham, as Huntsville was originally known. Pope created Popular Grove Plantation on this site and erected his home in 1814 in time to entertain Gen. Andrew Jackson on his return from the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The residence was among the earliest brick structures in Alabama. Inherited by his son, William H. Pope, the mansion was sold in 1848 to Dr. Charles Hays Patton, who commissioned George Steele to add the handsome Classical Revival portico. Nearby during the Civil War, Federal forces built an earthen breastwork to defend the eastern approaches to the city.

Town of Gurley

Located on land owned by John Gurley, pioneer settler, and named for him. His son, Capt. Frank B. Gurley, became a Confederate hero as a member of the 4th Ala. Cavalry. The settlement that developed around the water tank on Memphis and Charleston R.R. was known as Gurley's Tank. Post office established in 1866 as Gurleysville and town incorporated as Gurley in 1891. Madison County High School located here in 1907. Last hometown of Senator and Mrs. C. C. Clay, Jr.

Town of New Market

Settled by Pioneers early as 1806 Voting precinct established 1827 Town incorporated 1837 George Smith, major landowner of town site, build first log house and established mercantile business, 1814. John Miller excavated millrace, erected gristmill and sawmill, 1819. William Hayter, first Postmaster, 1827-1839. Town became a thriving commercial center for a prosperous agricultural community, once known as "The Watercress Capital of the World;" greatly respected for development of religious and educational endeavors, and furnishing political leadership in local and state governments.

Triana

6 mi. south–Incorporated November 13, 1819–Located on the Tennessee River at the southern terminus of Indian Creek Canal, Triana was a thriving port through which cotton and other produce of Madison County moved to market, prior to establishment of railroads in North Alabama. In 1819, designated one of first six voting precincts in the county. (Located on Huntsville-Decatur Highway at intersection of road to new Airport)

Twickenham Historic District

Designated by the city of Huntsville, Alabama, March 23, 1972. This district is a living museum of American architectural styles dating from 1814. It encompasses about one-half of the original town of Twickenham, Huntsville's first official name. Approximate boundaries: North, Randolph Avenue; East, California Street; South, Lowe Avenue; West, Franklin Street. National Historical Register 1973.

Vienna (New Hope)

Originally known as Cloud's Town, this community was incorporated in 1832 as Vienna. It prospered as a market town before the Civil War. On May 29, 1864, the 12th Indiana Cavalry, commanded by Lt. Col. Alfred Reed, seized the town. They built a stockade and named it for General Peter J. Osterhaus. The hit-and-run tactics of Confederate Col. Lemuel Mead and Lt. Col. Milus E. (Bushwhacker) Johnston caused Union officers to retaliate by burning Vienna to the ground on December 15, 1864. Only the Masonic Lodge and the Post Office/Tavern remained. By 1883, Vienna was back to its pre-war size and was reincorporated as New Hope.

William Hooper Councill

High School Site, 1892-1966 The first public school for African-Americans in the city of Huntsville was named for the founder of the Alabama A&M University. The site, selected by a committee headed by the Rev. W.E. Gaston, was donated by the Davis-Lowe family. Founded in 1867 in the basement of Lakeside Methodist Episcopal Church on Jefferson Street, the school was moved to a frame building on this site in 1892. The first diplomas were granted in 1912. A brick structure replaced the original building in 1927. The school was closed due to integration, graduating its last class in 1966.

A County Older Than the State – Marengo County

Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Choctaw Indian Nation. Named for Marengo, Italy, where Napoleon won victory over Austrians in 1800. After Napoleon's defeat, some of his exiled officials came here in 1817 in a vain attempt to establish Vine & Olive Colony. County seat, Linden, surveyed in 1824; named for Hohenlinden, Bavaria, where French won another victory over Austrians.

Bluff Hall

Situated on historic White Bluff overlooking the Tombigbee River, Bluff Hall was built 1832 by slaves of Allen Glover for his daughter, Sarah Serena, and her husband, Francis Strother Lyon. Lawyer and planter, F. S. Lyon, served in both Confederate and the United States congresses. Frequent war-time visitors in his house were General Leonidas Polk and General Zachary Deas. Bluff Hall now owned by the Marengo County Historical Society.

Demopolis Methodist Church

On Marengo Circuit, 1826-1839, church founded 1840, great revival 1843. First building erected 1840-43 (remodeled 1848) on lot donated by the Rev. A. J. Crawford. Two early pastors became bishops: John C. Keener (1843-44) and Holland N. McTyeire (1846). Present building erected 1895-96. B. D. Price of Philadelphia, architect. Dedicated April 24, 1904, by Bishop W. A. Candler.

The Demopolis Opera House

(side one) In 1876, the town of Demopolis leased the former Presbyterian Church, a classic brick structure built in 1843 and occupied by federal troops during Reconstruction, to the Demopolis Opera Association. The association revitalized the building as a theater for live performances and civic lectures. Though heavily dependent upon local talent, the Opera House also featured professional actors and entertainers from places such as New York and New Orleans until its doors closed in 1902. Minstrel shows were frequent, popular attractions. Wealthy businessman Leonard Newhouse served the association as its secretary. He and his wife Sophia Marx were the grandparents of playwright Lillian Hellman.

Lillian Hellman and The Little Foxes

(side two) Playwright Lillian Hellman (1905-1984) enjoyed her greatest stage triumph with The Little Foxes, which opened in New York on February 15, 1939, with Alabama actress Tallulah Bankhead in the lead role. Hellman's writings and personal history suggest her affluent Marx relatives from Demopolis were models for the fictional Hubbard family in Foxes. The play's mansion "Lionnet" bears strong resemblance to the stately Lyon family homes (Bluff Hall and Lyon Hall) in Demopolis. Hellman wrote the screenplay for the film version directed by William Wyler whose wife Margaret "Talli" Wyler was a relative of the Demopolis Tallichet family.

The Demopolis Theater District

Establishing a history of theaters in this district, the Braswell Theater introduced its ornate interior to Demopolis on October 23, 1902, with a performance of the melodrama Unorna. Built by Frederick Henry Braswell in galleries above his hardware store on Strawberry Avenue, the theater provided a local stage for operas, plays and minstrel shows into the 1920s. A popular silent screen star from Alabama, Henry B. Walthall, appeared live in the drama Taken In at the Braswell on April 15, 1921. The Elks Theater, the city's first "picture show," opened October 1, 1915, in the building with a front palladium window constructed by John Cox Webb, Jr., on the corner of Strawberry and Washington streets. Braswell Theater partners Harry Simon and Tom Nonnenmacher acquired the Elks and gave it a new name, the Si-Non, for a February1, 1916, opening. The Si-Non Theater featured silent motion pictures and personal appearances by celebrities until 1929 when it began a regular schedule of "talkies." Famous boxer Jack Dempsey and escape artist Harry Houdini appeared at the Si-Non. After a management change in January, 1931, the Si-Non operated as the Lido Theater for its final four years. On September 14, 1935, the Marengo Theater at the intersection of Washington and Cedar celebrated its grand opening as the city's exclusive showplace for movies. A capacity crowd enjoyed the picture Two for Tonight, but a phone call from Hollywood star Jean Harlow to Mayor N.C. Floyd proved to be the evening's highlight. Originally operated by an Atlanta company, the Marengo was subsequently purchased in 1940 by Henry W. Webb, its first local owner.

First Presbyterian Church

, Demopolis, Alabama Organized by nine members of Tuscaloosa Presbytery on November 1, 1839, the Rev. Issac Hadden officiating. Erected brick building, still standing, on northeast corner of Public Square in 1843. Sold to Marengo County on 1869 for use as a courthouse. Wooden church dedicated December 5, 1869. On present site donated by Dr. Cincinnatus Ashe. Major remolding, 1905, steeple modification, 1936. Eastside addition, 1953, northside addition 1989.

Foscue House

Built in 1840 for Augustus Foscue (1799-1861), a North Carolina native who owned more than 3,000 acres and 137 slaves in Marengo County by 1850. Daughter Mary Alice (1838-1899) married in 1855 to Dr. Bryan Watkins Whitfield (1828-1908), a son of Gen. Nathan Bryan Whitfield of nearby Gaineswood Plantation. Original construction date worked into orange-hued brick on south side chimney. Brown-hued brick addition built onto front in 1849, requiring removal of two-tiered, columned entrance portico. Present shed-roofed porch added in twentieth century by Jesse G. Whitfield, replacing small 1849 portico. Interior woodwork and wainscoting bear original "faux bois" graining to stimulate bird's eye maple done by slave, Bob Ashe, who became a well-known carpenter in post-bellum Demopolis.

Gaineswood

Built 1842-1860 by Gen. Nathan Bryan Whitfield 1799-1868, accomplished planter of the Canebrake, using imported materials and artisans, glorifying the Greek Revival Architecture by combining Doric exterior, Corinthian grand ballroom, Ionic parlor and dining room, with mirrors, chandeliers, columns, domes. This house was named for Gen. George Strother Gaines, 1784-1872, distinguished United States Agent and Factor to Choctaw Indian Nation. (Located at Demopolis)

Homesite of General Count Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes

On this site stood the Alabama home of General Count Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes (1772-1822), friend of Napoleon Bonaparte, general of the French army, Count of the empire and leader of the "Vine and Olive Colony" that founded Demopolis in 1817. Desnouettes erected log cabins on this site; one of them being used as a shrine to Napoleon and containing souvenirs of the emperor's battles arranged around a bust of Napoleon on a pedestal made of cedar. Desnouettes died in a shipwreck off the coast of Ireland in 1822.

Jefferson Baptist Church

Established as Mt. Pleasant Baptist by Elder James Yarbrough in 1820 with 27 charter members. By 1834 it had 150 members. Church among the oldest in Demopolis area. Buried in church cemetery are John Gilmore, Reuben Hildreth and John Sample–Revolutionary War veterans who founded Jefferson and helped establish this church. (Located in Jefferson north of Alabama Highway 28)

Jefferson Methodist Church

Built on two acres of land deeded by John D. Catlin, May 30, 1842, to Daniel E. Ellis, James Turner, David Compton and John Besteder, trustee of Methodist Episcopal Church known as Asbury Meeting House. This early Greek Revival building was dedicated on the first Sunday in June, 1856, by the Reverend Phillip Phillips Neely, minister from Marion, Alabama. Services held 2nd and 4th Sundays, 9 a.m.

Joel Desaker Jones

"A Man of His Times" Born January 15, 1861, at Sweet Water (Exmore) Died June 28, 1946, at Dixons Mills Locally educated, he began surveying at age ten, using this engineering office throughout his lifetime. Appointed Marengo County Surveyor, a position he held for fifty years, simultaneously surveying many miles of highway and railroad routes and town plats in Alabama. For many years he wrote a newspaper column, "Old Times," about the history and settlers of Marengo County.

Saint Andrew's Church (Episcopal) Prairieville

1834–Organized as mission by Rev. Caleb S. Ives for settlers coming here to the Canebrake from Atlantic Seaboard. 1844–made parish of Diocese of Alabama. 1851–this site selected. 1853-54–this building erected.

St. Michael's Episcopal Churchyard

1844 - Dr. Thomas & Louisa Harrison gave acre of their Faunsdale Plantation for a log church designated Union Parish. 1852 - name changed to St. Michael's Parish. 1855 - slave artisans Peter Lee and Joe Glasgow built Gothic Revival-style church. 1888 - church disassembled and moved to town of Faunsdale. 1932 - destroyed by tornado; much of the interior wood salvaged for new brick church building. Northern part of churchyard has graves of slave communicants. Oldest marked grave - Dr. Harrison - 1858.

Shiloh Baptist Church

Organized July 1827 The orignal building was located about three miles east of the present site near the village of Shiloh. It was used as a union church until it became a Baptist Church in 1842. A new building was erected at the present site and the first bodies were laid to rest in the adjacent cemetery. Prior to the Civil War, blacks also attended worship services. In 1878, they withdrew their membership to erect their own building. Seven churches have been organized from Shiloh Church, of which five remain active.

Trinity Episcopal Church

Established by the Rev. Caleb S. Ives January 31, 1834 The first church building, a frame structure built in 1852 was burned by Federal troops during their occupation of Demopolis. The present church building was erected in 1870 and forms the Nave. The transepts were added in 1896 and the bell tower in 1910. While camped in Demopolis, the Rt. Reverend Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana and Lieut. General of the Confederate Army, often worshiped at Trinity.

Vine and Olive Colony

Exiled Bonapartists granted four townships of land in this area by Act of Congress March 3, 1817. Colonists founded Demopolis in 1817 and villages of Aigleville and Arcola soon thereafter. Attempts to cultivate grapes and olives failed. After a few years the settlements were practically abandoned by the French refugees.

White Bluff

Composed of limestone or "Selma Chalk" which abounds in fossils. Called "Ecor Blanc" by eighteenth-century French explorers and cartographers. Named "Chickasaw Gallery" because early Indian inhabitants harnessed boats from here. Landing site of Bonapartist exiles who established the "Vine and Olive Colony" in 1817.

Whitfield Canal

Drainage canal constructed between 1845 and 1863 by slaves of General Nathan Bryan Whitfield, builder of Gaineswood, to prevent water from overflowing and flooding his plantation. The water from 20 to 70 acres south and east of Gaineswood originally followed a 17 miles course to reach the Tombigbee River. The canal, approximately one mile long, in some places more than 30 feet deep, quickly diverts this surface water into the river at Demopolis.

General Jackson's Military Road

Andrew Jackson returned victorious from the Battle of New Orleans along this path to Tennessee after the War of 1812. Already in use by 1812, it was improved with federal funds in 1816. The road handled foot, horse, wagon, and stagecoach traffic and attracted settlement along its New Orleans to Nashville route for much of the nineteenth century.

State Bank and Trust Formerly Winfield State Bank

Bank stands as architectural and financial landmark. Began serving community 6-8-1907. Community's oldest bank. Doors kept open continuously even during the Great Depression. Current building designed by Warren, Knight & Davis of Birmingham and completed 8-27-62. Original vault door built circa 1915 by Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Co. Late presidents included P. M. R. Spann, R. W. Harris, Jr., James G. Stalcup, Grace D. Stalcup, Wm. S. Stalcup and W. Danny McDaniel. Named to Alabama Register of Historic Places on 10-1-97.

Old Bethel United Primitive Baptist Church and Cemetery

Organized by 1847 as one of the first churches on Sand Mountain. First meeting house erected 1855; buildings at present site constructed about 1885 and 1927. Preachers included Samuel Tyler, Levi Isbell, and Mark Hyde. Five daughter churches constituted between 1862 and 1895, including nearby Concord in 1870. Cemetery begun 1876. Sarah (Birdwell) Isbell among first white settlers in Madison County, 1805. Ambrose Nall a sailor in Union blockade of the Confederacy. Elijah Isbell and John Bearden veterans of Union cavalry during Civil War.

Western Boundary of Cherokee Nation

Boundary line established between the Cherokee Indian Nation and the United States by Treaty of Chickasaw Council House, September 14, 1816. The line surveyed by Col. William Barnett in spring of 1817. The established line remained as the Western Boundary of the Cherokee Indian Nation until their forced removal to Oklahoma Territory in 1837. It continues to be shown on official Quadrangle Maps, even today.

Battle of Mobile Bay

One of the fiercest naval actions of the war was fought off this point August 5, 1864. The mighty Tennessee, an iron-clad ram built at Selma shipyards with six guns, was last of four-ship Confederate fleet defending, with troops in Ft. Morgan, the bay and entrance to Mobile. Adm. Farragut ('Damn the torpedoes') commanded 17 ships with 199 heavy guns. Adm. Buchanan alone attacked Federal fleet; furious close-quarter fighting followed. Encircled and taking heavy fire, Tennessee's crew inflicted losses until, rudder chains and smokestack shot away, she was rammed at will and drifted helplessly but with guns and armor intact. Farragut then landed troops who took Ft. Morgan after 19-day siege. Mobile, last fortified port, fell in 1865.

Bayou La Batre

Originally called "Rivere D'Erbane," the bayou acquired present name from French-maintained battery of artillery on West Bank for defense. First permanent settlement on south Mobile County mainland. Founded 1786 when Joseph Bouzage (Bosarge), 1733-1795, moved into the area and was awarded a 1259 acre Spanish land grant on West Bank. Born Poitiers, France, Bouzage came to Gulf Coast ca. 1760. Married Catherine Louise Boudreau 5 June, 1762. Father of seven children including one son, Jean Baptiste. City of Bayou La Batre incorporated 1955.

British West Florida

1763-1780. 1763 Florida and Louisiana, east of the Mississippi, ceded to England by Treaty of Paris. 1763 George III of England created West Florida as a new colony; this included all of present South Alabama. 1768 Elias Durnford, provincial engineer, made the first survey of the bay and published his Admiralty Chart. 1778 William Bartram, eminent botanist, explored the plant life of this area. 1780 Spain having declared war on England, Governor Galvez from New Orleans invaded the bay with 2000 men. They captured the British garrison at Mobile after a siege of two weeks. General George Washington regarded Galvez as an ally.

Early Alabama

1813-1861. 1803 Mobile Bay area claimed by U.S. under terms of Louisiana Purchase, although occupied by Spanish garrisons. 1812 Added to Mississippi Territory by act of Congress. 1813 Seized from Spanish garrison by military force on order Pres. Madison. 1817 Alabama Territory created by act of Congress. 1819 Alabama admitted to Union. 1861 Alabama seceded and joined Confederate States of America.

Early Spanish Florida

1519-1561. Explorers, Conquistadors, Colonizers. 1519 Pineda explored this coast, made maps, and spent several months in this bay refitting his ships. 1528 Narvaez's storm-wrecked expedition sought refuge here. De Vaca survived to reach Mexico. 1539 Maldonado explored coast and recommended rendezvous here with De Soto. 1540 Maldonado returned with ships to remove De Soto's army. But De Soto, after Indian Battle of Mauvilla, turned northwest still seeking gold. 1558 Bazares explored bay area by order of Spanish king and reported conditions favorable for colonization. 1559 De Luna with 1500 settlers and soldiers landed here, established main colony at Pensacola, and moved into interior along Alabama River. 1561 De Luna colonists, after many hardships, descended the Alabama River and re-embarked for Mexico.

Ellicott's Stone

Marks 31° North Latitude erected 1799–1½ miles–Stone marked boundary between U.S., Spanish Florida from the Mississippi east to Chattahoochee River. Ellicott, U.S. Surveyor General, did this first Alabama boundary survey. Basis of all South Alabama surveys. His survey defined southern boundary of Mississippi Territory created in 1798. (Located on U.S. Highway 43)

Emerson Institute

On this site stood Emerson Institute, Mobile's first school for the formal education of African-Americans in Alabama. Founded 1865 by the Freedmen's Bureau, the school was run by the American Missionary Association from 1866 until 1927 when it became a Mobile County public school. First located in the "Blue College" on Government Street, the school moved in 1877 here to 266 Scott Street after a disastrous fire. Many of its students had careers of local and national distinction. Emerson closed in 1970 and its buildings were demolished as part of the city's plan for urban renewal.

French Louisiana

Louis XIV, Grand Monarch of France, sought to wrest Gulf Coast from Spain and to defeat British pretensions west of Appalachian Mountains. Under vague terms of Peace of Ryswick, 1697, France claimed all west of Perdido River, by explorations of LaSalle. 1699 Iberville, with colonists and soldiers, cast anchor here. They made temporary settlements on Dauphin Island and at Biloxi. 1702 Mobile, Capital Louisiana Province, founded at 27 Mile Bluff. 1711 Mobile removed to present site. 1711 British privateers from Jamaica made destructive raids on French in lower Mobile Bay. 1719 With Spain and France at war, the Spaniards from Cuba twice attacked and pillaged settlements of lower bay. 1756-1763 British fleet blockaded entrance to bay and stifled French trade. 1762 French ceded Louisiana Province to Spain by secret treaty. 1763 Florida and Louisiana Province, east of the Mississippi ceded to England by Treaty of Paris.

Mobile Bay Area

History Under Six Flags. 1519-1699 Spanish Florida by discovery, exploration and conquest. 1699-1763 French Louisiana by colonization, exploration and trade. 1763–1780 British West Florida by treaty, occupation and administration. 1780-1813 Spanish West Florida by invasion, seizure and treaty. 1813-1861 United States by invasion, seizure and treaty. 1861 Independent State of Alabama. 1861-1865 Confed. States of America. 1865–United States.

Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks

Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's. Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma facilities. After Civil War used as U. S. Army barracks; from 1887-1894 served as holding ground for Apache Indian prisoners. Deeded to State of Alabama 1895. Josiah Gorgas, later Chief of Ordnance of Confederacy, stationed here 1850's; Dr. Walter Reed, conqueror of yellow fever, served as post surgeon 1880's; Apache chieftain, Geronimo, prisoner here 1887-1894.

Oakleigh

Started in 1833 by James Roper on a Spanish land grant, "Oakleigh" was named for the magnificent oaks around it. The "T" shaped dwelling with elegant parlors and curved outside stairway from the brick terrace to front gallery was well suited for a semi-tropical climate. Many famous visitors, including President James Garfield, were entertained here. It was included in the Historic American Building Survey and the National Register of Historic Places. Acquired by City of Mobile in 1955. Now operated as a museum by Historic Mobile Preservation Society, it reflects antebellum life in this city.

Searcy Hospital

Mt. Vernon Hospital established 1900 by State of Alabama. Served as mental hospital for care of Black citizens. Name changed 1919 to Searcy Hospital honoring first superintendent, Dr. J. T. Searcy. Treatment for all citizens began 1969. Nine of structures dating from 1830's still in use, including Superintendent's House, Tower Building, and Library. Enclosing wall dates from 1830's.

Spanish West Florida

1780-1813. 1780 Spaniards invading from New Orleans seized this area from British. 1783 Treaty of Versailles confirmed West Florida to Spain without defining north boundary. This led to a long dispute with the United States. 1795 By treaty, 31° latitude was made boundary between United States and Spain. 1803 United States claimed Mobile Bay as part of Louisiana Purchase, but Spanish garrisons remained in possession. 1806 Spanish troops stationed at Mobile Point. 1812 Congress authorized President Madison to use army and navy to occupy Mobile Bay.

Claiborne

During the westward expansion of the United States in the early 1800's, those whose destination was the new Mississippi Territory took a right fork off the Federal Road which led to the Alabama River ferry at Claiborne. After the land cessions of the Creek Indians in 1814, Claiborne became one of the fastest growing settlements in the old Southwest, attracting a number of Alabama's early prominent men. Among them were future state governors John Gayle, John Murphy, and Arthur Bagby. Claiborne also was the home of William Barrett Travis, who traveled to Texas and became the hero of the Alamo in 1836.

