Voyage to Georgia

By Brenda Pierce

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Voyage to Georgia

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. February.

the Islands to Savannah.  It stands high, the Banks of the River being about 18 Foot; perpendicular from High-water Mark; the Bottom is a Clay mixed with Iron-stone, and is the only Place an Enemy can land at from the Southward.  It is but 4 Miles from Savannah by Land, though 16 by Water; and the Ridge of Pine Groves reaching all the Way from the one to the other, it is passable for Horses and Carriages by going a little round about to follow the Course of the open Groves.  Mr. Lacy has there set up Pot-ash-Works, and made some for Trial; but finding that he could make more Advantage of the same Labour by sawing Timer for the Sugar-Islands, and splitting Staves for the Madera, he does not now go on with the Pot-ash, till he can have more Strength of Hands.  Here we met a Boat from Savannah with Workmen for the Southward; they were most of them Germans and Swiss, raised by Purysburg; the Boat being full of Men and heavy loaded, we outwent her.  From this Fort we saw the island of Skidoway, being 4 Miles Distance down a wide Channel we stopt at the northwardmost Point of that Island, where there is a Village, a Guard-house, and Battery of Cannon;  The Free-holders of the Island perform Guard-duty at the Battery.  The Land of this Island is very rich; the Inhabitants have cleared about 30 Acres, but propose doing much more this Year, since there will be Settlements to the Southward of them, for they have been much hindered by continual Alarms.  This Island is about 12 Miles long, and 4 wide.  Leaving Skidoway on the Left and the Mouths of Vernon and Ogeechee Rivers on the Right, we passed forward, and still kept through Channels, as before, sometimes crossing

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. February.

wide Sounds (for so the Boatmen here call the Gulphs of the Sea which run into the Land, and the Entrances of the Rivers.)  There are 3 or 4 Sounds to be passed, which in blowing Weather are dangerous to those open Boats.  I believe where we passed, St. Catherine’s is above two Leagues wide.  The Tides of Flood carried us up along-side the Islands, and the Tides of Ebb down to the Sea.  Mr. Oglethorpe being in haste, the Men rowed Night and Day, and had no other Rest than what they got when a Snatch of Wind favoured us.  They were all very willing, though we met with very boisterous Weather.  The Master, Capt. Ferguson is perfectly acquainted with all the Water-passages, and in the darkest Night never missed the Way through the Woods and Marshes, though there are so many Channels as to make a perfect Labyrinth.  The Men vied with each other, who should be forwardest to please Mr. Oglethorpe.  Indeed, he lightened their Fatigue, by giving them Refreshments, which he rather spared from himself and let them want.  The Indians seeing the Men hard laboured, desired to take the Oars, and rowed as well as any I ever saw, only differing from the others, by taking a short and long Stroke alternately, which they called the Yamasee Stroke.  I found this was no new Thing to the Indians, they being accustomed to row their own Canoes, Boats made out of a single Tree hollowed, which they manage with great Dexterity.   

When we came near the Mouths of the Alatamaha, we met a Boat with Mr. Mackay and Mr. Cuthbert (who is Lieutenant of the Darien) coming from the Darien to Savannah.  They were very  agreeably surprised to find Mr. Oglethorpe on board us.  They returned to

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. February.

the Darien, taking Captain Dunbar with them, whilst we stood the shortest way to St. Simons.  Mr. Cuthbert told us, that one of the Highlanders met with an Orange-tree full of Fruit on Duboys Island; he was charmed with the Colour, but could not get them by reason of the Height of the Tree, which was so full of Thorns, that there was no climbing it, so he cut it down and gathered some Dozens.

            On the 18th in the Morning, we arrived at the Island of St. Simons.  We were ordered to look to our Arms, new prime our Swivel-Guns, and make every thing ready for fear of Accidents:  we also landed the Indians, who soon met a Party of their Friends, who informed them a Ship was come into St. Simons, but that they did not know what she was, nor would not speak to the People, having been ordered by their chief War Captain, in case they saw any Ship come in, not to shew themselves to them, but to watch the Men if they landed, and not to hurt them, but to send him notice.  That they had sent to him, he being upon Sapola Island.  We stood down one of the Branches of the Alatamaha, close under the Reeds, so as not to be seen till we fully discovered what they called a Ship, to be the Midnight Sloop.  They were very joyful at our Arrival, and we also not a little pleased to hear that the Captains of our Ships said that they had found Water enough to bring in their Ships, excepting one Place.  That there was 16 or 17 Fathom within the Harbour; that the Entrance was very easy, except one Place on the Barr, where they had found it shoaly by reason of a Spit of Sand, which they had not Opportunity in coming in to try round, but would go down in the Sloop, and the first calm Day did not doubt finding a good Channel round the

 

A Voyage of Georgia;

 

1735-6. February.

Spit.  Mr. Horton, Mr. Tanner, and the Men were all brisk, and in good Health.  Mr. Oglethorpe immediately set all Hands to work, mark’d out a Booth to hold the Stores, digging the Ground three Foot deep, and throwing up the Earth on each Side by way of Bank, raised a Roof upon Crutches with Ridge-pole and Rafters, nailing small Poles across, and thatching the Whole with Palmetto-leaves.  When the Sloop came first up, the Ground was cover’d with long Grass.  Mr. Tanner fired it, and it destroy’d all Vermin, and made the Country round clear, so as not to be only pleasant to the Eye, but convenient for walking.

