Voyage to Georgia

By Brenda Pierce

Up ] Voyage to Ga. Pg. 41-80 ]


Voyage to Georgia





Begun  in  the  Year  1735.

C O N T A I N I N G,

An Account of the Settling the Town of

FREDERICA, in the Southern Part of the

Province; and a Description of the SOIL,




The Rules and Orders made by the Honourable


including the Allowances of Provisions,

Cloathing, and other Necessaries to the Families

and Servants which went thither.


A Description of the Town and County of Savannah,

in the Northern Part of the Province; the Manner of

dividing and granting the Lands, and the Improvements

there: With an Account of the AIR, SOIL,

RIVERS, and ISLANDS in that Part.


By Francis Moore, Author of Travels into the

Inland Parts of Africa.



L O N D O N:

Printed for Jacob Robinson in Ludgate-Street, 1744.







Voyage to Georgia;


The 15th of October, 1735.


The Trustees for establishing the Colony of GEORGIA in America,

ordered a new Town to be built in that Colony, and an Embarkation

to be made for that Purpose.  They were pleased to appoint me to

be Keeper of the Stores.

            The following Rules were given for the Embarkation, viz.


Rules for the Year 1735.


The Trustees intend this Year to lay out a County, and build a new

Town in Georgia.

            They will give to such Persons as they send upon the Charity, 



A Voyage to Georgia;

To every Man, A Watch-Coat,

                           A Musket and Bayonet,

                           An Hatchet,

                           An Hammer,

                           An Hand-saw,

                           A shod Shovel or Spade,

                           A broad Hoe,

                           A narrow Hoe,

                           A Gimlet,

                           A drawing Knife,

                           An Iron Pot, and a pair of Pot-hooks,

                           A Frying-pan,

And a publick Grindstone to each Ward or Village.

            Each working Man will have for his Maintenance in the Colony for one Year,

312 lib. of Beef or Pork,

104 lib. of Rice,

1043 lib. of Indian Corn, or Pease,

104 lib. of Flower,

            1 Pint of Strong-beer a Day to a Man when he works, and not otherwise,

52 quarts of Molasses for brewing Beer,

Text Box: To be delivered in such Proportions, and at such Times, as the Trust Shall think proper.


16 lib. of Cheese,


12 lib of Butter,

8 oz. of Spice,

12 lib. of Sugar,

4 Gallons of Vinegar,

24 lib. of Salt,

12 Quarts of Lamp-Oil, and

1 lib. of Spun-Cotton,

12 lib. of Soap.

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

            To the Mothers, Wives, Sisters, or Children of such Men, for one Year, that is to say, to every Person of the Age of 12 Years, and upwards, the following Allowance:

260 lib. of Beef or Pork

104 lib. of Rice,

104 lib. of Indian Corn, or Pease,

104 lib. of Flower,

Text Box:  
To be delivered as before.


52 Quarts of Molasses, for brewing Beer,            


16 lib. of Cheese,

12 lib. of Butter,

8 oz. of Spice,

12 lib. of Sugar,

4 Gallons of Vinegar,

24 lib. of Salt,

6 Quarts of Lamp-Oil,

Half a Pound of Spun-Cotton, and

12 lib. of Soap.

            For every Person above the Age of Seven, and under the Age of Twelve, half the said Allowance; being esteemed half an Head.

            And for every Person above the Age of Two, and under the Age of Seven, one Third of the said Allowance; being esteemed one Third of an Head.

            The Trustees pay their Passage from England to Georgia; and in the Voyage they will have in every Week four Beef Days, two Pork Days, and one Fish Day; and their Allowance served out daily as follows:

On the Four Beef Days.

Four Pounds of Beef for every Mess of 5 Heads,

And two Pounds and a half of Flower,

And half a Pound of Suet, or Plumbs.



A Voyage to Georgia;


On the Two Pork Days.

Text Box: For every 5 Heads


Five Pounds of Pork, and


Two Pints and an half of Pease.

Text Box: For every 5 Heads. The whole at 16 oz. to the Pound.


And on the Fifth Day.


Two Pounds and an half of Fish,

and half a Pound of Butter,

And allow each Head seven Pounds of Bread,

Of fourteen Ounces to the Pounds, by the Week.

And three Pints of Beer, and two Quarts of

Water (whereof one of the Quarts for drinking, and the other for Dressing the Ship-Provisions) each Head, by the Day for the Space of a Month; and a gallon of Water (whereof two Quarts for drinking, and the other two for dressing the Ship-Provisions) each Head, by the Day after, during their Voyage.

            The said Persons are to enter into the following Covenants before their Embarkation, viz.

            That they will repair on Board such Ship as shall be provided for carrying them to the Province of Georgia; and during the Voyage will quietly, soberly and obediently demean themselves, and go to such Place in the said Province of Georgia, and there obey all such Orders as shall be given for the better settling, establishing, and governing the said Colony.

            That for the first twelve Months from landing in the said Province of Georgia, they will



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


work and labour in clearing their Lands, making Habitations and necessary Defences, and in all other Works for the common Good and publick Weal of the said Colony; at such Times, in such Manner, and according to such Plan and Directions as shall be given.

            And that they, from and after the Expiration of the said last-mentioned twelve Months, will, during the two succeeding Years, abide, settle, and inhabit in the said Province of Georgia, and cultivate the Lands which shall be to them and their Heirs Male severally allotted and given, by all such Ways and Means, as according to their several Abilities and Skills they shall be best able and capable.

            And such persons are to be settled in the said Colony, either in new Towns, or new Villages.

            Those in the Towns will have each of them a Lot 60 Feet in Front, and 90 Feet in Depth, whereon they are to build an House, and as much Land in the Country, as in the whole shall make up fifty Acres.

            Those in the Villages will have each of them a Lot of 50 Acres, which is to lye all together, and they are to build their house upon it.

            All Lots are granted in Tail Male, and descend to the Heirs Male of their Bodies for ever.  And in case of Failure of Heirs Male, to revert to the Trust, to be granted again to such Persons, as the Common-Council of the Trustees shall think most for the Advantage of the Colony; and they will have a special Regard to the Daughters of Freeholders who have made Improvements on their Lots, not already provided for, by having married, or marrying persons in Possessions, or entitled to Lands in the Province of Georgia, in Possession, or Remainder.



A Voyage to Georgia;


            All Lots are to be preserved separate and undivided, and cannot be united, in order to keep up a Number of Men equal to the Number of Lots; for the better Defence and Support of the Colony.

            No Person can lease out his House or Lot to another, without Licence for that Purpose; that the Colony may not be ruined by Absentees receiving, and spending their Rents elsewhere.  Therefore each Man must cultivate the same by himself or Servants.

            And no Person can alienate his Land, or any Part, or any Term, Estate, or Interest therein, to any other Persons or Persons, without special Licence for that Purpose; to prevent the uniting or dividing the Lots.

            If any of the Land so granted shall not be planted, cleared or fenced with a Worm-fence or Pails six Feet high, during the Space of ten Years from the Date of the Grant; then every Part thereof not planted, cleared, or fenced as aforesaid, shall belong to the Trust, and the Grant, as to such Parts, shall be void.