Fort Claiborne

Creek Indian War 1813-1814. Built by General Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alibamo country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne's campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground.

Indian Springs Baptist Church

This sanctuary was built one mile west of this site about 1825 near springs used by local Indians. The original wood-frame building survived virtually unchanged, with no modern conveniences. An Indian Springs petitionary letter was presented to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, meeting in Monroe County, by L.W. Lindsay and A. Curry on 26 September 1834. The petition was cordially received by the association. The newly constituted church had 22 charter members and held Sabbath meetings on third Sundays. Baptisms were held in the springs nearby which gave the church its name. For more than a century the modest church was an inspiration as our ancestors brought forth the earth's bounty, worshiped God and led lives of quiet dignity. Listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on 26 June 2003.

Masonic Lodge #3

Oldest building in Monroe County Erected 1824 with funds from a public lottery. Lower floor served as a Baptist Church and a Court Room in which William B. Travis, then a resident of Claiborne, practiced law. Visited by General Lafayette April 6, 1825. Moved to its present location in 1884. Preserved by the Perdue Hill's Women Club.

Old Monroe County Courthouse

The Old Monroe County Courthouse, designed by prominent Southern architect Andrew Bryan, was built between 1903 and 1904 during the tenure of Probate Judge Nicholas Stallworth. One of two buildings of this type designed by Bryan ( a sister courthouse in LaGrange, Georgia was destroyed by fire), the architectural style is Roamanesque with Georgian influence. It was constructed by Louisville, Kentucky contractor M. T. Lewman. The courthouse was the seat of most county offices and the site for court cases until the construction of the new courthouse in 1963. The lasting fame of this building is derived from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel To Kill A Mockingbird, as well as the motion picture of the same name which features the now-famous courtroom scene. Today this site is on the National Historic Register and is a national literary Mecca.

Perdue Hill Industrial School

The Perdue Hill Industrial School was founded by Patrick J. Carmichael after he moved to this area in 1918. Carmichael acted as both the principal and teacher during the early years of the school, which was originally a one-room structure serving eleven students. The State of Alabama provided $75 annually towards school operating costs, and students paid a tuition of .25 each year. When money ran short for the African-American children that the school served, tuition was often paid with chickens or cans of syrup. Over the next forty-six years, Carmichael was instrumental in the growth of the school, which ultimately reached twelve rooms which provided educational space for 250 students and ten teachers. The school closed in 1964, and Carmichael was honored in 1968 by the Alabama State Senate for "outstanding accomplishments and contributions to humankind."

Truman Capote

(1924-1984) On this site stood the home of the Faulk family of Monroeville, relatives of the writer Truman Capote. Capote himself lived in this home between 1927 and ca. 1933, and for several years spent his summer vacations here. Two of the Faulk sisters operated a highly successful millinery shop located on the town square. The third sister, affectionately known as "Sook," was the inspiration for the characters in the Grass Harp, The Thanksgiving Visitor, and A Christmas Memory. The original structure on this site burned to the ground in 1940, and the second home was demolished in 1988. Monroeville remained important to Capote throughout his life, and he returned to area many times in the years before his death to visit surviving relatives. "I won't be here forever, Buddy. Nor will you ....The Lord willing, you'll be here long after I've gone. And as long as you remember me, then we'll always be together." Truman Capote, The Thanksgiving Visitor

A County Older Than the State – Montgomery County

– 1816 Created by Mississippi Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Major Lemuel Putnam Montgomery, killed at Horseshoe Bend, 1814, while leading charge on Indian fortifications. During Colonial times many Indians lived in this area which was claimed by Spanish Florida and French Louisiana, British Carolina, Georgia and West Florida, and Spanish West Florida. The City of Montgomery, incorporated 1819 by Alabama Territorial Legislature, was named for Maj. Gen. Richard Montgomery, hero of the American Colonial Army, killed at Quebec in 1775. (Located at Montgomery County Courthouse)

A Nation Divided

The Alabama State Capitol served as the symbol and meeting place for the government of the newly formed Confederate States of America for 4 months in early 1861. Growing controversy over slavery and states' rights, climaxed by Abraham Lincoln's election as U.S. president in Nov. 1860, prompted the secession of the 7 Southern states, including Alabama, by early Feb. 1861. On Feb. 4, delegates from 6 of these states convened in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol to organize a separate government. In the ensuing weeks, the assembly adopted a Constitution, established governmental departments, and elected a chief executive.

Abner McGehee

Born Feb. 17, 1779 in Prince Edward County, VA, nephew of John Scott, founder of Alabama Town which in 1819 joined New Philadelphia to become Montgomery. Reared in the Broad River area of northeast Georgia, he became an affluent planter, tanner and general trader. When Creeks lost much of their land in the 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson, "Alabama Fever," the lure of much very fertile land, caused many Broad River residents, among them Abner McGehee, to emigrate to Alabama. He bought a huge plantation in the area now known as Hope Hull, named for a Methodist preacher who brought his family into the Church in 1809. McGehee was a very prosperous farmer and entrepreneur. In 1833 he built Planter's Hotel on Court Square and rebuilt it when it burned. He was a promoter of Alabama railroads, including the 76-mile line from Montgomery to West Point, GA, one of the first in the state when its construction began in 1836. Instrumental in starting the iron industry in Alabama, in 1830 he hired ironmonger Daniel Hillman to erect a forge in Roupes Valley, later known as Tannehill. A devout Methodist, he founded the Alabama Bible Society in 1851. His philanthropies were unexcelled in Alabama in his lifetime. He died on Feb. 19, 1855 and he is buried here.

Abram Mordecai

1755-1849 Born October 24, 1755 in Pennsylvania; settled 1783 in Georgia where he became a successful trader among the Cusseta Indians. First U.S. citizen to settle (1785) in what became Montgomery County. Living and marrying among the Creeks, he established a trading house for skins, furs, and medicinal barks two miles from Line Creek. Alabama historian A.J. Pickett visited him in Dudleyville in 1847. Fiercely independent to the end, he died and was buried there two years later.

Air Force ROTC

The Reserve Officer Training Corps was created by the National Defense Act of 1916. Air Force ROTC has its roots in seven Army Air Service ROTC units established at land-grant colleges in the 1920s. The program was significantly expanded after World War II and again in 1964. Air Force ROTC is the Service's largest and oldest source of commissioned officers, recruiting and educating thousands of officer candidates each year at colleges and universities nationwide. The Junior ROTC program provides citizenship training to high school students in the United States and the Department of Defense schools around the world. Maxwell Air Force Base has been home to Headquarters, Air Force ROTC since 1956.

Air University

The Air Corps Tactical School moved to Maxwell in 1931. Brilliant young officers like Chennault, Eaker, Fairchild, Hansell, Kuter, LeMay, Quesada, and Vandenberg formulated the aerial strategies and tactics employed in World War II. In 1940, Maxwell became the home of HQ Southeast Air Corps Training Center responsible for pilot, navigator and bombardier training, producing over 100,000 aviation cadets. Air University was established in 1946 as the USAF professional military education center. Its programs annually affect over half the Air Force. Gunter Annex, east of Montgomery, is an important, integral element of Maxwell.

Alabama's First Capitols

On March 3, 1817, Congress designated the town of St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River north of Mobile as capital of the newly formed Alabama Territory. There in 1818, the territorial legislature named Huntsville as the temporary seat of government and Cahawba (near present-day Selma) as the first permanent capitol. The constitutional convention and legislature met in Huntsville and on December 14, 1819, Alabama was admitted into the Union. Meanwhile a suitable building was erected at Cahawba. Cahawba was prone to flooding which resulted in another change of locale in 1826-this time to Tuscaloosa. An elegant statehouse erected there served until 1846 when Montgomery became the capital of the state.

"Alabama's Own"

The 4th Alabama Infantry trained here in 1916 at Vandiver Park, later named Camp Sheridan, for Mexican Border service. Designated the 167th Infantry Regiment in 1917, it returned from the Border to train here, then fought in France during WWI with Douglas MacArthur's brigade in the 42nd "Rainbow" Division. The 167th was at the front longer than any other U.S. regiment. In 1923, assigned to the 31st Inf. "Dixie" Division. Activated November 1940, Pacific Theater of WWII. The Division was called up for the Korean War in January of 1951.

Alabama State University

Founded 1866 as the Abraham Lincoln Normal School in Marion, Alabama by nine former slaves. Operated from 1868 until 1874 by the American Missionary Association. The school began to receive state funding in 1874, making it the first state-assisted normal school and university for blacks in Alabama. Moving from Marion to Montgomery in 1887, the school's classes initially were held in black churches. The institution had several name changes, finally becoming Alabama State University in 1969.

The Bethel Cemetery

Bethel Cemetery was constituted Feb 13, 1819 and located on Federal Rd. Bethel Church was 1 of 4 churches in the Alabama Baptist Association which was formed on Dec. 13, 1819. On July 22, 1837, the church became the object of a major split in Baptist life. In Oct., Missionary Brethren were excluded from the church and the split became final. A marker memorializing the division between the Primitive and Missionary Baptists was placed in the cemetery by the Montgomery Baptist W.M.U. on Nov. 4, 1923. Pintlala Baptist Church acquired the cemetery in 1998.

Bethel Missionary Baptist Church

Organized in 1967 as the Second Colored Baptist Church, congregation later changed named to Bethel Missionary Baptist. First building in 1908. Rev. E.W. Pickett then conducted services in "Love and Charity Hall" until second structure built in 1912 in same neighborhood but different site. In 1943, church remodeled under leadership of Rev. H.H. Hubbard. During the ministry of Rev. Edward Martin, the members, having outgrown the old building, built present edifice. Congregation has taken active role in social ministry, contributing to the well-being of the community. Cornerstone reflects its philosophy: "Home of Amazing Grace and Headquarters of the Holy Ghost."

Bibb Street Methodist Protestant Church

Established in 1832, it is among the oldest churches in the City of Montgomery. The church burned in 1834. A new building was erected and dedicated on October 30, 1842. The Rev. Wm. W. Hill of Greensboro, Conference president, preached the Dedicated Sermon on I Corinthians 13. The first pastor, Dr. A. A. Lipscomb, in 1856 became the first president of Tuskegee Female College (later becoming Huntingdon College). In 1859 he became Chancellor of the University of Georgia. With no bishops or presiding elders, The Methodist Protestant Church was known as "A Church without a Bishop in a land without a King." --------------------Reverse----------------------

Capitol Heights United Methodist Church

In 1924 the church moved to its present location at 2000 Winona Avenue in Capitol Heights. Under the leadership of Rev. T. C. Casaday the Capitol Heights Church became the largest church in the Alabama Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church. April 1939, in Kansas City, MO, three brances of Methodist Churches united to form The Methodist Church. The last meeting of The Alabama Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church was held at the Capitol Heights Church in October 1939. To this day the Capitol Heights United Methodist Church continues to serve God though significant mission and ministry.

Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry, CSA

Born Virginia; educated at VMI and West Point; fought in Mexico; practiced law in California; married Alabamian whose family owned the Tallassee cotton mill; served as general in Walker's ill-fated filibustering in Nicaragua; then returned to manage Tallassee mill. Colonel of the 13th Alabama Infantry in 1861; wounded in four different battles including Gettysburg where he commanded a brigade; promoted to Brigadier General May 1864. Following the War, he lived in Cuba, Florida, Alabama, and Virginia. President of Richmond cotton mill until his death there in 1891. Body returned to Montgomery to be buried beside his wife.

Brigadier General Richard Montgomery

Born in Ireland in 1738. British Army officer during the French and Indian War and in West Indies campaign. Settled in New York state in 1772, sided with colonists in the Revolutionary War, and commissioned as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army. Led the American invasion of Canada, taking Montreal before being killed at the battle of Quebec on New Year's Eve 1775.

Catoma Street Church of Christ

Churches of Christ in America grew from movement to return to Apostolic Christianity. This congregation organized 1881 under the leadership of educator and minister J.M. Barnes who had earlier founded churches, the Strata Academy, and Highland Home College south of Montgomery. Worshipers met first in Court House then in small church on Herron Street. This building purchased for $7,500 in 1901 as Jewish congregation prepared for move to new Clayton Street temple. "Eye of God" window in auditorium painted for Kahl Montgomery by Annie J. Smith, later a founding member of this church.

Chamber of Commerce Visitor Information Center

House occupied from 1880s for next hundred years by W.P. Thompson and his family. In 1980, bank acquired property, sold house to Georgian who carefully dismantled it with hopes of restoring it as his home. Unable to do so, in 1987 he sold elements to Landmarks Foundation which reerected the house on this site, with support and encouragement of the Montgomery mayor and with grant from Montgomery Kiwanis Club. Meticulous care given restoration, including remoulding ornate plaster, graining, marbleizing and furnishing parlors. Landmarks Board and local architect carried out project. Chamber of Commerce opened Visitor Information Center in 1991.

The Capitol City Guards

1885 - 1905 In July 1885, the state Adjutant General authorized the organization of a black infantry company known as the Capitol City Guards. Joseph L. Ligon was elected captain. Over the next 20 years, the Capitol City Guards were a source of tremendous civic pride in the African-American community. They participated in formal inspections, drills, and encampments, as well as in Emancipation Day parades and annual commencement exercises at Tuskegee Institute. Drill meetings were held at Dorsette Hall at 216 Dexter Avenue. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Capitol City Guards, commanded by Capt. Abraham Calvin Caffey, helped form Co. A, Third Alabama Volunteer Regiment. Although Alabama's black regiment never saw foreign duty, it remained in service longer than any other volunteer unit in the state. The Capitol City Guards was the only black militia unit remaining in service in Alabama after the Spanish-American War, remaining on detached service until it was disbanded in 1905. After the demise of the Capitol City Guards, over 60 years would pass before Alabama would again admit African Americans into its National Guard.

City of St. Jude

Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and health services for Montgomery's black citizens. Distinguished for its Romanesque architecture and landscaping, site was designed by architects William Calham and Joseph Maschi. Leading the way in nondiscriminatory health care, the institution helped organize the county's first prenatal care program, school of practical nursing and first drug and alcohol treatment center in the state. In 1953 it provided primary polio treatment. Hospital closed, 1985; church and school continue to serve the community in the spirit as that of its founder.

Civil War-Barnes School

In April 1865, the Union Army command made this house its headquarters. Mrs. Pickett hid her silver on an inside ledge of cupola. Later, former Confederate Generals Hood, Bragg, and Walker visited here. In 1906, Professor Elly Barnes bought the house for use as a private school for boys, which rapidly achieved fame for its quality. The Barnes School closed in 1942. In 1996, the house was rescued from demolition with the help of the Alabama Historical Commission and moved to its present location by the Montgomery County Historical Society.

Colonel B.D. Fry at Battle of Gettysburg

July 1, 1863; Fry placed in command of Archer's Brigade of Alabama and Tennessee troops following Archer's capture. His brigade was on the right of Pettigrew's Division and to the left of Pickett's, the brigade of direction for the assault across the field on July 3. Bravely leading his brigade up Cemetery Ridge under galling artillery and small-arms fire, he was wounded in the shoulder and thigh before being captured by the Federals. His troops reached the stone wall where his regimental color bearer stabbed an enemy soldier with his flag staff. Paroled in '64 and promoted, he served until War's end.

Confederate Hospital

Located in a house on this site on Dr. and Mrs. Carnot Bellinger's farm south of the city of Montgomery. Mrs. Bellinger served as both a nurse and administrator as president of the Soldiers' Home. A "Wayside" hospital, it cared for traveling soldiers and refugees before moving to the city in 1862 to become the "Ladies' Hospital." The present Burton Avenue was the drive to the Bellinger home. In the late 19th century the property became part of Montgomery as "Bellinger Heights" and, in 1904, the Bellinger Hill School was built here. The Soldiers' Home structure was altered as a residence and survived until the 1970's.

Confederate Military Prison

Near this site, from mid April to December 1862, a Confederate military prison held, under destitute conditions, 700 Union soldiers, most captured at Shiloh. They were imprisoned in a foul, vermin-abounding cotton depot, 200 feet long and 40 feet wide, without blankets and only the hard earth or wood planks as a bed. The cotton shed was situated between Tallapoosa Street and the Alabama River. Of the 700 Union prisoners, nearly 198 died in captivity. The survivors were moved to Tuscaloosa, Alabama in December 1862. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Civil War Military Prisons

Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners list 198 Union prisoners, from the Montgomery military prison, buried at Montgomery. Most of these were listed as unknown. Subsequently, in 1868, the remains interred in the Montgomery cemetery were removed to the National Cemetery at Marietta, Georgia. Over 674,000 soldiers were taken captive during the Civil War. Often prisoners were crammed into facilities with disregard of capacity limits, hygiene, nutrition, or sanitation needs. These deplorable conditions existed in military prisons of both sides. More than 56,000 prisoners died in confinement, 30,218 in Confederate and 25,976 in Union prisons.

Court Square

Two small villages, New Philadelphia, founded by Massachusetts lawyer Andrew Dexter in 1817, and East Alabama, established by Georgians led by John Scott in 1818, united in 1819 to form Montgomery, named for Revolutionary hero Gen. Richard Montgomery. Connecting at Court Square, the two towns' principle streets were Philadelphia's Market Street (Dexter Avenue) and East Alabama's Main Street (Commerce Street). First courthouse stood to west of artesian well which city enlarged in 1850s. Fountain erected in 1885.

Court Square

Historic hub for business in Montgomery. Exchange Hotel built in 1848 on NW corner of Commerce and Montgomery Streets; rebuilt 1906; demolished 1970s. Cast iron-fronted Central Bank of 1856 on NE corner of square; Winter Building, site of telegraph office in 1861, on SE corner since 1840s. Historic processions passing along Dexter Avenue to the Capitol included Jefferson Davis Inaugural, 2/18/1861; Gen. J.H. Wilson's Cavalry Corps, 4/12/1865;167th Infantry Regt. Rainbow Division, 5/12/1919; Selma-Montgomery Civil Rights March, 3/25/1965.

Cradle of the Confederacy

Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was inaugurated as president of the CSA provisional government on the State Capitol portico on Feb. 18, 1861. On Mar. 4, the first national flag of the Confederacy was hoisted over the Capitol itself. While government offices rented nearby quarters, the State Capitol continued to serve as the meeting place for the provisional Confederate Congress. Following the bombardment of Ft. Sumter and Lincoln's call for volunteers, 4 additional states seceded. In May 1861, the capitol was moved to Richmond, VA where it remained until April 1865.

Major Charles W. Davis, Infantry United States Army

(side one) A native of Montgomery, graduate of Lanier, alumnus of the Universities of Alabama and Maryland, Major Davis was awarded the Medal of Honor as Executive Officer, 2d Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. "For distinguishing himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on Guadalcanal Island. On 12 January 1943, he volunteered to carry instructions to the leading companies of his battalion which had been caught in crossfire from Japanese machine guns. With complete disregard for his own safety he made his way to the trapped units, delivered instructions, supervised their execution and remained overnight in this exposed position.

"Above and Beyond"

(side two) The following day, Davis volunteered to lead an assault on the Japanese position holding up the advance. His rifle jammed, he drew his pistol and led the assault. Electrified by this action, his soldiers followed and seized the hill. The capture broke Japanese resistance and the battalion was then able to secure its objective." During a distinguished 32-year career, he served on the Army General Staff and graduated from the National War College. Among many important assignments, he commanded the 503d Regiment of the 11th Airborne Division. During the Vietnam War, he advised the South Vietnamese Army in combat. Retired as a Colonel in 1972, he died in 1991. He is buried in Arlington. His service reflects great credit on Montgomery, on Alabama, and on the Nation.

Day Street Baptist Church

Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and faculty member, building completed ca. 1910. A graduate of Pratt School of Architecture, Rayfield established the first black architectural firm in Birmingham and won national recognition. Day Street's community activities included the organization of the first black Alabama scout troops and involvement in the Civil Rights Movement. Rev. M. C. Cleveland led the church from 1933 until his death in 1978.

Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church

, Organized 1877 The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation. Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery have been members. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., served as pastor (1954-1960). Montgomery bus boycott organized here December 2, 1955.

Dr. Martin Luther King

Dr. King became pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in September, 1954. He led the Bus Boycott of 1955-56 as president of the Montgomery Improvement Association. Leaving Montgomery in 1960 he went on to national leadership in civil rights, advocating non-violence. Accomplishments include: president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Selma-Montgomery March; March on Washington; Nobel Peace Prize. His work brought on a world social-humanitarian movement. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee, during an effort to secure laborers' rights.

Figh-Pickett House

John P. Figh, a native of Maryland, built this, the oldest surviving brick dwelling in Montgomery, ca 1837, at the corner of Clayton and South Court Streets. Figh was one of the chief contractors for the construction of the Alabama State Capitol. He also served as city alderman. In 1858, Figh sold his house to Alabama's first historian, Albert James Pickett, from North Carolina. Although Pickett died just before moving into the house, his family lived here for more than 50 years.

First Baptist Church

Founded November 29, 1829, with four charter members. English-born Lee Compere, a missionary to the Creek Indians, was the first pastor. Services initially were held monthly in a building shared by other denominations. In 1833, the church constructed its own house of worship on North Court Street. The growing congregation built a two-story brick structure on the same site in 1854. In 1860, Basil Manly, former President of the University of Alabama, became pastor, delivering the invocation at Jefferson Davis' inauguration the next year. The church played a significant role in the development of the Southern Baptist Convention. Its rich history intertwines with the events of the Civil War and ensuing years.

First Baptist Church

This stone building, modeled after a cathedral in Florence, Italy, is the church's third home. Construction began in 1905 when Dr. Charles Stakely was pastor and proceeded as funds were available. Completed and dedicated on November 11, 1923, its total cost was $175,126.91. The church facilities frequently have been enlarged and modified to parallel the congregation's growth. For untold hundreds, this church has been the place of conversions, baptisms, marriages, funerals, and life-changing worship experiences with God. First Baptist has played an influential role in the historic, cultural, and religious life of Montgomery and the South.

Georgia Gilmore

Georgia Gilmore, cited as a "solid, energetic boycott participant and supporter," lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement and organized "Club From Nowhere" whose members baked pies and cakes for sale to both black and white customers. Opening her house to all, she tirelessly cooked meals for participants including leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Ralph Abernathy. Her culinary skills continued to aid the cause of justice as she actively worked to encourage civil rights for the remainder of her life.