            Mr. Oglethorpe afterwards laid out several Booths without digging under Ground, which were also covered with Palmetto Leaves, to lodge the Families of the Colony in when they should come up; each of these Booths were between thirty and forty Foot long, and upwards of twenty Foot wide.  Mr. Oglethorpe made a Present to Captain Barnes for having come in the first to this Port; and Captains Thomas and Cornish both said, they did not doubt but they should bring in their Ships.

            We all made merry that Evening, having a plentiful Meal of Game brought in by the Indians.

            On the 19th, in the Morning, Mr. Oglethorpe began to mark out a Fort with four Bastions, and taught the Men how to dig the Ditch, and raise and turf the Rampart.  This Day and the following Day were spent in finishing the Houses, and tracing out the Fort.  The Men not being yet very handy at it, we also in this Time unloaded the Sloop, and then she went down to discover the Channel.

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. February. Darien.

            On the 22d a Perriagua from Savannah arrived here with Workmen, and some Provisions and Cannon.  These were English, who rowing hard, had passed the Boat with Germans, which did not come up whilst we were here.

            We set out for Darien, 16 Miles from Frederica, up the Northern Branch of the Alatamaha, leaving Mr. Hermsdorf and the Indians here, and Mr. Horton’s Party, which was now augmented to 50 Men.  Mr. Tanner went along with us.  We arrived there in about 3 Hours.  The Highlanders were all under Arms on the Sight of a Boat, and made a very manly Appearance with their Plads, broad Swords, Targets and Fire-arms.  Captain Hugh Mackay commands there.  He has mounted a Battery of four Pieces of Cannon, built a Guard-house, a Store-house, a Place for Divine Service, and several Huts for particular People.  One of their Men dying, the whole People join’d, and built a Hut for the Widow.  The Highlanders were not a little rejoiced to hear that a Town was going to be settled, and a Ship come up so near them; and also, that they had a Communication by Land to Savannah, Capt. M’Pherson having been here with a Party of Rangers from thence.  Capt. Mackay invited Mr. Oglethorpe to lie in his Tent, where there was a Bed and Sheets (a Rarity as yet in this Part of the World.)  He excused himself, chusing to lie at the Guard Fire, wrapt in his Plad, for he wore the Highland Habit.  Capt. Mackay and the other gentlemen did the same, tho’ the Night was very cold. 

            The Scotch have met with a great deal of Game in the Woods, particularly wild Turkeys, of which they have kill’d many.  There was a Party of Toma Chi Chi’s Indians there, who

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia

 

1735-6. February. Darien.

agreed mighty well with the Highlanders, and fetch’d them in Venison.  They have a Minister, Mr. M’Leod, a very good Man, who is very careful of instructing the People in religious Matters, and will intermeddle with no other Affairs.

            This Town stands upon a Hill on the Northern Branch of the Alatamaha, on the main Continent of America.  The Country behind it is high and healthy, and very fit for Cattle, tho’ not so good for Corn.  The Land near the River is fruitful, and a River falls into the Alatamaha about half a Mile above the Town, on both Sides of which is excellent good Land.  The Timber upon the high Land, behind the Town, is some of the best in Georgia.

            We left Mr. Tanner there, and set out for the Ships, going down to Duboys Island, and from thence coming back the same way that we went.  I take the whole Distance by the Channels, from Tybee to Frederica, to be about 130 miles, tho’ it is but 60 Miles South upon the Globe.

            On the 25th Capt. Yokely, in the James, who had not fail’d all this while, seeing that Mr. Oglethorpe was come back, sail’d in the Night, without sending any Word, or waiting for farther Orders; so that we knew nothing of it till we saw him the next Morning, too far over the Bar to send any Message to him.

            Col. Bull acquainted Mr. Oglethorpe, that, pursuant to his Desire from England, he had agreed for some hundreds of Cattle to be deliver’d on the Savannah River for the Trustees; and that the Price of Cattle was much risen since.  Indeed, the Prices of Cattle and Provisions rose every Day after

 

Begun the 15th of October 1735.

 

1735-6. February.

our Arrival, insomuch that Rice, which Mr. Oglethorpe had bought, when he came over with the first Colony, for 35 s. Currency per hundred, was now sold for 3 l. Currency in Carolina; and a Cow with its Calf, which then would have been sold for 10 l. Currency, fetch’d now from 15 l. to 20 l. – Col. Bull also acquainted him of his having bespoke Boards, Timbers, and Boats, according to the Orders of the Trustees; that Part of them was ready, and the rest would soon be so.  This Timber was design’d for building Barracks; but for want of Boats to bring it down, the Year was far advanced before we could get it to Frederica.

            On the 26th the Captains Cornish and Thomas return’d in their Yawl.  Before they came on board the Ship, I saw Disappointment in their Countenances.  They brought up a Draught of the Bar, and declared they had not time to discover it sufficiently to carry in their Ships; but that they had found Water enough for the James, and the Peter and James, to go in.  They farther told us, that there were great Fires on the Main over-against Frederica, which were supposed to be made by the Spanish Indians; which was only a groundless Apprehension, for these Fires were made by the Creek English Indians.