            There is reserved for the Support of the Colony, a Rent-charge for ever of two Shillings Sterling Money for each fifty Acres; the Payment of which is not to commence until ten Years after the Grant.

            The Wives of the Freeholders, in case they should survive their Husbands, are, during their Lives, entitled to the Mansion-house, and one half of the Lands improved by their Husbands; that is to say, inclosed with a Fence of six Feet high.

            All Forfeitures for Non-residence, High-Treason, Felonies, etc., are to the Trustees for the Use and Benefit of the Colony.


Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


Negroes and Rum are prohibited to be used in the said Colony; and Trade with the Indians, unless licens’d.

            None are to have the Benefit of being sent upon the Charity in the manner above-mention; but,

            1. Such as are in decayed Circumstances, and thereby disabled from following any Business in England; and who, if in Debt, must have Leave from their Creditors to go.

            2. Such as have numerous Families of Children, if assisted by their respective Parishes, and recommended by the Minister, Church-wardens and Overseers thereof.

            The Trustees do expect to have a good Character of the said Persons given; because no Drunkards, or other notoriously vicious Persons will be taken.

            And for the better enabling the said Persons to build the new Town, and clear their Lands, the Trustees will give Leave to every Freeholder to take over with him one Male Servant, or Apprentice, of the Age of eighteen Years and upwards, to be bound for not less than four Years; and will by way of Loan to such Freeholder, advance the Charges of Passage for such Servant or Apprentice, and of furnishing him with the Cloathing and Provision hereafter mentioned; to be delivered in such Proportions, and at such Times as the Trust shall think proper; viz. with


A Pallias, and Bolster, and Blanket for Bedding.

Text Box: For Cloathing


A Frock and Trowzers of Linsey Woolsey,  a


Shirt and Frock, and Trowzers of Osnabrigs,



A Voyage to Georgia;


            A Pair of Shoes from England, and two Pair of Country Shoes.

            And 200 Pounds of Meat, and 342 Pounds of Rice, Pease, or Indian Corn for Food for a Year.

            The Expence of which Passage, Cloathing, and Provision, is to be repaid the Trustees by the Master, within the third Year from their Embarkation from England.

            And to each Man-servant, and the Heirs Male of his Body for ever, after the Expiration of his Service, upon a Certificate from his Master of his having served well, will be granted Twenty Acres of Land, under such Rents and Agreements as shall have been then last granted to any others Men-servants in like Circumstances.

            PROVIDED, that in case any Person shall disobey such Orders as they shall receive, a Deduction shall be made of the Whole, or any Part of the above Provisions.

Signed by Order of the Common-Council of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, this Second Day of July, 1735.

                                                            Benj. Martyn, Secretary.

The Trustees examined at their Office such Persons as applied to them for the Benefit of the Charity, and out of them chose those who had the best Characters, and were the truest Objects of Compassion. 

            They acquainted those that they had chosen, that they must expect to go through great Hardships in the Beginning, and use great Industry and Labour in order to acquire afterwards a comfortable



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


Subsistence for themselves and Families; that they gave them Lands, and a Year’s Provisions, but that those Lands were uninhabited Woods; that they must lye without Cover till they could build Houses for themselves, live upon salt Meat,  drink Water, work hard, keep Guard for Fear of Enemies, clear and plant Ground before they could reap any Harvest; that the Country was hot in Summer, and that there were Flies in Abundance, and that Thunder-storms were frequent in that Season; that Sicknesses were dangerous to those who drank distilled Liquors, and that Temperance was not only necessary to preserve their Substance, but their Health also; that if they put their Trust in God, and were temperate and industrious, they might establish themselves and Families in a comfortable Way upon Lands of their own; but if they thought they should not be able to go through those Difficulties, they advised them by no means to undertake the Voyage.

            Several were dishearten’d, which discovere’d that they had pleaded Necessity without Reason, and that they were able to live in England.  The Places of those who were deter’d from going, were fill’d up with others; for there were a great many more petition’d to go than there was room for.  Besides the English, there were a Number of persecuted German Protestants, under the Conduct  of Mr. VonReck and Capt. Hermsdorf.  The whole Embarkation, English and Foreigners, together with the Missionaries to the Indians, amounted to 227 Heads, making 202 People upon the Trust’s Account, besides Mr. Oglethorpe, the Gentlemen with him, and his Servants, whose Passages he himself paid.

            There were two Ships freighted, the Symond, of 220 Ton, Capt. Joseph Cornish, and the London Merchant, about the same Burden, Capt. John Thomas.



A Voyage to Georgia;


There was a sufficient Quantity of Provisions for some Months put on board, likewise Arms, Cannon, Ammunition, and all kinds of Tools for Husbandry, and Necessaries for Families.

            One of his Majesty’s Sloops, under the Command of Capt. James Gascoigne, was ordered to assist the Colony, and to carry over Mr. Oglethorpe, who intended to inspect the Settlement; but he chose rather to go on board one of the Ships, tho; crowded with the Colony, that he might be able to take care of the People in their Passage.


            On the 14th of October I set out from Parliament-stairs; about Four in the Afternoon I arrive’d at Poorfleet, where I dined, and staid during the Flood; after which I reach’d Gravesend about Midnight.  There I lay, and the next Day went on board the Symond, Capt. Joseph Cornish, where the Passengers upon the Trust’s Account had been for some Days.  I immediately took an Account of the Stores.

            On the 19th a Boy, as he was playing, fell overboard: A Man being near him, and seeing him fall, throw’d him a Rope, and he got in again.  We waited for the coming down of the London Merchant.

            On the 20th the London Merchant, Capt. John Thomas, with Part of the Colony on board, join’d us at Gravesend.  I went and took an Account of her Cargo.  The same Day Mr. Oglethorpe, with Mr. Johnson, Son to the late Governor of South Carolina, and several other Gentlemen, who intended to accompany him in the Voyage, came on board.  In the Afternoon we weigh’d, and went down to the Hope.

            On the 21st we sail’d from the Hope, and got within three Miles of the Buoy of the Nore.       



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.



On the 23d a thick Fog came upon us: We made shift to get to the Buoy of the Nore, and anchor’d on the Kentish Flats, being not able to proceed farther.

            On the 25th it blew fresh against us, and we got but little forwards.

            On the 26th, early in the Morning, we arrived at the Horse-shoe Hole, where we anchor’d for some time, and then setting sail we got to Margate-Road.

            On the 27th we arrived at Deal, and were forced to come to an Anchor in the Downs.  We set on shore a Servant belonging to one of the Colony, it being discover’d that he had the Itch.

            On the 28th it blew hard against us.  The same Day died a Child of eight Months old, being Daughter to one of the Colony, She was dangerous ill before she came on board.

            On the 30th the Wind continued to blow hard; but Mr. Oglethorpe insisting with the Captains to sail, we venture’d out, and found the Wind less, and more favourable at Sea.


            On the 1st of November we put into St. Helen’s in order to meet the Man of War, whom we expected to be ready.  It being near Night the Ships came to Anchor, and a Gentleman was sent to Spithead to inquire after the Man of War:  He return’d about Midnight with Advice, that she was in Portsmouth Harbour, and not yet ready.

            On the 2nd  the Ships sail’d for Cowes Road, and Mr. Oglethorpe went to the Man of War Sloop.  As the Ships pass’d by Spithead they saluted the Admiral’s Ship, which she returned.