Georgia Washington School

Miss Georgia Washington founded the Peoples Village School for black students on this site in 1893. Georgia Washington was born a slave November 23, 1851 in Virginia. As a student at Hampton Institute, Virginia, she met Dr. Booker T. Washington who later recruited her to teach here in Mt. Meigs. The first year the enrollment grew from four to 100 students. She retired in 1936, after 43 years of service, and the school was deeded to Montgomery County. A new school building was dedicated in February 1950 and was named Georgia Washington School. She died October 5, 1952 and is buried here on the grounds of her beloved school.

Governor Jones House

Thomas Goode Jones, governor of Alabama from 1890-1894, occupied this house during his long political career which took him from the Montgomery City Council to a federal judgeship. During his two terms as governor, his home was the Executive Mansion and later frequently was used as a federal courtroom. Originally a four room cottage, the house was enlarged by Jones in the early '90s. His son, the noted jurist Walter B. Jones, continued to live in his family home and inaugurated Jones Law School in a house to the rear. The law firm of Webb and Crumpton restored the house in 1978.

Governor Shorter House

503 S. Lawrence St. Residence of Civil War Governor John Gill Shorter, 1861-63. A strong supporter of Confederacy, Shorter built up defenses of state during war. Growing "Peace Movement" led to his defeat for re-election 1863. House acquired by Jacob Greil 1878. Held by Greil family until 1910. A former Confederate officer, Greil became prominent Montgomery businessman and civic leader. House built 1854, in Italianate style by John P. Dickerson. Neo-classical portico, freize, and interior details added early 1900's.

Governor William Calvin Oates

Born in Pike County into a poor Alabama family in 1835, Oates practiced law in Abbeville when the War began. Elected Captain of the "Henry Pioneers," Co. G, 15th Alabama Infantry. He saw service in Jackson's Corps and was appointed Colonel of the 15th Regiment in 1863. Given command of the 48th Alabama infantry in July 1864, Oates' right arm was shattered by a mini ball at Petersburg in August 1864. He later served Alabama as a legislator, Congressman, and Governor. Oates served stateside as a Brigadier General, USV in the Spanish-American War.

Grace Episcopal Church

In the late 1850s the cluster of Episcopal families around Mt. Meigs undertook to build a church and engaged Pennsylvania architect Joseph W. Pierson to prepare the plans. The plans were submitted in April 1861, but due to the hardships caused by the Civil War and its aftermath, it was over 30 years before the church was actually built. Finally becoming a reality in 1893, Grace Church was constructed according to Pierson's original plans in the "Gothic Revival" style popular for rural Episcopal churches all across the South during the 1850s. The auxiliary buildings and the church gardens are of a much more recent construction to reflect the style of the original sanctuary.

Gunter Annex

On Aug. 27, 1940, the AAF leased the Montgomery Municipal Airport for use as a military airfield. During WW II, the field was the home of the AAF Basic Flying Training School and was named in honor of Mayor William A. Gunter. It later housed Extension Course Institute, AU Field Printing Plant, School of Aviation Medicine, and Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Tenants included the Air Defense Sector, HQ 14th Air Force, and Standard Systems Group. The field became an Air Force base in 1948 and an Air Force station in 1973. It returned to base status in 1988 and later became an annex to Maxwell AFB in 1992.

Gunter Basic Flying Training School

Activated on Aug. 27, 1940, the school was among the first established under WWII Air Corps expansion program. BT-13s were the principal planes used in the 10-week training course until 1944 when they were replaced by AT-6s. Once, nearly 400 airplanes were involved in the training program and the skies over the field were hailed as the "densest air traffic in the world." The school closed September 1945, with over 12,000 cadets-American, British, and French-earning their "wings" and with British cadets dominating early classes. At the war's end, 600 Chinese students received preflight training here.

Hank Williams-Alabama Troubador

In 1938, young country singer Hank Williams won a contest on the stage of the Empire Theatre. Born in Butler County, south of Montgomery, on September 17, 1923, Williams learned to play the guitar and sing on the streets of Georgiana. Writing songs and performing, he made his way to Nashville, where in 1949 his "Lovesick Blues" stopped the show at the Grand Ole Opry. Other acclaimed compositions include "Your Cheatin' Heart," "Jambalaya," and "Kaw-Liga." Williams died on January 1, 1953, and is buried in Montgomery's Oakwood Annex Cemetery.

Holt Street Baptist Church

Holt Street Baptist Church is a congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under the leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, a group met for four years in Labor's Hall, on the corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets before purchasing this site and constructing a church in 1913. The congregation added a wing in 1946, and in 1953 demolished the old structure and built the present sanctuary. On the evening of December 5, 1955, the first day of the Bus Boycott, some 5,000 people gathered here. Dr. Martin Luther King, a newly elected leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association, addressed the crowd which pledged support for the continuation of the boycott. Minister, A.W. Wilson, was officer of MIA.

"House of Mayors"

Built in the 1850's for Jack Thorington, mayor of Montgomery in 1838-39, this House has also been the home of Mordecai Moses, mayor in the late 1870's, and Joseph Norwood who had been mayor of Fort Deposit before coming to Montgomery. Moses owned the home from 1879 until its purchase in 1893 by Norwood whose family converted it into apartments in 1940. The House has undergone several alterations and exhibits excellent architectural ornamentation which evidences the tastes of each period of change. In 1979, the House was restored for use as a tourist center and office building for the State.

Huntingdon College

A liberal arts college. 1854–founded by citizen group as Tuskegee Female College. 1872–acquired by Methodist Church: Alabama Conference Female College. 1909–moved to this site as Woman's College of Alabama. 1935–named Huntingdon College for Countess of Huntingdon, Wesleyan leader. 1946–became co-educational.

Professor John Metcalfe Starke "Fessor Starke"

1860-1941 A native of Virginia, John Metcalfe Starke received his early education in Petersburg and graduated from the University of Virginia in 1882, earning diplomas in Latin and mathematics. He taught in Virginia and North Carolina before coming to Montgomery in 1887 as headmaster for a boys' school organized by prominent local men. Its success caused him to start a school of his own at Hamner Hall. In 1897 he built a building here. The following year he married Frances Powell. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Alabama in 1929. A small, wiry man, honest, courageous and fair, he believed fervently in the school's motto, "Work Wins." For over half a century, he was a paragon as an educator here in Montgomery. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Starke University School

1888-1968 "Omnia vincit labor – Work Wins" In 1887, eighteen prominent men founded a private school for boys, hiring John Metcalfe Starke as its headmaster. In 1888, Starke opened his school. Rigidly high academic, military and disciplinary standards prevailed throughout the next eighty years. Boys who fell behind reported for Saturday classes. From 1897-1923 the school stood here on Dexter Avenue; later located on Houston Street and then on Mount Meigs Road. Professor Starke died in 1941. The school continued, closing in 1967-68. A governor, U.S. senator, judges, generals, doctors, businessmen, academics, lawyers and financiers were among Starke School's many distinguished graduates.

Josiah Morris

1818-1891 Had his bank on this site 1852-1891. He helped finance Montgomery's business, railroads and industry. Here on Dec. 19, 1870, he bought 4150 acres of land and deeded them to the Elyton Land Co. which later was platted, and on his motion named the City of Birmingham. (Located on wall of First National Bank, Commerce St., Montgomery)

Kahl Montgomery

Jewish citizens organized in 1846; Kahl (Congregation) Montgomery chartered April 12, 1852. New Orleans philanthropist Judah Touro willed $2,000 as nucleus for temple building fund. Property acquired 1858. Philadelphia architect John Stewart designed Romanesque Revival edifice. Interior followed traditional plan with separate seating for men and women. Ark, which contained Torah Scroll, remains visible. Building dedicated 1862; named Beth-Or (House of Light) 1874. Members worshiped here until building of Clayton Street Temple in 1902. Congregation moved to Narrow Lane Road in 1961.

Keyton Station

Major K.F. Schumann commanded this depot during most of the war. It had a capacity of 5,000 animals with 14 corrals and 14 packing chutes at the railroad platform. About 300 officers and men were in the permanent party and a blacksmith school trained 100 farriers. Troops were quartered south of the railroad and the animals kept to the north. The Remount Depot closed June 1919. The railroad stop here was called Keyton Station.

Knox Hall

Designed by Stephen Decatur Button, Knox Hall built in the 1840's by William Knox, a native of Ireland who settled in Montgomery in 1830's. Knox founded Central Bank of Montgomery which made first loans to Confederate government. House incorporates details from LeFever's "Beauties of Modern Architecture," leading Greek Revival pattern book of ante-bellum period.

The Lightning Route

In 1886, Montgomery became the first city in the Western Hemisphere to convert an entire street railway system to electricity. The Capital City Street Railway Co. initiated electric trolley service on one mile of the street car line the year before. Civil engineer J.A. Gaboury supervised installation of the system developed by Charles Van de Poele. The car line, fondly known as the "Lightning Route," operated until 1936. Investors in the mass transit system also were involved in the development of the early suburbs of Highland Park and Cloverdale, as well as the first public recreation area at Oak Park. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Central Bank Building

Designed by Philadelphia architect Stephen Decatur Button for William Knox, president of Central Bank of Alabama, this Renaissance Revival building emulated the Venetian palaces of the 16th century. Completed in 1856, it was praised by state newspapers as the first ironfront in Alabama. Central Bank, which generously supported the Confederacy, was bankrupt at the end of the Civil War. Other banks occupied the building until jewelers Klein and Son acquired and occupied it from 1923-1983. The building was restored for the Arts Council of Alabama in 1985.

Lilly Baptist Church "The Lilly"

820 Hill Street Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education Complex added April, 1985. Known as "The Lilly," church was active in Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56). Noted for its music, the church has seven choirs which recorded albums in 1974 and 1984. 500 members of congregation participated in nationally acclaimed movie, "Long Walk Home." "The Lilly" has played a significant role in Montgomery since its founding and continues to serve as a spiritual beacon to the community.

Lt. William C. Maxwell

William Calvin Maxwell was born Nov. 9, 1892, in Natchez, AL. An Army ROTC student at the University of Alabama, he left in 1917 to enlist in the Army. He received his commission in April 1918, after completing flight training at Kelly Field, Texas. In 1919, he was assigned to 3rd Aero Squadron, Phillippines. On August 12, 1920, engine trouble forced Lt. Maxwell to attempt to land his DH-4 in a sugarcane field. Maneuvering to avoid a group of children playing below, he struck a flagpole hidden by the tall sugarcane and was killed instantly. On the recommendation of his former commanding officer, Maj. Roy C. Brown, Montgomery Air Intermediate Depot was renamed Maxwell Field on November 8, 1922.

Lincoln Cemetery

1907 In 1907 the American Securities Company opened Lincoln Cemetery for African Americans and Greenwood Cemetery for whites, the first commercial cemeteries in the city. Landscape design indicates Olmstead influences with curving drives and two circular sections. Space allotted for 700 graves with first interment in 1908. Most graves are simple concrete slabs with evidences of African-American funerary art and late-Victorian motifs. Marble markers denote members of Mosaic Templars of America, black benevolent society, or graves of veterans. American Securities owned site until tax-exemption ended in 1957. Vandalism and neglect have seriously damaged graves and landscape. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Rufus Payne

, 1884-1939 "Tee-Tot," Mentor of Hank Williams Born in Lowndes County, Alabama, Rufus Payne grew up in New Orleans in midst of jazz musicians. Young Payne learned every instrument possible. At death of his parents, he came back to Greenville where he soon had a following of both races, playing jazz and blues for all segments of society. In nearby Georgiana, he met young Hank Williams, an eager student of the rhythm and beat of Tee-Tot's music. In 1937, Williams moved to Montgomery and soon thereafter Tee-Tot came to the city where he lived until his death in 1939, a friend of Williams' family and mentor to the singer-composer. Hank Williams stated that Payne was his only teacher. Tee-Tot died a pauper and lies here in an unmarked grave.

Lomax House

– 1848 Built by James J. Gilmer. Purchased by Reuben C. Shorter, 1819, for his wife, Caroline A. V. Billingslea, who later married Tennent Lomax, captain and governor of Orizaba, Mexican War. Colonel, 3rd Ala. Infantry Regt., CSA, killed at Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. Social center of Montgomery for 60 years. Purchased in 1932 and restored to its original condition in 1972 by the Preferred Life Insurance Company.

Henry Allen Loveless

Born in Bullock County in 1854, H.A. Loveless struggled to get an education, working by day and attending school at night. After a few terms at Selma University, he settled in Montgomery where he first entered the untertaking profession. In addition, he opened a coal and wood yard, operated a livery stable and was a building contractor. A founding member of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, he served as treasurer and was on its Board of Trustees and that of Swayne School. An officer of the Alabama Realty Company, he was also a member of the Negro Businessmen's League and numerous fraternal organizations. He died in 1921, respected by the entire community. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Loveless School

Montgomery's first junior and senior high school for African American students began in Loveless School. Built in 1923 and enlarged in 1930, this building first housed seven grades; the opening of Carver Elementary School and the reduction in enrollment made possible additional classes at Loveless. Under Principal T.H. Handall, the first seniors graduated May, 1940. In 1948, George Washington Carver Senior High organized and had first classes here, but upon its moving to new quarters, Loveless reverted to a junior high and then to elementary. In spring of 1998, elementary moved to new site, and in fall of 1999, Loveless became home of LAMP.

Lower Commerce Street

Commerce Street, once heart of Montgomery's business life, leads from Alabama River to center of city. In early days commercial buildings and residences lined street. By 1880's merchants had built elaborate warehouses and area became principle wholesale district for Central Alabama. Changes in transportation and marketing brought decline to area. In 1970's revitalization began with restoration of old buildings.

Lucas Tavern

Circa 1818 Stood 2800 feet north of this point, just west of Line Creek on the Federal Road. Moved to Montgomery in 1978 to serve as the Visitor and Information Center for the Old North Hull Historic District, it is the oldest remaining building in Montgomery County. Original proprietor, James Abercrombie, ran it from about 1818. Walter B. Lucas announced his take over of the tavern in the January 6, 1821 issue of the Montgomery Republican. A four-room frame building with a long central hall, the tavern's most famous guest was Revolutionary War hero the Marquis de Lafayette who stayed here on April 2, 1825 during his triumphant tour of the United States.

Maj. Gen. Claire L. Chennault

Born in Commerce, Texas, on September 6, 1893, Chennault was commissioned in 1917 and received his wings in 1919. A graduate of and instructor at the Air Corps Tactical School, he became a leading advocate of pursuit aviation, and later formed the nationally renowned aero demonstration team called the "Flying Trapezers." Channault retired in 1937 and went to China where he established the legendary "Flying Tigers." He was recalled to active duty in 1942 as commander of the USAF in China and later commanded the 14th Air Force. He retired from service in 1945 and died in New Orleans, LA, on July 27, 1958.

Major General James Harrison Wilson USV

1837-1925 Exceptional American soldier, born Illinois, West Point Class of 1860, MG at 27. Civil War service: Port Royal 1861-62, Aide to McClellan '62; Vicksburg and Chattanooga Campaigns, Grant's staff '63-64, Chief of Calvary Bureau Poplar Ridge School64; Wilderness and Valley Campaigns, Commander Calvary Division, Sherman's Corps'64; Franklin, Nashville, AL & GA '64-65. Retired from Army 1870; pursued railroading career in U.S., Latin America, Japan & China. MG USV, 1898; War With Spain, Division Commander in Puerto Rico; Boxer Rebellion, Commander U.S. & British troops in China. U.S. representative at coronation of King Edward VII.

Marks House

- Circa 1825 Built by William Matthews Marks, who immigrated from Oglethrope County, GA, on acreage purchased from the U.S. land office in Cahaba, AL for $1.25 per acre. Foundation is pegged-together heart pine; framing is 3" by 9" timbers; mantles, dados, and all the bricks are hand made. Kitchen, baths, a rose garden and pavilion for dancing were added by the Churchill Marks family in the 1920s. The house was purchased by Dr. Haywood B. (Woody) Bartlett in 1957. In 1967, the movie of Truman's Capote's "Thanksgiving Visitor" was filmed in the house. The facility has served as the Pike Road Community Club Center since 1968. The Pike Road Arts and Crafts fair is held here annually on the first Saturday in November. The house suffered extensive fire damage on August 28, 1997 and was subsequently restored by the Pike Road Community.

Maxwell Air Force Base

Military forces arrived in 1540 with Desoto at Indian village of Towassa. Here in 1910, the Wright brothers established the nation's first civilian flying school and made first recorded night flights. A repair and engine depot was established in 1918 for airplanes used for training in World War I. After the war, the 22nd Observation Squadron and 4th Photo Section assigned to the post made aerial photos of the Tennessee Valley, delivered first airmail to Montgomery, and in 1929 airdropped supplies for flood relief. The Base was named for Lt. William C. Maxwell of Atmore, AL, killed in a plane crash in the Philippines in 1920.

Ministers' Home Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church

House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King, lived here from September 1954-February 1960. During this time he led the Bus Boycott launching an outstanding career as a world leader for civil rights and humanitarian causes. When a bomb damaged the house on January 31, 1956, Dr. King returned from a Boycott meeting and calmed an angry crowd from the porch, averting possible violence. From 1947-1952 the house was occupied by Dr. Vernon Johns, an earlier advocate of civil rights.

Montgomery Area Chamber of Commerce

The first American Chamber of Commerce was organized in New York City in 1770. The Montgomery Chamber was organized in 1873. Thomas Joseph was its first President. The Alabama State Journal stated at its founding, "Montgomery ought to have a Chamber of Commerce. Located in the midst of one of the richest agricultural districts in the South, the political center of the commonwealth, and the commercial center of a large section which obtain here their supplies, the Chamber of Commerce would seem to be demanded by the necessities of our position." Initially, it occupied the front rooms of the First National Bank Building. --------------------Reverse----------------------

The Forefront of Montgomery's Future

The Chamber changed names several times, but stayed in the lead for solid progress. Initially, it encouraged European immigrants to move south, promoted development of the Alabama River and the railroads, and had Commerce Street paved. It brought the Wright Brother flying school here in 1910 and was key to bringing military bases, the Veterans Hospital, trade schools, educational institutions, industrial parks, and tourism to the area. It is the linchpin of business and community growth partnering with elected and civic leaders to create jobs and a better quality of life for Montgomery area citizens.

Montgomery's First Election

Janurary 3, 1820 At this site, in Jonathan Coggswell Farley's store, an election was held to establish Montgomery's first government. The Alabama General Assembly, meeting in the capital at Huntsville, approved an act on December 3, 1819 to combine the communities of New Philadelphia and East Alabama into the new town of Montgomery. Named in the act to conduct and manage the election were Jonathan C. Farley, Walter B. Lucas, Ebenezer D. Washburn and Andrew Dexter. Elected to the first town council were Nimrod E. Benson, William Graham, Clement Freeney, Ebenezer D. Washburn, John Goldthwaite, Rhodes L. Smith and Daniel Carpenter. They chose Graham as the first intendant (mayor). Walter B. Lucas proposed that the new town be named for Gen. Richard Montgomery, the Revolutionary War hero. --------------------Reverse----------------------

Jonathan Coggswell Farley

1798-1864 Farley acquired two lots on this site in 1817. Here he build the town's first frame store and first frame two-story building, his house. In Farley's store, an election was held January 3, 1820 to create Montgomery's first governing body. Farley and three others were named in an act of the Alabama General Assembly to conduct and manage this first election. Farley was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts in 1798. About 1816, he sailed from Portland, Maine to the port of Mobile then proceeded to Ft. Jackson (Toulouse) to establish a trading post. Coming to Montgomery, he opened the town's second store. He served as foreman of the first Grand Jury and, later, moved to a plantation outside town near Cross Keys. The town's first newspaper, The Montgomery Republican, also occupied his store.

Montgomery's Slave Markets

The city's slave market was at the Artesian Basin (Court Square). Slaves of all ages were auctioned, along with land and livestock, standing in line to be inspected. Public posters advertised sales and included gender, approximate age, first name (slaves did not have last names), skill, price, complexion and owner's name. In the 1850s, able field hands brought $1,500; skilled artisans $3,000. In 1859, the city had seven auctioneers and four slave depots: one at Market Street (Dexter Avenue) and Lawrence, another at the corner of Perry and Monroe, and two on Market between Lawrence and McDonough. --------------------Reverse----------------------

First Emancipation Observance

– 1866 Montgomery's first observance of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation was New Year's Day at Wilson's Grove on Mildred Street. A parade formed at Gilmer's Warehouse, Commerce Street. Invited were a brass band, the governor, legislators, aldermen, businessmen, benevolent societies, churches and fire engine companies. Peyton Finley, parade marshal, was the first black member of the State Board of Education. Speakers of the day included Holland Thompson, first black alderman and a state legislator, who advised "show by good conduct, industry, and fidelity, that the year 1866 was a year of jubilee, instead of insurrection." He also told the crowd to acquire land, homes, and education for their children.

Montgomery Theatre

Opened in October 1860 as the South moved closer to secession, the theatre was significant in the social, cultural and political life of the city. In the early months, John Wilkes Booth performed here, Bryant Minstrels introduced "Dixie," which was transcribed for the Montgomery Brass Band. Southern leaders Robert Toombs, Alexander Stephens and William L. Yancey addressed packed houses. Later the city's location on route between New Orleans and Atlanta brought performers Edwin Forrest, Joseph Jefferson, and leading theatrical troupes and opera companies to the stage which closed in 1907.

Mordecai's Cotton Gin: Alabama's First

In 1785, Abram Mordecai, a Jewish veteran of the Revolutionary War, settled in this area which was still Indian country. On the Alabama River near here in 1802, he installed a cotton gin manufactured by Lyons & Barnett of Georgia. Until Indians burned his equipment, he ginned his own cotton and that of his Indian neighbors. His gin, the first in Alabama, was the forerunner of those that sprang up after the Territory was formed in 1817 and pioneers with "Alabama Fever" rushed to claim the fertile soil. The restored Old Alabama Town gin is typical of those operated until the early 20th century.

Murphy House

Greek Revival Home built 1851 by John H. Murphy, cotton broker and an incorporator and director of the Montgomery Water Works Company chartered 1854. Union Army Provost Marshal's Headquarters 1865. Elks Club 1902-1967. Restored by Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, 1970.

Naming the City of Montgomery

Montgomery named for Richard Montgomery, first American general killed in the Revolutionary War. In 1819, the Alabama Legislature combined New Philadelphia and East Alabama to form Montgomery. Walter B. Lucas, later of Lucas' Tavern in Line Creek, suggested the name to Andrew Dexter prompted by fanfare occasioned by the return of the General's body from Canada to New York City for burial in June of 1818.