            Mr. Oglethorpe finding it impossible to prevail with the Ships to go to Jekyll Sound, call’d the Freeholders together, acquainted them with the new Difficulties of 130 Miles Passage in open Boats, which might take up 14 Days, and could not be perform’d in less than six; that they must lie the Nights in Woods, with no other Shelter than what they could get up upon their Arrival, and be exposed to the cold frosty Nights, which were not then over, and perhaps hard Rains; that there

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. February.

might go by Sea, on board the Peter and James, as many as that Ship could contain; but that it would not hold near their Number: That (considering the Difficulties of the Southern Settlement, almost insuperable to Women and Children, of which they had great Numbers) if they were desirous thereof, he would permit them to settle at Savannah, and the neighbouring Lands.

            He gave them time to consult their Wives and Families, and appointed them to meet him again in two Hours.  When they return’d, they acquainted him, That as they came to make a Town and live together, they had all been resolved before they came from England, and in their Passage had confirm’d their Resolutions, and would not forsake one another; but desired Leave to go all together, and settle the Town of Frederica, as was first promised:  That Brothers, Sons, and Servants were gone before them, and it would look very base, and be very inconvenient to forsake them, or send for them back : That they all desired to go through the inland Passage together, and were well contented to lie without Cover not only for six Days, but for a much longer time, since it was no more than what they expected before they left England

            The Symond and London Merchant not proceeding to the Southward, occasioned a new Expence and Trouble; for besides the Demurrage during the Delay, whilst the Captains gave Hopes of going, these two large Ships were now to be unloaded into the Peter and James, which could not carry above 100 Tuns; therefore Sloops and other Vessels were to be freighted to carry the Remainder to Savannah, the only Place where there was House-room enough to keep the Goods dry, until they

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6, February.

could be sent to the Southward as Occasion should serve.

            We wanted a great many Periaguas for to carry the Families to the Southward through the Channels between the Islands.  They arrived, some from Savannah, some from Port Royal, and some which return’d from having carried down the Highlander’s to the Darien, and the Workmen to the Southward; so that we had soon enough, and by the First of March had put the Remainder of the Colony on board them.

            These Periaguas are long flat-bottom’d Boats, carrying from 20 to 35 Tons.  They have a kind of a Forecastle and a Cabbin; but the rest open, and no Deck.  They have two Masts, which they can strike, and Sails like Schooners.  They row generally with two Oars only; but upon this Occasion Mr. Oglethorpe order’d spare Oars for each Boat, by the Addition of which, and the Men of the Colony rowing, they perform’d their Voyage in five Days, which a single Periagua is often fourteen Days in doing.  Mr. Oglethorpe accompanying them with the Scout-boat, taking the Hindermost in tow, and making them keep together; an Expedient for which was the putting all the strong Beer on board one Boat, which made the rest labour to keep up with that; for if they were not at the Rendezvous at Night, they lost their Beer.

1735-6. March.

            On the 2d of March the Periaguas and Boats, making a little Fleet, with the Families on board, all sail’d with the Afternoon Flood, Mr. Oglethorpe in the Scout-boat accompanying them.  I was left on board, in order to load the Peter and James, Capt. Dymond, with Things the most immediately necessary for Frederica, and to unload and discharge the Symond and London Merchant.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

March. 1735-6.

On the 3d I hired a Schooner belonging to Mr. Foster, one of the Freeholders of Savannah, to carry up Part of the Cargoes; and I set on shore at Tybee the Bricks, and such other Parts of the Cargoes as could not get Damage by Wet, to lie there till Occasion should offer to carry them down, and thereby saved the Charges of carrying them to Savannah and down again.  I got the Ships Boats to help to unload, Craft being very scarce, by reason of so many Boats sent down to the Southward with the Colony.

On the 11th I discharged the Ships Symond and London Merchant, having this Day made an End of unloading them.  The Peter and James being loaded, we now waited for a Wind to sail to Frederica.

On the 17th we set sail with the Morning Tide, in Company with the Symond and London Merchant.  As soon as we were over the Bar we parted, they for Charles Town, and we for Frederica.  In the Evening the Wind shifted, and we came to an Anchor, the Sea being very smooth, and but little Wind.

On the 18th the Wind came about, and we stood to the Southward two Days; at which time we stood in for the Land, and made a woody Island: The Land seem’d high about the Middle.  We stood in within two Miles: It look’d pleasant, the Beach being white Sand, the Woods lofty, and the Land hilly.  We daily saw several Smoaks and Fires all along the Shore, which were made by the friendly Indians, by Mr. Oglethorpe’s Order.  At Noon we had an Observation, and found we were in 31 d. 20 m. being 20 Miles to the Southward 

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. March.

of Frederica, for the Entrance of Jekyl Sound, is in 31 d. 0 m.  We turned to the Northward, and on the 22d in the Evening, we made the opening between Jekyl Island and St. Simons.  We came to an Anchor that Evening, and the next Morning being the 23d, we stood into the Opening, and found a good Channel between the Breakers all the way to Jekyl Sound, at the Entry of which, Captain Yoakley’s Boat came off to us.  We ran directly up to Frederica, and anchored close to the Shore in 3 Fathom Water, where lay the James Captain Yoakeley.