            We were detain’d at Cowes, by contrary Winds, till the 10th of December; for though we twice broke ground, and once fail’d as far as Yarmouth Road, yet were we forced back again.  This Delay was not only very tedious to the People,


A Voyage to Georgia;


1735. November.

but very expensive to the Trust; since there were so many hundred Mouths eating, in Idleness, that which should have subsisted them till their Lands were cultivated; and that they were also losing the most useful Season for that Purpose.

            In this time the Refreshments design’d for the Voyage were expended, and we were forced to lay in more at an excessive Price, by reason that the Squadron at Spithead had made every thing dear.

            Mr. Johnson, son to the late Governor of South Carolina, was taken ill here of a Fever, which prevented his going the Voyage.  There was a great Disappointment; for if he had gone to Carolina, as intended, a Man of his Interest and good Sense being at Charles-Town, whilst Mr. Oglethorpe was at the Southward, might have prevented the Misunderstandings which afterwards happen’d.

1735. December.

            On the 10th of December, the Wind at E. S. E. and a moderate Gale, we, in Company with the Hawk, the London Merchant, and about forty Sail more, who had been forced to stay by the long Continuance of contrary Winds, stood out for Sea.

            When we had pass’d the Needles the Pilot left us.  The London Merchant lay by a little for three of the Passengers, who happen’d to be gone to Portsmouth when the Wind came fair; but it was all to no Purpose, for they not coming up in time, were left behind.

            On the 12th we parted with the Hawk, the Wind blowing very hard.

            I believe a Journal of the Winds and Days of the Month will be but dry to the Reader, and that it may divert him more to hear which way our floating Colony were subsisted, and pass’d their time on board.

            We had Prayers twice a Day.  The Missionaries expounded the Scriptures,


Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735. December.

catechized the Children, and administer’d  the Sacrament on Sunday’s but Mr. Oglethorpe shew’d no Discountenance to any for being of different Persuasions in Religion.  The Dissenters, of which there were many on board, particularly the Germans, sung Psalms and served God in their own way.  Mr. Oglethorpe had laid in a large Quantity of live Stock, and other Refreshments, (though he himself seldom eat any but Ship’s Provisions);  Not only the Gentlemen his Friends eat at his Table, but he invited, thro’ the whole Passage, the Missionaries and the Captain of the Ship, who together made twelve in Number. 

            All those who came upon the Trust’s Account were divided into Messes; and, besides the Ship’s Provisions, the Trustees were so careful of the poor People’s Health, that they put on board Turnips, Carrots, Potatoes, and Onions, which were given out with the salt Meat, and contributed greatly to prevent the Scurvy.  The Ship was divided into Cabbins, with Gang-ways, which we call Streets, between them.  The People were disposed into these by Families; the single Men were put by themselves.  Each Cabbin had its Door and Partition.  Whenever the Weather would permit, the Ship was clean’d between Decks, and wash’d with Vinegar, which kept the Place very sweet and healthy.  There were Constables appointed to prevent any Disorders, and every thing was carried so easily, that during the whole Voyage there was no Occasion for punishing any one, excepting a Boy who was whip’d for stealing of Turnips.

            When the Weather permited, the Men were exercised with small Arms.  There were also Thread, Worsted, and Knitting-needles given to the Women, who employ’d their leisure time in making Stockings and Caps for their Family, or in mending their Cloaths and Linnen.



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735. December.

            Mr. Oglethorpe, when Occasion offer’d, call’d together all those who were design’d to be Freeholders, recommended to them in what Manner to behave themselves, acquainted them of the Nature of the Country, and how to settle it advantageously.

            We went South as far as the 19th Degree of North Latitude, in order to fetch the Trade Winds, so that about Christmas it was as hot as in June.  Our People grew sickly: Mr. Oglethorpe himself visited them constantly; and when it was proper he let them have Fowls for Broth, and Refreshments of his own.  We had a very good Surgeon and I observed that Carduus Vomits gave the Sick great Relief: If that did not do, Bleeding and some Powders which the Doctor gave, (which were chiefly either Compositions of Salt of Wormwood or testaceous Powders) had such Effect, that, by the Blessing of God, not one Soul died from the time we left the Downs to our Arrival in Georgia.  Instead of lessening our Number we increased, for on the Passage there were four Children born.

            Whenever the Weather was calm enough to permit it, Mr. Oglethorpe went on board the London Merchant, to see that the like Care was taken of the People on board her, with whom we kept Company all the Way.

            Having run before the Trade Wind till we had got Westing sufficient, and being as far South as 20 Degrees, we were obliged to stand Northwardly to fetch Georgia, which lies in the Latitude of 32; so that we had a second Winter, for we found the Weather cold as we came near the Coast of Georgia.

1735-6. January.

            On the 26th of January it blew so hard, that we were obliged to lie-to under a reef’d Main-sail.  We shipp’d several Seas, one of which fill’d the


Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

great Cabbin, though the dead Lights were up; and another splitted our

Main-sail, which was quite new:  We soon unbent it, and brought the Ship to under her Mizen.

            On the 2d of February, at Noon, we saw three Sails standing E. N. E.  We bore up to them and soon after spoke with the Pompey, Capt. Rowse, bound for London from Carolina.  He lay by, whist Mr. Oglethorpe wrote Letters to England, which he sent by him. 

            On the 4th we found we had pass’d the Stream of the Gulph of Florida.  We founded, and found Ground with 50 Fathom of Line, being the Banks of Georgia, which shoal gradually to Shore, at that time about 30 Leagues distant.  In the Evening we saw Land, which proved to be the Island of Tybee.  We lay off and on all Night. 

            On the 5th we ran in, and made Tybee plain.  Capt. Dymond, of the Peter and James, came out to us in his Boat, and brought a Pilot with him.  He carried us over the Bar with the first of the Flood, finding 19 Foot Water in the shoalest Part.  We came to an Anchor within Tybee.

            Mr. Oglethorpe went ashore to see what Progress was made in the Light-house:  He found the Foundation had been piled, but the Brick-work not rais’d.  The Materials which he had left saw’d at Savannah, were brought down, but nothing set up.  He had left one Blythman, a Carpenter, a very ingenious Workman, in charge to build it, allowing him ten Men for his Assistance; and fearing that if he left any one to controul the Carpenter, (who naturally must understand less of it) it might have prevented the Work; therefore he left it in Carpenter’s Charge, at his Peril.  Mr. Oglethorpe calling him to account for this scandalous Neglect, he had nothing to say in Excuse, but that he had used the Men in clearing away the Trees, that the



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February.

