Confederate Veteran

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GENERAL ARMISTEAD AT GETTYSBURG. Gen. Louis Addisom Armistead, on foot, his hat waved on the point of his sword as a conspicuous guidon for his heroic followers to rally around, crossed the stone wall at Bloody Angle, and rushed forward to attack the battery, exclaiming: "Who will follow me? Who will follow me?"

With a hundred and fifty devoted men who would have followed the General anywhere, he pierced the mass of combatants, passed the earthworks, and reached Cushing's guns. He laid his hand upon a cannon, called out to his followers, ''Give them the cold steel, boys," and just then fell, pierced with balls, at the foot of the clump of trees which marks the extreme point reached by the Confederates in that battle. Where Armistead fell is where the tide of invasion stopped.

Louis Addison Armistead was born in Newbern, N. C., February 8, 1817. His father, Gen. Walter Keith Armistead, and four of his brothers served in the War of 1812. He was appointed a cadet to West Point in 1834, and on July lo, 1839, he became second lieutenant in the 6th United States Infantry. He served in the Mexican War, and was brevetted to captain and then to major. He continued in the United States army until the beginning of the Confederate war.

He was made major in the Confederate army on March 16, 1861, then colonel of the 57th Virginia Regiment, and on April 1, 1862, he was promoted to brigadier general. On September 6, at the outset of the Maryland Campaign, he was assigned to duty as the provost marshal general of Lee's army. In his report of Gettysburg General Lee stated that Armistead, Barksdale, Garnett, and Semmes "died as they had lived, discharging the highest duties of patriots with devotion that never faltered and courage that shrank from no danger."

CONFEDERATE TROOPS AT SPOTTSYLVANIA C. H.

BY CAPT. RANDOLPH BARTON, BALTIMORE.

J. M. Lewis, of Macon, Ga., writes: "On May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania C. H., when General Hancock broke the Confederate lines. General Gordon made a countercharge and retook most of the works that had been captured by General Hancock's forces. General Gordon reported that he would have retaken all of the lost ground, but his line was too short. Now I would like to know what Confederate brigades occupied it before Hancock's charge." (VETERAN of March, 1911.)

I was in the battle called the battle of the "Bloody Angle," fought on May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania C. H., being adjutant general of the "Stonewall Brigade," commanded by Gen. James A. Walker, and as our division took up the position on May 9, I became thoroughly familiar with the situation. During our several days' occupation of the line at that point I walked frequently from one end of the division to the other, and recall very distinctly the fortifications we made, and especially do I remember the fatal angle. On one of the days of our occupation of the line I crossed over the works and went out to our skirmish line, there being no firing of a dangerous kind at the time. (Mr. Barton draws an outline of the angle and the line on both sides.) An exact representation of it can be found in numerous published narratives of the battle. The line was hastily adopted on the 9th, and the angle was no doubt adhered to because of its being on a slight elevation.

General Lee having observed it, and as an engineer immediately detecting the fault, provided a new line across the base of the angle, in order that our line could withdraw to it in case of disaster. It was this foresight no doubt which enabled General Lee, under the more particular and excellent management of General Gordon, to prevent the further rush of Hancock's men.

Beginning on the right, the line was occupied by the brigade of Gen. George H. Stewart, then General Stafford's brigade, or John M. Jones's brigade, I am not certain which, then Stafford's Brigade (if Jones was on the left of Stewart or Jones's Brigade if he joined Stewart's left), and then on the extreme left of the division came the Stonewall Brigade four brigades in all.

I do not think General Gordon retook much of the original line, but I believe it was all he could do to hold the new or base line. Both General Walker and myself were wounded somewhat early in the action. Most of the division to the right of our brigade, and, indeed, a portion of our brigade, were captured by the rush of Hancock's immense attacking column. (In the drawing Captain Barton indicates the tree which was cut down by the bullets, the stump of which is preserved in a glass case in the Smithsonian Institution.) (Reply was sent Mr. Lewis, but was unclaimed. EDITOR.)

CHAPLAINS NOT PROPERLY RANKED IN ARMY.

In a letter to Hon. J. Wesley Gaines, of Nashville, dated January 15, 1902, Col. D. C. Kelley, of Forrest's Cavalry, wrote: "My first acquaintance with chaplains in the army and navy was when I was in the East in the fifties. This acquaintance led me to avoid the chaplaincy in the Confederate army. The chaplain's position needs some more honorable recognition, for neither as officer nor private was he properly recognized. Between the two he was not honored. I trust you will give aid to the adoption of House Bill No. 16503, which promises tardy relief, but is a just recognition of the dignity and value of the army chaplaincy."

 

JOHN B. HAZARD.

The death of the brave and chivalrous John B. Hazard, which occurred at Corinth, Miss., on March 18, 1911, at the home of his nephew, George Hazard, marked the passing of one of the South's bravest spirits. He belonged to the 5th Company, Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, and was in active service throughout the war. He was in many skirmishes and twelve bloody battles. He requested his general to let him stand next to the cannon, and when told that that was the most dangerous place, he said: ''That is why I ask it." The detonations of the cannon made him deaf. The same thing affected General Bragg's hearing in the battle of Buena Vista. One who knew him intimately says that in his nature there was much of the spiritual. Love amounted to worship, self sacrifice, with a gentleness and reverence for women. In his work for others there was noted a purity of purpose.

PROF. A. S. TOWNES.

Prof. A. S. Townes, a well known educator of South Carolina and "a soldier of the legion" (Hampton's), died at the home of his daughter, in Clemson, on November 26, 1910. He was born in Greenville, S. C., in 1842. The son of a prominent lawyer, his educational advantages were good, and at nineteen he was ready to graduate at Furman University. Just then his State called for defenders, and he enlisted in Company F, Hampton's Legion. After a season of drilling in Columbia, his company reached Virginia in time to take part in the battle of First Manassas. He was also in the battles of Yorktown, White House, on York River, Seven Pines, the campaigns on the Chickahominy, Fredericksburg, and other battles in Southern Virginia. He was in the siege of Suffolk, and was with Longstreet at Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and other battles in East Tennessee. His company returned to Virginia to the defense of Richmond as mounted infantry in Gary's Brigade, and he was in several engagements repelling Grant's army. He was with the troops evacuating Richmond and in the battle of Farmville. His company, B, of the same regiment, under Colonel Nicholson, was at Lynchburg, fifteen miles from Appomattox, the day of Lee's surrender. The command left Lynchburg to join Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army at Greensboro, N. C., but a corps of Sherman's army intervening. Companies F and B disbanded at Spartanburg, S. C., to rally under the flag of the legion "whenever summoned," which summons never came.

Reaching Greenville, S. C., dejected and forlorn, Comrade Townes rode through the back streets and reluctantly told of Lee's surrender, which statement was met by the few elderly men of the village with the statement that it must have been only a part of Lee's army, but the first bearer of the dreadful tidings stuck to his assertion with melancholy insistence.

Although he did not formally surrender, he accepted in good faith the results of the war and went to work as a teacher. After a few years he went to Germany and studied at Leipsic, Heidelberg, and Berlin. After his return, he was married to Mrs. Lavinia Brooks White, and went to Georgia

to take charge of the Madisonville High School. In 1874 he was elected President of Cherokee College at Rome, Ga. After the death of his wife, he returned to South Carolina with his little son and engaged as principal of Carryton Academy in Edgefield County. In 1878 he became President of Greenville Female College, in which he continued until 1894, when he organized the College for Women, which he conducted until failing health led him to give it up and remove to Clemson to make his home with his daughter. He is survived by his second wife, two sons, and three daughters.

DEATHS DURING 1910 IN SUL ROSS CAMP, DENTON, TEX.

Capt. Robert H. Hopkins was born in Cass County, Ill., in 1832. He went to Texas in 1854, and had since been a resident of Denton County, where he died on October 28, 1910. He entered the Confederate army in November, 1861, as a member of Company G, 18th Texas Cavalry, and was elected first lieutenant. In 1863 he was promoted to captain, winning the love of his men and the high esteem of those with whom he associated. Since the war he had twice served as sheriff of his county, and held the office of Justice of the Peace for ten years, declining further service. He was Commander of Sul Ross Camp at the time of his death. He leaves two sons and a daughter in Texas, a sister in Illinois, and a brother in Kansas. The G. A. R. Post of Denton took part in the services at his funeral.

Walter J. Lacey, was born in Kentucky in 1843. He went to Texas with his parents in 1854. When the war broke out, he enlisted in the 11th Texas Cavalry, and served faithfully to the close. He was under Joe Wheeler and in all the campaigns in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia, and always ready for duty. When the war closed, he returned home and worked as a blacksmith, gaining the confidence of his fellowmen by his honest, upright life. He was a City Alderman for years just before and up to his death, was also Commander of Sul Ross Camp for several years, and in 1908 had been made a Brigadier General of the Fifth Texas Brigade.

W. H. Taylor was born in Ohio in 1835, but in 1858 went to Denton County, Tex., enlisting from there in Company A, 29th Texas Cavalry, in 1862. He made a good soldier to the end. He was married in 1862 to Miss Jane Stroud, and the seven children born to them are all living.

D. F. Kirkpatrick was born in Wilson County, Tenn., January 29, 1827, and died in Denton County, Tex., October 20, 1910. He went through the war in the cavalry service, faithfully doing his duty to his country, and had since made a good and upright citizen.

W. B. Phelps was born in Salem, Ill., April 13, 1827, going in 1848 to Texas, where he died on the 30th of October, 1910, in his eighty fourth year. He served in Company H, 1st Texas Cavalry, Confederate army, giving gallant service, and believed to the end in the principles for which he had fought.

W. O. Dunham was born in Randolph County, Mo., September 22, 1842, and died in Denton on May 10, 1910. He served through the war under General Price, and was a member of his escort. He was a good soldier, a good citizen, a true friend, honorable and upright in his daily life, and an affectionate father.

ANDREW JOHNSON McBRAYER.

Andrew J. McBrayer was born in DeKalb County, Ala., November 11, 1835, and died at his home, near Saltillo, Tex., January 4, 1911. He was married to Miss Mary Walters in DeKalb County, Ala., in 1862, and to them were born eight children. As a Confederate soldier his service began in May, 1861, with Company I, loth Alabama, Wilcox's Brigade, A. P. Hill's corps, and he surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. He was severely wounded at Williamsburg and taken prisoner, and after being exchanged he returned to his command. Comrade McBrayer was a member of Ben McCulloch Camp, No. 300, U. C. V., and was proud of having shared the hardships of the Confederate soldier. He made a good citizen, and was truly a Christian,

JOHN W. CUBINE.

John W. Cubine was born in Bland County, Va., November 1, 1845, and died at Coffeyville, Kans., January 28, 1911. He joined the Confederate army at the age of sixteen years and became a corporal in the 8th Virginia Cavalry. He was captured at Point Valley, Va., in the fall of 1862 ana taken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was kept prisoner until just before the close of the war, when he was exchanged. Living in Kansas, where there was no Confederate Camp, he secured membership in the D. H. Hammons Camp, of Oklahoma City, Okla.

Comrade Cubine was a boot and shoe manufacturer, and his trade extended over the entire Western country and into several foreign countries where fancy hunting and cowboy boots are used. He died very suddenly of heart failure. He was ever a true Southerner.
Two DEATHS IN J. H. LEWIS CAMP, GLASGOW, KY.

W. L. Chenault died November 4, 1910, at the age of seventy three years. He entered the Confederate army in October, 1861, in Company B, 6th Kentucky Infantry, and served to the end, making a good soldier.

Nelson Harlow was born in Barren County, Ky., in 1826. He enlisted for the Confederacy in a Tennessee battery at the beginning of the war, and served faithfully through the war. He died on December 5, 1910.

THOMAS WALTER GARDNER.

From the resolutions passed by Camp Bowie Pelham, of Bowie, Tex., in memory of Comrade T. W. Gardner, whose death occurred in January, 1911, his record in the sixties is given as follows: "Thomas W. Gardner enlisted for service in the Confederate army on May 1, 1861, and became a member of Company E, 14th Alabama Regiment, under Capt. A. J. Alien. He was wounded at Gettysburg, and in other battles had distinguished himself as a soldier of more than ordinary courage. Especially was his kindness to his fellow soldiers conspicuous. He often defied shot and shell in his efforts to help them in the hour of their peril and suffering. He was captured on May 24, 1864, at Cold Harbor, Va., and sent to Elmira, N, Y., where he remained in prison until June 3, 1865, when he was released."

OWEN T. MATTHEWS.

Owen T. Matthews was born in Oldham County, Ky., in 1830, but removed to Texas in 1852 and became a permanent citizen of that State, where he died on April 15, 1910. He made a visit to Kentucky in 1855 and married Miss Annie E. Oyler, of Louisville, and to them were born nine children five sons and four daughters.