            I went on Shore, where I found Mr. Oglethorpe was gone to the Spanish Frontiers, and I was surprised to find that there was a Battery of Cannon mounted, which commanded the river, and the Fort almost built, the Ditches being dug round, though not to their Width, and the Rampart raised with green Sod.  Within the Fort a very large and convenient Store-house, 60 Foot in Front, and to be 3 Stories high, was begun, with a Cellar of the same size underneath, and one Story already raised above Ground;  The Town was building, the Streets were all laid out; the main Street, that went from the Front into the Country, was 25 Yards wide.  Each Freeholder had 60 Foot in Front, by 90 Foot in Depth, upon the high Street, for their House and Garden; but those which fronted the River had but 30 Foot in Front, by 60 Foot in Depth.  Each Family had a Bower of Palmetto Leaves, finished upon the back Street in their own Lands: The Side towards the front Street was set out for their Houses: These Palmetto Bowers were very convenient Shelters, being tight in the hardest Rains; they were about 20 Foot long, and 15 Foot wide, and in regular Rows, looked very

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

pretty, the Palmetto Leaves lying smooth and handsome and of a good Colour.  The whole appeared something like a Camp; for the Bowers looked like Tents, only being larger and covered with Palmetto Leaves instead of Canvas.  There were 3 large Tents, two belonging to Mr. Oglethorpe, and one to Mr. Horton, pitched upon the Parade near the River.

            Mr. Oglethorpe had divided the Colony into Parties, one cut Forks, Poles, and Laths for building the Bowers, another set them up, a Third fetched Palmetto Leaves, a fourth thatched and a Jew Workman, bred in the Brazil, and had come from Savannah, taught them to do this nimbly and in a neat manner.  Mr. Oglethorpe had appointed some Men who knew the Country to instruct the Colony in Hoeing and Planting; and as soon as the Bowers were finished, a Party was set to that Work, and the rest were hired by him to work at the Fort, by reason that a great Part of the Workmen were not yet come up.  It was so late in the Year, he hoped little from any Planting, therefore what he ordered to be done, was rather to teach the Colony against another Season, than from any Advantage likely to arise from it, and he employed the Men of the Colony to work at the Fort that they might get something to help to subsist themselves the next Year.  There was Potatoes and Indian Corn in the Ground and they were planting more; there was some Flax and Hempseed, which came to little, being too late set.  And it is an Observation that all Europe Grains should be sowed rather before Winter, that they may shoot and cover the Ground.  For if they are sowed in Spring, the Weather coming hot upon them, the Blades shoot at once into Height, and not shading the Roots,

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

the Heat of the Sun dries them up.  But when the Winter has checked the Growth of the Blade, the Plant spreads, and covering the Ground thick, shades it from the parching Sun, and thereby keeps a Moisture underneath, which prevents the Roots from being dried up.  There was Barley, Turnips, Lucern-Grass, Pumpkins, Water Melons, and several other Seeds sown or sowing daily; all was for the whole Colony, the Labour was in common, though they were assisted by several Workmen hired from Savannah.  I was the more surprized to see a Team and six Horses ploughing, not having heard any thing of it before; but it was thus:  Messieurs Walter Augustine and Tolme, escorted by Mr. Hugh Mackay, had pursuant to their Orders surveyed from Savannah to Darien, and had made a Plan of it, and Mr. Hugh Mackay had brought these Horses then with him, which were embarked in Periaguas from Darien to Frederica.  They reported that the Indians had accompanied, assisted, and hunted for them in their Survey; and that they had met some Camps of friendly Indians, besides those which Toma Chi Chi Mico sent with them; that they had found the Country passable for Horses, but to keep the Horse-road they were obliged to go round about, and head several Vallies which were too rich and wet to be passable, therefore that Road was 90 Miles round; but that the Road might be carried so as to make it but 70; that there were two Rivers to be swam over, and some boggy places.  The News they brought had been no small Joy to the People of Frederica, since they had a Communication from the Darien by Land, open to Savannah, and consequently to all the English Colonies of North America.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

            Frederica is situated in the Island of St. Simons, in the middle of an Indian Field, where our People found 30 or 40 Acres of Land cleared by them.  The Ground is about 9 or 10 Foot above Highwater Mark, and level for about a Mile into the Island; the Bank is steep to the River, which is here narrow, but deep, and makes an Elbow, so that the Fort commands two Reaches.  The Woods on the other side this Branch of the Alatamaha are about three Miles Distance.  All that three Miles is a plain Marsh, which by small Banks might easily be made Meadow; when I was upon it, it was so hard that a Horse might gallop, but most part of it is flooded at very high Tides.  The open Ground on which the Town stands, is bounded by a little Wood to the East, on the other Side of which is a large Savannah of above 200 Acres, where there is fine Food for Cattle.  To the South, is a little Wood of red Bay-trees, live Oaks, and other useful Timber, which is reserved for the Publick Service.  In the Fort also are some fine large Oaks preserved for Shade.  To the North are Woods, where the People have leave to cut for Fire and Building, for all that Side is intended to be cleared: To the West is the River, and the Marshes beyond it, as I said before.  The Soil is a rich Sand mix’d with Garden-mould, the Marshes are Clay.  In all Places where they have tried, they find fresh Water within 9 Foot of the Surface.  The Grass in the Indian old Field was good to cut into Turf, which was very useful in Sodding the Fort.