Beacon might be the more conspicuous; that a great deal of time had been taken up in piling the Foundation, and in bringing down and landing the Timber; that he had made a great many more Braces than at first had been thought necessary; but that the chief Reason of his Delay arose from his Men’s not work; that Rum was so cheap in Carolina, from whence they easily got it, that one Day’s Pay would make them drunk for a Week, and then they neither minded him nor any thing else.  I heard Mr. Oglethorpe, after he return’d to the Ship, say, that he was in doubt whether he should prosecute the Man, who is the only one here able to finish the Work, and thereby leave the Work undone, and lose the Materials, which were all ready; or else forgive what was past, and have the Beacon finish’d.  He took the latter Counsel, and agreed with him for a Time certain, and a Price certain, appointing Mr. Vanderplank to see that the Work advanced according to the Agreement; and not to pay, but proportionably to what should be done.  This Beacon is 25 Foot wide at Bottom, 90 Foot high, and 10 Foot wide at Top.  It is of the best of Pine, strongly timber’d raised upon Cedar Piles, and Brickwork round the Bottom.  It will be, when raised, of great Service to all Shipping, not only to those bound to this Port, but also to Carolina; for the Land of all the Coast, for some hundred Miles, is so alike, being all low and woody, that a distinguishing Mark is of great Consequence. 

            There is an Island call’d Peeper, lying in the Mouth of the Savannah River, between which and Tybee there is a very good Harbour.  In the Evening we came to Anchor there, where lay the following Ships: The Prince of Wales, Capt. Dunbar, the Two Brothers, Capt. Thomson, and the Peter and James, Capt. Dymond, who were all on



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

the Trustees Account, with Stores and Men for the Southward Settlement, and obliged to stay on Demurrage, by reason of our being unluckily delay’d by contrary Winds at Cowes.  Mr. Oglethorpe employ’d all Hands to discharge them, that he might stop the Expense of Demurrage as soon as possible.  All the Ships saluted Mr. Oglethorpe with their Cannon on our coming to Anchor; after which he sent an Express to Charles-Town, and to Lieut. Delegal, (who commanded the King’s Independent Company at Port Royal) for the Company to repair to St. Simon’s.

            We learnt from Capt. Dunbar, who had brought over 170 Highlanders, that Capt. Hugh Mackay was set out for the Alatamaha River; he being gone first with Part of the Men, and having left the Families to follow after.

That there had been several Reports spread amongst the Highlanders, by the Suttlers who brought them Provisions, that the Spaniards and Indians would certainly destroy them; notwithstanding which they went up.

            On the 6th, early, Mr. Oglethorpe set out for Savannah; but he first carried the People on shore upon Peeper Island, and shew’d them where to dig a Well, which they did, and found Plenty of fresh Water.  He was received at Savannah by the Freeholders under Arms, and under the Salute of 21 Cannons, which we heard plainly, being about ten Miles distance.

            After Mr. Oglethorpe was gone to Savannah, most of the Colony went ashore upon Peeper Island, where I found an Eagle’s Nest on a Fir-tree; we cut it down, and found an Egg in it, in which was a young Eagle.  In the Evening the People found another Spring, and also a Pond of fresh Water, which they used for washing their Linnen.



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February.

A small Sloop passed by us for Savannah, bound thither with Provisions from Carolina.

            On the 7th, all our Women went ashore on Peeper Island to wash their Linnen.,  A Boat came down from Savannah with some fresh Beef, Pork, Venison and other Refreshments, sent by Mr. Oglethorpe for the People on board this Ship and the London Merchant.  In the Evening we had a smart Shower of Rain, which wetted our good Women to the Skins before they could get aboard.

            On the 8th some Boats with Suttlers came on board with Provisions to sell to the Passengers.  They privately brought some Rum; which being discover’d, the Officers who were left by Mr. Oglethorpe to keep Orders on board, during his Absence, order’d the same to be staved; which was accordingly complied with.  The Boat returned which had been sent to Port Royal, with Answer, that the Refreshments which had been bespoke from England, for the Use of the Colony, were not ready.  She immediately proceeded up to Savannah, having Packets of Letters for Mr. Oglethorpe, who in the Evening return’d from thence in a Scout-boat.  This was a strong-built swift Boat, with three swivel Guns and ten Oars, kept for the visiting the River-Passages, and Islands, and for preventing the Incursions of Enemies, or Runaways, from whence it is call’d Scout-boat.  The Crew is composed of Men bred in America, bold and hardy, who lie out in the Woods, and upon the Water Months together, without a House or Covering.  Most of them are good Hunters or Fishers.  By killing Deer and other Game they can subsist themselves, in café their Provisions should fail; but indeed, on these Sea-islands, no one can starve, since if, at the worst, a Man was lost, there are Oysters and Shell-fish enough to subsist him.





Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

            Mr. Oglethorpe brought with him fresh Meat, and other Refreshments in Plenty, which he distributed to the new Comers, consisting of fresh Beef, fresh Pork, Venison, wild Turkeys, soft Bread (the Word soft is put to distinguish it from Biscuit, because at Sea they call Biscuit, Bread) Strong-beer, Small-beer, Turnips, and Garden-greens; and this in such Plenty, that there was enough for the whole Colony for some Days.  This was doubly agreeable to the Colony, both because they found the Comfort of fresh Food after a long Voyage, and also that a Town begun within these three Years, by People in their own Circumstances, could produce such Plenty; from whence they hoped themselves should be in as good or better a Condition within that Time.  The People were not a little surprised at the News, which came by the Boat, that Mr. Vonreck and the Germans did not go to the Southward with them.  This is the more extraordinary, because Mr. Vonreck said, that he went up to Ebenezer to get some more Men from thence, who are acquainted with the Colony, to increase the Strength of the new Town.  But this did not daunt our Inhabitants (that were to be) of Frederica (for so our Town was to be called) though to be sure, the losing half our Number was a great Lessening of our Strength.  The Reason, we heard, he gave for the Germans going up to Ebenezer and not with us, was, that they might have the Benefit of the two Ministers, who were settled at Ebenezer and that they might not divide the Congregation.  Others of the Germans did not care to go to the Southward, because, they said, Fighting was against their Religion, and they apprehended Blows might happen there.  But Captain Hermsdorf came to Mr. Oglethorpe, and desired that he might be put upon every Occasion of Service, if there   



A Voyage to Georgia


1735-6. February.

was any, and that he would never forsake him, but serve with the English to the last.  Mr. Oglethorpe told him, that the Stories of War were quite groundless; that there was as little Danger to the Southward, as to the Northward; that the Indians were at Friendship with us, and the Spaniards at Peace; and that as we would not molest them, it was not to be supposed that they would break the Peace, and attack us.  Yet still, Caution was the Mother of Safety, and therefore it was fitting to keep the Men to Arms and Discipline; and for that Purpose he should be glad of his Assistance.

            It was intended when we came from London, that these two Ship should have sailed into Jekyl Sound, and have landed the Colony, and all the Stores, at the Place where the Town was to be built; and for this Purpose, there had been an Agreement made to pay Demurrage for the Loss of Time there.  The Captains did not care to venture down, and gave many Reasons.  Capt. Cornish perceiving the great Damage that must arise to the Trust by their Ships not going down, proposed, that if Mr. Oglethorpe would send down Captain Yokeley with the James, to discover the Channel, they would go down, and in, he piloting of them.  Captain Thomas agreed to the same Proposal, and Mr. Oglethorpe accordingly agreed with Captain Yokeley.

            Mr. Oglethorpe seemed very uneasy at their not going to Frederica at once, but did not care to force them; the Words of the Agreement being not quite clear, and there was no sworn Pilot, who could take charge of the Ships in; for one Miller, the Pilot, who had surveyed that Entry, by Mr. Oglethorpe’s Order, was gone from Savannah before his Arrival; and Kilbury, another Pilot, who knew the fame, was dead, and the Man of War


Begun on the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

was not yet arrived, who we depended upon to have gone in first.