Nat "King" Cole

Nathaniel Adams Cole, world famous jazz musician, was born at 1524 St. John Street on March 17, 1917. His father, Edward, a Baptist minister, moved his family to Chicago in the early 1920s. There, Cole began his career as a jazz pianist. He toured the vaudeville circuit with the "Shuffle Along Review." In 1939, he formed the original "King Cole Trio." In the 1940s, he started singing and recording ballads in a distinct style that attracted great multitudes to his concerts. His early hits included "Sweet Loraine," and "Sweet Georgia Brown." He died of lung cancer on February 15, 1965 in Santa Monica, California.

Nat "King" Cole

Nat "King" Cole's music career spanned three decades and a variety of styles. He first played the piano in dance halls, then created his famous jazz trio and developed a singing style that influenced the future of jazz, rhythm-and-blues, and popular music. In 1946, he became the first black artist to have a sponsored radio show and in 1956 hosted the first T.V. series. His records were on the charts for 23 years; he had more than 100 hits. He won a Grammy in 1959 and received the Grammy lifetime achievement award in 1989. His daughter won a Grammy in 1992 for "Unforgettable," her dubbed duet with her father.

Office of Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill

This early 20th-century building was office of Dr. L.L. Hill who, in 1902, performed first open heart surgery in the Western Hemisphere when he sutured a stab wound in a young boy's heart. A Montgomerian, Hill graduated in medicine from Jefferson Medical College and the University of the City of New York by the time he was 21. He then studied in London with the world renowned Dr. Joseph Lister. Hill practiced from 1884 until 1932, pioneering new ideas in antiseptic procedures in Alabama. He and a brother, Dr. R.S. Hill, founded Laura Hill Hospital named for their mother. L.L. Hill's son, Senator Lister Hill, introduced the Hill-Burton Act providing for hospitals across the nation.

Office Site of Dr. J. Marion Sims

"Father of Modern Gynecology" On this site in 1840s stood small hospital of Dr. J. Marion Sims in which he made surgical history with his successful operations for urinary fistula in women. A South Carolinian, Sims studied at Charleston Medical School and Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia. He practiced briefly in his native state before coming to Mt. Meigs (1835) and Montgomery (1840). He left this city and, in 1853, founded a famous Women's Hospital in New York, gaining world renown for his work in the field of surgery for women. Among his patients were the Empress Eugenie of France and other members of European royalty. His statue is on the grounds of Alabama's Capitol.

Old Oakwood Cemetery

The city cemetery was begun by donations of land from Andrew Dexter in 1817 and from General John Scott in 1818. Dexter and Scott had founded separate villages which combined to form Montgomery in 1819. The early part of the graveyard was known as Scott's Free Burying Ground. The cemetery was open to all of Montgomery's people. Many of the soldiers and prominent statesmen who shaped history as well as ordinary citizens, hanged felons, and unknowns rest in Old Oakwood. Nearly 140 acres in size, the cemetery has no more slots for sale.

Percy Lavon Julian

Scientist and Humanitarian 1899-1975 Born on the west side of Holt Street, April 11, 1899, Percy Lavon Julian entered Depauw University in 1916; graduated in chemistry with Phi Beta Kappa honors. Earned master's from Harvard, Ph.D. at the University of Vienna. His studies led to a synthetic drug for glaucoma. Experiments with soybean oils resulted in Compound S, an affordable synthetic form of cortisone for arthritis treatment. Julian's work included developments in production of artificial hormones and a foam for fighting fires onboard ships. Dedicated to relieving human suffering, he held over 130 patents at his death in April 1975. The U.S. issued a postage stamp in his honor in 1992.

Pickett Springs

Railroad building and amusement park development flourished in the post-bellum South. In 1880s, Western Railroad of Alabama opened Pickett Springs on site of William Harris's plantation, "Forest Farm;" Harris's daughter, Sarah, married A. J. Pickett, Alabama's first historian, and they had their home here until Pickett's death in 1858. Pickett Springs occupied portion of land as community of Chisolm developed nearby. During World War I Champ Sheridan, infantry training ground, supplanted the old park. During 1920s, West Boylston Manufacturing opened large cotton mill and a residential villiage in the vicinity. --------------------Reverse----------------------

"The Best Public Resort"

In September 1886, Montgomery Advertiser noted Pickett Springs as the "best public resort." Located four miles north of Montgomery, park offered entertainment and relaxation for citizens who traveled out by train until 1902 when street railway service started. Included in the area were a dance pavilion, refreshment stand, bowling alley, shooting gallery, carousel, flying swing, billiard parlor, scenic car and roller coaster. During summers of early 20th century, Salvation Army conducted fresh-air camps for indigent people. By World War I, Pickett Springs had lost much of its aura as automobiles and movies offered their diversions.

Pike Road School

Montgomery County's first school to consolidate rural, one-room school houses into grades one through twelve opened November 11, 1918. The school was built by the Montgomery County Board of Education on 30 acres of land at a cost of $40,000 with monies loaned and donated by families from surrounding settlements. Hailed by the U.S. Commissioner of Education when it was featured in the Alabama Exhibit at the 1926 Sesquicentennial International Exposition in Philadelphia, the school subsequently attracted foreign educators from Europe and South America interested in observing the system. The last graduating class was in 1945; the school remained a junior high school until its closing in May 1970.

Pintlala Grange Hall

(side one) The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was organized in 1867 to provide economic, social and cultural improvements for farmers and their families. Pintlala's Grange Hall was erected circa 1875 on land adjacent to this marker. By the 1890s the popularity of the Grange began to wane. On July 21-23, 1891 the last meeting of the Alabama Granges took place in Pintlala. The Federal Land Bank was organized as the National Farm Loan Association of Pintlala on August 17, 1917. Grange Hall was the site of their regular meetings. (side two)

Grange Hall School

From circa 1880 to 1922 school was held in one room of Grange Hall for seven months a year. Pintlala School was built and opened in 1923 and the Board of Education purchased the Grange property. The building was used for home economics classes and, from 1931 to 1952, served as home for Pintlala School caretakers. Over the years it was site of community dances, a meeting place for Boy and Girl Scouts, and the Pintlala Baptist Church (1960). Vacant and deteriorating, the building was given to the Landmarks Foundation and moved in 1978 to Old Alabama Town, Montgomery, Alabama.

Pintlala School

Opened in 1923 to consolidate a number of one-, two-, and three-teacher institutions in southwestern Montgomery County including Hope Hull, LeGrand, Mt. Carmel, Grange Hall, Snowdoun, Bethlehem, Fleta, Sankey, and Tabernacle. W.F. Feagin served as County School Superintendent during the planning phase, succeeded by Dr. A.F. Harmon by the time the school opened. Board of Education members in 1923 were Jesse B. Hearin (Chairman), P.M. McIntyre, Simon Gassenheimer, Dr. William Tankersley, and J.M. Hobbie. 80-acre site purchased through contributions of local citizens. Original principal Ben. S. Copeland succeeded in 1926 by Lee R. Scarborough, who served for forty years. Junior High School discontinued in 1970. Visited by President George Bush in 1991 and 1992. School placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on April 14, 1992. Marker erected through generosity of alumni and efforts of Pintlala Historical Association.

Pisgah Primitive Baptist Church

Constituted on August 27, 1842 on this site with six charter members including Moses and Sarah Rushton, Susannah Rushton, William and Emily Miley, and James Gardner. First structure built of logs by master carpenter Jesse Yon on land given by Moses Rushton, who moved to Montgomery County from Orangeburg District S.C. Present Colonial Revival building completed in 1931. Architect was Frank W. Lockwood and landscape architect was Graham M. Rushton.

Remount Depot

During World War I, in the summer of 1917 the U.S. Army opened a remount depot here to buy horses and mules for Camp Sheridan's 27,000-man 37th Division from Ohio. Despite the introduction of motor transport to war, an infantry division still needed nearly 4,000 horses and 2,700 mules as draft, riding and pack animals to pull 40-wagon trains, guns and field ambulances in 1918. This post occupied 160 acres alongside the Central of Georgia R.R. on the highest elevation within 20 miles of Montgomery.

Rice-Semple-Haardt House

Built early 1850's by Samuel Farrow Rice, state legislator and Chief Justice, Alabama Supreme Court. Sold in late 1860's to attorney Henry Churchill Semple, whose family occupied home until 1954 when sold to John Haardt, a realtor. Sold to State 1970. Entered National Register of Historic Places 1972. Offices of the Alabama Historical Commission since 1974. Lurleen Burns Wallace Museum since 1975.

Rosa Parks-Montgomery Bus Boycott

At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks' trial, as a protest by African-Americans for unequal treatment they received on the bus line. Refusing to ride the buses, they maintained the Boycott until the U.S. Supreme Court ordered integration of public transportation one year later. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. led the Boycott, the beginning of the modern Civil Rights Movement.

The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis

1906 - 1999 Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters, he established Citizenship Schools that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy test, a barrier before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Lewis opened, in1952, the "Citizens' Club," a night club for African Americans who were registered voters and who helped others to become voters. Lewis was a graduate of Fisk University and served as football coach at Alabama State University. In 1958, he became a partner in the Ross-Clayton Funeral Home business. He was one of the founders and first Montgomery Chapter president of the Alabama Democratic Conference, the oldest continuing black political organization in the state. Lewis was elected to the Alabama state legislature in 1974, but resigned in 1976, when U.S. President Jimmy Carter appointed him to serve as a U.S. Marshal, the first black marshal for the Middle District in Alabama.

Saint John's Episcopal Church

Organized 1834 Present building erected 1855 under rectorship of Nicholas Hamner Cobbs, first Bishop of Alabama. Primary convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America was held here, July 3-6, 1861. Charles Minnegerode Beckwith, fourth Bishop of Alabama, consecrated here, December 17, 1902.

Smith-Joseph-Stratton House

Only surviving residence of former Mayor E. B. Joseph. The Italianate cottage was built c. 1855 by Pickett Chauncy Smith, a merchant in ante-bellum Montgomery, and father-in-law of E. B. Joseph, who occupied the house from 1880 to 1885. Joseph served on the City Council for six years and was Mayor from 1899-1903. He helped develop Highland Park, Montgomery's first suburb, and was president of Montgomery's streetcar system, the first electric system in the United States. From 1913 to 1921 the house was occupied by Judge Asa Evans Stratton. Restored 1984.

South Jackson Street

Long a home to African-American professionals, politicians, and businessmen, South Jackson Street is in the heart of Centennial Hill, a neighborhood which developed in the 1870s. One block north at #309 is the house where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lived during the Bus Boycott; #341 was the home of John W. Jones, Lowndes County senator in the Reconstruction legislature. Building on NE corner is former Ben Moore Hotel, site of many Civil Rights meetings and activities. Alabama State University at south end of street.

Taylor Field

Montgomery's first military flying installation was established 200 yards south of this spot in November of 1917. The facility was named for Captain Ralph L. Taylor, who was killed in an airplane crash at Mineola Field, New York in August of 1917. The primary flying school here included 16 hangers, repair shops, warehouses, quarters, a hospital, and nearly 200 JN-4 and DH-4 aircraft on its 800 acres. One hundred and thirty-nine fledgling pilots completed the eight-week course and some served in France during the First World War. Taylor Field closed in April of 1919 and reopened as Gunter Auxiliary Air Field No. 5 during World War II. It was closed again in July of 1946. Erected by the Montgomery Chapter of the Air Force Association and Founders Flight, Order of Daedalians.

Teague House

Greek Revival Architecture–built in 1848 by Berry Owens. On April 11, 1865, Federal Troops, known as "Wilson's Raiders," approached the city. Lacking means of defense, city officials agreed to surrender the city. From the front portico of this house was read the order of Gen. James H. Wilson, USA, placing the first Capital of the Confederacy under martial law on April 12, 1865. This house, typical of many homes of the period, was home successively of the Owens, Ware, Walker, Graham, and Teague families. Since 1955 it has served as headquarters of the Alabama State Chamber of Commerce and is open to the public. (Located in Montgomery at High and Perry Streets)

Telegram Which Began War Between the States

Montgomery, April 11, 1861 General Beauregard, Charleston: Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the meantime he will not use his guns against us unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter, you are thus authorized to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce the fort as your judgement decides to be most practicable. L. P. Walker Sec. of War, C.S.A.

The Alabama State Capitol

Anticipating that Montgomery might some day be Alabama's capital, city founder Andrew Dexter in 1819 set aside "Goat Hill," at what was then the eastern edge of a small frontier town, as the locale for a future statehouse. The first capitol on this site was erected in 1846-47 after a design by Philadelphia architect Stephen Decatur Button. Burned only two years later in 1849, this Greek Revival-style structure was replaced by the present capitol, also in the Greek Revival-style, in 1850-51. Additions since that time include a large rear wing (1885), side wing (1908-1912), and another rear addition completed in 1992. In February 1861, delegates from seceding southern states convened in this building to organize the Confederate States of America. On March 25, 1965, the Selma-to-Montgomery civil rights march led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ended on the capitol steps.

The Federal Road

The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty of 1805 with the Creeks authorized traversing their lands. Entering Alabama at Ft. Mitchell near Columbus, GA, it came through Mt. Meigs, to Pintlala, Ft. Deposit, Burnt Corn, Ft. Stoddert, then Mobile. The 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson made much fertile Creek land available to grow cotton; this lure, "Alabama Fever," drew many thousands of settlers to central Alabama. In 1860, spans were still in use, but the Road was gone.

The Forefront of Montgomery's Future

The Chamber changed names several times, but stayed in the lead for solid progress. Initially, it encouraged European immigrants to move south, promoted development of the Alabama River and the railroads, and had Commerce Street paved. It brought the Wright Brother flying school here in 1910 and was key to bringing military bases, the Veterans Hospital, trade schools, educational institutions, industrial parks, and tourism to the area. It is the linchpin of business and community growth partnering with elected and civic leaders to create jobs and a better quality of life for Montgomery area citizens.

"The Old Reliables"

Inactive from 1962 to 1966, the 9th Infantry Division again was tapped for active service in Vietnam. The Division trained at Fort Riley, Kansas, and deployed to Vietnam in 1967. There the 9th fought with distinction in 8 campaigns as part of the Riverine Force. The Division left Vietnam in the summer of 1969 and was inactive for 3 years. In 1972 the "Old Reliables" were reactivated at Fort Lewis, Washington, where they tested new organizational concepts and equipment until deactivated in 1992. During combat in 16 campaigns in two wars, 13 soldiers of the Division were awarded the Medal of Honor.

The Selma to Montgomery March They Camped Here

On March 24,1965, more than 25,000 marchers seeking voter rights and protected by St. Jude Thaddeus, the patron saint of hopeless causes and champion of impossible causes, rested overnight on the grounds. Public facilities were closed to freedom seekers. Father Paul J. Mullaney, director, The City of St. Jude, opened parish facilities for marchers. Joining them were celebrities including Harry Belafonte, Sammy Davis, Jr., Leonard Bernstein, Mahalia Jackson, Shelly Winters and other supporters. The next morning marchers continued on to state capitol to further cause of voter registration.

The Soldiers' Home

Founded June 1861 by the Ladies' Hospital Association of Montgomery, Sarah Hails Bellinger, with her husband, Dr. Carnot Bellinger, donated the site for the hospital and served as the hospital's first president. The Bellinger farm site included a spacious four-room house for the hospital, one of the first for Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. The name "Soldiers' Home" was attached to the hospital after a patient described the facility in a letter to his mother as neither hospital nor asylum but a true "Soldiers' Home." Dr. and Mrs. Bellinger tended the sick here until May 1862, when exhaustion caused them to move the Home to the corner of Bibb and Commerce Streets in town.

Thompson House

401 Madison Avenue Built in Tuskegee, Alabama, a small market town and education center, the house reflects prosperity, changing tastes and optimism of the 1850s. Judge Thomas S. Tate incorporated three distinct styles in the construction of his home. Columns indicate lasting interest in Greek Revival, decorative brackets and ventilator covers denote the Italianate, while the side porches sport fanciful steamboat Gothic latticed arches. Front column capitals are classical Temple of Wind while rear columns depict vernacular, regional ideas. Interior shows environmental concerns with transverse halls to catch any summer breeze, and small rooms easily heated by fireplaces in winter.

Three Men on a Flying Trapeze

The "Flying Trapezers," the Air Corps' first aerial demonstration team, was established under Maxwell's Air Corps Tactical School in 1932. Led by Capt. Claire Chennault, members included Lt. Haywood Hansell, Sgt. John Willamson, and Sgt. William McDonald. Chennault used P-12Cs to perform loops, rolls, and figure eights to show his fellow officers that three planes could execute with precision the violent and difficult maneuvers necessary to attack and destroy invading bombers. The team played a key role in developing pursuit tactics and in discrediting the "bomber invincibility" theory before being disbanded in 1936.

Tullibody

William Burns Patterson (1850-1915) was 17 years old in 1867 when he arrived in New York from Tullibody, Scotland. By 1871, he had built a one-room schoolhouse called Tullibody Academy for Negroes in Greensboro, Alabama. He married the missionary teacher Margaret Flack in 1879. Together, they created a model school of its type. In 1887, the campus moved to Montgomery where the first Tullibody Hall was built in 1890. A brick building replaced the frame structure in 1906. Tullibody Fine Arts Center stands on the site of the earlier building.

Union Station & Riverfont Park

Transportation center of Montgomery located in this area for many years. First steamboat, the "Harriet," landed nearby 1821. City wharf constructed at landing place 1823. First railroad, Montgomery & West Point R.R., developed ca. 1840. By 1900 most major railroads in Central Alabama had connections here. Union Station and Tunnel connection to river landing built 1897. Because decline in river traffic, Tunnel closed 1930. With development of Riverfront Park 1970's, Tunnel reopened. Ramp reopened 1981.

Victor Hugo Tulane

Almost penniless, Tulane came from Elmore County in 1880s, opening a grocery store on SE corner of High and Ripley in 1905 (National Register of Historic Places). While living at 430 South Union, he was cashier at the African-American-owned Penny Savings Bank, as well as a druggist. Served as Chairman of the Board of Old Ship AME Zion Church, member of Board of Trustees of Tuskegee Institute and of Swayne School, and first African-American honorary member of the Montgomery Area Chamber of Commerce. Died 1931: city honored business leader by naming Victor Tulane Court in his memory, 1951.

Wilson's Raiders

April 1865 MG J.H. Wilson's Cavalry Corps raised U.S. flag over Alabama's and the Confederacy's first capital on 4/12/65, 3 days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox. Wilson had defeated LTG N.B. Forrest's depleted and outnumbered troops at the Confederate arsenal city of Selma. Before fleeing Montgomery, BG D.W. Adams, CSA ordered 85,000 bales of cotton and 40,000 bushels of corn set afire to deny them to the Federals. But for the wind's change and heroic volunteer firefighters, the city would have burned. Wilson left Montgomery for Columbus, GA on Friday, 4/14/65, the day Lincoln was shot by Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington.

Winter Building

Built in 1841 by John Gindrat to house the Montgomery branch of the Bank of St. Mary's. In 1854 was willed to his daughter, Mary Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Winter. On April 11, 1861, Confederate Secretary of War Leroy Pope Walker sent telegram from second floor offices of Southern Telegraph Company to Charleston authorizing Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard to fire on Fort Sumter. Subsequent bombardment was first military action of War Between the States. Building placed on National Register of Historic Places 1972, and restored in 1978.

9th Infantry Division

The 9th Division was organized on July 18, 1918 at Camp Sheridan for service in World War I. When the war ended, November 11, 1918, deployment of the Division to France was canceled and it was demobilized on February 15, 1919. Reactivated on August 1, 1940, 9th Infantry Division soldiers fought valiantly in 8 crucial World War II campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, France, Belgium, and Germany. After a short inactivation, the 9th returned to the active force on July 15, 1947 as a training division at Fort Dix, New Jersey, and later served under NATO in Germany and at Fort Carson, Colorado, as a combat unit.

37th Division, The Buckeye Division, World War I

Camp Sheridan was the site for the August 1917 organization of the Buckeye Division, made up the Ohio National Guardsmen who previously had been serving on the Mexican Border. After training, the 37th went to France in June 1918, fighting in the Lorraine, Ypres-Lys, and Meuse-Argonne Campaigns. It took 5,387 casualties and won a Medal of Honor before returning to the U.S. in March 1919 to be demobilized.

37th Division, The Buckeye Division, World War II

The Buckeye Division was inducted into federal service in October 1940. Trained at Camp Shelby, Mississippi and Camp Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, it was deployed to the Pacific in May 1942 where it sustained 5,960 casualties in the Northern Solomons and Luzon Campaigns. Seven soldiers won the Medal of Honor, including Private Roger Young of the Infantry's ballad. The Division returned to the U.S. for demobilization in November 1945. The Division lineage descended to the 37th Infantry Brigade of the Ohio National Guard.

167th Infantry (4th Alabama)

An Alabama regiment was formed in 1836 to defend Fort Foster in Florida. Same unit, designated the 1st Volunteers ten years later, served in Mexican War . Mustered again May 4, 1861 as the 4th Alabama Infantry Regiment, it fought in every major battle in the Eastern Theater of the Civil War. The 4th distinguished itself in Battle of Manassos, the first major battle of the war when it plugged gap in Confederate lines beside Brig. Gen. T.J. Jackson's brigade and repulsed several Union regiments. In that fight, Jackson acquired the name "Stonewall."

A County Older Than the State –Morgan County

Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over British at Battle of Cowpens. County often invaded by both armies in War Between the States. Until 1891 county seat at Somerville. Then county seat moved to Decatur. Named for Stephen Decatur, naval hero against Tripoli pirates and in War of 1812. (Located at Courthouse in Decatur)

First Permanent Court House, Morgan County

Built circa 1837 with special taxes levied for that purpose by Alabama Legislature, 1836. Replaced first court house, built circa 1825. Somerville was incorporated, 1819, county seat 1819-1891. Cotaco County created February 8, 1818, renamed Morgan County, June 14, 1821.

First Railroad West of Allegheny Mountains

Tuscumbia Courtland & Decatur RR–Built 1833 to bypass shoals in Tennessee River–absorbed by Memphis & Charleston and by Southern Railway in 1898.

Gen. Joseph Wheeler

For whom this lake in Tennessee River is named lived 1836-1906. His home 6 miles west. Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army 1864-65. Major Gen. U. S. Army 1898. Named by Alabama to Hall of Fame, Washington 1922. (Located at entrance to boat harbor.)