During his long and useful life Comrade Matthews had combined the occupations of farming and school teaching except in the tragic years of the Civil War. He entered the Confederate army in 1862, and after eighteen months' service, he was detailed to the Indian Department service at Oakville, Ind. Ter., where he continued to serve until the close of the war.

The life of this comrade was an example of all that is best in our American citizenship. His life was spent in loyal service, devotion to family, and adherence to the high principles of honor and integrity. He was ever held in esteem.

DAVIS. Thomas Davis, a native of San Augustine County, Tex., died there on the 6th of January, aged seventy five years. He was an exemplary citizen. At the beginning of the war he joined Capt. D. M. Short's company of the 3d Texas Cavalry, and served as orderly sergeant throughout the war, never being absent from the firing line, though he received several wounds. He was never married, but was as a father to numerous nieces and nephews.

JUDGE JOHN M. BROOKS.

Judge John M. Brooks died at his home, in Fairburn, Ga., December 5, 1910, at the age of eighty years. He was born in Jackson County, Gań but his parents removed to Calhoun County, Ala., where they died when he was only seven years of age. He was taken to the home of his uncle, Col. William Storey, at Newnan, Ga., where he grew to young manhood. He then went to Mississippi for a while, then to Nicaragua. Returning to Mississippi when the Civil War broke out, he enlisted in Company K, 23d Mississippi Regiment, Adams's Brigade, Loring's Division, and was made orderly sergeant of his company. He lost his left arm in the battle of Nashville, December, 1864, and was captured and taken to Camp Chase Prison. After the war he made his home in Campbell County, Ga., and held several county offices. In 1868 he was married to Miss Elizabeth Posey, and is survived by her and four children three daughters and a son.

On the day that this comrade was laid to rest an invitation came for him to be the guest of a friend in Little Rock during the Reunion in May. His reunion now is with those who have passed into the better land.

CAPT, EMANUEL STURLESE.

Capt. Emanuel Sturlese, whose death occurred at Grand Chenier, La., on December 25, 1910, was born in Italy, near Genoa, in 1840. He came to America in 1858, and although unnaturalized, he enlisted in the Louisiana State Guards, organized for coast defense. He was in the Confederate States service for twelve months. Then his time of enlistment having expired, he was mustered out of service with the State troops of Louisiana. He then went on a blockade runner to Vera Cruz, Mexico, and on the return trip they were chased into Galveston by a blockader. He there enlisted in Cooke's Battery of Artillery, and served until the close of the war.

Returning home in June, 1865, he bought a schooner and went into the coast trade, and afterwards into the mercantile business. He was very active in all public enterprises, giving much of his time and efforts to such without remuneration of any kind. Although foreign born, he was as public spirited as any native born son of the country. He lived to a ripe old age, surrounded by his loved ones, in the land for which he made much sacrifice. He is missed in his community for his usefulness and kind and lovable nature, for which his memory will be kept green.)

THOMAS LOGAN BIRDSONG.

Thomas L. Birdsong was born in Giles County, Tenn., January 23, 1845, and died at his home, near Pulaski, on February 17, 1911. In his early life the family removed to Alabama, where he lived until the breaking out of the war. At the age of sixteen years he enlisted in the 4th Alabama Regiment, and bravely followed the lead of Forrest until paroled and honorably discharged as a soldier of the Confederacy. No less honorable and true has he been as a private citizen since he laid down his arms. His loyalty to the principles for which he fought and the leader whom he followed never faltered, and though a sufferer for many years past, his pleasure has been to receive his old comrades and meet them in reunion. His attractive disposition drew people to him, and his home was long known as the "Home for the Weary," be they rich or poor, and the good that he has done in his unpretentious life cannot be estimated. A devoted wife, three sons, and a host of friends mourn for him who now sleeps "the sleep that knows no waking" until the resurrection morn.

COL. R. HEBER SCREVEN.

Col. Reginald Heber Screven, Commander of Camp Palmetto Guard, U. C. V., of Charleston, S. C., and one of the prominent citizens of that community, died on March 2, 1911. He was born in 1838, a son of N. B. Screven and Septima McPherson Edwards.

As one of the most enthusiastic young men of South Carolina, Reginald Screven was among the first to respond to the call of patriotism when the State seceded. After performing active duty around Charleston Harbor until the surrender of Fort Sumter to the Confederate forces, he volunteered for service in Virginia as a member of the Palmetto Guards, commanded by Capt. George B. Cuthbert. This gallant company went to the Old Dominion in the spring of 1861 and became part of the famous 2d South Carolina Regiment, under that valiant colonel (afterwards major general), Joseph B. Kershaw. His command took a prominent part in the battle of First Manassas, and added to its fame in many other engagements of the noted regiment. Comrade Screven was the embodiment of courage and constancy, a true type of Southern chivalry, and had faith in the ultimate success of the Southern cause up to Appomattox.

During Reconstruction days he did effective service in the cause of honest government, and he worked ceaselessly until the triumph of the knightly Wade Hampton and home rule. He reentered mercantile life after the war, and was known for his attention to duty and conscientious work. He was the latest Commander of Camp Palmetto Guards, was also a member of Camp Surnter, and was colonel of the regiment of Confederate veterans of Charleston County. He had been sick for some months. Colonel Screven is survived by two sisters, his wife, who was Miss Annie DeVeaux, of St. John's, Berkeley, having preceded him to the grave.

DR. MARTIN J. THOMPSON.

Dr. M. J. Thompson, whose death occurred at Meridian, Miss., December 5, 1910, was a son of William H. and Alice Rosser Thompson, natives respectively of Georgia and Alabama. Martin Thompson was born in Choctaw County, Ala., in 1845,

M. J. THOMPSON.

but in 1847 the family removed to dark County, Miss., where this son was reared. He was educated in private schools. At the age of sixteen he enlisted in Company D, 14th Mississippi Regiment, Adams's Brigade, Army of Tennessee, in which he served until the surrender.

Soon after returning home he began the study of medicine, and in 1872 was graduated from the Alabama Medical College at Mobile. Later he took a post graduate course at the New York Polyclinic. He practiced for a time in Lauderdale County, Miss., and in 1880 removed to Meridian, where for twenty nine years he had practiced his profession. His services were sought in many critical cases, especially for surgical operations, throughout the State. He took a prominent part in all public interests, served as vice president of the State Medical Association, President of the Lauderdale County Medical Association, as vice president of the Alumni Medical Association of Alabama. He was a member of all the principal Masonic bodies, including the Blue Lodge, the Chapter, the Commandery, the York Rite, and the Shrine. He was a devoted Church member from young manhood, and his faith had strengthened with the years.

Dr. Thompson is survived by his wife, who was Miss Augusta Stennis, of Lauderdale County, and six children. The burial was conducted with Masonic honors.
SAMUEL KITCHENS WOODWARD.

Samuel K. Woodward was born in Franklin County, Tenn., August 31, 1837, a son of J. B. and Nancy (Kitchens) Woodward. His father was a native of Tennessee and his mother of North Carolina. They were of English and Scotch origin respectively. Samuel Woodward was the youngest but one of eight children six girls and two boys. In August, 1862, he enlisted in Company F, 8th Texas Regiment, C. S. A., and served as a private through the hardships and the perils of the war period. Although never wounded, seven horses were shot under him. He never surrendered, but, had a hard trip home.

In April, 1868, he left his native section of Tennessee and went with other brave companions on the long journey across the plains and mountains of the West, their goal being California. While a resident of Los Angeles County, Cal., he was there married in 1871 to Miss Mary B. Dunn, His death occurred at the home, Inglewood, in November, 1910. His wife, five sons, and a daughter survive him. Comrade Woodward was a member of the California Camp, No. 770, U. C. V., in 1895.

MAJ. NOYES RAND.

Major Rand, a gallant soldier, died at his home, in El Paso, Tex., March 19, 1911, and by his expressed wish he was laid to rest in Charleston, W. Va., where sleep his ancestors.

Born seventy one years ago on the banks of the beautiful Kanawha River, Noyes Rand responded to the first call to arms, and in his first baptism of fire displayed great gallantry. He soon won his promotion to the adjutantcy of the 22d Virginia Infantry, and later became adjutant general of the brigade. He was almost recklessly brave when there was an emergency. He was twice wounded and once made prisoner. He had the painful experience of being marched right in front of his home on the way to Camp Chase,

After the close of the war he became prominent in Charleston's business circles, but about thirty years ago he went to El Paso, where up to his death he filled honorable and important rank as a business man. "Plus" Rand, as he was intimately known, was not only a dashing, knightly officer, but a beloved, genial gentleman. He leaves a widow, two sons, and two daughters.

CAPT. E. NELSON.

A venerable and beloved veteran, Capt. Edwin Nelson, of Manassas, Va., is numbered now with the great majority. Through near fourscore years he had been a servant of God and a helper of his fellow man. The funeral service was conducted in the Primitive Baptist Church at Manassas on land donated by Captain Nelson and built largely through his contributions. Although the pressing claims of the community in which he lived and was so useful induced him to equip a substitute and remain sheriff of his county, he resigned from that office to enter active service early in 1862 as lieutenant with Company H, 15th Virginia Infantry. In addition to service with his regiment, he was guide for Gen. J. E. B. Stuart on an important raid. During the time of the raid he was with General Stuart and staff at a dinner when a cannon shot from the enemy knocked a pitcher of milk from the table. In June, 1863, he was captured and held as prisoner to the end of the war, enduring the privations of Point Lookout, Old Capitol, Fort Delaware, and Johnson's Island.

Captain Nelson was married in 1861, and leaves three sons and two daughters. One of the sons, John H. Nelson, is a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

CAPT. GEORGE W. NOREN.

The passing of Capt. George W. Noren, of Maben, Miss., furnishes occasion for a glimpse of "frontier" life in the South that will interest the present generation,

George Noren was born in Coweta, Ga., April 16, 1828, the third son of nine children born to Thomas and Mary Noren, natives respectively of South Carolina and Kentucky. In 1833, they removed to Chambers County, Ala., in the Creek Nation. In the disturbed relations of the time, Thomas Noren volunteered for service with his white friends, although he was obliged to leave his wife and six children among unfriendly Indians. In 1842 he moved his family to Mississippi, going by Columbus, a mere village, and crossing Big Black River, located in a sparsely settled section known as the Chickasaw Strip, not then subject to entry. Two years later the family moved west, and located at the present thriving city of Little Rock, Ark., where, in 1844, Thomas Noren died, and his wife died two years afterwards.

Six months after the death of his parents, George Noren volunteered in a company of eighty for the Mexican War. They marched to Greenwood, eighty miles, where they took a steamer for Vicksburg, whence by a Mississippi River boat they went to New Orleans, where they were detained three weeks before they could secure transportation to the Rio Grande and join General Taylor. This company was engaged in the battle of Monterey and Saltillo.

Returning to Mississippi in 1849, George Noren was married to Miss Mahala Few, a native of Morgan County, Ga. Seven children were born to them. The mother died in 1890. In April, 1862, George Noren enlisted in the 37th Mississippi Regiment. He was promptly elected 2d lieutenant, and erelong was promoted to 1st lieutenant, and then to captain of his company. He was wounded three times. He served at Chickasaw Bayou, Baker's Creek, Jackson, then under Gen. Jos. E. Johnston on the Dalton Atlanta campaign , and then in the severe battles of Franklin and Nashville. After the retreat to Tupelo he was with General Johnston in North Carolina, and surrendered with his army. He walked back to Mississippi with Senator N. B. Crawford. During those four perilous years his family sustained their full share of privations.

Captain Noren was a member of the F. A. M., first with Lodge No. 392, and later with Lodge No. 224, of Maben, Miss. In 1875 he began a successful business career in Atlanta, Miss., which he continued later at Maben. It is said that for forty years "everything he touched prospered."

After an illness that confined him to his room for three months, his earthly career ended on March 1, 1911, at the age eighty three years. He had already prepared a large, fine vault for his wife (who died in 1890) and himself. (From sketch by Comrade J. W. Alien, Maben, Miss.)
CAPT. S. B. THOMAS.

Samuel Brown Thomas, whose death occurred recently at his home, near San Augustine, Texas was a native of Texas. He was born October 7, 1831, under the Mexican flag in the old homestead near where his remains lie. His parents, Shadrach and Sarah Thomas, were among the earliest settlers of Texas, and this son saw the sovereignty of his native land pass from Mexico to the Republic of Texas, to the United States, and after four years in the Confederacy back to the United States again, and to every flag while it was his he was loyal and true. Filled with the adventurous spirit of the West, he went to California in the fifties to try his fortune in the hunt for gold. The outbreak of the Civil War caused his return to Texas, and with his brother John he enlisted in Capt. Hiram Brown's company of Angelina County, of which Comrade Thomas was made first lieutenant. Later, when Captain Brown resigned, he was elected captain, and with his men was enrolled in the 13th Texas Cavalry Regiment under Colonel Burnett. Later it was dismounted and known as "dismounted cavalry." It belonged to Waul's Brigade of Walker's Division, and served in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. Throughout the four years Captain Thomas was a gallant soldier and an efficient officer, ever fighting at the head of his company.