            Mr. Oglethorpe spoke to the People to prevent their being terrified with false Reports.  There seemed to be little need of it, for they were all zealous to settle a Town of their own, and trusting entirely to him, were not at all apprehensive of any Danger; but were fearful of staying and losing their Time at Savannah.

            After three Hours stay, he set out for Savannah and took me along with him.  About Midnight we arrived there, but being then High-water, and the German Ministers who were to go with him to Ebenezer, not caring to go by Night, he could not go forward as he intended, some of the Boatmen being ill, and the Freshes strong.  He lay that Night at a House which he hires at Savannah; it is the same as the common Freeholders Houses are, a Frame of sawed Timber, 24 by 16 Foot, floored with rough Deals, the Sides with feather-edged Boards unplained, and the Roof shingled.

            On the 9th, I heard that the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer were very discontented; that they demanded to leave their old Town, and to settle upon the Lands which the Indians had reserved for their own Use; and this was the Occasion of Mr. Oglethorpe’s going up in such haste at a Time when he could be ill spared from the Ships.  He set out this Morning-Tide with several Gentlemen, and the Saltzburghers Ministers, and went by Water to Sir Francis Bathurst’s, where part of Captain Mackay’s Troop of Horsemen, lately come out of the Indian Country, lay: There he took Horse for Ebenezer.

The Town of Savannah, its Circumference.

            When he was gone, I took a View of the Town of Savannah; it is about a Mile and Quarter in Circumference; it stands upon the flat of a Hill,


A Voyage to Georgia


1735-6. February. Savannah

the Bank of the River (which they in barbarous English call a Bluff) is steep, and about 45 Foot perpendicular, so that all heavy Goods are brought up by a Crane, an Inconvenience designed to be remedied by a bridged Warf, and an easy Ascent, which in laying out the Town, care was taken to allow room for, there being a very wide Strand between the first Row of Houses and the River. 

The Strand and Prospect from it.

From this Strand there is a very pleasant Prospect; you see the River wash the Foot of the Hill, which is a hard, clear, sandy Beach, a Mile in Length; the Water is fresh, and the River 1000 Foot wide.  Eastward to see the River increased by the Northern branch, which runs round Hutchinson’s Island, and the Carolina Shore beyond it, and the Woody Islands at the Sea, which close the Prospect at 10 or 12 Miles Distance.  Over against it is Hutchinson’s Island, great part of which is open Ground, where they mow Hay for the Trusts Horses and Cattle.  The rest is Woods, in which there are many Bay-trees 80 Foot high.  Westward you see the River winding between the Woods, with little Islands in it for many Miles, and Toma Chi Chi’s Indian Town standing upon the Southern Banks, between 3 and 4 Miles distance.

How the Town is Built.

            The Town of Savannah is built of Wood; all the Houses of the first 40 Freeholders are of the same Size with that Mr. Oglethorpe lives in, but there are great Numbers built since, I believe 100 or 150, many of these are much larger some of 2 or 3 Stories high, the Boards plained and painted.  The Houses stand on large Lotts, 60 Foot in Front by 90 Foot in Depth; each Lott has a fore and back Street to it; the Lott’s are fenced in with split Pales; some few People have Pallisades of turned Wood before their Doors, but the Generality have been wise enough not to



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February, Savannah.

throw away their Money, which in this Country, laid out in Husbandry, is capable of great Improvements, though there are several People of good Substance in the Town, who came at their own Expence, and also, several of those who came over on the Charity, are in a very thriving way; but this is observed, that the most substantial People are the most frugal, and make the least Shew, and live at the least Expence.  There are some also who have made but little or bad Use of the Benefits they received, idling away their Times, whilst they had their Provisions from the publick Store, or else working for Hire, earning from 2 Shillings, the Price of a Labourer, to 4 or 5 shillings, the Price of a Carpenter, per diem, and spending that Money in Rum and good Living, thereby neglecting to improve their Lands, so that when their Time of receiving their Provisions from the Publick ceased, they were in no Forwardness to maintain themselves out of their own Lands.  As they chose to be Hirelings when they might have improved for themselves, the Consequence of that Folly forces them now to work for their daily Bread.  These are generally discontented with the Country; and if they have run themselves in Debt, their Creditors will not let them go away till they have paid.  Considering the Number of People, there are but very few of these.  The Industrious ones have throve beyond Expectation; most of them that have been there three Years, and many others, have Houses in the Town, which those that Let, have for the worst, 10 l. per Annum, and the best let for 30 l.

            Those who have cleared their 5 Acre Lotts, have made a very great Profit out of them by Greens, Roots and Corn.  Several have improv’d the Cattle they had at first, and have now 5 or 6 tame Cows; others, who to save the Trouble of Feeding



A Voyage to Georgia


1735-6. February. Savannah.

them, let them go into the Woods, can rarely find them, and when they are brought up, one of them will not give half the Quantity of Milk, which another Cow fed near Home will give.  Their Houses are built at a pretty large Distance from one another, for fear of Fire; the Streets are very wide, and there are great Squares left at proper Distances, for Markets and other Conveniences.  Near the River-side there is a Guard-house inclosed with Palisades a Foot think, where there are 19 or 20 Cannons mounted, and a continual Guard kept by the Free-holders.  This Town is governed by 3 Bailiffs, and has a Recorder, Register, and a Town Court, which is holden every six Weeks, where all Matters Civil and Criminal are decided by grand and petty Juries, as in England; but there are no Lawyers allowed to plead for Hire, nor no Attornies to take Money, but (as in old times in England) every Man pleads his own Cause.  In case it should be an Orphan, or one that cannot speak for themselves, there are Persons of the best Substance in the Town, appointed by the Trustees to take care of the Orphans, and to defend the Helpless, and that without Fee or Reward, it being a Service that each that is capable must perform in his Turn.  They have some Laws and Customs peculiar to Georgia; one is, that all Brandies and distilled Liquors are prohibited under severe Penalties; another is, that no Slavery is allowed, nor Negroes; a Third, that all Persons who go among the Indians must give Security for their good Behavior; because the Indians, if any Injury is done to them, and they cannot kill the Man who does it, expect Satisfaction from the Government, which if not procured, they break out into War, by killing the first white Man they conveniently can.  No Victualler or Alehouse-keeper can give any Credit so consequently



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February, Savannah.

cannot recover any Debt.  The Free-holds are all entailed, which has been very fortunate for the Place.  If People could have sold, the greatest part, before they knew the Value of their Lotts, would have parted with them for a trifling Condition, and there were not wanting rich Men who employed Agents to Monopolize the whole Town: And if they had got Numbers of Lotts into their own Hands, the other Free-holders would have had no Benefit by letting their Houses, and hardly of Trade, since the Rich, by means of a large Capital, would underlet and undersell, and the Town must have been almost without Inhabitants, as Port Royal in Carolina is, by the best Lotts being got into a few Hands.