Lacey's Spring

Abundant water and fertile land in this area south of the Tennessee River attracted pioneer settlement in the early 1800s. The community established here by three Virginia-born brothers, Hopkins, John, and Theophilus Lacy, took on their name and became the site for a U.S. post office in February 1831. "Lacy's Spring" became "Lacey's Spring" when the postal seal furnished by Washington officials inserted an "e" into the name. Hopkins Lacy had been active in Tennessee politics prior to his immigration into Alabama and John reportedly had served in the North Carolina militia during the American Revolution. The Lacys became important landowners in the area, promoting settlement and serving in public office. All three brothers were buried in Bartee Cemetery, west of this site. The spring that had drawn the Lacys to Alabama in the early 19th century was covered over by highway construction in the late 20th century. Built in the 1960s, the north-bound lanes of Hwy 231 obscured the spring but a 48-inch tile placed into the water source allowed the spring to continue flowing.

Old State Bank Building

Erected 1833. Cost $9,482. Classic Revival design. Listed on National Register of Historic Places. Decatur Branch, Bank of The State of Alabama. Chartered 1832 by state legislature, profitable until 1837, charter revoked 1842 and closed. 1842-1901 used as residence, Union Army supply depot, and First National Bank. 1901 purchased by Dr. F. Y. Cantwell. Renovated 1934 by C.W.A. as museum and civic hall. Donated by Mrs. W. B. Edmundson and American Legion Post No. 15 to City. Restored 1982. Site is original lot No. 60 of 1824 Town Plan.

Valhermoso Springs

"Value of Beauty" The restorative qualities of the mineral springs here attracted settlement in the early 1800s. Variously known as Chunn Springs (after Lancelot Chunn) and Manning Springs (after Robert Manning), the spot was named for early developers of the resort where a hotel and surrounding cabins were erected between 1818 and 1823. By 1834, when the first post ofice was established, it was called White Sulphur Springs. Jean Joseph Giers acquired the hotel and surrounding property in 1856, renaming it "Valhermoso Springs." Into the 20th century, travelers from all over the world came to the hotel and springs seeking relief from rheumatism, insomnia, consumption, and ailments of the skin, kidneys, stomach, and liver. The hotel closed in the 1920s and was destroyed by tornado in 1950.

Confederate Rest

During the War Between the States, Breckinridge Military Hospital was established at what is now Marion Military Institute. Soldiers who died were first buried behind MMI campus. After the war, Ladies Memorial Assoc. had remains exhumed and re-interred here in St. Wilfrid's Cemetery. Redwood tree planted as a living memorial to the fallen soldiers. Grave of Judge Wm. M. Brooks, President of the Alabama Secession Convention of 1861, is nearby. Placed by: Members of Hughes-McCollum Post 5104 VFW and Friends April 29, 1979

Judson College

Founded 1838–Milo P. Jewett, President. Deeded in 1843 to The Alabama Baptist Convention. One of the nation's first colleges to offer higher education for women, it has served, since its founding, as a liberal and fine arts college for young women. (Located on the campus at Marion)

Ocmulgee Baptist Church

Organized June 10, 1820 Charles Crow, Pastor 1820-1822, 1829-1845 First President of the Alabama State Baptist Convention This church has served a continuous congregation on this site since its organization.

The Alabama Baptist

The first issue of The Alabama Baptist was published in Marion, Alabama. General Edwin D. King, a Judson trustee, offered his office for use in printing and distributing the paper from 1843-1852. The building was owned by Milo P. Jewett, president of Judson College. The paper returned to Marion from 1873-1877. Since 1919, The Alabama Baptist has been published in Birmingham as an entity of the Alabama Baptist Convention. The original office of The Alabama Baptist, located across from Siloam Baptist Church, was moved to the Judson campus in 1997 and restored.

The Marion Female Seminary

One of the earliest colleges for women in America. Founded in 1835, was the first of four colleges established in Marion, "The Athens of Alabama." This building, erected in 1850, contained the art studio of Nicola Marschall, who designed here in 1861, the first Confederate flag–The Stars and Bars–as well as the grey uniform of the South. From 1916 to 1970 the building served as a local public school. Entered National Register of Historic Places 1973.

Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railroad Depot

The Carrollton Short Line Railroad, authorized by the legislature in 1897, connected the Mobile & Ohio Railroad at Reform with the Pickens County seat. John Taylor Cochrane of Tuscaloosa, working with Carrollton citizens, completed that line in 1902, then extended it southward toward the Tombigbee River with the encouragement of south Pickens County landowners. Purchasing 36 acres between the villages of Franconia and Bridgeville, Cochrane founded "Aliceville," named for his wife, Alyce Searcy. By 1903, tracks reached the new town's depot here at the south end of Broad Street and in February 1907, Aliceville was incorporated. As Cochrane's railroad line continued on toward Mobile, it was rechristened the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railroad. The line operated in Pickens County until June 29, 1976, when the last train made its run.

Aliceville First Baptist Church

On a wooded spot near where Garden Cemetery is located stood Enon Baptist Church, constituted in August 1823, by Lemuel Prewitt and Henry Petty on land donated by Parks E. Ball. Sometime after 1849 the meeting place was moved about one mile west on Pickensville road. In 1905 it was relocated in Aliceville and is now known as First Baptist Church of Aliceville. The present building was dedicated in 1940. Through the years this church has been consistently dedicated to missionary causes, and the challenge of the Great Commission continues to be a vital part of her ministry.

Aliceville Prisoner of War Camp

1942-1945 During World War II, the United States Army interned 6,000 German prisoners of war here on a 400 acre site, employing 1,000 American military and civilian personnel. Major Karl H. Shriver commanded Corps of Engineers forces which began construction in August, 1942. Activated Dec. 12, 1942. First prisoners, from Gen. Erwin Rommel's Africa Korps, arrived by Frisco Railroad June 2, 1943. Camp first commanded by Col. F. A. Prince, later by Col. R. S. Grier. 400 frame buildings: barracks, hospital, bakeries, chapels, greenhouse, theaters; water and sewer systems, fire department, amphitheater, sports fields, gardens. Barbed wire compound with guard towers. 2 prisoners killed attempting to escape. Deactivated Sept. 30, 1945.

Carrollton Short Line Railroad

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad Company in 1897 announced plans to build a line from Artesia, Mississippi through Pickens County to Tuscaloosa and on to Montgomery. Leading citizens in Carrollton sought to persuade the company to bring the line through the county seat, but M & O officials chose a route through Reform and Gordo to ensure faster mail service as required by the U.S. postal service. Led by W.G. Robertson, Judge O.L. McKinstry, E.R. Calhoun and M.L. Stansel, Carrollton residents organized a corporation to build a railroad from their community to Reform, to connect there with the M & O. Called the "Carrollton Short Line," the track eventually was completed by Tuscaloosa entrepreneur John Taylor Cochrane, who brought the first train into Carrollton in 1902. The depot was on this site. Cochrane built the line steadily southward, establishing the town of Aliceville (named for his wife, Alyce Searcy) along its route, which eventually extended to Mobile. Rechristened the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railroad soon after, Cochrane's line prompted a social and economic boom for Carrollton and southwest Alabama. Vast timber holdings were tapped by "dummy lines" connecting to the Carrollton Short Line, creating many jobs to boost the local economy. The line operated until June 29, 1976, when the last train made its run.

First City Hall–Jail

Built June 1914, by Gordo's first town council to house Mayor Benjamin Garrison's office, city courtroom, and jail. Building used as city hall–jail until 1949. Records show it to be the oldest remaining brick structure in Gordo. Restored 1974, by Gordo Tuesday Study Club as an art gallery and museum. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places, Dec. 17, 1974.

Kelly-Stone-Hill Place

Former home of John Herbert Kelly, brigadier general, C.S. Army, born in Carrollton, March 31, 1840. Appointed to West Point at age 17, resigned a few months before graduation. Fought at Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, and Chickamauga. Mortally wounded at battle of Franklin, Tennessee, August 20, 1864. For many years this was the home of Lewis Maxwell Stone, state senator, member of the Constitutional Convention 1875, and speaker of the House of Representatives during the Reconstruction Period. Dwelling later occupied by Hugh Wilson Hill, M.D., the third of four generations of a family of physicians who have served the community with marked devotion.

King's Store Skirmish

On April 6, 1865, near this site, Confederate forces from Carrollton and Bridgeville attacked a unit of Brig. Gen. John T. Croxton's Union forces under Capt. William A. Sutherland. Union forces were compelled to abandon 37 Confederate prisoners earlier captured. Union reporters counted one mortally wounded and another taken prisoner. No Confederate casualties were documented. Unable to rejoin Gen. Croxton as ordered, Capt. Sutherland and his 6th Kentucky Cavalry marched on to Decatur.

Lanier's Mill Skirmish

On April 6, 1865, near this site on the Sipsey River, Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's Confederate forces, under Brig. Gen. Wirt Adams, met Union forces under Brig. Gen. John Croxton . Union forces numbering 1,500 men, having burned the 3-story brick mill and resumed their march, were attacked by an equal number of Confederate forces. Gen. Adams reported his losses as 9 killed and 25 wounded and estimated Union losses as 75 killed or captured. Confederates took 2 Union ambulances and personal baggage of Gen. Croxton, who was forced back to Tuscaloosa. On May 4, when he surrendered, Gen. Adams received this communication from Col. George Moorman of his command: "Should the war cease now you would have the honor of having won the last victory on the Confederate soil and in the Confederate cause." The Confederate charge which took place here was the last cavalry charge in the War Between the States.

Mount Moriah Free Will Baptist Church

Organized by Rev. Ellis Gore in 1846, is recognized as the oldest church of this faith in Alabama. Original doctrinal treatise from Fayetteville, N.C. obtained by Rev. Gore. The original building, a one room frame structure, was built in 1846. Two buildings on this site were destroyed by fires in 1869 and 1905. Replacement remodeled and enlarged in 1959. Present structure erected in 1972, known as the "Mother Church," has always striven to lead others to the "Heavenly Father."

Oak Grove Presbyterian Church

Organized at this site, Franconia, Ala. in 1837. The edifice of colonial architecture included a slave gallery and an amen corner. The congregation moved to Aliceville in 1906 and established the First Presbyterian Church. Founders and heirs are interred in the adjacent Oak Grove-Franconia cemetery which contains a section for family slaves who were also church members. The old building was moved to Aliceville in 1931 and is now used as a community church.

Pickens County Courthouse

Erected 1877-78 Pickens County, named for General Andrew Pickens of South Carolina, was established December 19, 1820. First County Seat was Pickensville. On March 5, 1830 the U.S. government awarded 80 acres of land at Carrollton for the County Seat. The first courthouse erected at Carrollton was burned April 5, 1865, by troops of Union General John T. Croxton. A freedman, Henry Wells, was accused of burning the second on November 16, 1876. He was arrested January 1878, and confined to the garret of the present building. According to legend, as Wells peered out of the north window, at a mob gathering below, lightning struck nearby, indelibly etching his image on the pane.

Tabernacle Methodist Church and Campground

Tabernacle Methodist Campground established 1828. About forty acres of land deeded to church by Marshall Franks. Nathan Hopkins served as first pastor; Ebenezer Hearn was first presiding elder. Among families who helped build and maintain campground and church were those of Henry, Joyner, Franks, Randall, Miller, Woods, and Eubanks. Camp meetings held here annually since 1828.

Elam Primitive Baptist Church

Constituted March 7, 1830 (about two miles NE of this site) with eight charter members including Elijah Wyatt the first pastor. In 1850's church moved to this location on land given by Deacon James Folmar. Present building erected 1906. This marker dedicated on the 150th anniversary of church (March 9, 1980) to memory of nearly 100 families who have played prominent roles in this church and community.

First United Methodist Church

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Troy was organized in 1843. The first building was constructed in 1858, on land donated by Ann Dowdell Love, affectionately known as "Granny Love." The second structure was erected in 1888. The present edifice, completed in 1904, was designed by Frank Lockwood in neo-Romanesque style; the sanctuary is neo-Classical with a saucer-dome ceiling, pendentive arches, and Scamozzi Ionic columns. Building was placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage by the Alabama Historical Commission on June 30, 1995.

Hobdy's Bridge

Last Indian Battle in Alabama. General Wm. Wellborn and his men attacked and routed 900 Indians camping here during Creek War of 1836. Indians, reluctant to move west, angered by whites seizing land, had plundered as they moved toward new homes in Florida.

Monticello

Became county seat of Pike County in 1827. County seat moved to Troy, a more central location, in 1838. Pike County was created in 1821 from lands ceded by Creek Indians in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814.

Orion Institute

Founded 1848 by legislative act and donations of citizens. Excellent instruction made it only school of kind for youth in area. Later used as public school until 1929 school consolidation. Orion settled about 1815, by 1830 saw arrival of wealthy planters. Here on Chunnenuggee Ridge they built homes and cultivated valley plantations.

Philadelphia Presbyterian Church

First Presbyterian Church in Pike County. Organized largely by members of Beaver Creek Presbyterian Church near Camden, South Carolina. They petitioned Presbytery of South Alabama Oct. 18, 1839 and were officially established as a church April 3, 1840. Church was dissolved in April 1917. Officers during life of church: 1840-1917–ELDERS–R. R., S. R. , J. W., J. A. McLure; J. M. Thompson; E. Ruffin; S. Smyth; B. H. Boyd; J. A. Ramsay; G. C. Barnette; J. D. and Dr. J. A. McEachern. DEACONS–John and Dr. J. A. McEachern, John W., Thomas C. Henry M., Richard U. McLure; W. F. Ferrell; W. A. E. Helms. MINISTERS–D. S. McCormick; A. M. Mooney; M. A. Patterson; A. McMillan; J. M. Peu; G. W. Butler; F. M. McMurry; J. McKee; R. H. Hall; G. R. Foster; R. Kirkpatrick; W. H. White and J. C. Sturgeon. (Located on Alabama Highway 93 near Brundige)

Rodgers School

Built ca. 1860 on land donated by transplanted Georgians Hugh Ross and Tabitha Miller Rodgers, this school educated Pike County youth until consolidation closed its doors in 1935. Between 1923 and 1935, it was under the direction of H.M. Curry who labored with short terms, limited facilities, and scarce funds. Despite issuing neither report cards nor diplomas, Curry and fellow instructor Sue Edwards Carter were responsible for successfully preparing more than twenty of its graduates for college entry during the school's "golden age." The Rodgers School continues to serve as a community center and inspiration to future generations.

Salem Baptist Church

Pike County's oldest church. Organized by Dr. C. T. Mahoney. Since 1824 it has enriched the life of his section. Here were organized: Salem Baptist Association, 1839, Baptist General Assoc., 1868, Ladies Aid Society, 1891, Salem-Troy Baptist Assoc., 1904, Women's Missionary Society, 1905. First a log structure, the church had occupied four wooden buildings before the present brick structure, 1939. (Located in Brundidge)

Three Notch Road

Built by U.S. Army, 1824, from Ft. Barrancas, at Pensacola to Ft. Bainbridge, S. E. of Tuskegee. Here it joined Federal Road leading to Ft. Mitchell in Russell County. Road followed Indian trade trail became main road for settlers and traders before railroads. Scouts notched trees to mark route that ran along this ridge.

Troy State College

Established as Troy State Normal School by the Alabama General Assembly in 1887. The Alabama Legislature has approved the following changes in the name: Troy State Normal College 1893, Troy State Teachers College 1927, Troy State College 1957. Land and the first building for the original downtown campus and the land for the present site were provided by the City of Troy. The college was moved to the present campus in 1930. The State Board of Education authorized the College to grant the Bachelors Degree in 1929 and the Masters Degree in 1956. (Located on campus in Troy)

Troy State University

Established as Troy State Normal School by the Alabama General Assembly in 1887. The Alabama Legislature has approved the following changes in the name: Troy State Normal College 1893 Troy State Teachers College 1927 Troy State College 1957 Troy State University 1967 Land and the first building for the original downtown campus and the land for the present site were provided by the City of Troy. The College was moved to the present campus in 1930. The State Board of Education authorized the College to grant the Bachelors Degree in 1929 and the Masters Degree in 1956. The College was placed under a separate Board of Trustees in 1967.

First Baptist Church

Organized 1845 First Baptist Church organized the founding year of the Southern Baptist Convention. In 1876 a handsome structure replaced the original unpainted building on the site of the present chapel. In 1902 a brick structure was erected. The church hosted the Alabama Baptist Convention's annual meeting in 1908. An educational wing was added in 1952. After a destructive fire in November, 1977, the present structure was built. Throughout its history the church has devoted its energies to Christ-centered ministries.

Lebanon Christian Church

Founded March 31, 1864 by evangelist Moses Park. William Terry Kirby, Sr. and Nancy T. Greer Kirby donated four acres of land adjacent to their home for the church site. Services were first conducted at a brush arbor on the property, which later became Lebanon Cemetery. The present building, construction in 1887 has been in continuous use and remains virtually unaltered. Charter members: Moses Park Martha Park Susan Park James Adcock Sarah E. Adcock David Little Lucinda Kirby Elizabeth Wheeler Eliza E. Taylor Sarah E. Taylor Amanda Osborne Ann Bennett

Randolph County

Created December 18, 1832, from Creek Indian cession and named for U.S. Senator John Randolph of Virginia. Wedowee, the county seat, is named for the chief of a Creek Indian village which once occupied this site. First court was held near Triplett's Ferry on the Tallapoosa River, west of Wedowee.

May 28th Celebration

Battle and Antioch Communities Russell County, Alabama President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, in the midst of the Civil War. Freedom for the South's slaves, however, only came with the end of the conflict, April 1865. The joyous news reached Negro slaves in this area in May. Since that time, May 28th has been established as a community holiday to commemorate a day of freedom, attracting celebrants from all over the nation. "Thank God we are in His care."

Fort Mitchell

Five miles -- Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River. U.S. troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. Located on Highway 165 south of Phenix City.

A County Older Than the State – St. Clair County

Created 1818 by territorial legislature. Named for Revolutionary hero, Gen. St. Clair. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia–veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. Pell City established as industrial town in 1890 by George H. Pell of New York. Growth of population south of Backbone Mt. and difficulty of crossing mountain led to branch county seat here in 1902. County seat at Ashville since 1822. Old Indian trails through this county used by: DeSoto's Spanish conquistadors–1540. Andrew Jackson's forces–1813-14. General Rousseau, Croxton–1864-65. (Located at Pell City)

A County Older Than the State – St. Clair County

Created in 1818 in first session of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Named for Gen. Arthur St. Clair, hero of Revolution, governor of Northwest Territory. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia–veteran of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. County seat since 1822 here at Ashville, named for John Ash, prominent settler. Growing population south of Backbone Mt. led to Pell City branch county seat, 1902. (Located at Ashville)

Camp Winnataska

Dr. Elwyn Ballard, commissioner of Boy Scouts in Birmingham, and his wife, Florence Aye Ballard, discovered this site in 1914 and became vital forces in the founding and growth of the camp. Boy Scouts and Boys Club members from the area first camped here in tents in 1916. Through Dr. Ballard, the Interdenominational Birmingham Sunday School Association acquired the camp in 1918 and offered sessions not only for boys but for girls as well-the first organization-sponsored camping for girls in Alabama and among the first in the South. Daniel Ray Price, Executive Secretary of the Association, directed the camp 1922-1957. Rosa V. Strickland, educator and church leader, served as girls camp director 1919-1954. Winnataska early received national recognition for excellence of staff, facilities, and programs. In 1986, Camp Winnataska and the Boy Scouts, Birmingham Area Council, formed a joint venture to operate the Camp Winnataska Outdoor Education Center.

First Baptist Church of Springville

Organized March 22, 1817 Originally chartered at Mt. Zion Baptist Church. Charter member and first Pastor was Sion Blythe who served for 17 years. The oldest church in St. Clair Association. Presbyterian and Methodist denominations used the church building before turn of the century. Name of church changed to Springville Baptist in 1877 and to First Baptist Church of Springville, 1974.

Fort Strother

Creek Indian War, 1813-14, 12 miles north. Built by Andrew Jackson with Tennessee troops and friendly Cherokees. Used as advanced base of operations on the border of Creek Confederacy.

Harkey's Chapel United Methodist Church

Founded Circa 1829-1830 Original log house of worship built St. Clair Co. near Broken Arrow Creek, six miles from Coosa River. Named Harkey's Chapel for first minister, Rev. David. Harkey of Cahawba Circuit. Present church built 1904 by A. I. Abels with community helpers. Preserved by members of Harkey's Chapel United Methodist Church. Entered Alabama Register of Historic Places 1978.

Historic Downtown Pell City

Founded by railroad investors and incorporated on May 6, 1891, Pell City was named for one of the financial backers, George Hamilton Pell of New York. Nearly disappearing after the Panic of 1893, the town was redeveloped after 1901 by Sumter Cogswell and his wife, Lydia DeGaris Cogswell, along with other local investors and businessmen. Mr. Cogswell influenced the location here in 1902 of the Pell City Manufacturing Company, subsequently, Avondale Mills. The town's prosperity was secured after that time. The Historic District encompasses two long blocks along Cogswell Avenue from Nineteenth Street to Twenty-first Street and several buildings on Nineteenth and Twenty-first Streets North and Twentieth Street South. The only building to survive the earlier period was the Maxwell Building, constructed in 1890. The majority of the historic structures were built in the years between 1902 and 1905. The Downtown District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 29, 2001.

John Looney House

circa 1820 John Looney and son, Henry, served in General Andrew Jackson's volunteer company which built Fort Strother on Coosa River and later fought at Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Looney's family of nine moved from Maury Co. Tenn. to homestead 1817 in St. Clair County. Land patent granted in 1822. The two story log house with double dog-trot is a rare example of pioneer architecture in Alabama. Restored by St. Clair Historical Society in 1972. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places 1974.

The Mill Village

The Pell City Manufacturing Company, completed in 1902, was the main catalyst in the growth and development of Pell City. It was the first cotton mill in the South with the distinctive sawtooth roof design. In addition to the mill itself, the mill complex consisted of the adjacent Mill Village of over one hundred houses, the mill office, a community house, a hospital, and a school. In 1919 the mill was purchased by the Comer interests and became part of the Avondale Mills system. The Mill Village continued as the center of everyday life in Pell City for many years. The mill and Mill Village were added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 21, 2000.