When the war closed, Captain Thomas returned home and faced the hardships of ruined fortune with unflinching fortitude. He was married first to Miss Phoebe Sharp, daughter of Dr. B. F. Sharp, but after two happy years the young wife was stricken by death, leaving a little daughter. In 1871 he married Miss Mary Garrett, and removed to Nacogdoches County, where he made his home until a few years since, when he returned with his family to San Augustine County, near the old homestead.CAPT. MICAJAH WOODS.

Many a comrade sorrows in the death of Capt. Micajah Woods, of Charlottesville, Va., which occurred on March 14, 1911. The cultured and patriotic people of Albemarle County, including the University of Virginia, were blessed with a leader, an ever popular, cultured, and conservative fellow citizen. He was a distinctively representative Confederate, and his treasures in letters and souvenirs from eminent Southerners should be preserved in the relic hall at Richmond and designated the Micajah Woods collection. He was foremost among his people. As an artillery officer in Jackson's Virginia Battery his conduct was so conspicuous that the commander of the artillery reported officially upon his good conduct. (See "War Records," Volume XXIX., page 547.)

Rosewell Page writes the Southern Churchman about him, from which the following is taken:

A country boy, trained on a big plantation, attending a school where scholarship and character were prized, the war found him ready to ride away from the university with that band which was to become immortal as Confederate soldiers. 

After the war he came back to the university, and was graduated therefrom in 1868 as Bachelor of Law. He settled in his native county, and at once took high rank at the bar, which was one of the best in the State. In two years he was elected Commonwealth's Attorney, a position which he filled for forty one years, having in all that time had opposition but twice. Unique and extraordinary is this record. His first idea was to do justice to the prisoner at the bar as well as to the commonwealth. He loved mercy and walked humbly with his God.

While a conscientious lawyer, he was fearless. His life was that of an upright man who feared God. He loved every incident connected with Virginia history. He had known the ancient regime its courtliness, its graciousness, its dignity, its kindliness, and its worth. Fond of the society of his fellowmen, in the presence of women there was no more courtly gentleman. His home life was radiant with happiness. His wife, who was Miss Tillie Morris, of Clazemont, in Hanover County, and three daughters (Mrs. William J. Rucker, of Chicago, Mrs. Frank Lupton, of Birmingham, and Miss Lettie Woods, of Charlottesville) survive him. "After a life well spent in the service of his own people,

whom he so much loved, he laid down its burdens whose weight had overborne his strength and made it impossible for him to go even a day's journey farther,

Many who mourned for him entertained the sentiment, 'He lived for the right.' 

OTHER TRIBUTES TO CAPTAIN WOODS.

The Richmond Virginian states:

The death of Capt. Micajah Woods in Charlottesville removes from Virginia one of her most gifted and accomplished sons, a Demosthenes in oratory, a Chesterfield in manners. 

CAPT. MICAJAH WOODS. 

He was a brilliant warrior, most eloquent speaker, a stanch and tireless advocate at the bar, a relentless prosecutor, a patriotic Virginian, and a lovable man. As a lawyer Captain Woods was held in such high esteem, respect, and affection that he was elected President of the Virginia Bar Association.

Tall, erect, handsome, with his snowy hair and mustache emphasizing a countenance of the most delicate pink, and sparkling eyes, ever alert yet kindly, Captain Woods was always a most imposing and impressive figure in court. He was as courtly a knight as ever won the admiration and heart of Southern womanhood. To illustrate his feelings Captain Woods once recited an incident which occurred in his office while prosecuting attorney: 'A farmer whose wife had been insulted by another man came to me and said he had felt in duty bound to horsewhip the scoundrel, and asked if I would prosecute him for cowhiding the insulter. He seemed deeply affected by the insult, and I said to him: 

If you cowhide him genteelly and thoroughly and feel satisfied with the job, you can rest assured that Micajah Woods will not prosecute you." ' "

Many will remember the exquisite tribute to his beautiful daughter, Miss Maud Coleman Woods, as the first article in the VETERAN for March, 1904.)

CAPT. FRANK CUNNINGHAM.

''Richmond was shocked and grieved beyond expression at the news of Capt. Frank Cunningham's death. While he was very sick, it was not supposed that the end was so near at hand. Perhaps no man in the city had so wide a circle of friends. They were among all sorts and conditions of people His genial, lovable temper enabled him to win and to hold the esteem and affection of a great multitude. He was best known by his wonderful gift of song. For many years he had use! it gladly and generously for the comfort of the sorrowing and for the pleasure of his friends. He sang at thousands of funerals. He went cheerfully to the homes of the unknown and obscure. His plaintive and sympathetic voice was ever at the disposal of those who were bereaved, and at many of the great public meetings his singing was a welcome feature. A quarter of a century ago, when the Southern Baptist Convention was held in Richmond, the great assemblage was swept by a tide of emotion created by his singing. It was one the first night of the session. The great auditorium of the First Church was filled. There was a lull in the business proceedings, when, without previous announcement, the organ began to play softly, and he came to the front of the choir loft and, leaning almost carelessly on the music rack, began to sing, "Hark, the voice of Jesus calling." Every word was distinct, every note as clear as a silver bell, every tone of his voice surcharged with feeling. A great hush fell over the audience, broken here and there by a half suppressed sob, and when the singer ended, the whole audience was in tears.

His funeral services, attended by a great concourse, were held from the First Baptist Church, of which he was a member, and he was buried in Hollywood Cemetery.

He must have been young for service in the Confederate war. He was a liberal contributor to the Sam Davis monument and for many years a subscriber to the VETERAN.

MRS. G. C. SANDUSKY.

The VETERAN records the death of the widow of the late G. C. Sandusky, of Shelbyville, Tenn., who was a gallant Confederate officer, enlisting in his native Kentucky. (A sketch of his military career may be seen on page 545 of the VETERAN for November, 19.04.)

Mrs. Sandusky was a noble woman, truly a helpmeet to her husband and an inspiration and a blessing to those who knew her best. Devoted sons and daughters share the sympathy of many friends in her death. A quiet, gentle woman, her presence was a blessing to the community in which she spent the riper years of her Christian life.

JOSEPH M. MOORE.

Joseph M. Moore, of Shelbyville, Tenn., whose death occurred in April at the age of seventy three years, was a member of Captain Blanton's company of the 23d Tennessee Regiment. He enlisted in 1861 at Unionville, Tenn., and went with the regiment to Bowling Green, Ky., but he was in the service a short time only, as he became disabled by rheumatism and was honorably discharged from the army. He was an appreciated member of his community, having been twice high sheriff of Bedford County and for many years its Tax Assessor. He was a member of the Frierson Bivouac of Confederates from its organization, and was always true to the principles for which he had fought. His wife and children two sons and two daughters survive him.

CAPT. GEORGE W. BRECKENRIDGE.

Capt. George William Breckenridge, whose death occurred on April 13 at Fincastle, Va., was the youngest son of Capt. Cary and Emma Breckenridge, of Grove Hill, Botetourt County, Va. He was the youngest captain in the Confederate army and the youngest of five brothers who volunteered, and of whom three were killed in battle. These were Gilmer, James, and John. Gary Breckenridge, who was colonel of the 2d Virginia Cavalry, is now the only survivor. At the age of sixteen George Breckenridge resigned his cadetship in the Virginia Military Institute to raise a company and follow the example of his elder brothers, and took the field on May 2, 1864, as captain of Company E, 2d Battalion Junior Reserves, which did service equal to the veterans on the Chesterfield lines before Richmond.

Captain Breckenridge was twice married first to Miss Annie Hamner, of Buchanan, and then to Mrs. Lyllian St. Martin, of Louisiana. He is survived by his wife and ten children. He had filled the office of Commissioner of Revenue for several terms, was county judge for six years, and served as a member of the legislature in 1907 08.W. A. WRIGHT.

W. A. Wright, whose death occurred in,Blanco, Tex., on September 12, 1910, was born at Warm Springs, Va., in 1844, the son of Stephen Wright. He enlisted in, the Confederate army in 1861 fom his home in Seguin, Tex., as a member of Company K, 8th Texas Volunteer, Infantry, and served gallantly throughout the great war. He was a consistent Church member.

BENJAMIN GEORGE WHITE.

Benjamin G. White died at the home of his nephew in Centerville, Miss., on December 31, 1910. He was a member of Company D, 21st Mississippi Regiment, Barksdale's Brigade, and served as a soldier until wounded in the charge on the second day at Gettysburg. He had reached the age, of seventy two years.
WILLIAM F. JACKSON.

William Floyd Jackson died at his home, near Tirzah, S. C., on December 1, 1910. He was born and reared in Winnsboro, S. C., and received his early education at the famous old Mount Zion Institute. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as a member of the 6th Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, and served faithfully until October, 1864, when he was severely wounded in battle near Richmond. He served in Longstreet's Corps, and was a gallant soldier, as his old comrades attest Since the war his service to his country had been in exemplary citizenship and as a Christian, and with the same brave spirit that animated him as a soldier he met the end.

COL. NORBORNE BERKELEY.

Col. Norborne Berkeley, of the 8th Virginia Infantry, Hunton's Brigade, Pickett's Division, Longstreet's Corps, "crossed over the river" on January 16, 1911, and joined the beloved comrades whom he had gallantly led on many a bloody field. He was in truth a gentleman, courteous and kind to his men, and when it was necessary to make a detail where his men would be much exposed, he always called for volunteers, and his men always responded.

This old Virginia family may justly be called the fighting Berkeleys, Col. Norborne Berkeley, Lieut. Col. Edmund Berkeley, and Maj. William Berkeley were the gallant field officers of the old 8th Virginia. They were all wounded in Pickett's famous charge at Gettysburg. Capt. Charles Berkeley, of this regiment, died from exposure in camp, Edmund Berkeley, Jr., was one of the wounded Virginia Military Institute cadets at New Market, Va., when fifty three out of two hundred and twenty five of those noble boys were killed and wounded.

At the grave of Colonel Berkeley gray haired Sergeant Compton remarked: "He was the most universally popular colonel in the division. I never heard him criticized." (Sketch sent by J. R. Rust, Haymarket, Va.)
OHN J. SANDERS.

On May 2, 1911, John J. Sanders died at his home, on Jones Creek, in Dickson County, Tenn. No soldier of the Confederacy was more faithful than this man. Enlisting at the beginning of the war, he was a lieutenant in Company D, 49th Tennessee Infantry, and he shared in all the service of the regiment until he was disabled by a severe wound in the battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864. He was my messmate for over a year, and I can bear testimony to the excellencies of his character. He was modest, gentle, kind, and brave as a lion. He never shirked a duty, however hard or dangerous.

After the war he married and settled on a farm near where he was born, and for forty five years he was as faithful in all the duties of citizenship as he had been in service as a soldier, He was for more than fifty years a member of the Southern Methodist Church, and a consistent Christian.

Mr. Sanders was born November 3, 1839. He leaves his wife, a son (Len Sanders), and a daughter (Mrs. Clara Holley) living in Dickson County.

Every one of his comrades will indorse this testimony. He was a true, honest, brave, kind man. As soldier, citizen, and Christian he was faithful to every duty. (Brief sketch by Rev. James H. McNeilly, Nashville, Tenn.)

J. P. MURRAY.

A message reports the death at Columbus, Ga., of the "gunmaker of the Confederacy" as follows: "At the opening of the Civil War Murray was placed in charge of the Confederate gun factory here, and he continued to manufacture arms for the armies of the South until the factory was destroyed by Wilson's raiders in 1865."

ISAAC SYLVESTER LOVE.

Isaac S. Love, whose death occurred on April 25, 1911, at his home, in Lamar, Ark., was born in Mississippi in 1844, but removed to Arkansas some thirty years ago, settling in Johnson County, where he had since lived. He served as a private in a Mississippi regiment during the war. He was a good citizen, and always interested in anything to promote the good of his loved Southland.

CAPT. AUGUSTUS CHANDLER BEALL.

Augustus C. Beall was descended from a long line of ancestors who served with distinction in the Indian wars of colonial times, the Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812, and first bore arms himself in the Creek War of 1837. He was a brother of William O. Beall, of the 3d Georgia Volunteer Infantry, who at the age of fifteen served as a cavalryman in the Seminole War, of Capt. Noble N. Beall, of the 2d Georgia State Line, of Lieut. James M. Beall, Company G, 2d Regiment Georgia Volunteers, and of Col. J. B. Beall, of the Tallapoosa Rangers G. M., now living in Nashville, Tenn., the sole survivor of the five brothers. His mother was a daughter of Joseph Chandler, of Franklin County, Ga. When the war clouds were breaking, her youngest son said to her: "Mother, this war will probably go on a long time, and all your boys may be called to arms. How do you feel about it?" She replied: "I have been praying about it, my son, and I have given all of you up to the country." From such Spartan mothers do patriots spring, and of such were the Southern mothers of the sixties.