            The mentioning the Laws and Customs leads me to take notice that Georgia is founded upon Maxims different from those on which other Colonies have been begun.  The Intention of that Colony was an Asylum to receive the Distressed.  This was the charitable Design, and the governmental View besides that, was, with Numbers of free white People, well settled, to strengthen the southern Part of the English Settlements on the Continent of America, of which this is the Frontier.  It is necessary therefore not to permit Slaves in such a Country, for Slaves starve the poor Labourer.  For if the Gentleman can have his Work done by a Slave who is a Carpenter or a Bricklayer, the Carpenter or Bricklayers of that Country must starve for want of Employment, and so of other Trades.

            In order to maintain many People, it was proper that the Land should be divided into small Portions, and to prevent the uniting them by Marriage



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February. Savannah.

or Purchase.  For every Time that two Lotts are united, the Town Loses a Family, and the Inconveniency of this shews itself at Savannah, notwithstanding the Care of the Trustees to prevent it.  They suffered the Moiety of the Lotts to descend to the Widows during their Lives: Those who remarried to Men who had Lotts of their own, by uniting two Lotts made one be neglected; for the strength of Hands who could take care of one, was not sufficient to look to and improve two.  These uncleared Lotts are a Nusance to their Neighbours.  The Trees which grow upon them shade the Lotts, the Beasts take shelter in them, and for want of clearing the Brooks which pass thro’ them, the Lands above are often prejudiced by Floods.  To prevent all these Inconveniences, the first Regulation of the Trustees was a strict Agrarian Law, by which all the Lands near Towns should be divided, 50 Acres to each Freeholder.  The Quantity of Land by Experience seems rather too much, since it is impossible that one poor Family can tend so much Land.  If this Alottment is too much, how much more inconvenient would the uniting of two be?  To prevent it, the Trustees grant the Lands in Tail Male, that on the expiring of a Male-Line they may regrant it to such Man, having no other Lott, as shall be married to the next Female Heir of the Deceased, as is of good Character.  This manner of Dividing, prevents also the Sale of Lands, and the Rich thereby monopolizing the Country.

            Each Freeholder has a Lott in Town 60 Foot by 90 Foot, besides which he has a Lott beyond the Common, of 5 Acres for a Garden.  Every ten Houses make a Tything, and to every Tything there is a Mile Square, which is divided into



Begun on the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February. Savannah.

12 Lotts, besides Roads: Each Free-holder of the Tything has a Lott or Farm of 45 Acres there, and two Lotts are reserved by the Trustees in order to defray the Charge of the Publick.  The Town is laid out for two hundred and forty Freeholds; the Quantity of Lands necessary for that Number is 24 Square Miles; every 40 Houses in Town make a Ward, to which 4 Square Miles in the Country belong; each Ward has a Constable, and under him 4 Tything Men.  Where the Town-Lands end, the Villages begin; four Villages make a Ward without, which depends upon one of the Wards within the Town.  The Use of this is, in case a War should happen, that the Villages without may have Places in the Town, to bring their Cattle and Families into for Refuge, and to that Purpose there is a Square left in every Ward; big enough for the Out-wards to encamp in.  There is Ground also kept round about the Town ungranted, in order for the Fortifications, whenever Occasion shall require.  Beyond the Villages, commence Lotts of 500 Acres; these are granted upon Terms of keeping 10 Servants, Etc.  Several Gentlemen who have settled on such Grants have succeeded very well, and have been of great Service to the Colony.  Above the Town is a Parcel of Land called Indian Lands; these are those reserved by King Toma Chi Chi for his People.  There is near the Town, to the East, a Garden belonging to the Trustees, consisting of 10 Acres; the Situation is delightful, one half of it is upon the Top of a Hill, the Foot of which the River Savannah washes, and from it you see the Woody Islands in the Sea.  The Remainder of the Garden is the Side and some plain low Ground at the Foot of the Hill, where several fine Springs break out.  In the Garden is variety of Soils; the



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February. Savannah.

Top is sandy and dry, the Sides of the Hill are Clay, and the Bottom is a black rich Garden-Mould well watered.  On the North-part of the Garden is left standing a Grove of Part of the old Wood, as it was before the arrival of the Colony there.  The Trees in the Grove are mostly Bay, Sassafras, Evergreen Oak, Pellitory, Hickary, American Ash, and the Laurel Tulip.  This last is looked upon as one of the most beautiful Trees in the World; it grows straight-bodied to 40 or 50 Foot high; the Bark smooth and whitish, the Top spreads regular like an Orange-tree in English Gardens, only larger; the Leaf is like that of a common Laurel, but bigger, and the under-side of a greenish Brown:  It blooms about the Month of June; the Flowers are white, fragrant like the Orange, and perfume all the Air around it; the Flower is round, 8 or 10 Inches diameter, thick like the Orange-flower, and a little yellow near the Heart:  As the Flowers drop, the Fruit, which is a Cone with red Berries, succeeds them.  There are also some Bay-trees that have Flowers like the Laurel, only less.

            The Garden is laid out with Cross-walks planted with Orange-trees, but the last Winter, a good deal of Snow having fallen, had killed those upon the Top of the Hill down to their Roots, but they being cut down sprouted again, as I saw when I returned to Savannah.  In the Squares between the Walks, were vast Quantities of Mulberry-trees, this being a Nursery for all the Province, and every planter that desires it, has young Trees given him gratis from this Nursery.  These white Mulberry-trees were planted in order to raise Silk, for which Purpose several Italians were brought, at the Trustee’s Expense, from Piedmont



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February. Savannah.

by Mr. Amatis; they have fed Worms, and wound Silk to as great Perfection as any that ever came out of Italy: But the Italians falling out, one of them stole away the Machines for winding, broke the Coppers, and spoiled all the Eggs, which he could not steal, and fled to South-Carolina.  The others, who continued faithful, had saved but a few Eggs when Mr. Oglethorpe arrived, therefore he forbade any Silk should be wound, but that all the Worms should be suffered to eat through their Balls, in order to have more Eggs against next Year.  The Italian Women are obliged to take English Girls Apprentices, whom they teach to wind and feed; and the Men have taught our English Gardeners to tend the Mulberry-trees, and our Joyners have learned how to make the Machines for winding.  As the Mulberry-trees increase, there will be a great Quantity of Silk made here.

            Besides the Mulberry-trees; there are in some of the Quarters in the coldest part of the Garden, all kinds of Fruit-trees usual in England, such as Apples, Pears, etc.  In another Quarter are Olives, Figs, Vines, Pomegranates and such Fruits as are natural to the warmest Parts of Europe.  At the bottom of the Hill, well sheltered from the North-wind, and in the warmest part of the Garden, there was a Collection of West-India Plants and Trees, some Coffee, some Cocoa-nuts, Cotton, Palma-christi, and several West-Indian physical Plants, some sent up by Mr Eveleigh a publick-spirited Merchant at Charles-Town, and some by Dr. Houstoun, from the Spanish West-Indies, where he was sent at the Expence of a Collection raised by that curious Physician Sir Hans Sloan, for to collect and send them to Georgia, where the Climate was capable of making a Garden which might contain all kinds of Plants; to which Design his Grace the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Derby, the Lord Peters.