Pell City's Historic Residential District

The earliest neighborhood in Pell City was the Residential District, located on the northern boundary of the Downtown Historic District. The Residential District was the preferred location for many of the earliest leaders involved in the growth and development of Pell City. The city was incorporated in 1891 and named for George Hamilton Pell of New York, a leading investor in the railroad that influenced the city's location. The town almost disappeared after the Panic of 1893, but due to the vision and leadership of Sumter Cogswell, was revived in 1902. The homes of Sumter Cogswell and Green Evans, Pell City's first mayor, are two of the earliest structures, dating from the late nineteenth century. The district is composed of sixteen full and partial city blocks, centering on First, Second, and Third Avenues North and containing 105 historic structures. The majority of the houses date from 1902 to 1930. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 29, 2001.

Alabama Historical Association

Founded in 1946 at Alabama College. Erected at tenth annual meeting held there in 1957. Alabama Historical Association. (Located on campus at Montevallo)

Confederate Forts

Near this site are the remains of three forts built in 1863 by Confederate troops under the command of Major W.T. Walthall, commander of the military post at Talladega. The forts, built for protection of the Alabama-Tennessee River Railroad trestles across the Coosa River and Yellow Leaf Creek, were manned during the last months of the war by reserve companies consisting of young boys and old men. Barbiere's Reserve Cavalry was stationed here in February 1865. Union troops commanded by General James H. Wilson captured the forts in March 1865.

Shelby County Courthouse

1854-1908 Original seat of government of Shelby County established in 1818 at Shelbyville (Pelham). Moved to Columbiana 1826. First courthouse a small wooden building located on this site. Replaced 1854 by two-story brick structure which forms central portion of this building. Later major alterations undertaken. Front and rear extensions added. Renovated structure designed in classical Jeffersonian style. Continued to serve as seat of county government until 1908 when new courthouse completed two blocks north.

Shelby Furnaces

Erected 1849 and 1863, 5 miles. Major source of pig iron for the Confederacy. Furnished iron to Selma arsenal for heavy cannon, naval armor plate. Furnaces destroyed in 1865 by Wilson's Cavalry raiders U.S.A. Rebuilt 1873, closed 1923.

Shelbyville, A.T.

Near this site stood Shelbyville, A.T., first county seat of Shelby County; named for Isaac Shelby, governor of Tennessee. Shelby County was established February 7, 1818 by an act of the Alabama Territorial Legislature. The first orphan's court was held April 4, 1818. Justices were: George Phillips, Patrick Hays, Bennet Ware, Needham Lee, and James Walker.

University of Montevallo

National Historic District Originally named Alabama Girls' Industrial School and later Alabama College, this institution was founded Oct. 12, 1896, by the Alabama Legislature. It was the state college for women until 1956, when it became coeducational. In 1969 the name was changed to the University of Montevallo. In Dec., 1978, the central portion of the campus was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The oldest buildings are King House (1823) and Reynolds Hall (1851).

Fort Tombecbee–3/4 mile

1736 Erected by French against intrusions of British traders arousing Choctaws and Chickasaws. 1763 Renamed Fort York by British who soon abandoned the post. 1783 Renamed Fort Confederation by Spanish and occupied until ceded in 1795. 1802 Here Choctaws ceded large areas to United States, and the post was continued as Indian trading post.

Gen. N. B. Forrest

Here Forrest paroled his force May 1865, after four years of outstanding military success, by order of Department Commander Gen. Dick Taylor.

John Anthony Winston

(1812-1871) Planter, Legislator, Soldier, Governor–1853: First native-born Alabamian to be elected Governor. 1854: Approved Act establishing public schools of state. 1867: Elected to U.S. Senate. He was denied his seat as he would not take oath of allegiance to Federal Government. Buried 5 miles east in family cemetery. (Located in Livingston)

Line 32° 28' North Latitude

Northern Boundary of: British W. Florida 1764-83, Spanish W. Florida 1783-95, Mississippi Territory 1798-1804, Washington County 1800-12, Clarke County 1812-15. Southern Boundary of: British Illinois 1764-83, United States 1783-95. Line fixed in 1764 by British king across present Alabama-Mississippi. France had ceded area to Britain in 1763.

Livingston State College

Chartered in 1840 as Livingston Collegiate Institute (1835: Female Presbyterian Academy planned). In 1883, by work of Julia Tutwiler, Alabama legislature made its first grant of funds to a girls' school. 1907: State Normal School. In 1929: became Livingston State Teachers College, granting degrees. In 1957 change to present name reflected its broader purposes. (Located on campus)

Sumter County

1736: First settlement by French at Ft. Tombecbee. 1830: U.S. got Choctaw Indian lands by Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. 1832: County created by Act of State Legislature–named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, "The Gamecock," South Carolina Revolutionary hero. 1833: Livingston made county seat. (Located in Livingston)

Sumter County's Covered Bridge

1860–Captain W. A. C. Jones of Livingston designed and built the bridge of hand-hewn yellow pine put together with large pegs, clear span 88 feet, overhead clearance 14 feet, and inside width of 17 feet, across the Sucarnoochee River on old State Road south of Livingston. 1924–Bridge taken down and reconstructed across Alamucha Creek on old Bellamy-Livingston Road where in use 1958. 1971–Removed to Livingston University campus and restored.

Woodbury

Earliest known Morgan Horse in Alabama and one of the three major stallion sons sired by Justin Morgan, foundation sire of the breed. Woodbury was foaled in 1816 in Vermont, where he remained until sold to Norman Bugbee of Gainesville, Alabama, in 1836. Bugbee, a native of Vermont, had opened a store a few months earlier in this thriving port city, home of the North Sumter Race Course. In late 1836, Woodbury was shipped by sailing vessel from Boston, but became ill en route and was injured during unloading. He never fully recovered and died in 1838. The U.S. Post Office at Gainesville is built on the site of Bugbee's store.

Battle of Talladega

Nov. 9, 1813. Here Andrew Jackson led Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Indians to victory over hostile "Red Sticks." This action rescued friendly Creeks besieged in Fort Leslie. Creek Indian War 1813-14.

Central Plank Road

1850. Here was northern terminus of 60 miles of toll road operated from Wetumpka. Built of wooden boards. Prior to railroads this was an important artery of travel. Chartered to connect navigable parts of the Alabama, Coosa, and Tennessee Rivers.

Coosa

Important Indian town for over 250 years and capital of Coosa province. Visited by DeSoto in 1540, and later by Spanish, French, British colonial explorers and traders. Early writers tell of abundant food crops, wild and cultivated, supporting a large population.

De Soto Caverns

De Soto Caverns was named for the famous Spanish explorer who traveled through this area in 1540. Over its rich history it offered shelter for native Indians for centuries (a 2,000-year-old Woodland Period burial was excavated by archeologists in the mid-1960s), became the first officially recorded cave in the U.S. (1796), and served as a Confederate gunpowder mining site during the Civil War. One of the largest show caves in the southeastern U.S., the main room of the caverns stands 12-stories high and is as large as a football field. The caverns' onyx-marble stalagmites and stalactites are among the most concentrated accumulations to be found in America.

Fayetteville

Here in 1814 Tennessee Troops joined Andrew Jackson's force which won the Creek Indian War. After Indian removal in 1836 these veterans brought their families here, named this community for their old home in Tennessee. Fayetteville Academy was built in 1850.

Federal Raids

Led by Gen. Rousseau July 17, 1864. Led by Gen. Croxton April 22, 1865. These well equipped expeditions met no organized opposition. They destroyed furnaces, railroads, storehouses, provisions, and training camp located here.

Fort Williams

12 miles west. Built by Andrew Jackson with U.S. Regulars, Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Cherokees and Creeks. Used as advance base during final phases of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. Military cemetery nearby.

Hernando De Soto

June 1540. Spanish discoverer, explorer, led his well-equipped army of conquistadors southward through this area. He sought gold and lands for colonization in this populous Indian county.

Hightower Brothers Livery Stable

Founded in 1896 by brothers John Judge and Milton Graham Hightower, this small-town livery stable served the community and surrounding countryside until its closing in 1955. Originally located nearby, the business moved to this "New Town" site in 1905. A new brick building was erected in 1914 after the original wood-frame structure was destroyed by fire. The Hightower Brothers furnished area farmers with agricultural resources, local businesses with vehicles, and the people of Sylacauga with recreational transportation. In addition to providing mules, horses, wagons, buggies, and farm implements locally, the stable was a major supplier of mules to Camp McClellan in Anniston during World War I. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997, the building was donated by the John Milton Hightower family to Blue Bell Creameries in 2000.

Mardisville

Originally called Jumper's Spring. Site of U. S. Land Office for sale of lands ceded by Creek Indians, 1832. Early courts held here after Talladega County was created. Named for Samuel W. Mardis, settled from Tennessee.

Maria Forge

Built in 1842. Here Riddle Brothers operated first and largest forge in Talladega Creek Valley. They made bar iron to supply plows, horseshoes, nails, other wrought-iron products to early settlers of area. Indians had been forced from area in 1836.

Mumford Skirmish

April 23, 1865. One of the last fights of the war. Here General B. J. Hill hastily gathered a force of boys, old men, and convalescents to resist Croxton's Union Cavalry raiders. The raiders were intent on destroying Confederate railroads, furnaces, and supplies.

Presbyterian Home for Children–Synod of Alabama–Presbyterian Church in the United States

Originally conceived 1864 as a home for children of Confederate dead by Synod in session at Selma. Opened at Tuskegee 1868–relocated in Talladega 1891. A haven for dependent youth of Alabama providing training, education, and worship in a Christian atmosphere. (Located at Children's Home in Talladega)

Sylacauga

Settled in 1748 by Shawnee Indians from Ohio. They joined Creek Confederacy, fought against U.S. in War of 1812, were moved west in 1836. Settled before 1836 by men who had fought in this area under Andrew Jackson. Indian name: Syllacogga or Chalakagay.

Talladega Furnace

1889-1930. "The International Furnace." Built by British group in 1889. Run by Americans during Spanish-American War. Japan bought–World War I–and made iron until Armistice. First furnace to ship low phosphorous iron to North. Dismantled for scrap in 1930.

Battle of Emucfau

5 miles south, January 22, 1814. Jackson fortified position here during Creek Indian War (1813-14). Although repeated attacks by the Red Sticks were repulsed, Jackson withdrew with the Indians pursuing.

Battle of Enitachopko

Creek Indian War 1813-14, 4 mi. E. Hostile Creeks attacked Andrew Jackson, withdrawing to Ft. Strother. Jan. 24, 1814. His troops broke through lines and kept on to Ft. Strother. But Creeks boasted that they defeated 'Capt. Jack,' drove him to the Coosa.

Court Square

Anticipating the construction of a railroad through the country hamlet of Youngsville, Griffin Young in 1860 hired W. H. Whatley to survery a portion of his property and lay it off in forty-eight town lots. In the plan two acres were reserved for use as a public square. Delayed by the Civil War, the railroad was finally completed to the newly named Alexander City in 1874, and the business center developed around and to the north of the public square. In 1877, on the south side of the square, the members of the First Baptist Church erected their first house of worship. In 1889, during the term of mayor Buford L. Dean, a courthouse-city hall was erected on the site. The original building was destroyed in the 1902 fire. A second building was erected and a third in 1939.

The First Baptist Church

1872 In the summer of 1872 a few residents in the village of Youngsville gathered for a revival held on the hill later occupied by Mistletoe Bough. Alexander City's First Baptist Church and First United Methodist Church trace their origins from that union revival held under a bush arbor. On August 3, 1872 eleven men and women guided by Rev. A.K. Tribble met under the bush arbor and organized the Youngsville Baptist Church. J.T.P. Christian and B.B. Reams were elected deacons and T.S. Christian, Sr. was elected clerk. Following the town's name change the next year, the church became the Alexander City Baptist Church. Sunday services were held once a month until 1879. On this site in 1877 the congregation erected its first house-of-worship, a wood-frame structure valued at $1,000. The church erected new sanctuaries on this site in 1906 and in 1967.

First United Methodist Church

1872 Following a fire in June 1902 that destroyed the Methodist Episcopal Church of the North Alabama Conference, along with most of downtown Alexander City, the church leadership chose to relocate to this site. Construction began in 1903 on the neoclassical Romanesque style house of worship. The foundation stones were collected from a nearby farm, and the bricks and timbers were fabricated by local craftsmen within walking distance of the site. The first service in the completed structure was held in May 1906. The church traces its origin to a small group of Methodists led by Rev. William T. Patillo, who joined with people of other denominations for a union revival held under a bush arbor in the village of Youngsville in the summer of 1872.

First Presbyterian Church

First Presbyterian Church was organized March 2, 1893. The church was made up of 17 members at the home of Robert Clinton Sandlin, who was installed as the First Ruling Elder. The church constructed their 1st building on this site in 1895. The church was the only buildng in the business district not destroyed by the fire on Friday, June 13, 1902. The postmaster used the church's basement for his office until the new Post Office was rebuilt. In the mid-1900s, the building was renovated by the law firm of Morris, Haynes, and Hornsby.

Fort Okfuskee

6 mi. west. Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 mi. S. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy.

Grafenberg Medical Institute

1852-1861. Alabama's first medical school. Trained physicians who rendered great service to the State and Confederacy. Closed by war and death of its founder, Phillip M. Shepard, M.D.

Horseshoe Bend Battleground

Twelve miles north, there on March 27, 1814, General Andrew Jackson, commanding U. S. forces and friendly Indians, broke the power of the Creek Confederacy. (Located one mile north of Dadeville)

Johnson J. Hooper

1815-1861. Author, Editor, Lawyer, Secretary of Congress, C.S.A. As a writer he created Captain Simon Suggs of the Tallapoosa Volunteers, fictional character whose humorous, rascally escapades of pioneer days in Alabama became world famous.

Menawa, War Chief

About 1766-1837. Indian farmer-merchant chose to resist whites' advance on Indians' lands. In Creek War he led Creeks at battle of Horseshoe Bend. His warriors were beaten by Jackson's superior force but Menawa escaped.

Needmore

1873 Freedmen moving to the new market town of Youngsville in the early 1870s occupied homes along a street they called Needmore Street. They relocated their house of worship from near the present junction of South Central Avenue and Cherokee Road to the Needmore neighborhood where Methodists and Baptists shared a building. Missionaries from the Methodist Episcopal Church formed a congregation in Alexander City and, in 1873, Bishop Gilbert Haven appointed Rev. George Scott pastor of the new church. In 1876 the church became a charter member of the Central Alabama Conference. In 1895 the Bethel Baptist Church congregation constructed a separate house of worship. Great Bethel Baptist Church attained distinction in the 20th century for its religious and social outreach programs under the leadership of its pastor of 45 years, Rev. Milton Nunn.

Rousseau's Raid

Along Stow Ferry Road on July 16, 1864, a column of five federal cavalry regiments led by Major General Lovell H. Rousseau passed on their way to destroy the railroad at Opelika. Captain Thomas A. Elkin of the 5th Kentucky Cavalry in the lead detachment rode into Youngsville about 6:00 P.M. on the 16th. The Yankees scavenged and burned four tax-in-kind warehouses containing grain, cornmeal, and bacon. Crossing the Tallapoosa River in the darkness on the 16th, Col. William D. Hamilton of the 9th Ohio recalled: "Ever after we referred to the crossing of that river in the night with shudders... unpleasant as that of any battle."

The Savannah and Memphis Railroad

The transformation of Youngsville from a country hamlet to a market town can be traced from the arrival of the railroad. The Savannah and Memphis Railroad was completed from Opelika to teh east side of the Tallapoosa River at Sturdivant in 1872. Anticipating the extension of the railroad to Youngsville, the grateful citizens in 1873 renamed the village's name to Alexander City in honor of Edward Porter Alexander, president of the S&M. On June 24, 1874 an excursion train pulled by an engine christened Simon Suggs steamed into Alexander City bringing dignitaries and visitors who joined thousands of residents to celebrate the inauguration of rail service. A passenger-freight depot erected in 1874 and rebuilt after the 1902 fire stood on the opposite side of the railroad from this site until relocated to Court Square in 1955.

Sidney Z. Mitchell

, 1862-1944 Industrialist and Electrical Pioneer Born in Tallapoosa County, reared in Coosa County by his grandmother, Ann Jordan; educated at the United States Naval Academy. A pioneer in the generation of electricity throughout the world, his engineering and financial knowledge provided many of the guidelines for the production of the electric power we take for granted today.

Youngsville

Following the Creek Cession of 1832, settlers, mostly from Georgia and the Carolinas, occupied this section of the former Creek Nation. Among the first settlers was James Young who purchased land a half-mile west near a trading post called Georgia Store. Community life can be dated from 1837 when Griffin Young opened a post office in his store and eight men and women, "The Baptist bretheren settlers of Youngsville" organized Fellowship Primitive Baptist Church. The store and the church were within view of this site. For the first thrity-five years of its existence, Youngsville was a country hamlet of scattered farms, a store-post office and a church. The Civil War delayed the construction of a railroad and an ambitious plan by Griffin Young to promote a "town" on his property. Anticipating the arrival of the railroad, the Town of Youngsville was incorporated in 1872 and, the next year, the town's name was changed to Alexander City in honor of E. P. Alexander, president of the Savannah and Memphis Railroad.

Alabama Corps of Cadets Defends Tuscaloosa

(side one) Early on the morning of 4 April 1865, Union Gen John T. Croxton's Cavalry Brigade of 1500 veteran troopers entered the town after fighting the home guard and capturing the covered bridge connecting Northport and Tuscaloosa across the Warrior River. While a detachment of Federals proceeded to capture two pieces of artillery stored at the Broad St. livery stable, Pat Kehoe of the Alabama Insane Hospital hurried to the University of Alabama to warn of the soldiers' approach. University president Landon C. Garland ordered the guardhouse drummers to "beat the long roll" to awaken the 300 sleeping cadets. Quickly forming into ranks, the three companies began their march from campus into town. A platoon from Co. C, under Capt John H. Murfee, formed as skirmishers and forged ahead to the corner of Greensboro Ave. and Broad St. (University Blvd.) where they encountered the enemy from the 6th Ky Cav Regt. In the ensuing firefight, Capt Murfee was wounded along with three cadets, W.R. May, Aaron T. Kendrick and William M. King. The Union pickets then retreated down the hill back toward the bridge. The bloodied cadet platoon rejoined the main body of the Corps which had advanced at the sound of fighting. Together they proceeded one block north to the brow of River Hill and took up positions, firing several volleys down on the Union enemy by the river. Learning from a Confederate officer who had been captured and temporarily released by Croxton that the Yankee force included 1500 arms and the two captured cannons, President Garland and Commandant of Cadets Colonel James T. Murfee decided that an attack with teen-aged boys would be a useless sacrifice. The Corps marched the 1½ miles back to the campus, fortified themselves with what provisions were available, and continued east on Huntsville Rd. Crossing Hurricane Creek some eight miles from town, they unplanked the bridge and entrenched themselves on the east bank. Croxton did not pursue, instead exploding the University's ammunition supplies and setting the campus ablaze. After witnessing the destruction from afar, the cadets marched east, then south to Marion. There, the Corps disbanded with orders to re-form in one month's time; the war ended in the interval.

Alpha Delta Pi

Organized May 15, 1851 Eta Chapter March 21, 1907 Alpha Delta Pi, the first college secret sisterhood, was organized at Wesleyan Female College, Macon, Georgia, the first women's college to grant academic degrees. Originally identified as Adelpheans, the group had three thousand alumnae and sixty active members in 1905 when it changed its name to Alpha Delta Phi (Pi in 1913) and began to expand nationally. Eta Chapter at the University of Alabama was the first chapter established in the state. Pi Kappa Kappa, the first local sorority at the University, had organized February 6, 1904 and became affiliated with Alpha Delta Phi (Pi) as the Eta Chapter on March 21,1907. Installation ceremonies were held in the rooms of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. Eta Chapter went into inactive status in 1909-10 because of the scarcity of eligible women students. Reactivation followed on February 14, 1931.

Bethany Baptist Church

Constituted 28 Dec. 1832 by Elders Thomas Baines (ancestor of President Lyndon B. Johnson), Holland W. Middleton and Medey White, first Pastor. First Deacons were Henry Fox, Thomas Fox, and David Denton. One of 13 churches organizing Tuscaloosa Baptists Asso. in 1834. Bethabera Church was organized as a mission in 1843. Rev. Basil Manley, Second President of the University of Ala., often filled the pulpit. He donated a Bible and a set of hymn books in 1851. First two buildings were of log, on land donated by Jesse Hughes in 1838. Present site acquired 1883. Present building constructed 1953.

Bethel Baptist Church

Organized May 10, 1834, as Buck Creek Baptist Church. Presiding Clergy: Robert Marsh, Medey White, Thomas Norris and Job Wilson. Building erected in 1836 and renamed Bethel Baptist Church. Larger structure erected 1907. Destroyed by lightning and rebuilt in 1877. In 1890 Mary Jane Thornton from Bethel was the first Baptist missionary from Tuscaloosa County. Served with Lottie Moon in the China Mission. Gov. Lurleen Burns Wallace, as a youth, attended Bethel Church. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Morgan Burns, are buried in the Bethel Cemetery. Marker unveiled April 29, 1984.

Bethel Missionary Baptist Church

Organized in 1881 with Rev. Delaware Jackson first pastor. Building at Fifth St., now University Boulevard, near Sixth Ave., East. Another site purchased August 1, 1903, and building erected on Sixth Ave., East, at Eleventh St. during pastorate of Rev. McDaniel. In 1948-49 church was rebuilt of brick in same Castle Hill area. In January, 1965, church moved to present site. During church's first 100 years, Bro. Jefferson Davis Jackson served as Sunday School Superintendent for 35 years and Rev. O. S. Harvey served as pastor for 43 years.

Bethel Presbyterian Church

Originally organized (1818) as Bethel Baptist Church by three ministers–Nathan Roberts, James Baines and Thomas Baines–at home of Jeremiah Jeffery near falls of Black Warrior River. Log building erected at this site (1822) as first church house. Later moved to present site and frame building erected. Church discontinued (1870) because of membership loss. Bethel Presbyterian Church established on same site (1901) by evangelist D. N. Yarbro. Present structure erected 1948; educational building added 1958.

Big Creek Cemetery

William Prude, 15 October 1774-8 January 1833, was the earliest marked burial. Nancy George, died March 26, 1834, was the earliest female burial. Nancy Doughty, March 14, 1747- November 15, 1834, had the earliest marked birth date in the cemetery and probably of all females buried in the county. 24 persons with markers were buried before 1852. 253 persons were buried with markers and 47 unmarked graves as of March 16, 1995. The "Alabama Stone" was found at the mouth of Big Creek 3 miles from this site in 1817, a 204-lb. sandstone rock with carved inscription "HISPAN AT IND REX 1232," presently at AL Dept. of Achieves and History.