A. C. BEALL.

A. C. Beall was born at Carnesville, Ga., January 20, 1819. He was married in 1845 to Elizabeth, daughter of

James Coltharp, and soon afterwards emigrated to Texas, where he was living in Tarrant County when the South began to prepare for defense against threatened invasion. Having been appointed captain of militia in 1862, he engaged for some time in drilling and training for service the arms bearing men of his district. Subsequently having removed to Van Zandt County, he joined Captain Bates's company of the 36th Cavalry, which became a part of Terrell's Brigade. His regiment was for some time employed on the Gulf Coast, and later it was with the army in Louisiana. When the war ended he returned to his home, near Chandler, Tex., and during the remainder of his life he was engaged as a country merchant and farmer.

A devout and consistent Christian, a generous neighbor, a faithful friend, in the eighty fourth year of his age he went peacefully and trustfully to sleep, leaving to a sturdy and numerous posterity the priceless legacy of a spotless name. (Other Last Roll sketches unavoidably held over.)

Confederate Veteran June 1911

CAPT. F. A. TAULMAN.

An honored citizen was lost to the community of Hubbard, Tex., in the death of Capt. F. A. Taulman, which occurred, after a short illness) on December 4, 1910. He had been a factor in the upbuilding of the country of which he was a citizen, using his best energies for the promotion and maintenance of those things which were for the good of his fellow men.

Francis Asbury Taulman was born in New Washington, Jennings County, Ind., on October 8, 1841, the son of Evan L. and Laura Comstock Taulman. The family removed to Trimble County, Ky., where he was with them until 1860, when be went to Texas, and from that State enlisted in the Confederate service as a member of Company G, 32d Texas Cavalry. He saw much hard service during the four years, and in the battle of Blakely, Ala., April 9 1865, he was captured and imprisoned at Ship Island. He was paroled in August, 1865, and arrived at his home, in Brazos County, Tex., during that month. He then turned his best energies to business and was zealous for the development of the State. He was in the mercantile business in Bryan from 1870 to1880, when he removed to Hubbard, and was the first to open up business there. He was its first Mayor, and served two years. For over forty years he was an Odd Fellow, and was a member of the U. C. V. Camp of Hillsboro.

In January, 1866, Comrade Taulman was married to Miss Emma Jane Hill in Brazos County, and of this union there were three children two sons and a daughter, the sons still being residents of Hubbard.

The father of this comrade was an ultra Unionist, and he had written the son to leave Texas before the country became involved in war, but the advice came too late, as Comrade Taulman was then enlisted for the Confederacy. He was with the 32d Dismounted Cavalry, Ector's Brigade. He went to Fayetteville, Ark., in September, 1861, and joined Gen. Ben McCulloch's escort at Camp Jackson, and was in the battle of Elkhorn (Pea Ridge), where that general was killed.

H. T. LOVE.

(A committee composed of William Huddle, J. E. Roach, and H. O. Brown reports the death of Comrade H. T. Love.)

H. T. Love was born in Montgomery County, Ala., August 9, 1839, and went to Texas with his father at an early day. In 1861 he returned to Alabama and entered the Confederate army with the 4th Alabama Regiment, Law's Brigade, and Hood's Division. He saw much hard service in the Virginia army, was wounded in battle upon three separate engagements, and after the war came home on crutches. He settled in Lamar County, and made a good citizen.

He was one of those true, chivalric Christian gentlemen whose memories we honor and whose lives we respect. In him there was no guile, and if he ever had an enemy, it is not known. He was an enthusiastic and devoted member of our Camp, and we shall miss him in our meetings. His death occurred January 14, 1911, in his seventy second year.

To his large family of children we extend our warmest sympathy and offer the love and affection of this Camp.
JUDGE R. T. BEAUREGARD.

Happy it is for the departed when the chords of their dirge are resonant with manly praise, and thus it is with the passing away of the late Judge R. T. Beauregard, of New Orleans, La., and while the note of sorrow is being prolonged, there is one who would testify to the calm beauty of his life.

If to be true to high ideals and to pursue the straight path at the sacrifice of personal interest, to exemplify the principles of chivalry in the arena of life, and to observe its gentler precepts in the bosom of his family, if this constitute the true gentleman in its highest acceptation, Rene T. Beauregard had surely his best claim to that which in their hearts all men covet. Those who were familiar with his daily life acknowledge that it was a liberal education to witness in him the practice of those amenities which tend to purify and elevate the intercourse of home. As the head of a family he ruled with faultless sway, as a host he presided with patrician elegance and dignity. He sought the refining influences of intellectual culture as what was due to himself. Taken from his school bench at the outbreak of the war, he was thrown, almost a mere boy, into his father's camp. He did brave ser ice, and was true to his name throughout, and when the great struggle was over, he made the noblest efforts to adjust him self to new requirements. In the face of every difficulty and encountering stern opposition even on the part of those who should have aided him he undertook with rare fixedness of purpose the study of law, and his after career on the bench showed how effectual had been his labors. In his judicial capacity he served with the highest distinction. No man ever kept with more unerring step the even tenor of his way.

FATALITIES IN THE SIXTH LOUISIANA REGIMENT.

The foregoing poem showed that at that time this regiment (the 6th Louisiana, Army of Northern Virginia) had lost two colonels and a major, killed outright on the field of battle. Take up the history from that date and it shows that Col. William Monaghan, the next commander, was instantly killed in the skirmish with Federal cavalry near Leesburg, Va., in August, 1864. This record of the 6th Louisiana Infantry is believed to be without a parallel in the great War between the States. It will be seen, there, that this regiment had four field officers killed in battle, three colonels and one major.

After diligent inquiry it is believed that there are only sixteen survivors of this command viz.:

John H. Murray is captain and Superintendent of the Soldiers' Home, State of Louisiana New Orleans. As a member of Company E he was from May 12, 1864, to September 19, 1864, the only soldier of his company on duty, and being shot through both legs on September 19, 1864, the last battle of Winchester, Va., he was retired from field service and assigned to post duty at Augusta, Ga., and surrendered in April, 1865
P. J. Flanagan is a director of Louisiana Soldiers' Home. Alex Reed and A. F. Foote are inmates of the Home. Capt. John Orr while adjutant of the regiment was severely bayoneted at Winchester, Va., while saving the flag which some Federal soldiers were trying to carry off after the surrender of the fort. He is living at Austin, Tex. (Captain Orr has written the VETERAN a most interesting account of Johnson's Island Prison. He was postmaster of Mess 1, Block 8, in the prison, and sends a list of one hundred and twenty five fellow prisoners and the commands to which they belonged. That he has preserved this list through the vicissitudes of nearly half a century is remarkable. It may be expected in the VETERAN erelong.)

Philip Bulger is in the Texas Soldiers' Home in Austin. Maj. John J. Rivera, the only living field officer of the 6th Louisiana, is living in New York, and is connected with the press of that city. He was formerly the President of the Typographical Union of New Orleans, but for some years has been living in New York and at this time he is ill in a hospital.CAPT. B. T. WALSHE.

Capt. B. T. Walshe was severely wounded in the ankle at Gaines's Mill, before Richmond, Vań and the same day promoted to captain, but subsequently assigned to staff duty. He had been retired from infantry service on account of the wound above mentioned. At the close of the war he commanded the post of Osyka, Miss., and as provost marshal had direction of the troops in East Louisiana in the Lake Shore district. Captain Walshe is well preserved. He is one of the most active veterans living and is ever zealous for the honor of his surviving comrades and the memory of those who are dead. He resides in New Orleans.

Samuel W. Hill, now in his ninetieth year, was promoted to the engineer corps, and surrendered with Gen. Harry Heth, under whom he was serving at Appomattox as lieutenant of engineers. Lieutenant Hill now resides at Monroe, La.

John K. Collins is a valued employee, holding a responsible position with the Board of Liquidation of the city of New Orleans. He left an arm in Virginia. Junes Waldron, who left New Orleans as a drummer boy, and was a gallant soldier when he grew up, is holding a position under the city government of New Orleans.

Capt. Robert Lynne, after being severely wounded in 1864, was transferred to the Trans Mississippi Department, and served there until the close of the war. He is now a prosperous farmer, (and well preserved for his age) near Independence, La.
Patrick Rowe, another one armed veteran of the 6th, is living in New Orleans, and at this writing is in very poor health. Michael Nuss, New Orleans, is in his seventy seventh year. Philip Jacobs is in his seventy ninth year and partially paralyzed. He resides in New Orleans with his children.

John D. Mahoney is one of the leading boss draymen in the city of New Orleans. He is in good health and prosperous.

All of these "sixteen survivors" were wounded and one of them, John Collins, lost an arm in the service. This regiment was ever to the front from the First Manassas to the close of the war at Appomattox. The 6th Louisiana belonged to the Stonewall Jackson corps, and was of course under the command of Gen. Robert E. Lee.

Since the foregoing was put in type Captain Walshe, of New Orleans, who has procured data with patriotic diligence, writes that others of the 6th "have turned up." The sketch may be supplemented later.

FIRST CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS IN ARKANSAS.

BY JUDGE R. T. SIMPSON, OF THE SUPREME COURT OF ALABAMA.

As apropos to the recent Confederate Reunion at Little Rock and reminded of an incident by an article in the May VETERAN, I give an account of the first act of war in the State of Arkansas. I had just commenced the practice of law at Des Arc when our disturbances began,

Arkansas had not seceded, but we had organized a company in Des Arc, and were drilling when we received a telegram from Little Rock, stating that a boat was coming up the river with reenforcements for the Federal arsenal, situated there, and we must take the arsenal. Our company was not large, but we started at once for the trip of six miles in hacks. As we traveled on we met a number of persons who told us marvelous tales, such as that the boat with Federal troops had just come up, had been fired on, and the fire was being returned from the boat. We punished our poor horses to hasten their pace, and finally reached Little Rock, to find it as calm and peaceful as a May morning.

We were the first troops to reach there. Our numbers were not formidable, and Little Rock was strong for the Union. Placards were placed on the street corners to the effect that a lot of lawless people from Des Arc were there, and if we were not very careful the vigilance committee would take charge of us. We, however, took possession of one thousand Minie muskets, with the ammunition, which were in the possession of the adjutant general, and rested on our arms until we received a message that there was another company down at the river, and we met a fine company from Helena.

I did not know until I read in the May VETERAN, page 212, that the afterwards distinguished Gen, Pat Cleburne was with that company. Shortly after that another company was welcomed, about which time the "vigilance committee's" placards disappeared. We had at least eight hundred men in our impromptu army when we made a formal demand on Captain Toten, who was in charge of the arsenal with eighty two men. He asked to be given until twelve o'clock the next day to answer, which request was granted. That night our scouts reported that Toten was limbering up his artillery, loading his muskets, placing them by the embrasures, etc., and we thought we were to have a desperate battle. At twelve o'clock the next day, however, Toten's answer came, stating that he would surrender if we would allow him to march out with side arms and the honors of war, which condition we graciously acceded to. So the Federals marched out and we took possession. We left a company in charge of the arsenal to hold it until the State seceded.

I have often smiled at those proceedings and wondered how we would have forced our way into that arsenal, as it was a stone structure with thick walls, and we had no arms except muskets and one small piece of artillery which had been used for firing salutes.

While we justly claim that we Confederate soldiers were not rebels, as our States had exercised their undoubted right to secede and we were fighting for them, yet I suppose those of us who took part in that affair before the State seceded would not deny that we were rebels at that time.

WANTED "A SOLDIER OF HONOR." A most attractive sketch of Gen. Earl Van Dorn was published by the Abbey Press. The edition was limited and a few copies are wanted. Please let the VETERAN know of any copies that may be purchased.

TRIBUTE TO MRS. LUCY GREEN YERGER.

The Mississippi Division, U. D. C., assembled in its convention in Meridian, honored its beloved President, Mrs. Lucy Green Yerger, of Greenville, with the gift of a very handsome Confederate pin set with rubies and diamonds, "red, white, and red." Miss Mary Craig Kimbrough, the popular author, who has recently written the life of Miss Winnie Davis, presented this beautiful gift of the U. D. C. to Mrs. Yerger.

At the conclusion of Mrs. Kimbrough's felicitous address, as she stooped to kiss Mrs. Yerger, addressing her as "our Mother," the audience was treated to a most beautiful and touching tableaux: Mrs. Yerger a gracious, stately "Mother of the Confederacy," a lovely dame of the Old South, clasping the hands of the fair young Daughter of the Confederacy the old generation and the new beautiful representatives of Southern womanhood.