A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February. Savannah.

and the Apothecary’s Company contributed very generously; as did Sir Hans himself.  The Quarrels amongst the Italians proved fatal to most of these Plants, and they were labouring to repair that Loss when I was there, Mr. Miller being employ’d in the room of Dr. Houstoun, who died in Jamaica.  We heard he had wrote an Account of his having obtain’d the Plant from whence the true Balsamum Capivi is drawn; and that the was in hopes of getting that from whence the Jesuits Barks is taken, he designing for that Purpose to send to the Spanish West Indies.

            There is a Plant of Bamboo Cane brought from the East Indies, and sent over by Mr. Towers, which thrives well.  There was also some Tea-seeds, which came from the same Place; but the latter, though great Care was taken, did not grow.

            Three Miles from Savannah, within Land, that is to say, to the South, are two pretty Villages, Hampstead and Highgate, where the Planters are very forward, having built neat Huts, and clear’d and planted a great deal of Land.  Up the River also there are several other Villages, and two Towns, not much better than Villages, on the Georgia Side, the one call’d Joseph’s Town, which some Scotch Gentlemen are building at their own Expence, and where they have already clear’d a great deal of Ground.  Above that is Ebenezer, a Town of the Saltzburghers.  On the Carolina Side is Purysburgh, chiefly inhabited by Swiss.  There are also a Party of Rangers under the Command of Capt. M’Pherson, and another under the Command of Capt. Aeneas M’Intosh; the one lying upon the Savannah River, the other upon the Ogeechie.  These are Horsemen, and patrole the Woods to see that no Enemy Indians, no other lawless Persons, shelter themselves there.



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

            There were no publick Buildings in the Town, besides a Storehouse; for the Courts were held in a Hut 36 Foot long, and 12 Foot wide, made of split Boards, and erected on Mr. Oglethorpe’s first Arrival in the Colony.  In this Hut also Divine Service was perform’d; but upon his Arrival this time, Mr. Oglethorpe order’d a House to be erected in the upper Square, which might serve for a Courthouse, and for Divine Service till a Church could be built, and A Work-House over-against it; for as yet there was no Prison here.

            Two Ships lay close to the Town, the James, Capt. Yokely, in the Trustees Service, waiting for our Arrival, (with Provisions) and another Ship from Bristol, Capt. Dickens, Commander, loaded with Passengers.  The Water is not only deep, but thoroughly shelter’d from Hurricanes, and, being fresh, there are no Worms; an Advantage few Ports have in America.

            On the 10th I went on board the Two Brothers, Capt. Thomson, and unloaded her, sending some Part of her Cargo up to Savannah Store, and the Remainder on board the James, Capt. Yokely, who on the Unwillingness of the other Ships, as before mention’d, Mr. Oglethorpe engaged to go and try the Entrance of Jekyll Sound, his Ship being but about 100 Tons Burden.

            On the 11th Mr. Oglethorpe return’d from Ebenezer to Savannah, where he found Capt. Yokely, not ready to sail.  I heard that he have given Leave to the Saltzburghers to remove from Old Ebenezer to a Place call’d the Red Bluff, upon the River Savannah.  Some People had infused such Notions into them, that they were obstinately resolv’d to quit Old Ebenezer, where they had very good Houses ready built, a pleasant Situation, a find Range for Cattle, and a good deal of Ground clear’d.  Mr. Oglethorpe in vain advised them against the Change,



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February.

and told them, that Sickness would naturally follow the clearing a new Town; but they insisting, he granted their Request.  Mr. Oglethorpe, in this Journey, pursuant to the Trustees Orders, and to save Expence, reduced Mr. Patrick Mackay’s Company that was come down from the Indian Nation.  He call’d at Purysburgh, on his Return from Ebenezer.

            On the 12th Mr. Oglethorpe went from Savannah down to the Ships at Tybee, having first raised 50 Rangers and 100 Workmen, and sent Capt. M’Pherson with a Parcel of his Rangers over Land, to support the Highlanders on the Alatamaba River.  These Highlanders, under the Command of Capt. Hugh Mackay, were settled on the Alatamaba River, within one Mile and a half of where Fort King George formerly stood, and where his Majesty’s Independent Company had been garrison’d for several Years.  The Want of Supplies and Communication with Carolina, obliged them to abandon the Garrison and destroy the Fort: Therefore the first thing was to open a Communication by Land, that the like Distress might not again happen.  Mr. Oglethorpe order’d Mr. Walter Augustine and Mr. Tolme to survey the Country from Savannah to the Alatamaba, to know where a Road might be most conveniently made; and appointed Mr. Hugh Mackay, junior, with ten Rangers to escort them, and two Pack-horsemen to carry Provisions for them.  Toma Chi Chi also sent some Indians with them.

            On the 14th Toma Chi Chi, Scenaukey his Wife, Tooanabowi his Nephew, and several Attendants, came down to visit Mr. Oglethorpe on board the Symond, carrying with them Venison, Milk, Honey, and other Indian Refreshments.

            Toma Chi Chi acquainted Mr. Oglethorpe, that he had sent up to the Creek Nation Notice of his



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

1735-6. February.

Arrival by two chief Men, who had staid on purpose for some Months, they having so long expected him.  That he had sent a Party of Indians to assist Capt. Mackay at the Darien: That the Uchee Indians complain’d that Cattle were pass’d over into their Country, contrary to the Capitulation; and that Planters had come and settled Negroes there. – Part of these Cattle belong’d to the Saltzburghers, who had pass’d over the Ebenezer River into the Uchee Lands; and the rest, as also the Negroes, belong’d to some of the Inhabitants of South Carolina.  Upon this the following Orders were issued to Capt. Aeneas M’Intosh, viz.

Tybee Road, 14th Feb. 1735-6.

Being inform’d by the Indians, that several Persons, contrary to the Treaties with them made, have carried over Cattle and Negroes, and have planted on the Georgia Side of the River: You are hereby authoriz’d and requir’d to give Notice to the same Persons to withdraw their Horses, Cattle, and Negroes out of Georgia; and if within three Days they do not withdraw their Negroes, you are to seize and bring the Negroes to the Town of Savannah, and deliver them to the Magistrates there; and Proceeding shall be had, if they leave their Cattle beyond the said Term.

(Copy)                                                                        James Oglethorpe.


This Day Mr. Oglethorpe sent up the Act, intituled, An Act for maintaining the Peace with the Indians in the Province of Georgia, prepared by the Hon. Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, and approved by his most Excellent Majesty King George the Second in Council, on the 3d Day of April, in the Year of our Lord 1735, and in the 8th Year of his Majesty’s Reign) to



A Voyage to Georgia;


1735-6. February.

Savannah Town, (alias New Windsor) and from thence to every Trader amongst the Indians, and Notice was given them to conform thereunto.

            Scenauky presented the Missionaries two large Jars, one of Honey, and one of Milk, and invited them to come up to their new Town at Yamacraw, and teach the Children there; and told them, that the Honey and Milk was a Representation of their Inclinations.  The same Evening, having done my Business on board Capt. Thomson, I went down to the Ships in the Scout-boat.  About Midnight came to anchor at Tybee a Sloop from New York, call’d the Midnight, loaded with Provisions.