Big Creek Cemetery

Cemetery of Big Creek Baptist Church, the county's third oldest Baptist Church. Organized in 1820. First meeting house at this site adjacent to Bluff Branch School on land donated by James Hendricks. July 1861, "Tuscaloosa Plough-boys" Co. (later Co. "G" 38th Tenn. Regt.), under command of James J. Mayfield (father of AL Supreme Court justice of the same name), met, received uniforms, and entered service here. 10 Civil War, 1 Spanish-American War veterans buried here. Final resting place for many noble men and virtuous women of God. Dedication of markers in July 1995 commemorates 175th Anniversary of this hallowed ground.

The Black Warrior River

Plied for thousands of years by Indians, then by early explorers and American settlers, this river extends 169 miles from the Sipsey and Mulberry Forks near Birmingham to its confluence with the Tombigbee at Demopolis. It drains 6228 square miles of one of the world's most ancient watersheds and has 130 species of fish and many rare plants and animals. Part of a navigable waterway system, this point is 339 river miles above Mobile. About 5 billion gallons of water flow past here each day. In the past it was designated as two rivers, the "Black Warrior" upstream and the "Warrior" downstream since Federal funds were appropriated on a per river basis. In the Choctaw language "Tuscaloosa" means Black Warrior.

Black Warrior's Town

One-half mile north was the Creek Indian village known as Black Warrior's Town, of which Oce-Oche-Motla was chief. After Tecumseh's visit in 1811, these Indians became hostile to white settlers. In 1812 Little Warrior brought Mrs. Martha C. Crawley of Tennessee to this Indian Village as a captive. She was rescued by Tandy Walker, a blacksmith, and taken to St. Stephens. This was one of the incidents which led to the Creek War. The village was destroyed in October 1813 by Colonel John Coffee and his Tennessee Volunteers, one of whom was Davy Crockett.

Bridging the Black Warrior River

On this site in 1834, John Godwin and Horace King built the first river bridge utilizing a wooden lattice truss designed by Ithiel Town. It was damaged by a tornado in 1842, rebuilt in 1852, and destroyed by Union troops in 1865. Horace King built a new wooden bridge in 1872 that was replaced with a 3-span iron bridge in 1882. A higher bridge with a swing span was built in 1895 to allow river traffic. A drawbridge was built in 1922. All of these bridges were approximately 600-feet long and utilized the original 1834 brick piers. In 1974 the Hugh Thomas Bridge was built slightly downstream.

Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church

Oldest existing Black Presbyterian Church in Alabama. Organized by Dr. Charles A. Stillman as Salem Church in December, 1880. First church building erected 9th Street and 30th Avenue in 1882. First pastors were Reverend B. M. Wilkinson (1889-90) and Reverend I. C. H. Champney (1894-98). In 1915 relocated at 11th Street and 25th Avenue. In 1931 moved to present site. Name changed to Brown Memorial (1932) honoring Dr. R. A. Brown, Superintendent of Home Mission Work, PCUS. Present sanctuary built 1959 under leadership of Reverend Charles H. Williams. Earlier structure converted to Educational Building in 1961.

Bryce Hospital

Alabama State hospitals inspired by Dorothea Dix in 1849. Opened 1861. Peter Bryce, J. T. Searcy, and W. D. Partlow were the superintendents during the next 87 years. (Located at Bryce Hospital in Tuscaloosa)

Burns' Shoal

The remains of Burns' Shoals now lie nearly 40 feet underwater. This rock outcropping was the first of the shoals known as the "Falls of Tuscaloosa" and represents the "Fall Line" or contact point of the Coastal Plain and the Appalachian Plateau, which extends nearly 2000 miles to Canada. From here upstream the riverbed is primarily rock while downstream it is sand, silt and gravel. It was head of navigation on the river and thus a primary reason for the founding of Tuscaloosa. It was used as an early ford and bathing site, and later provided a solid foundation for a succession of bridges. During construction of Old Locks One, Two and Three (1888-1895), it was channelized to allow the passage of river traffic.

Byler Road

One-half mile east is a portion of the original Byler Road. Legislation authorizing construction signed into law December 1819, by Alabama's first governor, William Wyatt Bibb. Built by John Byler, it was Alabama's first public road. Opened November 1822, operated as a toll road until 1834. Twelve feet wide, it connected Northwest Alabama and the Tennessee River to the Warrior River at Northport. Used by early settlers and military forces during War Between the States, it was a factor in the development of many Alabama communities.

Canaan Baptist Church

Jefferson County's oldest Baptist Church–Organized September 5, 1818 in home of Isaac Brown 3 miles west of Elyton. Met in homes and schoolhouse near Old Jonesboro until 1824. First building erected on site now the 14th Street entrance to Cedar Hill Cemetery. Canaan Association (now Birmingham Baptist Association) was organized there in 1833. Hosea Holcombe, pioneer preacher and historian, was pastor 1822-41. The congregation has worshiped at this present location since 1856.

Captain Benjamin F. Eddins

Born in South Carolina in 1813, Benjamin Farrar Eddins raised and led a company of volunteers that served in the 41st Alabama Infantry Regiment. Retired due to ill health, he returned to lead the Home Guards, a militia made up of old men and young boys. While trying to render the covered bridge impassable to Federal troops on the night of April 3, 1865, he and 15-year-old John Carson were wounded in a skirmish with Croxton's Raiders. Later that evening, Mayor Obediah Berry and Catholic priest William McDonough surrendered the city on this site. Carson was disabled for life. On April 10, 1865, Capt. Eddins became the only local citizen to die defending the city. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery.

Castle Hill-Daly Bottom Community

In 1883 the Castle Hill Real Estate and Manufacturing Company began the first eastern expansion of the original 1821 Tuscaloosa city limits. Hoping to stimulate development in the area, the company created a popular amusement park centered around an artificial lake. Portions of this property had belonged to Delaware Jackson, a freed slave who had been given the land for courage and loyalty. In 1881 Jackson organized the Bethel Baptist Church and, in 1917, he donated nearby land for the Baptist Academy, a community school. The name was changed to the Tuscaloosa County Training School for Negroes and later to the Castle Hill Elementary School. "Daly Bottom," the area at the base of the hill closest to the University of Alabama was named for landowner Rafe A. Daly. The Castle Hill/Daly Bottom neighborhood gave birth to Bethel Baptist, Tenth Street Baptist, and two Methodist churches including Tabernacle AME Zion. Many of its residents later distinguished themselves in many walks of life.

Christ Episcopal Church

Organized January 7, 1828 The second oldest Episcopal Church in Alabama. Construction begun 1829, completed 1830 at cost of $1700. Enlarged and remodeled in 1880 from original Greek Revival design to present Gothic lines. First pews sold to highest bidder; made free in 1849. Nicholas Hamner Cobbs, first Episcopal Bishop of Alabama, served as rector, 1846-1851. Church bell installed 1830, is still used. A Rectory built 1844, was located where Chapel now stands. Charter ceremonies for University of Alabama held in this church and Reverend Alva Woods installed as first President, University of Alabama, April 12, 1831.

Christian Home

Erected in 1840's Built by James Shirley, early Tuscaloosa County builder who in the 1850's erected first brick commercial buildings in Northport. Home of William L. Christian (1824-1899), Confederate soldier and local merchant, George W. and Lula Rice Christian, community and church leaders. Federal raised cottage of handmade brick, hand hewn beams and wooden pegs, it is listed in National Register of Historic Places.

Coker Baptist Church

Constituted as Big Creek Baptist Church on July 22, 1820 by Daniel Brown and Thomas Baines (ancestor of President Lyndon B. Johnson) with Phillip May as first pastor, Joseph Barrett and Charles Pate as first deacons. As the third oldest church in the county, it was one of the 13 organizing the Tuscaloosa Baptist Association in 1834. Prior to 1864 church records show 148 slaves as members. First located adjacent to Bluff Branch School and Meetinghouse, next to Big Creek Cemetery; moved to its present site in 1944. The name changed to Coker Baptist in 1956. Setting of the marker in July 1995 commemorates the 175th Anniversary of the Church.

Delta Kappa Epsilon

Psi Chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity first Greek letter fraternity at the University of Alabama. Organized by Louis J. DuPré, chapter installed June 20, 1847. First members initiated at Indian Queen Hotel by Charles Foote of Phi Chapter at Yale College. D.K.E. house built 1916. Because of its location is known as "The Mansion on the Hill." --------------------Reverse---------------------- Delta Kappa Epsilon Psi Chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity installed at The University of Alabama June 20, 1847. The charer members were: Edward G. Baptist, James I. Bonner, Louis DuPré, Charles F. Henry, Edward L. Jones, John H. Lee, Richard B. Owen, Charles A. Pegues, Thaddeus H. Perry, George W. F. Price, Peyton W. Reynolds, Milford F. Woodruff.

Denny Chimes

This tower which has been a symbol for The University of Alabama was built to honor longtime University President George H. Denny who served as president from 1911 to 1936 and again briefly in 1942. Funds for this project were provided through a student subscription program chartered by a student, Jerry Britchey. The tower was constructed by Skinner, Maxwell and Co. and dedicated May 27, 1929. Governor Bibb Graves presided. This marker was provided by Delta Chi Fraternity in commemorating the 50th year of Denny Chimes.

Druid City Hospital School of Nursing

Constructed in 1923 through gift of J. T. Horne, this building occupied by Druid City School of Nursing from 1923 to 1947. Used by University of Alabama from 1951 to 1954 to house first state supported collegiate school of nursing in Alabama.

First African Baptist Church

Tuscaloosa, Alabama Organized November 1866, with 144 members. The Reverend Prince Murrell, first pastor, served until 1885. A church building located at corner of 4th Street and 24th Avenue was purchased and became place of worship during pastorate of the Rev. James Maston, 1885-1891. Resolution passed in this church 1873 resulted in establishment of Selma University, Selma, Ala. Present structure erected 1907 under leadership of the Rev. J. H. Smith. Church annex completed and adjoining property purchased during pastorate of the Rev. W. B. Shealey, 1952-1957. Education building and new parsonage constructed during term of the Rev. T. Y. Rogers Jr., 1963-1971.

First Baptist Church

Organized 1818, oldest church in Tuscaloosa County. First building was of logs. A brick structure completed 1830 and larger one at this site 1884. Educational building erected 1924 and present sanctuary 1958. Sunday School organized here 1830. Influenced by the leadership of the first two presidents University of Alabama: Dr. Alva Wood, 1831; Dr. Basil Manly, 1837, who often filled pulpit. A resolution from this church, 1844, resulted in formation of Northern and Southern Baptist Conventions. Sponsored other churches: Hopewell, 1830; Southside, 1889; Holt, 1903; Calvary, 1910; Westend, 1910; Forest Lake, 1936; and Circlewood, 1948.

First Presbyterian Church of Tuscaloosa

Organized 1820. Moved to this site 1830. Present structure erected 1921. Under the leadership of Dr. Charles A. Stillman, minister 1869-1895, it sponsored the founding of Stillman College in 1876. Its bell was the subject of a poem by Samuel Minturn Peck, poet laureate of Alabama.

Friedman Home

Battle-Friedman Home Friedman Civic and Agricultural Center Built 1835 by Alfred Battle; purchased 1875 by Bernard Friedman; willed to City of Tuscaloosa 1965 by Hugo Friedman. Traditionally a social and cultural center in Tuscaloosa, it was the residence of Virginia Tunstall Clay-Clopton, author of "Belle of the Fifties" and of the poet Robert Loveman.

Geological Survey of Alabama

Established by legislative mandate in 1848, the Geological Survey of Alabama is the oldest scientific agency of the State. In fulfillment of its mission to evaluate the State's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources, the scientists and staff of the Survey document the distribution, abundance, and importance of these resources for the people of Alabama. --------------------Reverse----------------------

State Geologists of Alabama

Seven geologists have served Alabama as State Geologist during the Survery's 150-year history. Michael Tuorney [1805-1857] served from 1848 to 1857; Eugene Allen Smith [1841-1927], 1873 to 1927; Walter Bryan Jones [1895-1977], 1927 to 1961; Philip E. LaMoreaux, 1961 to 1976; Thomas J. Joiner, 1977 to 1981; Ernest A. Mancini, 1982 to 1996; and Donald F. Oltz, 1996 to present. Beginning in 1939 with Walter B. Jones, all State Geologists served concurrently as Oil and Gas Supervisor for the State Oil and Gas Board.

Gorgas House

Built 1829 as University dining hall–Remodeled as a residence in 1840–Occupied by Gorgas family 1879-1953. Gorgas House–Preserved as memorial to: General Josiah Gorgas (1818-1883) Chief of Ordnance Confederacy 1861-1865. President of University 1878-1879. Mrs. Amelia Gayle Gorgas (1826-1913)–University Librarian 1879-1906. General William Crawford Gorgas (1854-1920) Surgeon General of U.S. Army–Sanitary Engineer whose work assured Panama Canal construction through elimination of Yellow Fever. (Located in Tuscaloosa at Gorgas House)

Gorgas-Manly Historic District

Twelve acres of the campus on the University of Alabama including eight buildings designated in the National Register of Historic Places as the Gorgas-Manly District. The Gorgas-Manly Historic District includes: The Gorgas House (1829), first structure built on the original campus; The Round House (1860), used by cadets on guard duty, another of the four buildings to survive the fires set by Federal troops in 1865; Woods Hall (1868), first building constructed after the Civil War and serving for the next sixteen years as the University; Manly (1886), Clark (1886), Garland (1888) Halls, built as the state began to recover from the Reconstruction Era; Toumey and Barnard Halls (1888), which completed the nineteenth-century University of Alabama campus.

Grant's Creek Baptist Church

Fosters, Alabama Grant's Creek Baptist Church was constituted April 5, 1828, with Rev. Medey White and Robert Marsh (the first pastor) as presbytery. Lewis Stovall was first Church clerk, and James Foster was ordained as the first deacon. The Grant's Creek Sunday School Union was organized Dec. 1827, as the oldest Sunday school in Alabama. In 1832, a building was constructed by member John W. Bealle for $500 which served the Church until 1968, when the present building replaced it. In August 1833, the Baptist State Convention met here and took action leading to the founding of Howard (now Samford) and Judson Colleges. Four sons of Col. John and Elizabeth Savidge Foster-James, Hardy, Robert S., and John L.S.-settled here beginning in 1818, with their mother and sisters Martha and Elizabeth following. Their families formed the nucleus of a model community in the new state, nurtured and influenced primarily by this church. John Collier Foster was pastor from 1845 to his 1892 death. Martha Foster Crawford (1830-1909) was a missionary to China for 50 years.

Home Guard Defended Covered Bridge

Side One 3 April 1865 – Brig Gen John T. Croxton's Cavalry Brigade departed camp at Johnson's Ferry (Old Lock 17 area) to the Watermelon Road ending in Northport. As the Union troops entered Northport, the Methodist Church bell was rung as a prearranged warning alarm. Armed with 7-shot carbines, 150 troopers of the 2nd Michigan Cav Regt rushed the covered bridge which was defended by about a dozen old men and young boys led by 53-year-old Capt Benjamin F. Eddins. This Home Guard removed 30 feet of the bridge's flooring in a delaying action as they retreated, returning fire with their single-shot weapons. Capt Eddins was seriously wounded and died a week later; 15-year-old John Carson was crippled for life by a bullet. Union casualties of the 2nd Mich Cav Regt numbered 23. 4 April – Croxton's raiders skirmished with the Alabama Corps of Cadets near Greensboro Ave and University Blvd and the brow of River Hill. After the mayor, accompanied by a Catholic priest, surrendered the town, the Union troops burned the main buildings of the State University, the foundry, factories, warehouses and over 2,000 bales of cotton. 5 April – Burning the covered bridge and destroying two captured cannon, Croxton's cavalry departed Tuscaloosa and Northport by way of the Columbus Road (old Highway 82 W).

Bridging the Black Warrior River

Side Two At this junction for all roads converging from the north, east, and west, seven bridges in succession have connected Northport and Tuscaloosa across the Black Warrior River. The first was built in 1834 by then-slave Horace King. Damaged by a tornado in 1842, it was replaced in 1852 by a second bridge – the one defended by the Tuscaloosa Home Guard before its destruction in April 1865. In 1872 a new wooden span was erected, again engineered by King, who had been freed in 1846 and who had become famous as a bridge builder in Alabama and Georgia. A 3-span iron bridge was built in 1882, then replaced in 1895 with a swing-span type to allow the passage of river traffic. A drawbridge was constructed in 1922, standing until the Hugh Thomas Bridge was built slightly downstream in 1974.

Home of Hudson & Therese Strode

Dr. Hudson Strode (1892-1976)–author, scholar, teacher, and world traveler–and his beloved wife, Therese (1900-1986) lived here from 1941 until their deaths. Professor of English at the University of Alabama (1916-1961): he was renowned for his courses in Shakespeare and Creative Writing, his students publishing 59 novels and innumerable short stories; his authoring of 13 books including a 3-volume biography of Jefferson Davis and editing a volume of Mr. Davis' letters. Dr. Strode received numerous honors and awards including being knighted by King Gustav VI of Sweden. Famous for their hospitality, the Strodes entertained students, friends and world figures in this house which they bequeathed with its gardens and a generous educational endowment to the University which they loved and served so faithfully.

Hopewell Baptist Church

Constituted October 22, 1830 under leadership of Thomas Baines, Medley White and Robert Marsh of Ebenezer (First) Baptist Church of Tuscaloosa. Robert Marsh served as first pastor 1830-1833. John Meek was first minister ordained December 23, 1838. First met at Liberty in log meeting house on this site. Wooden structure built in 1860. Replaced by present building in 1960. Tuscaloosa Baptist Association organized here March 28, 1834.

Horace King

Born a slave in South Carolina in 1807, Horace King became a master bridge builder while working with John Godwin. With the aid of Tuscaloosan Robert Jemison, King was freed by act of the Alabama legislature in 1846. He went on to build many bridges and other structures across the South. Revered and respected for his organizational abilities, building skills and personal integrity, he formed the King Brothers Bridge Company with his family after the Civil War. After serving two terms in the Alabama legislature during Reconstruction, he died at LaGrange, GA in 1885. John Godwin and Horace King built the first bridge across the Black Warrior River on this site in 1834.

Hunter's Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Organized 1866, the first Black Methodist Church in Tuscaloosa. First house of worship, a rented building, was located where Denny Stadium now stands. First structure built by the church completed 1878. Present structure erected 1881, exterior brick added 1910. This church, often called the "father" of Negro education in Tuscaloosa, included a school for children of freed slaves during Reconstruction Era of 1870's. Church named for Rev. E. H. Hunter, who served with distinction as pastor during 1880's. Rev. Felix Sylvester Anderson, pastor, 1933-1936, elected 1960, to office of Bishop, A M E Zion Churches of America and served until retirement, 1972.

"The Indian Fires Are Going Out"

The Trail of Tears led thousands of Creek Indians through Tuscaloosa, capital of Alabama in 1836. Chief Eufaula addressed the legislature with these words: I come here, brothers, to see the great house of Alabama and the men who make laws and to say farewell in brotherly kindness before I go to the far west, where my people are now going. In time gone by I have thought that the white men wanted to bring burden and ache of heart among my people in driving them from their homes and yoking them with laws they do not understand. But I have now become satisfied that they are not unfriendly toward us, but that they wish us well. In these lands of Alabama, which have belonged to my forefathers and where their bones lie buried, I see that the Indian fires are going out. Soon they will be cold. New fires are lighting in the west for us, they say, and we will go there. I do not believe our great Father means to harm his red children, but that he wishes us well. We leave behind our good will to the people of Alabama who build the great houses and to the men who make the laws. This is all I have to say.

Jennings Chapel United Methodist Church

Organized 1847 as first and only Methodist Protestant Church established in Tuscaloosa Co. On this site were first two structures used by Jennings Chapel. The first, a log house built circa 1850 and a clapboard building erected November 1890. Brick structure completed 1956. John H. Harper, Sr. organized this church, serving as its first pastor for over 30 years. Named for Dr. Samuel K. Jennings, a physician and minister of national note, in early years of Methodist Protestant Church. First trustees were: Dr. Samuel K. Jennings, John H. Harper, Sr., John C. Hamner, Turner P. Hamner, and Richard H. Hamner.

Kappa Delta

Zeta Chapter of Kappa Delta first national Greek letter sorority at the University of Alabama. Chapter installed March 12, 1904. First members initiated in the Sigma Nu Hall by Katherine Lovejoy of Theta Chapter at Randolph-Macon Woman's College. First sorority to have Chapter in State of Alabama. Now oldest continuous Kappa Delta Chapter. First national Greek letter sorority at the University of Alabama. Zeta Chapter installed March 12, 1904. Charter members were: Alice Ashley, Pear Bogles, Mary Cockrell, Louise Crawford, Nell Hopkins, Elta Lamont, Bessie Leach, Eleanor McCorvey, Myrtle Merill, Anna Moody, Mary Moody, Katherine Nickolls, and Mary Parker.

The M & O Railroad Trestle

This wooden and steel truss bridge was constructed for the Mobile and Ohio Railroad in 1898 by civil engineer Benjamin Hardaway, an 1887 graduate of The University of Alabama and former Tuscaloosa City Engineer. Originally 135-feet high with a 110-foot clearance, it was once considered by many to be the country's longest trestle at 3600 feet. This bridge, along with Old Locks One, Two and Three, greatly improved transportation in West Alabama and heralded an era of economic development in the early 20th century. In later years the M&O Railroad became successively the Gulf, Mobile & Ohio; the Illinois Central Gulf; and the Kansas City Southern.

Marr's Spring

Located on original land grant to the State of Alabama 1819 to establish a University of Alabama. Named for William M. Marr, Marr's Spring was the water supply for the University for over 75 years. Restored in 1972 by Chi Omega Sorority, in association with the University of Alabama.

Navigation and Shipbuilding On the Black Warrior River

Navigation improvements to the Black Warrior River (1888-1895) spurred marine commerce throughout the 20th century. Local shipbuilders included the Perkins Brothers, Herman & Son, Corps of Engineers Boatyard, and Baker Towboat. Vessel types included barges, government workboats and towboats. Some of the boats built here were the Black Warrior, Dixie, Gold Bug, Mary, Nelma and R.G. Parker. Numerous navigation companies served the area, six had terminals on the river between Tuscaloosa and Holt in the 1930s. Companies based here included Findlay Towing, Perkins Towboat and Parker Towing.