In Miss Kimbrough's address, which was rendered with exquisite grace, she moved the audience to tears. She said:

Daughters of the Confederacy: You have given me the sweet privilege of expressing your sentiments on this happy occasion, the most beautiful of the convention. I am grateful, but I feel that you have given me an impossible task. As one of our Southern poets has said, some thoughts, like virgins, are too sacred for the touch of a word. I am sure that no words could express the thoughts that are in your hearts to night. 

For two terms the Mississippi Division has enjoyed the administration of one of our 'Mothers of the Confederacy.' She is with us now, sweet, serene, and gracious a beautiful woman, a capable officer, whose impartial rulings and wise counsel will be an inspiration to all who succeed her. 
When those grim, gray war dogs, our fathers, fought and froze and starved, and fought again, from Sumter to Appomattox, when thousands leaped into battle's red embrace for the sake of a principle that could never die to such as she they pledged their faith. For she was one of those saints in homespun who wept and prayed and wrought, who cooked to feed starving legions, who sewed to clothe an army of ragged heroes. Because of such as she they held honor and duty above all earthly considerations and left to us a glorious heritage. 

Through the blood of such women as she we can look in the future for a race as brave, as chivalrous, as noble as was God's supreme intention when he created man. To the memory of such as she our children and our children's children shall look for inspiration, depending upon the divinity that illuminates such pure souls to faith.

And so, sweet mother of the Confederacy, by our hallowed banner steeped in such a costly dye, by the sacred ashes of our martyred dead, we, your Daughters, pledge you with this small token our reverence forever.

MISS KIMBROUGH'S HISTORY OF WINNIE DAVIS.

Among the many interesting things done during the U. D. C. State Convention a committee composed of Mrs. Birdsong, of Edwards, Mrs. Collier, of Vicksburg, and Mrs. Leigh, <of Columbus, was appointed to read Miss Mary Craig Kim'brough's history of Winnie Davis to see if the work was worthy of indorsement, that it might be listed among Southern histories of note.

The Meridian Dispatch states: "Miss Kimbrough is a brilliant young woman and gifted in every way. Naturally her work will reflect great credit upon her, and there is no doubt that it will be indorsed."

MRS. YERGER'S REPLY.

Surely when Van Dyke said, "There is nothing in all this world so life giving as to be told that you are loved," he spoke a true as well as beautiful thought. My dear Daughters, you have told me that I am "loved," you have sent me a beautiful message of approval, and from the depths of my heart I thank you, and you, my sweet young Southern girl (addressing Miss Kimbrough), have most beautifully borne this message to me. It is not easy to find words to thank you for the eloquence may I not say the brilliant fancy? with which you have graced me, your subject. My head swims from the dizzy heights on which you have placed me. In the wide range of your genius, my dear girl, you cannot help making everything or every subject you touch beautiful.

My dear Daughters of the Confederacy of the Mississippi Division, I wish I could tell you how happy you have made me to night. As I look upon the lovely Mississippi Division, U. D. C., badge, your gift to me, and catch the blessed light of that glorious banner with the Southern cross upon its fiery folds and see with what precious jewels you have had it encircled, the thought springs from my heart how well you have brought forth the ideal glory of the battle flag of the Southern Confederacy. The sparkling diamonds around the precious banner are symbolic of the brilliant achievements of the men who wore the gray, who bore this banner, red handed, to the cannon's mouth on the many bloody battlefields of the four years of dreadful war. The pure white of these diamonds is not purer or whiter than the stainless cause for which "the men in gray" fought and for which so many died that it might live. The rich red of the rubies midst the diamonds is not richer or deeper than the precious Southern blood shed for us and for the honor and glory of our dear Southland and for our Southern rights.
Rare and priceless as these red rubies are, bright, beautiful, and sparkling as are the diamonds encircling this loved banner which Miss Mary Craig Kimbrough, our young U. D. C. and Mississippi's gifted authoress, has just pinned for you over my heart, they are not yet as priceless or do they shine a more brilliant spark than the jewel of your love, which I shall as long as my life lasts wear in my heart. Far more mighty, far more dazzlingly brilliant is that love than all earth's riches. Far more priceless above all rubies is that jewel. The wealth of Ophir's gold could not purchase that brightest jewel from me. Thank you, dear Daughters, for this gift. Thank you, my sweet girl of the South, for bringing this love gift to me. God grant that I may prove worthy of this love for me and for this your trust in me

COL R. W. BANKS ON BATTLE OF FRANKLIN.

BY REV. JAMES H. M'NEILLY, CHAPLAIN, NASHVILLE, TENN.

With deep interest I have just read a little brochure on the battle of Franklin by Col. R. W. Banks, at the time serving as adjutant of the 29th Alabama Regiment, Cantey's Brigade, Walthall's Division, Stewart's Corps, but regularly with the 37th Mississippi as sergeant major. The little book is a tribute to the gallant Mississippians in that awful battle. It gives deserved praise to Mississippi's preux chevalier, Maj. Gen. E. C. Walthall, handsome as Apollo and chivalrous as Sir Philip Sydney.

The especial feature is the story of E. L. Russell, color bearer of the 41st Mississippi, Sharp's Brigade, Lee's Corps, who, with a few comrades, in hand to hand encounter forced his way into the enemy's works and returned with two stands of captured colors. There is also modest mention of the author's planting the flag of the 29th Alabama on the enemy's works, where it remained for four hours, riddled with bullets, while the bearer lay beneath it, amid dead and writhing, wounded men, until he escaped from his awful position and carried his flag back to General Walthall.

I had opportunity to see something of the heroism of that day. I had a brother tilled in a few yards of the old gin house. I was a chaplain of Quarles's Brigade, Walthall's Division. It was my custom to go with the men into action. In the charge I went forward until my men fell so thick and fast that I had to stop and care for them, and I can testify to the magnificent courage of all of our troops, and also to the steady heroism with which our assaults were met and repulsed by the enemy.

Of course this little book makes only small reference to other troops in that great battle, for its avowed purpose is to tell only of the events in the author's own immediate observation and of the deeds of the Mississippians. It is a thrilling story, and if others would record their experiences of the war as Colonel Banks has done, it would furnish most valuable material for a complete history of that great conflict.

There is one little mistake that needs correction for the sake of accuracy. The distance from Spring Hill to Franklin is not "over twenty miles," but is just thirteen miles. I am not disposed to criticize this interesting volume, but I seem to detect an undertone of disparagement or depreciation of General Johnston as compared with General Hood. It may be that my admiration, even love, for "Old Joe" makes me sensitive.

BY JUDGE J. H. HENDERSON, FRANKLIN, TENN.

I was not in the army, but was in the war, heard some of the great battles, and was on the edge of more than one skirmish. As of interest to some of your readers, I note incidents connected with the clash on the Lewisburg Pike near Douglas Church when Captain Freeman was killed. I was then about twelve years of age, and the recollection of that stirring day and night is fresh in my mind. My father lived about half a mile east of Douglas Church on Five Mile Creek. The Confederates under Van Dorn were advancing from Spring Hill on Franklin, and had been passing on the pike for some time, evidently preparatory to making a determined attack on Franklin. Some Federal cavalry, I suppose about a regiment, came suddenly from the direction of Dr. Brice M. Hughes's farm on Big Harpeth. I saw them capture a lone Confederate, either a scout or straggler, near the front gate of S. A. Jefferson. They came through my father's yard and lot and formed in line of battle just under the brow of a slight elevation, a little more than a quarter of a mile from the pike, where the Confederates were passing, wholly ignorant that the enemy were so near.

I watched their movements anxiously. After forming line, they made a sudden dash over the elevation upon the Confederate line on the pike, and the battle began at once. I was anxious to see it. I climbed up on top of the barn, and distinctly saw a part of it about a quarter of a mile away, but the whistling of the bullets soon brought me down. In a short time, certainly not more than half an hour, the Federals returned, going back the way they came. They had a number of prisoners on foot whom they were rushing as fast as they could trot. Among them was our Speaker of the Tennessee Senate, Hon. Nat Baxter, Jr. I learned that he was in the crowd a short time thereafter. The Federals were pressing their prisoners as fast as they could make them run, expecting of course to be pursued, but they were not.
The Confederates "pressed" my father's wagon and team to haul four of their dead to Spring Hill. Among them was Captain Freeman, of Freeman's Battery. The wagon was driven by a negro, and I went with him, possibly for the adventure, or more probably at his solicitation, for my father knew nothing of my going. The body of Captain Freeman was lying where he fell in my father's wood lot, about one hundred yards or more east of the pike. He was lying on his back with a handkerchief over his face. When it was removed, I saw that he had been shot in the face. I remember so well his manly form as he lay stretched out on the ground. The spot where his head rested and where his blood had mingled with the earth was barren of grass for more than a year after. We kept it marked for a number of years, and I can locate it now.

There was a young man there, spare made, beardless, perhaps eighteen or nineteen years old. He was crying, bitterly cursing the Yankee and swearing vengeance against the regiment for what he termed the brutal murder of Captain Freeman after he surrendered. His command was so pressed that they could not escape with his body. I have frequently inquired who that young man was, but have not learned.
We hauled the four bodies to Spring Hill, reaching there late in the night. I do not know where we left them, I remember that they were unloaded at some residence. We drove into the midst of the Confederate camp looking for a place to spend the remainder of. the night. We were readily given lodging at the first tent we came to, and I slept in camp. I must have been frightened and uneasy, but somehow the recollection of such does not remain with me. I knew that I was with my own people. The soldiers in that tent, whom I had never seen before, were very kind to me, and shared with me their rations and their bed. The impression remains that I then regarded the Confederate soldier as among the grandest of men. A boy would naturally have implicit confidence in such men. I remember all that and how I felt that I was in safe hands.

After nearly half a century, and since I have come to know him better, my estimate of the character of the Confederate soldier is the same. For nobleness of character and heroism history has not produced his superior. One of the boasts of my life is that the blood which made him flows in the veins of myself and my children.

The next morning without any passports we came to the Confederate pickets, who were standing near the Ratcliffe gate. While we were talking with them we could see the Federal pickets at the top of the Hardeman Hill, about threequarters of a mile distant. The Confederates passed us without any question. As we approached the Hardeman Hill the Federal pickets had passed out of sight, but they suddenly stepped from a corner of the fence and covered us with their guns as we reached them. They examined our wagon, and found three bullet shaped bombshells which we had picked up on the road somewhere. They warned us of the danger of these, and took them out of the wagon. They passed us on through, and we found the whole country north of the Hardeman Hill blue with Federals. An officer took me in charge, calling me "buddie," talking very kindly to me, asking where I had been, how many Confederates I saw, etc. I remember I told him I did not know how many, but from the camp fires and tents I saw that "the woods" seemed "full of them." We drove on home, put our mules in the stable, and a few minutes after that saw the Yankees taking them off.

The exact spot where Captain Freeman fell can be definitely located, as I have stated, and should be permanently marked, and I can guarantee that it would be preserved and cared for, as the land is now owned by my sister, who would donate sufficient land for a marker or a monument to Captain Freeman with sufficient space for approach.

Let me add another reminiscence. Some years after the war I drove with Col. W. S. McLemore, of delightful memory (he commanded Starnes's 4th Tennessee Cavalry), out the Lewisburg Pike. He told me that about the top of the Hardeman Hill, as they were advancing on Franklin that day, he sent a courier to General Starnes, who was ahead, asking permission for his men to load their guns. He received a message in reply that this was not necessary. When he reached the top of the next hill, he sent another courier to General Starnes telling him that he saw what he thought were Yankees on his right and over near my father's house. The courier came back with a message from General Starnes: "Tell McLemore not to get scared, they are only Armstrong's scouts." In less than fifteen minutes from that time the Yankees, were upon them, and their guns were not loaded.

(The author Judge John H. Henderson, has served upon the Supreme Bench in Tennessee. He is a most patriotic citizen, and would cooperate actively in a tribute so worthily due the memory of the gallant Captain Freeman, who gave his life for the Confederacy. This suggestion is so opportune that survivors of Captain Freeman's battery and their friends should take heed now. EDITOR VETERAN.)

THOMAS RIGGINS, OLDEST GUNMAKER.

BY G. ELSWORTH BROWN, EDITOR MAGAZINE OF ANTIQUE FIREARMS, ATHENS, TENN.

Thomas Riggins, born in 1821, the oldest living gunmaker in the United States, and probably the only living armorer of the Confederacy. At the age of ten he entered as apprentice a shop owned by one of his relatives. After studying the armorer's art for several years, he began making sporting rifles.

In 1845 he could make a rifle complete from the raw bulk iron. The unusual excellence of his work attracted attention throughout a section within a radius of a hundred miles. Many a successful contestant at an old time shooting match owed his luck to a Riggins rifle.