            The Woods on the Island are chiefly Live-Oak, Water-Oak, Laurel, Bay, Cedar, Gum and Sassafras, and some Pines.  There are also abundance of Vines grow wild in the Woods; one

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

called the Fox-Grape,  from a kind of Muscadine Taste, is as large and round as a Duke-Cherry, and fleshy like it, but the Stones are like the Grape.  This kind of Grape does rarely grow in Clusters, but singly like Cherries.  The other Grape is black in Clusters, small, thick skinned, big stoned, but pleasant enough:  It seems to be the Bourdeaux Grape, wild and unimproved; they are ripe about September, but a Quantity sufficient to make a true Experiment of Wine (which can hardly be done under 60 Gallons) is hard to be got, because the Bears, Rackoons and Squirrels eat them before they are ripe, and as they run up very high Trees, it is difficult or almost impossible to get to the Tops of them where the best grow.  These Grapes are common to the Woods in most parts of America.  But there is on St. Simons, a wild Grape much nearer the Europe Vine, the Fruit being exactly the same as the common white Grape though the Leaf is something different.  The Birds and wild Animals like it so well, that they suffer it seldom to ripen.  All the Vine Kinds seem natural to the Country.  The China Root produces a kind of Bind or Briar; and the Melon, Water-Melon, Cucumber, Kidney-Bean, Pompkin and Gourd, all thrive wonderfully. 

            The Island abounds with Deer and Rabits; there are no Buffaloes in it, though there are large Herds of them upon the Main.  There are also a good many Rackoons, a Creature something like a Badger, but somewhat less, with a bushy Tail like a Squirrel, tabbied with Rings of brown and black.  They are very destructive to the Poultry.

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

            I heard that there were Wolves and Bears, but saw none.  There are great Numbers of Squirrels of different Sizes; the little Kind the same as in England, a lesser than that, not much bigger than a Mouse, and a large grey Sort, very near as big as a Rabit, which those who are accustomed to the Country say, eats as well.  There are wild Cats which they call Tigers; I saw one of them which the Indians killed, the Skin was brown, and all of one Colour, about the Size of a middling Spaniel, little Ears, great Whiskers, short Legs, and strong Claws.

            Of the Wild-Fowl Kind, there are wild Turkeys, though but few of them upon the Island, but Plenty upon the Main.  This Bird is larger than the tame Turkey and the Cock is the beautifullest of the feathered Kind; his Head has the red and blue of the Turkey, only much more lively and beautiful, his Neck is like the Cock Pheasant’s, his Feathers also are of the same Colour with those of that Bird, glittering in the Sun as if they were gilded; his Tail is as large, though it hath not so fine Eyes in it as the Peacock’s hath.  At first, before they were disturbed by our People, they would strut in the Woods as a Peacock does.  I have heard some say, that upon weighing, they have found them to exceed 30 Pound; I never weighed any, but have had them very fat and large; they are delicious Meat and are compared to a tame Turkey, as a Pheasant is to a Fowl.  I saw no Partridges upon the Island, though they are plenty upon the Main.  Turtle-Doves the Woods swarm with, which are excellent Food.  There are also great Numbers of small Birds, of which a black Bird with a red Head, the red Bird, or Virginia Nightingale, the mocking Bird,

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

which sings sweetly, and the Rice-Bird, much resembling the French Ortelan, were the chief; the rest are too numerous to describe.

            Of Water Fowl, in Winter there are great Abundance; besides the common English Wild Goose, Duck, Mallard and Teal, there is a kind of Wild Goose like the Brand Geese, and Ducks of many kinds, hardly known in Europe.  There is a Hooping Crane, a Fowl with grey Feathers five or six Foot high, Numbers of the Heron Kind of different Species and Colours, some small ones of the most beautiful White, which are called Poor Jobs, from their being generally very lean.  Of Birds of Prey, there are the Land and the Sea Eagle, with different Kinds of Hawks: There are also Numbers of Pelicans and Cormorants.

            Of Reptiles, the Crocodile, which seems to be the chief, abounds in all the Rivers of Georgia; they call them Alligators.  I have seen some of these I believe 12 Foot long.  A Number of vulgar Errors are reported of them; one is, that their Scales are Musquet-proof; whereas I have frequently seem them killed with small Shot; nay, I have heard from people of good credit, that when they have found one at distance from the Water they have kill’d him with Sticks, not thinking him worth a Shot.  And Mr. Horton more than once has struck one through with a Hanger.  The Watermen often knock them on the head with their Oars as they sleep upon the Banks; for they are very sluggish and timorous, though they can make one or two Springs in the Water with Nimbleness enough, and snap with Strength whatever comes within their Jaws.  They are terrible to look at, stretching open an horrible large Mouth, big enough to swallow a

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

Man, with Rows of dreadful large sharp Teeth, and Feet like Dragons, armed with great Claws, and a long Tail, which they throw about with great Strength, and which seems their best Weapon, for their Claws are feebly set on, and the Stiffness of their Necks hinders them from turning nimbly to bite.  When Mr. Oglethorpe was first at Savannah, to take off the Terror which the People had for the Crocodiles, having wounded and catch’d one about twelve Foot long, he had him brought up to the Town and set the Boys to bait him with Sticks, the Creature gaping and blowing hard, but had no Heart to move, only turned about his ‘Tail and snapt at the Sticks, till such time as the Children pelted and beat him to Death.  At our first coming they would stare at the Boats and stand till they came up close to them so that Mr. Horton killed 5 in one Day; but being frequently shot at they grew more shy.  They destroy a great deal of Fish, and will seize a Hog or a Dog if they see them in the Water; but their general Way of preying is lying still, with their Mouths open and their Noses just above Water, and so they watch till the Stream brings down Prey to them: they swallow any thing that comes into their Mouths; and upon opening them Knots of light Wood have been found in their Guts.  They rarely appear in Winter, being then in Holes.  They lay Eggs, which are less than those of a Goose:  They scrape together a Number of Leaves, and other Trash, of which Nature has taught them to chuse such as will foment and heat; of these they make a Dunghill, or Hot-Bed, in the midst of which they leave their Eggs, covering them over with a sufficient Thickness.  The Heat of the Dunghill, help’d by the Warmth of the Climate, hatches them, and the young Crocodiles creep out like small Lizards.