            On the 15th, Capt. Yokely not being yet come down, Mr. Oglethorpe was much concern’d at the Delay, which was of great Damage to the poor People, who, by not being on their Lands, were losing the best Season both for building and improving (which is the Winter.)  Besides, we were apprehensive that the Spanish Indians might undertake something against the Highlanders, if they were not strengthen’d; who also might be uneasy at finding themselves not supported; and that the Spaniards themselves might perhaps take Possession of the Mouths of the Harbours, and drive off and conquer the English Indians, who were then, and had long been in Possession of those Islands, and to whom they belong’d for several Ages.  The Danger of Sickness, and Damage of Goods, besides the Expence and Hazard of sending the People in open Boats, was very great; and if no Vessel lay in the Entrance, if the Spaniards should come up with the smallest Ship, they might entrench themselves under the Shelter of the Ship’s Cannon, in spite of all that the English Indians could do.  Mr. Oglethorpe spoke to both the Captains to go and anchor at the Entrance of Jekyll Sound, and go



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.


1735-6. February.

in with Boats (which he would furnish, and go with himself)  found the Bar, and carry their Ships in.  They remonstrated the Danger and Impossibility of Merchants Ships making Discoveries.  At last this Expedient was thought of; to buy the Cargo of the Midnight Sloop, who arrived last Night, on Condition that she should go into Jekyll Sound, and deliver the Cargo at Frederica in the Alatamaba.  Capt. Cornish and Capt. Thomas consented to go on board the Sloop, and in her to try the Entrance, and promised then to come back and carry their Ships in, who, in the mean time, would lie in Safety in Tybee Harbour.  Mr. Oglethorpe agreed for the Cargo; the Master of the Sloop, one Barnes, being a brisk Man, and very willing to undertake the Discovery of the Entrance, seeing it was for the publick Service.  Mr. Oglethorpe order’d Mr. Horton and Mr. Tanner, with 30 of the single Men of the Colony, on board the Sloop, with Cannon, Arms, Ammunition, and Tools for entrenching, with whom Capt. Cornish and Capt. Thomas went down by Sea to meet him at Frederica; himself going down by the Channels within the Islands.  Such Diligence was used, that the Sloop sail’d by Eight the next Morning.  Mr. Oglethorpe order’d from Savannah the Workmen that he had engaged there; also more Indians from Tomo Chi Chi; and those Indians who were already down, to rendezvous at certain Posts, where he might send for them as Occasion should require.

            On the 16th in the Evening, Mr. Oglethorpe set out in the Scout-boat, through the inland Channels, to meet the Sloop at Jekyll Sound.  He carried with him Capt. Hermsdorf, two of the Colony, and some Indians.  Capt. Dunbar also accompanied him with his Boat.  I was left with the Ships, having Charge of their Cargoes.



A Voyage to Georgia;

1735-6. February.

            On the 17th, Capt. Yokley came down to Tybee from Savannah.

            On the 18th, he began to take Beef and other Provisions out of Capt. Dymond, for Frederica; and before he had completed his Cargo, the Wind came about, so that he could not get out.

            Before Mr. Oglethorpe set out for the Southward, Lieutenant Delegal, who at that Time commanded his Majesty’s independent Company at Port Royal, waited upon him, pursuant to his Letter, to acquaint him with the Circumstances of the Company, and what Provisions would be necessary for their Subsistence, and what Boats for their Embarkation, that Company being ordered to St. Simons.

            A Gentleman with Letters to the Governor of Augustine, from the Person charged with the King of Spain’s Affairs at the Court of England, came over in the Ship Symond.  Mr. Oglethorpe, before he went to Alatamaba, left orders with Major Richard of Purysbourg to conduct that Gentleman in a fix-oar’d Boat, being the best then to be got, to Augustine; and also by the same Occasion sent a Letter to that Governor.

            Mr. Spangenberg acquainted Mr. Oglethorpe, that several Germans with whom he had an Influence were gone to Pensilvania instead of Georgia, and that he would go thither and fetch them, to be an Increase of Strength to the Colony.  Mr. Oglethorpe told him, that he would not inveigle any from another Colony; but if Mr. Penn, the Proprietor of that Province was desirous they should come away, he was willing to receive them; therefore he gave Letters for Mr. Penn to Mr. Spangenberg.

            On the 19th, Major Richard set out for St. Augustine, with the Gentleman for that Place.



Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

1735-6. February.

            Whilst Mr. Oglethorpe was absent, the Colony that remained with us were employed, some in helping to build the Beacon at Tybee, and some in hunting and fishing; they all went daily on shore to Peeper Island, but none went up to Savannah, nor no Boats came to them without License, for fear some unwary People should be drawn to spend what little they had in buying Refreshments, and left they should make themselves sick, by drinking Drams and eating Trash.  They had plenty of fresh Provisions and good Beer provided for them, which made this Restraint not inconvenient.  They washed their Linnen and drest their Meat on shore with Fires made of Cedar and Bay Trees, which to People now come from England, seemed an extraordinary Luxury.  On the Shore were Oyster-Banks, dry at low-water, where they took as many as they pleased, the Oysters being very good.

            I observed here a kind of long Moss I had never seen before; it grows in great Quantities upon the large Trees, and hangs down 3 or 4 Yards from the Boughs; it gives a noble, ancient and hoary Look to the Woods; it is of a whitish green Colour, but when dried, is black and like Horsehair.  This is the Indians use for wadding their Guns, and making their Couches soft under the Skins of Beasts, which serve them for Beds.  They use it also for Tinder, striking Fire by slashing the Pans of their Guns into a handful of it, and for all other Uses where old Linnen would be necessary.

            On the 23rd, Colonel Bull, one of his Majesty’s Council in Carolina, arrived here in his own Perriagua, with Letters from the Lieutenant-Governor, Council and Assembly of that Province for Mr. Oglethorpe.  I offered him the Ship’s great Cabbin, and all Provisions and Necessaries, but he


A Voyage to Georgia;


1736-7. February.

refused it, having himself a Cabbin fitted up with all Conveniences aboard his own Perriagua; howsoever he did us the Favour to dine on board. 

            Nothing remarkable happened on board till Mr. Oglethorpe returned from the Southward, which was on the 25th in the Evening.  I had from one who went along with him, the following Account.

            The Scout-boat went along through Channels, between the Islands and the Main; these Channels are in some Places above a Mile; these Channels are in some Places above a Mile, and in others not above 200 Yards wide.  In many Places, the Woods of Pines, Evergreen-Oaks, and Cedar-Trees grow close to the Water-Side, which with the clear sea-green Colour and Stillness of the Channels, sheltered by the Woods, is very delightful to the Eye.  In other Places, on the Banks, are wide Marshes, so hard that Cattle feed upon them, though at some of the very highest Spring-tides they are just covered with Water.  We passed between the Island of Wilmington and the Main; upon the latter, we landed at one Mr. Lacy’s where 5 Gentlemen of 500 Acre Lotts have built their Houses together, that they might be the more easily fortified, which they are with Palisades well flanked with several Pieces of Cannon.  They with Masters and Servants make the Garrison, and in all Times of Apprehension do regular Duty; one of the Masters, with Proportion of Servants, mounting Guard each Night.  They have cleared above 100 Acres of Land round the Fort.  They have Milk, Cattle, Hogs, Garden-stuff, and Poultry in such Plenty, that they sent at different Times several Bushels of Eggs down to Frederica.  This Fort commands the Water-passage between


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