At the outbreak of the Civil War he contracted to make the rifles for arming the "East Tennessee Squirrel Shooters," a State cavalry regiment of Rebel volunteers. After volunteering in '61, he went to Lynchburg under Colonel Vaughn, of the 3d Tennessee Regiment. Before his company saw actual service he was ordered to Knoxville to instruct about sixty mechanics in the making of cavalry rifles out of old fowling pieces. Many a wagon load of long Kentucky flintlock rifles was collected in the South and sent to Knoxville, where Mr. Riggins and his assistants converted them into serviceable short percussion lock, large bore carbines for Confederate cavalry, Mr. Riggins, with a natural pride, states that his picked assistants were fast workers, and that they labored strenuously for many months, often working all night to complete the equipment of some waiting troop of cavalry, until the Federal army forced them to retreat.
The VETERAN is indebted to Confrere Brown for the photo reproduced herewith. He writes: "I consider myself very lucky in getting the picture of Mr. Riggins when I did, now that he is very ill. The picture was taken in March, when he was hale and hearty, now he is confined to his house very sick, almost blind, deaf, and in poverty. Once he applied for a pension, but for some technical defect in the application it was turned down."

MISS MARY JOHNSTON'S FATHER, MAJ. JOHN W. JOHNSTON. General Stephenson in his report of the Baker's Creek battle mentions Maj. J. W. Anderson (March VETERAN) as. "gallantly falling in full discharge of his duties" and Capt. J. W. Johnston as fighting his battery "to the last extremity," and he mentions Captain Johnston in the siege of Vicksburg while inspector of light artillery "for valuable service rendered." Gen, John S. Boman, commanding the division, mentions Major Anderson and Captain Johnston as having "conducted themselves in a most commendable manner. Next to her famous book, "To Have and to Hold," Miss Johnston's "Long: Roll" will add to her fame. A fond critic says of the "Long Roll:" "It is too fine a history to be regarded as a novel."

July 1911 starts here

Confederate Veteran July 1911

THAT DETESTABLE ELSON BOOK. (A Virginia woman in the Roanoke (Va.) Times.)

Mr. Thomas Cline,of Roanoke College, in a recent letter to the Culpeper Enterprise calls that paper to account for something it had said of the college, and ends thus: "Roanoke College has evidenced the true, genuine patriotism that the South needs, and not the narrow spirit of sectionalism." It is amazing how all the defenders of said college harp upon the much frayed string of "sectionalism." In fact, they have worn it to a frazzle, while it is very clear that sectionalism has no part in the matter.

To repudiate and protest against falsehood and slander is a recognized right of individuals, communities, and nations. Surely to be patriotic Americans it is not essential to heap insult and injury upon our ancestors, immediate and remote, to discredit the living and the dead. Yet this appears to be what Roanoke College and its defenders demand of us, the college itself setting the example, and Elson's history was dropped as a concession to public sentiment, and for no other reason. President Morehead affirms his sympathy with the traditions and ideals of the South, deplores the sectionalism shown by the protestants against false statements, and speaks

of the "wider patriotism" they would have shown by remaining silent. I utterly fail to see the connection. In nowise can I understand how national loyalty is to be promoted by vilifying any section of our common country or by any section's accepting as final an unjust and outrageous verdict.

Statements regarding occurrences must either be true or untrue. "Academic freedom" does not always discover the truth. One student of the college boldly declares that, "while it is tough on the South, he believes all that Elson says on the subject." Another, in a newspaper article, claims to voice the student body and proceeds to deride and sneer at our Virginia ancestry. The history of the State from its inception at Jamestown is a standing refutation of his sneers. No one but a fool tries to live upon his ancestry, and no one but an ingrate fails to acknowledge his obligations to those who have gone before.

I fear that this sapient youth will not measure up even to the scant virtues of the "idle pleasure seekers" who did nothing for the advancement of their State and "lived upon their ancestry."

If the above incidents indicate "the true, genuine patriotism which the college has and the South needs," may the good Lord deliver us

INDORSING THE VIRGINIA WOMAN'S VIEWS.

The Roanoke Times states editorially on this subject: "Very cordially and heartily we indorse and approve the sentiments expressed by 'A Virginia Woman' writing from Culpeper regarding the position of the Roanoke College authorities in connection with the Elson history. We confess that that position is mysterious to us and is past understanding by any code of ethics with which we are familiar. The deepest damnation of all is the evident effort of the authorities of Roanoke College to make this question appear sectional and narrow.
Mr. Elson himself has confessed that in these statements he was wrong, and he has promised to correct them in his next edition. Yet Roanoke College with this confessed falsehood in its accepted books sets itself up as standing for truth (?) and 'broad thought.' 

With all the power we have we resent the course of the authorities of this college in first teaching false and slanderous assertions, confessed by the author of them to be false, and then presenting themselves as teachers of 'broad thought,' denouncing those who oppose falsehood as narrow and sectional and claiming for themselves superiority to sectionalism and narrowness, basing this claim on confessed and crumbling falsehood.

As we see it now, let the people who want their sons taught that before the war we were a population of male prostitutes, regardless of color or race and of female accessories, and that the splendid old men we see wearing the crosses of honor and the uniforms of the Confederate veterans, our own fathers and grandfathers, fought and offered their lives for the perpetuation of slavery let these people send their sons to Roanoke College under its present management. * * * We had better have poison put into the food of our sons than to have them taught that their forefathers were heads of harems, with their grandmothers conniving, and that the soldiers of the Confederacy fought to maintain human slavery.
THE OLD SOUTH, THE KING LEAR OF NATIONS.

BY DR. P. D. STEPHENSON, BON AIR, VA.

Lying on a bed of weakness after a night of restlessness, I have just read the June VETERAN on the Elson history scandal. The only fitting comment on the students' action in the matter is couched in King Lear's piercing cry: "How sharper than a serpent's tooth!"

But how much more sharp in the Old South's case than in that of old King Lear! His anguish was at most but an episode of a few years after a long career of unsullied honor, prosperity, and power, while that of the Old South in this matter is the concentrated deadly dregs of a bitter, bitter cup held by force to her lips for a whole generation or more a cup whose ingredients were military oppression, confiscation and wholesale robbery, negro domination upheld by bayonets, a forced and universal poverty and ignorance of her children, force bills, steady, malign, and tireless vilification, and poisoning of the public opinion and histories of the whole world of that day against the South. They have stamped the brand of a criminal upon her brow not only in sight of the generation of that day but even in the pages of history.

Not until about twenty years ago did they take from her lips that cup, held there until the fatal virus was thought to have spread well through the veins of her uninformed, infected children. Now their hope seems to have been realized. Despite the magnificent uprising to the rescue of her honor, her record, and the well established truths of history of the Old South, through her noble U. C. V. and U. D. C. organizations, the moment freedom of speech was allowed her, despite the untiring industry and fidelity shown since, this evil hope, it seems, must prove well founded. The arms of the unshackled and enfeebled old Mother South are thrown around her offspring too late. They have already drunk of the cup, the poison is doing its work. Under the sounding name of "academic freedom" they unwind the arms of their dying old mother from about them, they turn with an air of lofty, superior scholarship to her scurrilous enemies and calmly sit at their feet instead.

What devil's broth must it be to make children do such a thing as that? "Without natural affection! Implacable, unmerciful!" Is it not so? Is anything more cruel than for a child to unwind the dying old mother's arms from about him, smite her on the lips that are pleading, "Don't destroymy honor, my son," and then kick her and turn his back upon her?

And what silly, shallow display of ignorance of the times! At the very moment when all through the North there is a renaissance of learning as to the Old South's position in the war and a greater and greater respect for her views, her arguments, her achievements

How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is indeed to have a thankless child

King Lear's youngest daughter, Cordelia, remained true to ˛ him. Is there not one loyal child among the dying Old South's children? Yes, yes, there must be, even among those Roanoke students, for I do not believe that all the students there indorsed that unspeakable book.

Let, then King Lear's youngest child, son or daughter, be dedicated to the task of vindicating the name and fame and record of the dying yet deathless, the outraged yet lofty and stately high souled old mother of the New South 
(Dr. Stephenson is right. Despite the boasts that Confederate veterans indorse the book, there is no fear that any of them who have not become renegades will indorse the book or the faculty after they have carefully investigated the book and the status of the faculty. The sophistry, throughout the book is its conspicuous feature, and no man or woman who is truly devoted to the South will have patience with that Roanoke College "faculty" for a moment. They can't do it. The Elson book infamy and the insolence of the Virginia college facult yin an effort to vindicate it are grievous. The men who were leaders in restoring the Union and who fought only for that are manifesting nowadays a spirit that tends to real peace and thorough reconciliation. Leading Confederates, and the "old boys" too, are cooperating unstintedly, and the complete restoration of conditions that existed away back at the close of the Revolution before sectionalism did its unhappy work make a bright prospect indeed. But the imperative demand for repudiating so vile a publication requires treatment that may mislead casual readers of the VETERAN and cause misconstruction of its purposes. These occasional readers are importuned to a patient consideration of the facts in this controversy. Meanwhile the patriotic offices of Union veterans in helping to vindicate the Southern people against these aspersions are earnestly implored. Confederates want fraternity, but will not have it at the cost of shame to themselves and degradation to the nation. These issues are of concern to every American who is loyal to its principles.)


ELSON'S HISTORY ON JOHN BROWN.

Elson describes John Brown at Harper's Ferry as "an elderly man with long, flowing beard and with a strange, unfathomable eye, and a descendant of one of the Pilgrims who had come in the Mayflower in 1620." (J. E. B. Stuart as the aid of Col. R. E. Lee was the first person to detect and expose Brown's identity, though he was under the assumed name of I. Smith. Jeb Stuart had been serving in Kansas.) Elson relates that Brown's father furnished cattle for the army in 1812, and that John stayed for a time with a slaveholder who owned a negro about John's age, and that while "young Brown was treated with the utmost kindness the black boy was beaten and maltreated for little or no cause." This incident fixed in the youthful soul of John Brown hatred of slavery, etc. Elson states that when Brown was advised not to attempt the capture of Harper's Ferry "his iron will was unmoved," as were also "his composure" and "his tranquillity of mind." He foes on to quote Northern authors' eulogies upon Brown, and then comments upon "his supreme self command, his heroic courage, his readiness to sacrifice his home ( ?) and his family for a cause that must elicit our admiration."

This is a sample of the history that is indorsed by the student body of Roanoke College, at Salem, Va.

In writing of the Civil War it is apparent that Elson is an intense partisan, and yet his sophistry may be uncovered in every chapter wherein the causes of the two sections are involved. Thorstenberg, the teacher of the book in Roanoke College, has shown the most creditable character of all who are on the defensive in the controversy. His promptness in discarding the book shows that he realized its infamy.
A PROBLEM IN SOUTHERN EDUCATION

(Dr. J. A. Morehead, President of Roanoke College, writes of "the wider significance of the Elson's history incident.")

Having returned to Roanoke College after an absence of nearly two months, I have given my first leisure to the study of the agitation against Roanoke College in connection with the former use of Elson's history of the United States. While the trustees of the college issued a comprehensive statement on March 7, and while later the faculty published careful definitions of our position, it seems evident that there is still misapprehension as to the real attitude of this institution. For this reason and also because of the wider significance that the "history" incident may have, I have decided to present my personal view of the principles involved in their relation to educational work.
The trustees passed resolutions expressing loyalty to the South, deprecating sectional agitation, declaring for full and free investigation in search for the truth. They stated clearly the principle that a professor should have freedom to select his own textbooks and to determine the other means and methods of his work of instruction. The test of the satisfactoriness of a professor was, in their view, not his textbooks, but the actual work of his department in its real substance and results. Disapproval was expressed of certain passages of the book in question, but the professor of history was sustained. At his suggestion Elson's text was discontinued. This was done, not because there was any danger whatever of errors about the South being taught, as the book was in the hands of a competent and impartial professor, but out of deference to the feelings aroused in the minds of Confederate veterans and in the interest of harmony. The resolutions of the trustees were adopted with only two dissenting votes. Among the affirmative voters were prominent Confederate veterans, including a gentleman who was in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. Elson's book has not been used at Roanoke College by the professor as a text or for reference since March 7. The faculty is in perfect accord with the action of the trustees. One student was taken out of college on account of the controversy, but five have been added to the enrollment since the March meeting. So much for the facts of the situation at Roanoke College.

It seems to us that vital principles are involved in this controversy. First of all, is it not clear that a college must honestly stand for the truth if it is to be an ethical as well as an intellectual force in the development of its students? The students must feel that the college in its professors is sincerely devoted to the truth in all departments and at any cost. Thus only will they have respect for their instructors and will themselves learn the vital lesson of intellectual honesty. The ideal of the college, as of the scholar, must be honest investigation and sincere instruction if there is to be real scholarship and real college work.