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

            Next to the Crocodile is the Rattle-Snake, a Creature really dangerous, tho’ far from being terrible to look at.  The Bite is generally thought mortal, and certainly is so, if Remedies are not in time applied.  The Indians pretend to have perform’d wonderful Cures, and boast an infallible Secret, but it is generally believ’d that the hot Season of the Year, and the Rage of the Rattle-Snake increase the Force of the Poison, and that the Bite is more or less dangerous according to the Part; and those who are bit with the least dangerous Circumstances are cured by the outward Applications of the Indians.  Mr. Reeves, who was Surgeon to the Independent Company at Port Royal has, by the regular Course of Medicine, cured most of those who were carried to him and bit by Rattle-Sakes.  I can say less of this, because (thank God) there has not been one Person bit by a Rattle-Snake in the Colony of Georgia.  I have seen several of these Snakes which were kill’d at Frederica, the largest above two Yards long, the Belly white, and the Back of a brown Colour; they seem to be of the Viper Kind, and are of a strong Smell, somewhat like Musk.  The Rattles are Rings at the End of their Tails of a horny Substance; these shaking together make a Noise, which with their strong musky Smell gives cautious People Notice where they are.  They are not so nimble as some Snakes are, therefore do not remove out of the Way, which is generally the Occasion of Bites when they happen; for they naturally in their own Defence snap at what treads near them.  To prevent  this, those who walk the Woods much, wear what they call Indian Boots, which are made of coarse woolen Cloths, much too large for the

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1735-6. March. Frederica.

Legs, tied upon their Thighs and hang loose to their Shoes.

            Besides the Rattle-Snake, there are some others whose Bite is dangerous; there are also many others, as the Black, the Red and the Chicken Snake, whose Bites are not venomous.

            On the 24th, I resolved to keep the Cargoes on board, and landed nothing but as it was actually wanted.  There was a Booth for a Storehouse on Shore, with a Cellar to it; but the Cargo of the Midnight Sloop had filled that.  There were also some other Booths where the Colony lodged till they had made their own Bowers, but there being already a great many Goods and Provisions come up, there was not Room enough in all for them, and we were much distress’d for want of Room, many Things being damaged by not having Cover to put them under.  I therefore thought it best to keep the Cargoes on board both Ships, and take Things out as we had Occasion. 

            On the 25th in the Evening Mr. Oglethorpe return’d from the Spanish Frontiers, and some Difficulties having arose about settling the Bounds of the Dominions belonging to the Crown of Great Britain and Spain, to make the following Transactions intelligible it will be necessary to describe the Situation of the Province of Georgia, and also to give an Account of his Expedition to the Frontiers, from whence he now return’d.

            The Missisippi River parts these Bounds, the Mouths and Heads of which are possess’d by the French, who have Garrisons and considerable Forces

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

1736. March.

up that River as far as the Chickesaws Country.  To the East of that River there are four great Nations of Indians:

            1. The Chocktaws, some of which lie on the other Side of the River, and some on this.  These Mr. Oglethorpe in his first Voyage to Georgia gain’d to admit of English Traders.  They are about 5000 Warriors on the East Side of the River.

            2.  The Cherickees, a Nation who inhabit the Mountains upon the Southern Heads of the Savannah River, amounting to about 3000 Warriors.

            3.  The Chechesaws, who lie upon the Missisippi River, between the Cherikees and the Chocktaws, who have long been Subjects to the Crown of England, and who hinder the French Communication up that River with their Northern Colonies of Canada.  And,

            4.  The Creeks, who are bounded by the Chickesaws and Cherikees upon the North, the Chocktaws upon the West, the Florida-Indians upon the South, and who to the Eastward reach as far as the Ocean.  These are divided into several Towns and Nations, one of which is commanded by Toma Chi Chi, who was in England.  To these belong’d all the Islands upon the Sea, and the Main-Land from the Mouth of the Savannah to the Chocktaws and the Florida-Indians.  The Creeks did by Treaty grant the Lands which the English now possess in Georgia near Savannah, and for it receiv’d Presents.  The Sovereignty was in the Crown of Great Britain ever since the Discovery of them by Sir Walter Raleigh.  All Carolina bounded by the

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

1736. March.

River St. John, was the Carolina granted to the Proprietors in the English Possession at the Treaty of 1670.  They also conceded several Islands, reserving to themselves certain Portions of Land on the Main, as also the Islands of St. Catharine, Sapola and Ossaba.  They granted those of Tybee, Warsaw, Skidoway, Wilmington, St. Simons, and all those to the Southward of it as far as St. John’s River to the Colony.  The Creek Indians were Allies or rather Subjects to the Crown of Great Britain, and did, with the Assistance of the English in the Year 1703, beat the Spaniards as far as St. Augustine, and besieged that Place.  But though the Siege was raised, the Creek Indians still kept Possession of all the Lands on the North of St. John’s River, but had made a Treaty with General Nicholson (who commanded by Commission from King George the First in those Countries) that no private Englishman should possess the Property of any Land to the South or West of the River Savannah, without Leave first had from the Indians.