Northport Baptist Church

Organized 1838 with 41 charter members. The first minister was the Rev. A. K. Atkins. First deacons were J. S. Reynolds, A. R. Pool, and N. Lloyd. Originally named North Tuscaloosa Baptist, changed 1854, to Northport Baptist. A wooden structure erected at this site 1858, the present brick building 1923 and education annex 1969. Ministers serving this church have been: A. K. Atkins, Robert Adams, Reuben Dodson, T. M. Barbour, John T. Yerby, John Brown, J. H. Foster, J. H. Curry, F. D. Hale, A. J. Battle, A. A. Spiller, H. G. Smith, Samuel H. Henderson, W. M. Blackwelder, W. L. White, J. R. Magill, A. T. Camp, H. D. Wilson, A. H. Mahaffery, J. H. Wallace, B. F. Atkins, James L. Knight, Dr. John P. Oakes, J. Stanley Kelley, Clinton N. Wood.

Northport First United Methodist Church

Organized 1837, moved to present location, 1849, where churches have been rebuilt in 1855 and 1913. The bell of this church sounded the tocsin at the approach of Gen. John T. Croxton's Union Troops in their raid in Tuscaloosa, April 3, 1865.

Northport School

(1901-1922) Northport's first public school located on the site one-half block west. Original structure of wood, built in cruciform shape in 1901 by Arthur Laycock. Served grades 1-11 until 1922 when two-story brick school erected three blocks north. Original school property and building purchased by Dr. Sam Cooper in 1922 and converted into two residences. The Snider House at 2309 Ninth St. is part of original structure.

Old Lock One

The remains of Old Lock One are now submerged. Authorized by Congress in 1884, the Army Corps of Engineers began work on one of Alabama's first locks in 1888. It was built upon Peg Leg Shoals, second of the "Falls of Tuscaloosa," using local sandstone at a cost of $233,234. It was part of a 1.2-mile, 3-lock system that allowed passage over a series of shoals or waterfalls The opening of Old Lock One allowed access to the Warrior coalfields and shipment of coal, stone, iron, steel, lumber, cotton, and other products to distant markets. Also it was the site of a government boatyard. In later years it was renamed Lock Ten and remained in service until replaced by Oliver Lock and Dam in 1939.

Old Tavern

Built in 1827 three blocks east on Broad Street. Stage stop and inn frequented by many political leaders while Tuscaloosa was State Capital. Moved to Capitol Park, 1966.

Partlow State School and Hospital

Established 1919 as the Alabama Home for Mental Deficients; opened 1923; renamed the Partlow School for Mental Deficients, 1927, to honor the institution's founder Dr. William Dempsey Partlow (1877-1953) head of all mental facilities in Alabama from 1919 to 1949.

Running Skirmish at Romulus

Side One 5 April 1865 – Croxton's brigade left Northport by way of the (old) Columbus Road to Coker, then camped for the night on the old Eutaw Road toward Romulus. Confederate Gen. Wirt Adams's 1500-man cavalry brigade, traveling from Columbus Miss to reinforce Gen. Forrest at Marion Ala, learned of Croxton's presence in the area. 6 April – Croxton's brigade traveled southward across the swollen Sipsey River toward Lanier's Mill near Pleasant Ridge. After looting and burning the mill, they reversed direction to move back toward Northport, stopping along the way to feed horses and eat provisions taken at Lanier's Mill. As the brigade resumed its march near noon, Adams's brigade launched a vigorous assault on the Federals' rear guard, the 6th Ky. Cav. Regt. A running skirmish began as the 6th Ky. Cav. broke until reinforced by 4 companies of the better-armed 2nd Mich. Cav. The brisk engagement continued through a heavy rain until complete darkness overtook the combatants. Both sides then encamped near Romulus, some 13 miles from Northport. Gen. Croxton reported 34 casualties and the loss of a number of horses and ambulance wagons (one of which carried his personal papers). Confederate losses were not reported. Running Skirmish at Romulus Side Two 7 April 1865 – Adams's Confederates returned westward toward Columbus Miss in the belief that Croxton was headed that way. Croxton continued on to Northport. 8 April – Croxton, determined to rendezvous with the main Union force sweeping from Selma towards Ga, departed Northport. He followed a route to the northeast dictated by flooded creeks and the Black Warrior, traveling 23 miles north on the old Byler Rd. (US 43N). 9 - 11 April – While encamped in the area, Federal foraging parties stripped the countryside of provisions and its citizens of valuables. War of 1812-veteran John Prewett lost $26,000 in gold when one of these bands forced his slave to reveal its whereabouts in a nearby cave. 12 April – Traveling via Crabbe Rd. (old Jasper Rd.) to Windham Springs, the brigade departed Tuscaloosa County into the area of Wolf Creek in Walker County. Croxton's "Lost Brigade" eventually rejoined Gen. Wilson's Cavalry Corps on May 1 in Macon Ga, some 3 weeks after Gen. Lee's surrender at Appomattox.

Saint John the Baptist Catholic Church

Erected 1845, tower and bell added 1888-1900. The first meeting of Catholics in Tuscaloosa was held in 1819. The first parochial school was opened in 1863. St. Paul's Church, Birmingham, dedicated 1872, and churches in Selma, Blocton and Reform began as missions of this church; also originating from this church: St. Francis Chapel and Holy Spirit Church and School.

Shirley Bridge

James Shirley, 1835, built the first wooden covered bridge at this site. Bridges here were part of first road connecting Columbus, Miss. and Northport. A Tuscaloosa Co. company of Confederate Army, "The Plow Boys," en route to Columbus, July 1861, crossed bridge here. Union Gen. John T. Croxton, April 1865, after capturing Tuscaloosa, crossed bridge here. Republican Legislator, M. T. Crossland, on way to capitol at Montgomery, Nov. 1868 was assassinated near the bridge. A section of the 1882 steel, single span bridge once used for crossing Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa was re-erected here in 1922.

Sigma Alpha Epsilon–First Chapter, Alabama Mu and DeVotie Memorial

Founded in Tuscaloosa on the campus of the University of Alabama on March 9, 1856. Its chapter designation, Alabama Mu, identified it as the mother chapter of the national collegiate fraternity. Founding members: Noble Leslie DeVotie, Wade H. Foster, John Barratt Rudulph, Thomas Chappel Cook, John Webb Kerr, Samuel Marion Dennis, Nathan Elams Cockrell, Abner Edwin Patton. (Located on University of Alabama campus at Tuscaloosa)

Site of Alabama State Capitol

1826-1846 Tuscaloosa designated as State Capital by Legislature at Cahaba December 6, 1825. Building designed by State Architect, William Nichols, in the form of a Grecian Cross, employing both Grecian and Roman architecture in the interior. Construction began 1827. Governor John Murphy convened first session of State Legislature in this building December 13, 1829. Property deeded to University of Alabama in 1852; leased to Baptist Convention of Alabama, which operated Alabama Female College. Destroyed by fire, April 1923.

Site of Franklin Hall (The Mound)

Franklin Hall, an early University dormitory designed by Capt. William Nichols, was erected on this site in 1835. Was one of the buildings destroyed by the Union raid on April 4, 1865. After Civil War the remains of structure were shaped into present mound. By early 20th century this mound had become traditional site for honorary tappings by The University. Marker donated by Phi Mu Sorority in commemoration of its 50th anniversary at the University of Alabama.

Site of Queen City Park Softball Field

1936-1967 Built on this site in 1936, Queen City Park Softball Field served as the cornerstone for the first successful community effort to promote the organized play of amateur softball in Tuscaloosa County. Its construction followed nationwide efforts to organize softball in 1933. Soon thereafter, Tuscaloosa men's and women's softball teams emerged as state and national powers, and the sport itself gained recognition as true wholesome family recreation.

Stillman College

Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute 1876 by Presbyterian Church U.S. under leadership of Dr. Charles Allan Stillman pastor of First Presbyterian Church, Tuscaloosa, to train Black ministers. Renamed Stillman Institute 1894 for Dr. Stillman, first superintendent. Became coeducational 1899. Past programs included seminary, high school, vocational school, junior college, school of nursing and hospital services for Blacks. Four year program begun, renamed Stillman College 1948. Accredited senior college 1953.

The Jemison Home

Built by Robert Jemison, Jr. Completed 1862, the 26 room Italian Villa style mansion is distinguished by its octagonal cupola and delicate carved fretwork. Jemison, a member of Alabama Legislature for 20 years (1840-1863), Secession Convention 1861 (he voted against secession), Confederate States Senate (1863-65), helped establish Alabama Insane Hospital. Boyhood home Robert Jemison Van de Graff, inventor of generator used in splitting the atom and of William "Bully" Van de Graff, first All-American Athlete from University of Alabama. Hugo Friedman in 1955 acquired this mansion for Tuscaloosa County as a library.

The Mildred Warner House

Residence of many prominent Alabama families. Originally built by James Jenkins in 1882 as a two-room "cabin." David Scott, prominent merchant and church leader, purchased the property in 1832 and added the four-story brick structure. Occupied by the Burwell Boykin Lewis family in 1886. Rose Garland Lewis was daughter of the president of the University of Alabama and the window of a U.S. Congressman who was the first alumnus of the University to become its president. Noted historian of Tuscaloosa, Dr. George Little lived here with his family at the turn of the century. The Washington Moodys came into possession in 1919. Mrs. Moody lived in the house, after her husband's death in 1924, until 1960. Listed in the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1934, the first Tuscaloosa home to be so honored. Purchased and restored in 1976 by The David Warner Foundation under the direction of Jack W. Warner and named for his mother, Mildred Westervelt Warner.

The University of Alabama

Endowed by Congress 1819. Ordained by State Constitution 1819 and established by General Assembly 1820. Instruction begun 1831. Unofficial training school for Confederate officers 1861-65. Destroyed by Federal Army April 5, 1865. Rebuilding began 1867 and reopened 1868. Marker donated by Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity 1981.

Tuscaloosa City Hall

Constructed in 1909 as U.S. Post Office. First occupied April 1910 with Mrs. Maggie Miller as Postmistress. Federal courtroom, now City Council Chamber, with magnificent design and detail, on second floor, 1910-1968. Thomas A. Jones, first Federal presiding judge. Acquired by City of Tuscaloosa in 1968 and renovated as City Hall with George M. Van Tassel, Mayor, C. Snow Hinton and George K. Ryan, Commissioners.

Tuscaloosa First United Methodist Church

Organized 1818 by Ebenezer Hearn. First building on this site erected in 1834, including a church bell molded in Boston by coppersmiths Paul Revere and Sons. Present structure with marble Ionic columns was constructed 1922; Education Annex in 1953; Chitwood Hall in 1964. Edward Sims, a member and prominent local leader, in 1926 built and donated to this church, Tuscaloosa Female College. William W. Brandon, Alabama governor (1923-1927) was a member. Served by outstanding ministers; four becoming Methodist bishops; Robert Paine, John C. Keener, James H. McCoy, and Clare Purcell. This church has and continues faithfully to proclaim the compassion of Christ.

Tuscaloosa Landing

Tuscaloosa's first port developed on the south side of the river just downstream of the present bridge. In 1816 John Click brought goods upriver to this landing while Isaac Cannon made a 36-day trip to Mobile in a 40-foot dugout canoe. Commercial barges built by Col. Gabriel Penn in 1817 made trips to St. Stephens, the territorial capital. In 1818 Hiram Cochrane began building keelboats. In 1821 the "Cotton Plant" was the first steamboat arrival. A number of early industries including a tannery, cotton factories and a foundry were located in the general area. These pioneers laid a foundation for the development of Tuscaloosa and West Alabama. Construction of Oliver Lock and Dam flooded this landing in 1939.

Skirmish at Trion

On 31 March 1865, Union Brig. Gen. John T. Croxton's Cavalry of some 1500 troops entered Tuscaloosa County with orders to destroy the State University (military school) and anything else of value to the rebel cause. Near Bucksville they destroyed Saunders Iron Works and William's Tannery (now Tannehill State Park). Learning that Confederate cavalry units under Gen. Nathan B. Forrest and Brig. Gen. W.H. (Red) Jackson were traveling near Trion, some 10-miles distant, Croxton's Brigade rode to intercept. The Union forces camped that night on the farm of Squire John White, and were attacked by Jackson's Cavalry Division as they broke camp at daybreak, 1 April. The skirmish, the first in Tuscaloosa County, occurred about a half-mile south of present-day Vance. Union losses were heavy in the running fight: some 30 killed or wounded, another 30 captured, and 150 horses lost. Croxton was forced away from his original line of march, retreating to the northeast before turning west towards the Black Warrior River some 40 miles above Tuscaloosa. Crossing to the west bank at Johnson's Ferry or Black Rock Shoals (near old Lock 17 area), the Union raiders resumed their advance on Northport and Tuscaloosa on 3 April. Jackson's Confederate forces suffered several casualties in the skirmish. One soldier from Tennessee, who died several days later in the Squire John White home, was buried nearby by Trion-area citizens.

University Club

Built 1834 by James Dearling. Purchased by Arthur P. Bagby who occupied the house 1837-41 while Governor of Alabama and since known as the Governor's Mansion. Presented to the University of Alabama 1944 by Herbert David Warner and Mildred Westervelt Warner.

The Warrior-Tombigbe Waterway

From 1887-1915, seventeen locks and dams were constructed on the Warrior-Tombigbee Rivers. The first 3 were built on the fall line in Tuscaloosa. This was the site of #3, later #12. The Warrior-Tombigbee Development Association, founded in Tuscaloosa 1950 by leaders from Birmingham, Mobile, and Tuscaloosa, led the effort to modernize the waterway. Six modern locks and dams, replacing the original 17, have been built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between Mobile and Port Birmingham, providing efficient navigation, flood control, recreation and hydropower. As a result of the Association's efforts barge tow travel time was cut in half and the size of payloads tripled. Erected May 19, 2000, as the Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway Association celebrated its 50th anniversary.

Carl Atwood Elliott

Congressman, Lawyer, Historian A lifelong champion of universal access to education, Carl Elliott (1913-1999) served eight terms in the U.S. House of Representatives (1949-65), and ran for Governor of Alabama in 1966. Elliott's Library Services Act of 1956 brought books to countless readers in America's rural counties. His National Defense Education Act of 1958 enabled millions of needy students to attend college. Born in Franklin County, Elliott graduated from the University of Alabama, where he was elected President of the Student Government Association for 1935-36, earned his law degree, and received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree in 1972. From 1945 Elliott and his family lived in the nearby home, where Elliott compiled the five-volume Annals of North Alabama, co-authored The Cost of Courage: The Journey of an American Congressman, and practiced law. In 1990 Elliott was honored by the first John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award.

Tubbs Cemetery

South Carolina-born Daniel Tubbs (February 17, 1794-25 March 1882) enlisted in the War of 1812 and fought in the final battle at New Orleans. Honorably discharged in Nashville on April 20, 1815, he and his wife, Matilda Sanders, settled on this site (Section 2, Township 15, Range 8) in November 1835. By 1840, a community building was erected for community gatherings, children's schooling, and a variety of denominations' worship services. The Tubbs Cemetery was placed nearby. Later moving to land granted him for service during the War in 1812, Daniel gave his land to his two sons, Daniel Lee and Samuel. Samuel Tubbs (April 4, 1824-27 September 1902) served in the 6th Alabama Infantry during the Civil War. Captured in May 1864 in Decatur, he was imprisoned at Rock Island, Illinois, until the end of the war. He returned to the Tubbs community in 1865 to purchase an additional 280 acres of land, the mineral rights to which he donated to the Georgia Pacific Railroad in return for rail service to the Oakman area. His wife, Malinda Cranford, and his children are buried alongside Samuel in the Tubbs Cemetery, as are descendants of Daniel Lee Tubbs and his wife, Emily Cranford.

Walker County

Created December 26, 1823 Named for John W. Walker of Madison County, Alabama Chairman, State Constitutional Convention, July 5, 1819 Alabama's First United States Senator, 1819-1823

Bassetts Creek

Named for Thomas Basset, a British Loyalist and native of Virginia. Migrated to Tombigbee area from near Augusta, Ga. circa 1772 to escape persecution by American patriots. Received in 1776, from King George III a grant of 750 acres on the west side of river Tombigbee, five miles east of this site, where he established his residence and plantation. Bassett also received a Crown grant to lands at McIntosh Bluff. He was murdered by Indians circa 1780 on the east side of Tombigbee near the creek that bears his name. As a minor in Georgia, one of his guardians was General Lachlan McGillivray. Numerous Bassett descendants presently live in this area.

Judge Harry Toulmin

1766-1823 Born and educated in England, Harry Toulmin came to U.S. in 1793. Moving to Kentucky, he was elected president of Transylvania University. Served as Secretary of State of Kentucky (1796-1804) then moved to Mississippi Territory as judge of Tombigbee District (1804-1819). Delegate to Alabama Constitutional Convention (1819). Wrote first Digest of Laws of Alabama (1823). Died at his home near Washington Court House (1 mile north of this location).

McIntosh Bluff

Near here in 1807 ex-vice president Aaron Burr was arrested and sent on horseback via Ft. Stoddart to Richmond where he was tried for treason and acquitted. Weekly mail service to Natchez established in 1802. First civil court in Alabama held here in 1803. The ancient seat of the Tohome Indians. Included in first Choctaw Cession to the British, 1765, and thereafter granted to John McIntosh, a Scottish trader. Earliest American settlement north of the 31° in present State of Alabama. First County Seat of both Washington and Baldwin Counties.

Old St. Stephens Masonic Lodge #9

(1821-1834) Charter and early members were: Gov. Israel Pickens, Col. Silas Dinsmore, Thomas Eastin, R. Chamberlain, Thomas Malone, J. F. Ross, Daniel Coleman, John Womack, W. D. Gaines, James Roberts, James K. Blount, Ptolemy Harris, F. S. Lyon, Micajah Brewer, John F. McGrew. One of the nine lodges that organized the Grand Lodge of Alabama at Cahaba in 1821, however, Masonry existed here as early was 1811.

St. Stephens Lodge #81

After the decline of Old St. Stephens, a Masonic Lodge was organized and chartered here in 1854. Minutes kept and meetings held continuously since charter date at this site. Charter and early members were: T. P. Ashe, W. A. Bailey, Thos. H. Bailey, F. W. Baker, James K. Blount, R. O. Bowling, W. F. Brunson, John W. Carpenter, E. H. Gordy, Jackson W. Faith, James G. Hawkins, F. C. Koen, T. S. Parker, Daniel Rain, Benton C. Rain, John A. Richardson, James White, Walter Woodyard.

The Taylor House

Built circa 1843 by Walter Taylor on Commerce Street in Jackson. In 1985, it was removed from its original site to make way for a new City Hall Complex and was brought to this site and restored as the Leroy Branch of the Washington County State Bank. Walter Taylor (1817-1886) was the son of Daniel Taylor, one of the original Commissioners of the town of Jackson in 1816. He was a prominent attorney, farmer and merchant and with his wife Amanda Caroline Lankford Taylor, founded the Jackson Methodist Church in 1842.

The Tombigbee Settlements

(Sometimes called the 14th Colony) This area on the west side of the lower Tombigbee, as far north as Sinta Bouge Creek, opened to settlement pursuant to a treaty by the British with the Choctaw Nation at the Indian Congress held in Mobile in 1765. The treaty was negotiated by George Johnstone, British Governor of West Florida, and John Stuart, Supt. of Indian affairs for the Crown, in West Florida. The settlements that followed became the beginnings of Alabama. Some of the earliest settlers holding British or Spanish grants or American Certificates prior to the year 1800 were: Thomas Bassett, John Baker, Thomas Bates, Nathaniel Blackwell, Francis Boykin, George Brewer, James Caller, John Callier, Peter Dunn, Young Gaines, Dr. John Chestang, Daniel Johnston, Ann Lawrence, John Johnston, Thomas Malone, Jown McGrew, William Mounger, Cornelius Rain, Eguene Sullivan, Thomas Sullivan, Joseph Thompson, and Solomon Wheat.

Washington County

First county in Alabama. Created in 1800 by proclamation of governor of Mississippi Territory. This was first U. S. civil government in area that was to become Alabama. Its original boundaries: East-to-west: Chattahoochee to Pearl River; South, 31° lat. (Present Ala.-Fla. Line); North, 32° 28', a line just north of Phenix City-Montgomery-York. From these 25,000 square miles have come 26 counties in Alabama, Mississippi. Early history of this area. 1519-1700: Claimed by Spain as part of Florida by discovery, exploration, conquest and attempted settlement. 1700-1763: Claimed by France as part of Louisiana by exploration, settlement. 1763-1780: Seized by England as part of West Florida after defeating French. 1780-1795: Regained by Spain during American Revolution by invasion, occupation. 1795–Spain ceded area to U. S. 1798–U. S. created Mississippi Territory. (Located at Courthouse in Chatom)

First Presbyterian Church of Camden

Organized April 3, 1845 by a Commission of Southern Alabama Presbytery to serve the community of Camden in Wilcox County. Originally known as the Old School Presbyterian Church, its first congregation numbered twenty-three. First Ruling Elders were Alexander McLeod and W. B. Patton. Original church building, erected in 1856, burned on September 17, 1869. Present building constructed in the mid-1880s.

Lieutenant Joseph Morgan Wilcox

Joseph Morgan Wilcox was born on March 15, 1790 in Killingsworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut. He was the son of Revolutionary War officer, Joseph Wilcox and Phoebe Morgan. On June 15, 1808, Cadet Wilcox entered the U.S. Military Academy where he graduated and was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in the 3rd Infantry. Lt. Wilcox fought against the Creeks in the War of 1812. On January 15, 1814, Wilcox engaged in a heroic fight with a Creek war party and was tomahawked and scalped on the banks of the Alabama River where it flows between Canton and Prairie Bluff. Two days later he was buried with military honors at Fort Claiborne. Wilcox County was named in his memory by an Act of the General Assembly of Alabama on December 13, 1819.

Wilcox Female Institute

Incorporated 1850 by James A. Tait, L. W. Mason, Joseph George and Associates. Original Trustees: Col. J. C. Jones, Joseph George, Maj. M .M Banham, D. W. Sterrett, Col. C. C. Sellers, Dr. M. Reid, J. W. Bridges, Dr. Robert Irvin, and Maj. F. K. Beck. First principal: L. B. Johnson. Deeded to State of Alabama 1908.

Source: Alabama Department of Archives & History

 

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