There cannot be loyalty to the truth in scholarly work without freedom to investigate, to think, to review all phases of a subject the truths, the half truths, and the untruths about it and to form and to express independent judgments. This is the principle of academic freedom. It goes without saying that it needs to be carefully guarded in its application. But it is a vital principle. A roan worthy to be a college professor should not only be allowed freedom, but his exercise of it in scholarly endeavor and method should be required. It seems to me that the general tendency in educational work in all grades is to emphasize the teacher rather than the mere textbook or the textbook method of teaching. Especially in college or university work, the determining emphasis is placed upon the professor as the authority, not upon his means of work. He is a specialist, an expert, who justifies himself by his work and by its results. As an illustration of the maintenance of the principle of academic freedom I may cite what occurred some years ago at Yale University. The professor of economics was an aggressive antagonist of the theory of protection and an advocate of free trade. It is perfectly apparent that he was not in harmony with his environment. But he was retained as a matter of principle, although the result was that he taught the sons of protectionists the contrary doctrine. In the present test case Roanoke College was very fortunate. When the matter first came up in the autumn, I took occasion to assure myself that, following freely his own conviction, Dr. Thorstenberg, of our department of history, would teach no errors about the South, whatever text he used. Some personal facts may be of interest. Dr. Thorstenberg is the son of Swedish parents who came to this country after the Civil War was over. He is an alumnus of Bethany College, Kansas. He won the A.B. A.M., and Ph,D. degrees at Yale University. All of his special preparation has been in the subjects of history and social science. He accepted his present position at Roanoke College in the summer of 1907, coming here from the University of Oklahoma. We know him to be an impartial scholar. This is the vital point. It should also be remembered that the student at the college age has an inquiring, independent mind. He wants to know this and understand that. The wise professor will not indulge in concealments. He will review impartially all the facts, the alleged facts, and misrepresentations. His aim will be by comprehensive study to guide the student to just and true conclusions. He will not only endeavor to add to the student's sum. of knowledge and to improve his mental discipline, but he will also familiarize him with wise methods of scientific investigation.

Having in mind the actual principles, methods, and practices of college work, it seems puerile to condemn a professor and suspect a college on the ground of a few objectionable passages or opinions in a textbook of nearly a thousand pages. It seems possible to account for the continued agitation of this matter only by supposing that hasty judgments have been formed on the basis of ex parte statements.

It is a significant fact that a Confederate veteran who was a chaplain in the army, without any consultation with me whatever, proposed the following resolution for the March meeting of the Board of Trustees: "In regard to textbooks and their use in the recitation room, it is not necessary or even desirable that the teacher and the textbooks should in every particular be in full accord. The excellencies of a textbook may so far exceed its defects as to justify its use in the recitation room, leaving corrections to be made by the instructor." Shall Southern institutions make an exception of American history in their application of the above principles to the work of higher education? I believe such a position to be untenable. After all, is there any necessity for an intolerant attitude on this subject? For my part, I am thoroughly in sympathy with true Southern ideals and traditions. It is my conviction that the ante bellum civilization of the South was unique among the civilizations of the world. Like all things human, it had its defects, but its excellencies were so fine, so appealing that, despite the drag of slavery, the civilization of the Old South will always remain one of the marvels of American history. The case of the South is not so weak that it needs to fear the full light of scientific investigation. Let the truth stand, as it must stand in the final verdict of history. But while the Southerner, whose patriotism is based on convictions, will thus invite the just and fair historic estimate of the South's past without solicitude for the result, knowing that honest scholarship will do justice to its heroes and its achievements, is there not also a broader patriotism that should be inculcated in our educational work? I am reminded here of the words of General Lee to a Virginia mother, when, shortly after the war, he said: "'Abandon all these local animosities and make your sons Americans." I heard similar sentiments expressed, while living in Richmond a good many years ago, by the late Gen. John B. Gordon in his eloquent address to the Camp of the United Confederate Veterans convening in that city. Will the South forget these great leaders, even though they be absent from the body? I do profoundly believe that the educational program in a patriotic sense, North, South, East, and West, is expressed once for all for us in the noble words of Gen. Robert E. Lee. So shall we work together, each in his place, for the welfare of our common country. This agitation in connection with the history controversy has seemed to me particularly untimely. The men of the South are winning place and recognition in the councils of the nation. There are numerous indications in very recent years that the North wants to be just to the South both as to its history and as to its opportunity for service in the cause of our republic. I feel sure that the South on the whole is really ready to meet the North in the same generous spirit.

In Southwestern Virginia, as in many other parts of the South, we have a mixed population. People from various parts of our great country are uniting with us in the earnest endeavor to develop this section along all lines. Under the circumstances they might well consider such sectional agitation ungracious were it not that some of our people, as I verily believe, have been misled and have temporarily misrepresented themselves. But there have been many sober heads even in our immediate vicinity during this temporary excitement.

(Dr. Morehead's article could not well appear in the June VETERAN, and would not now except to show how weak his argument, it is not published as a courtesy. The Editor has no patience with it. Two months' absence from the college by the President seems a long time. Sickness may excuse that, but for him to wait for "leisure" to take up a subject of such vital issue to the college, to the State, and of such vital concern to the entire Southland, to which the president owes native allegiance, is indeed strange. No matter where he was during the two months' absence, he, if not too ill to do anything, should have investigated the grave causes that were agitating worthy patrons of the college. He should have studied that as a student, and he should not have waited for "leisure" from anything else to investigate. It demanded his first consideration. Dr. (John Alfred) Morehead, though a Virginian, graduated in Philadelphia, and later studied in Leipsic, and is a licensed Lutheran preacher. His training is so "broad" that questions which thrilled every human soul for four years in the Southland before he was born seem of no consequence to him, especially when the sentiment of a teacher of foreign birth, educated in Kansas and New England, is involved as against all the faithful, loyal Southerners in his section and in the South.

It was anticipated that Dr. Morehead would apologize for the blunder, but in his "personal view" of principles involved in relation to educational work he states that there was no danger whatever of errors about the South being taught, since the book was in the hands of an "impartial professor," and that no matter what the book says since the professor of history is to be the judge of what the student ought to know. He boasts that since Judge Moffett's daughter was taken from the school five students have been added. 
It is a sad chapter in this unhappy affair that a man who has been distinguished as the president of that venerable college should so expose his smallness in theory as to attempt to justify a vile book, provided the teacher of history in this case a fairer man than the president of the college will be careful to withhold the outrageous and shameful falsehoods in the book (!), and he states: "The wise professor will not indulge in concealments." Dr. Morehead regards it as "puerile" to condemn a professor and suspect a college because of a few objectionable opinions in a book of nearly a thousand pages.

That Elson book is viler than "Uncle Tom's Cabin" under the circumstances, one being a novel and the other purporting to be history, and is far less excusable. After half a century of progress the true men on both sides who fought to a finish are in thorough accord about the good of the country and the spirit of amity between the sections, for a few bigoted teachers to insult every sentiment and principle involved in the progress and the peace of the country is an outrage. They cannot succeed, despite their boast and insolence. The situation is deplorable, and the Southern people will not tolerate it. All honor to the citizens of Salem and Roanoke in that they will abolish their most cherished institution rather than tolerate such a book.)


MOTHERS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS. A statement was made in the Lavonia (Ga.) Times recently that there were four mothers of Confederate veterans living in Franklin County of that State, who are Mrs. C. A. Dean and Mrs. Matilda Homer, of Lavonia, Mrs. Mary Garner, near Poplar Springs Church, Mrs. Susie Davis, of Gumlog. While their ages are not reported, it is estimated that they are between seventy five and ninety years. The contributor of this adds that the mother of Mr. Richard Milner, a veteran, lives in Cartersville, Ga.

COMMANDER OF KENTUCKY SOLDIERS' HOME.

Col. Henry George, Commander of the Kentucky Confederate Home, was born March 2, 1847 He joined Company A, 7th Kentucky Infantry, C. S. A., November 5, 1861, just after passing his fourteenth birthday. With a single exception, he was in. every battle in which the regiment was engaged, including Shiloh, Baker's Creek) Corinth, Brice's Crossroads, Harrisburg, Forrest's campaign in Middle and West Tennessee, with Hood on his Nashville campaign, including the battle at Franklin and Murfreesboro. He was with Forrest in all of his movements and battles the last year and a half of the war, and surrendered with that command in May, 1855.

On his return home, after two years in school, he commenced his civic career. He served as deputy county court clerk, police judge, was one year in the Lower House of the Legislature, three terms in the Senate, warden of the Frankfort Penitentiary, and was chairman of the commission board. He was Indian Agent under President Cleveland.

When Colonel George was twenty five years of age, he was married to Miss Mary, daughter of D. M. Galloway, who lived in Mayfield, Ky. Their three children, two sons and one daughter, are all married.

For the last five years he has been the Commandant of the Kentucky Confederate Home. In the Confederate Veterans Association he is Commander of the Kentucky Brigade of Forrest's Cavalry. He is prouder of his war record than anything else of life busy life, and is still hale and hearty.

HISTORY OF FOUR KENTUCKY REGIMENTS.

Colonel George, author of the above named book, writes: "The survivors of the 3d, 7th, 8th, and 12th Kentucky Regiments, C. S. A., are aware that no history has been written specially devoted to those regiments, and believing that there was a demand for such a publication, I have prepared a small history of those regiments from the time each was organized to the close of the war, and embracing all their important movements and engagements.

Its fifteen chapters give accounts of the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (bombardment of), Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, Baker's Creek, Jackson, Coffeyville, raids to Paducah, Union City, Fort Pillow, Brice's Crossroads, Harrisburg, Forrest into Memphis, Forrest's movements into Middle Tennessee, including Athens, Sulphur Trestle, Pulaski, Spring Hill, and others, captures of gunboats and transports, with Hood to Nashville, including the battles of Franklin, Murfreesboro, Nashville, and others, then of the Kentuckians in front of Wilson from Selma to the close of the war. 

Confederate Veteran July 1911

HONEST CONFESSION GOOD FOR THE COUNTRY.

SON OF HARRIET BEECHER STOWE MAKES ADDRESS AT

FISK UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE.

On the hundredth anniversary of her birth Charles E. Stowe, the youngest son of the famous writer of fiction, made an address in Nashville both remarkable and interesting. He admitted some wholesome facts to a great gathering of negroes at Fisk University. Prominent on the platform was Booker Washington. He said in part:

Abraham Lincoln in his celebrated Gettysburg address spoke of our nation as conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition, 'All men are created equal.' This is the great, vague, central, germinant idea which lies at the very heart of our national institutions. The fathers of our republic, who propounded this great principle, were neither Utopians nor socialists, but men of profound political wisdom acting under a sober sense of political responsibility. They did not mean to obliterate the past nor to abolish human nature. They simply meant to declare that in our nation there should be a fair chance for every man to develop the best that there is in him, irrespective of race, color, or nationality. The idea was new and untried. It was an experiment, it was not something that could be realized at once, but must be the slow growth of ages. 

Now as slaves were property, according to law, any attack upon this form of property was an attack indirectly upon all forms of property, and an attack also upon the Constitution of the United States. In the minds, therefore, of pious, churchgoing, orthodox slaveholders, and many such there were, the abolitionists of the North were looked upon as we to day regard the bomb throwing anarchists of Chicago or the most radical wing of the socialist party as the enemies of society and the enemies of God and his holy Word, the Bible, in which the pious slaveholder of the South found abundant authority for his beloved institution.

So along these two points the conflict raged, and slavery, when it was attacked, intrenched itself more and more within the doctrine of State rights, so that at the last the two became identical, and to attack one was to attack the other, to defend one was to defend the other. Consequently, when it came to the outbreak of the Civil War, many patriotic Southern men who cared little or nothing about slavery were stirred with the deepest indignation at the suggestion of the national government subduing a sovereign State by force of arms, and said that a Union that could only be held together by bayonets had better be dissolved, and for the principle of State rights and State sovereignty the Southern men fought with a holy ardor and self denying patriotism that have covered even defeat with imperishable glory. 
And let us look at the matter from the Southern standpoint. The party that elected Abraham Lincoln was a party avowedly hostile to the institution of slavery, and elected a man to the presidency who also avowed his hostility to the institution of slavery, who had been known to say that the Union could not exist both slave and free, was bound ultimately to become all slave or all free, and who in his Cooper Union address said that the anti slavery sentiment had already caused more than a million votes, which could have seemed to the Southern States nothing more nor less than a danger and a menace. Consequently, when they drew the sword to defend the doctrine of State rights and the institution of slavery, they certainly had on their side the Constitution and laws of the land, for a strict interpretation of the national Constitution gave a certain justification to the doctrine of State rights. As to the institution of slavery, even the abolitionists had made the discovery that the Constitution legalized it, and consequently they denounced the Constitution of the United States 'a league with death and a covenant with hell,' and maintained that no moral or Christian man could find or hold office under such an accursed government as ours, and gave all their energies to proving that secession was the duty of the fellow States.
Is it not perfectly evident (hat there was a great rebellion, but that the rebels were the Northerners and that those who defended the Constitution as it was were the Southerners, for they defended State rights and slavery, which were distinctly intrenched within the Constitution? 