            The first Thing Mr. Oglethorpe did in his first Voyage, was to obtain the Grant from the Indians; and upon a Meeting of all the Upper and Lower Creeks, upon Toma Chi Chi’s Return from England, they confirm’d the Grant of all the Islands (those reserved as above excepted) also of all the Lands upon the Continent as far as the Tide flowed, and two Hours Walk above it.  In Pursuance of this Agreement Toma Chi Chi came down with a Party of Indians to shew Mr. Oglethorpe how far their Possessions reach’d.  The Day he arrived he presented ten Bucks to the whole Colony, which were divided after the Indian Manner to all equal.  Every Day more Indians came in from different

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. March.

Quarters, where they had been hunting: At last Mr. Jonathan Brian brought down a new Scout-Boat with ten Oars.  Mr. Oglethorpe having heard no News of Major Richard, and the Boat sent to Augustine; and being inform’d by his Indians, that great Number of the Florida Indians were sent for up to their Town; and also having Advice from Charles Town, that they heard from Augustine that the Spaniards were preparing to dislodge us, he resolved to go down and see the Frontiers, and inquire what was become of his Boat and Men, and at the same time to restrain the Indians from hurting the Spaniards; who seemed very eager so to do, under the Pretence of hunting the Buffaloe.  Knowing there was a Passage through which Boats might come round the Island, and perhaps

April.

might destroy the Colony in one Night, he made Captain Yoakley anchor below the Town, who was very alert and kept a good Look-out, and having some Cannon, and supported by a Battery from the Land, was above a Match for open Boats.  He designed also to build a Fort upon the Boat Passage, but the Indian Company not being yet come, he had no Men to garrison it.  The Highlanders very chearfully offer’d themselves for that Service.  He order’d a large Periagua to bring them down from the Darien.

            On the 18th of April he set out with the two Scout-Boats with Toma Chi Chi Mico and a Body of Indians, who tho’ but few, being not forty, were all chosen Warriors and good Hunters.  Mr. Oglethorpe did not care for having too many, left their Strength should encourage them to Hostilities with the Spaniards, which it

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

was his Business to avoid.  Rowing across Jekyl Sound he went up another branch of the Alatamaha, to see what Passages might lie that Way for Boats, and encamp’d in a Grove of Pine Trees upon the Main, where were many Trees fit for Masts to the largest Ships.  They made up three Fires, one for the Indians, one for the Boat-Men, and one for the Gentlemen.  Mr. Oglethorpe lay, as he usually does, in the Woods under a Tree, wrapt up in a Cloak, near a good Fire.  Mr. Horton, Mr. Tanner, and the rest of the Gentlemen lay round the Fire in the same Manner.

            The next Day soon after Day-Break they discover’d the Periagua, which made a fine Appearance, being full of Men: Captain Hugh Mackay, who commanded them, had been indefatigable in making this Dispatch; there was on board thirty Highlanders and ten other Men, a Party of the Independent Company, lately reduced, who had come over Land to Darien under the Command of Ensign Hugh Mackay, as before-mention’d: They had with them Tools for Entrenching, and Provisions.  That Afternoon they saw an Island, which the Indians formerly call’d Wissoo, in English, Sassafras.  This is over-against Jekyl-Island on the South; the North West End of it rises fifty Foot or upwards above the Water, like a Terras, a Mile in Length, cover’d with tall Pine Trees.  The Western Extremity of this Hill commands the Passage for Boats from the Southward, as the Northern End of the Island does the Entry for Ships. – Here they met with some Bark-huts, which

 

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735

 

1736. April.

our friendly Indians some time since had built for their Lodging when they hunted there. –They saw a great many Deer and a wide Savannah lying at the foot of the Hill, extending near two or three Miles: So that from the Western Point they could discover any Boat that came from the Southward for several Miles.

            Mr. Oglethorpe upon the extream Western Point of the Hill, the Foot of which is wash’d on the one Side by the Bay and by the Channel that goes to the Southward on the other, mark’d out a Fort to be call’d St. Andrew’s, and gave Captain Hugh Mackay Orders to build it; leaving him with the Periagua and all that came in it, and also some Indians to hunt and shoot.

            Mr. Oglethorpe proceeded on the next Morning with the two Scout-Boats, and Toma Chi Chi and his Indians; who new-named this Island Cumberland, in Memory of his Royal Highness the Duke, who had been very gracious to them, particularly to Tooanahowi, Nephew to Toma Chi Chi, to whom his Royal Highness had given a Gold Repeating-Watch, which Toonanahowi holding in his Hand, said, The Duke gave us this Watch, that we might know how the Time went, and we will remember him at all Times, and therefore will give this Island this Name: Or Words to that Purpose.  They encamp’d that Night on the South End of Cumberland, and the next Morning discover’d another Island beyond it, between which and the Main, they row’d thro’ very narrow and shoaly Passes amongst the Marshes.  To his Island Mr. Oglethorpe gave the Name of Amelia, it being a beautiful Island,