ORIGIN OF CIVIL WAR.

o we can truly say that the underlying, efficient cause of our Civil War was the compromises of the Constitution, utterly irreconcilable principles existing there side by side, covered only by compromises that could in the end satisfy neither party.

Then came the great controversy that ended in the Missouri Compromise. Into that entered also the element of slavery when the free States denied the slave power any part of the Louisiana purchase, which was the purchase of the whole nation. The slaveholders rose up in anger and asked why they, with their peculiar property, should be shut out from territory which had been purchased by the whole nation. Here again there was a compromise, but not a solution. 
incoln was our Bismarck, and Lincoln's policy after the surrender at Appomattox was conciliatory toward the South, and it was a deep misfortune for the Southern people, as for the whole nation, that he was removed by the hand of an insane assassin just at the moment when he might have completed the great work which he had carried through such a period of national stress and storm to the point of absolute victory.

We can better understand the anti slavery agitation in its bearings on the development of our national history when we remember that in the formation of the Colonization Society, of which Henry Clay was President, the conscience of antislavery men, both at the North and South, found a most effective opiate in the doctrine of gradual emancipation and deportation of the slaves to Africa. 

So as we look back upon the war it ought to have for us no sting or bitterness, but every angry thought should be stilled in presence of a great sorrow. On both sides were men of the highest principle and the noblest intention, giving themselves up in heroic devotion and self sacrificing bravery to what they thought was true.

Sometimes the question is asked: 'Were not the slaves better off under slavery than they are now under freedom?' I think a candid answer to that question demands us to say that some were better off under slavery than they are under freedom. The abolition of slavery acted on the colored race like a wedge, forcing some down and some up. Those who were fit for freedom, prepared to embrace and make the most of the opportunities offered them as free men, rose. But some were not fit for freedom. Now that is no reflection upon the colored race. We have a very large proportion of the white race that are not fit for freedom. We have innumerable numbers of men and women that we are compelled to confine in institutions and keep as wards of the State, or they destroy themselves and everybody else. 
If slavery was an unutterably evil institution, with no alleviating features, how are we to account for the fact that when the Confederate soldiers were at the front fighting, as they thought, for their independence, the negroes on the plantations took care of the women and children and old people, and nothing like an act of violence was ever known among them? I have seen in Charleston, S. C., a monument erected by former slaveholders and their descendants in grateful acknowledgment of the fidelity of those slaves who remained upon the plantations and cared for their women and children while they were at the front, and I understand that the Confederate veterans are also to erect another such monument.

Certainly such kindly feeling between master and slave shows that there must have been something good in the institution of slavery. Certainly that is the plain implication of 'Uncle Tom's Cabin,' for the very noblest characters in the book, Mrs. Shelby, Eliza, Uncle Tom, St. Clare, and little Eva, were all the offspring of the institution of slavery and nourished on its breast, and certainly an institution that in itself was essentially wicked and diabolical could not have produced such noble characters. So we should not look back upon slavery as a reign of unalleviated wickedness and horror, but remember that it had within itself, in spite of its many abuses and intolerable horrors, much that was good. * * * 
It is an unfortunate thing, to my mind, that the color line has been so drawn as it has been drawn, and that the attention of both the races is of necessity so concentrated upon the fact of color. But that is inevitable. It cannot be otherwise. To my mind the only solution is that your people should develop their own peculiar culture, their own peculiar race pride, and remove prejudice, not by protest, but by doing away with all worthy cause for such prejudice. That comes through thrift, economy, education, intelligence, and work of character. It is a difficult problem that is before you for solution. I believe you are solving it, and upon you educated young men and women who go forth as teachers, leaders, and inspirers of your own people rests a great responsibility, but with that responsibility a mighty opportunity for good."

TRIBUTE TO JOHN L. EDGMAN, KILLED AT BRICE'S CROSSROADS. Dr. T. J. Milner writes from Greenville, Tex.: "I desire to bear testimony to the gallantry of John L. Edgman, who met his death leading the advance guard during the second day's fight at Brice's Crossroads. He was a native of Arkansas, enlisted in infantry service early in the war, but was discharged on account of ill health. He then made his way on foot to Southern Kentucky and joined Company I, Faulkner's 12th Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, Forrest's Cavalry. He was my messmate until he was shot from his horse on June 11, 1864. I loved him as a brother, and am very desirous that any of his family who are living may know how he died among strangers."

Confederate Veteran July 1911

ON THE RIGHT AT CHICKAMAUGA.

BY CAPT. A. B. CLAY, CHURCH HILL, TENN.

The Confederate right at Chickamauga was covered by Pegram's Division of Forrest's Corps. This consisted of Hodge's Brigade, pretty far out, Scott's Brigade, under Col. John Scott, of the 1st Louisiana, and Pegram's old brigade, under General Davidson, but with which General Pegram was actively connected during the night.

At gray daylight Saturday morning the writer (inspector general of the division) was waked by a messenger from General Pegram, ordering him to go to the picket of the 1st Georgia and find out what that firing meant. The picket was quickly reached, and the cause of the firing was that the picket company, stretched in skirmish line, was holding its ground spiritedly with a blue line, which was lapping it on both flanks. Sending back to the 1st Georgia for a squadron, and dismounting it and forming it on the picket company's right, we went at them, but they didn't drive very well. As their left lapped our right considerably, the remainder of the regiment was sent for. Coming up, it was dismounted and took its position with the other line, ready to attack, when a halt was ordered, and General Pegram, who had come up with the rest of the brigade, dismounted them. With Huwald's Battery on our left, flanked by Day's 12th Tennessee Battalion mounted, we went in strong, the battery opening as we charged. The force in our front gave way before us, and with some loss in men and prisoners. Riding up, the writer asked of one of the prisoners whose command that was, and was told that it was Dan McCook's brigade.
Discussing this many years after (when the park was to be dedicated) with three gentlemen, who, from their conversation with each other, had evidently been in the battle, one said, "Why, McCook couldn't have been out there," but the others said: "General, he was out there somewhere." Further talk showed the three to be Gen. Absalom Baird, Major Rodney, and Captain Smith, who later was one of the Park Commissioners. The conversation was a very pleasant one to me. Among other things of interest, I recall that Captain Smith told me that the battery which he then commanded had been organized by Alexander Hamilton, and was the only regular army organization which had been preserved since the Revolutionary War, General Baird had commanded the Federal right opposite us during the battle.

But to continue this. General Forrest came riding up, as the brigade had been recalled, and he and General Pegram engaged in a conversation from which I was called and ordered to "take twenty men and ride to the front for half a mile." Taking Sergeant Goodwin, of the 1st Georgia, we rode quietly and slowly along through a peaceful woodland, where birds were singing and no evidence that two armies were moving up to one of the hardest fought and bloodiest battles of the war. Halting often and straining eyes and ears, we thought we had ridden not less than three quarters of a mile without sight or sound of an enemy.
Returning, the above was reported, and the writer, dismounting, was lying with his head against a tree, when a sharp fire was suddenly poured into the 1st Georgia as they sat mounted. Thrown in some confusion by it, they were quickly formed by Pegram, Forrest, and their own fine officers. The rest of the brigade rapidly formed on their left, while they checked the advance of the enemy with a fire as fierce as it seemed unexpected by them. The other commands came up finely the 12th Tennessee Battalion on the left of the 1st Georgia, then Huwald's Battery, and on its left, I think, but am not positive, the 66th North Carolina, the 10th Confederate, and the 6th Georgia. And the fight was "on" in earnest. As quickly as this formation was made Forrest called to Pegram: "Hold this position, Pegram, until I can bring up reenforcements." Pegram answered: "I'll hold it if I can. General." And hold it he did for I never knew how long, as time has or had no existence for me when a fight was going on. At one time our whole line fell back slowly and in order, as if by command, except Huwald, who, double shotting with canister, staggered their advance and drove them back.
By this time the strange mistake (for there was no disorder) was rectified and the line moved back to its position. Then a lull coming in the fire of the enemy's line, the writer was ordered to move the right forward. Galloping along the line, passing first the 12th Tennessee Battalion to the 1st Georgia, the right of our line sprang up and moved forward with a yell, when we were stopped by a courier, ordering the line to resume its position. Riding to the battery where the writer had left the General, he saw the most welcome sight of the head of a column of gray infantry, from the. front of which a tall officer, detaching himself, rode out and called out: "Harry, where are they?' This was Capt. Ryland Todhunter, of Lexington, Ky., an old neighbor and friend of the writer's. A quick hand grasp and, "Get into line, Ryland, and move forward, and you'll find them," was the last greeting between two friends until the Louisville Reunion brought us gladly together.
Following Ector's was Wilson's Brigade, and then Forrest was following with those grim fighters, Dibrell's Brigade. While this was occurring, and our brigade being withdrawn, the enemy were strangely silent, and these many years the writer has been wondering what they were doing, unless halted and forming with reenforcements. Our brigade withdrawn. the infantry line, with Dibrell dismounted on their right, moved in to meet a fire fiercer than that which had played on us. I saw Ector's line fall back with what seemed to me about six hundred of the sixteen hundred of which his line was formed when he went in, while, reeling like a drunken man, Wilson seemed to have only about one hundred left in formation, and I was told he had lost two guns and his battery had been cut to pieces. By this time Frank Cheatham came up, and, shifting regiment and brigade from flank to flank, he held the position until late in the afternoon. The head of a long stream of men passing where our brigade were sent to him, and it was gladly repeated: "That's old D. H., and he says that he is going to drive them a mile before sundown." He didn't get into position until just before dark, but he did drive them, I thought, not less than a half or three quarters of a mile,Waiting for our ordnance wagons to get through, or rather over, Chickamauga at Alexander's Bridge, we replenished the ammunition, which was down to five or six rounds to the man, and were not moved into action until late Sunday, when we helped push Thomas back, his rear being a flame of fire. Monday morning orders were not given us early, but were to move up on the right. In doing so we had to ride by General Bragg's headquarters, a cluster of tents in the woods, with captured flags hanging and leaning thickly about them. The commander of the army was walking nervously and continuously along the front of the tents, wringing his hands. General Pegram, dismounting, approached him and said: "I congratulate you, General, upon the brilliant victory you have won." There was no stop in that walk, and the reply was: "Yes, but it has been at a frightful sacrifice. The army is fearfully cut up, horribly demoralized." Like a douche of ice water in he face this was to me, and General Pegram, to whom no other word was spoken, mounted, and we rode along silently, meeting the head of McLaw's Division of fresh men from Lee's army three thousand fresh men just off the trains and seemingly able to have forced Thomas across the Tennessee River.

Moving out toward what I supposed must have been Rossville Gap at any rate, toward Chattanooga we joined Dibrell, being ourselves by Martin's Kentucky Battalion of Kentucky troops. Raising a column of dust as we moved showed us to the enemy on a ridge above us, and they did some good shooting with a battery, as they landed shells in Martin's Battalion with serious effect on men and horses, but the column closed up and moved steadily forward.

Soon we were in position behind and along Morton's guns against whose spherical case the balls showered for some time, but their line gave way, and we moved up with two guns of Morton's to within about three quarters of a mile of Chattanooga about sundown. Sitting by the unlimbered guns, expecting him to open on the town, a message came to Captain Morton ordering his return.
I don't recall ever having seen in print the fact that Chickamauga should not have been fought. Rosecrans made two blunders which should have been fatal to his army one in a reconnoissance in force by McCook into McLemore's Cove, and the other by Crittenden on the left toward Graysville. Several days before the battle Pegram was moving toward Chattanooga, with his old brigade, the 6th Georgia, in front, when a message was delivered to him from Colonel Hart that some infantry were in his front. At once orders were sent to "take a squadron and charge them." Colonel Hart and Capt. Roby Brown, the latter of the 66th North Carolina, were riding together, and, developing the squadron, drew the enemy's fire and charged strong, capturing nearly all of the advance guard of Van Cleve's Division of Crittenden's Corps. From the prisoners we were astounded to hear that the whole corps were immediately behind. General Pegram called his staff around him and explained the situation. He told us that by four o'clock next morning Polk's and Hill's Divisions could be thrown, one in Crittenden's front and the other in his rear, and that he "would never get back to Chattanooga."

Just then General Forrest rode up to where we sat. General Pegram turned and explained the positions, and eagerly asked to be permitted to ride to General Bragg and urge the plan upon him. I recall Forrest's reply: "Pegram, it's a good idea, and I'll ride with you."

General Pegram came back to us, worn and greatly depressed, as they were entirely unable to get General Bragg to consider the plan. So the next morning the writer, sitting in the edge of a woodland, watched infantry and artillery march peaceably and without a shot except a few to show that they did not wish intrusiveness.


































 


























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