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

and the Sea-shore cover’d with Myrtle, Peach-Trees, Orange-Trees, and Vines in the wild Woods.  They row’d across a fresh-water River, a Branch of the Alatamaha, and that Night Toma Chi Chi chose to encamp upon a Ground where there were but a  few straggling Pine-Trees, and the Land being clear for half a Mile round, and thick of Shrubs and Palmettoes:  His Reason was, that if any Florida-Indians were out there, they would be discover’d, if they approached in the Night, by the Noise of the Palmetto Leaves; and (says he) You being Englishmen, who are used to fight in open Ground, I chuse this as being most to your Advantage

            Next Morning he conducted them through several Channels till they came to two Rocks cover’d with Cedar and Bay-Trees, and climbing to the Tops of those Rocks, he shew’d them a wide River, which was St. John’s and a House or Hut on the other Side, saying, That is the Spanish Guard.  All this Side that River we hunt: It is our Ground.  On the other Side they hunt; but as they have lately hurt some of our People, we will now drive them away.  We will stay behind these Rocks, where they cannot see us, till Night, and then we will fall upon them.

            Mr. Oglethorpe, with much Difficulty, prevail’d with the Indians not to attack the Spaniards, for some of them are related to those that had been kill’d the winter before, by the Detachment from Augustine; and one of them, Poyeechy by Name, had then been wounded by the Spaniards.  At last the Indians were prevail’d upon to return to the Palmetto Ground,

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

where he promised to meet them.  And not caring to trust them single, left they should turn back and do Mischief to the Spaniards, he order’d Mr. Horton, with one of the ten-oar’d Scout-boats, to attend upon them; and with the other Boat he himself went into St. John’s River, intending to inquire of the Spanish Guards what was become of the Boat and Men he had sent to Augustine.

            The Hut which they saw from the Rocks, was the upper Spanish Look-out; but seeing no People, they concluded it deserted; therefore stood down to the lower Look-out.

            The Boatmen fancied they saw a Battery of Cannon; for there appear’d some black Things, which they thought look‘d like Guns at a great Distance; but Mr. Oglethorpe desir’d to see them nearer.

            As they stood in, they proved to be Cows lying down among the Sand-hills.  There were no People at the Look-out, so they went down to the Sea, and rounding the Point St. George, passing between that and Talbot Island, came to the Rendezvous at the Palmetto Ground, where they met Mr. Horton in the Scout-boat, and some Boats of Indians; but Toma Chi Chi, with two Boats, was gone on.

            About four Hours in the Night their Centry challeng’d a Boat; and Umpeechy, one of those who had been in England, answer’d, and at the same time leap’d on shore with four others, and ran up to the Fires where Mr. Oglethorpe then was.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

            They seem’d in such a Rage as is hardly to be describ’d: -- Their Eyes glow’d, as it were, with Fire; some of them foam’d at the Mouth, and moved with such Bounds, that they seem’d rather possess’d.

            Mr. Oglethorpe ask’d Umpeechy what the Matter was: He said, Toma Chi Chi has seen Enemies, and has sent us to tell it, and to help you.  Being ask’d why the Mico did not come back himself; he said,  He is an old Warrior, and will not come away from his Enemies, who hunt upon our Lands, till he seen them so near as to count them.  He saw their Fire, and therefore sent to take care of you, who are his Friends.  He will make a Warrior of Tooanahowi; and before Day-light will be reveng’d for his Men, whom they kill’d whilst he was gone to England.  But we shall have no Honor, for we shall not be there.  The rest of the Indians seem’d to catch the raging Fits, at not being present.  Mr. Oglethorpe ask’d if he thought they were many; he said, yes, he thought the Enemies were a great many, for they had a great Fire upon a high Ground, and the Indians never make large Fires, but when they are so strong as to despise all Resistance.

            Mr. Oglethorpe immediately order’d all his People on board, and they row’d very briskly to where Toma Chi Chi was, being about four Miles distance.

            They found him and his Indians with hardly any Fire, only a few Sparks behind a Bush, to prevent Discovery.  They told him they had

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

been to see the Fire, and had discover’d seven or eight white Men; but the Indians they believed had camp’d farther in the Woods, for they had not seen them: But Toma Chi Chi was going out again to look for the Indians, whom, as soon as he discover’d, he intended to give the Signal to attack both Parties at once: One half of his Men creeping near, and taking each their Aim at those whom they saw most awake, and as soon as they had fir’d to run in with their Hatchets; and at the same time those who had not fir’d should run in with their loaded Arms, that, if they knew once where the Indians were, they could be sure of killing all the white Men; since, they being round the Fire, were easily seen and the same Fire hinder’d them from seeing others.

            Mr. Oglethorpe strove to dissuade them from that Attempt; but with great Difficulty could obtain of them to delay a little time, they thinking it argued Cowardice.  At last they got up, and resolved to go in spite of all his Endeavours; on which he told them, You certainly go to kill them in the Night, because you are afraid of seeing them by Day: Now I do not fear them.  Stay till Day, and I will go with you, and see who they are.

            Toma Chia Chi sigh’d, and sat down, and said, “We don’t fear them by Day; but if we don’t kill them to-night, they’ll kill you tomorrow.  So they staid.

            By Day-break Mr. Oglethorpe and the Mico went down with their Men, and came up to the

 

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia

 

1736. April.

Fire, which they thought had been made by Enemies, which was less than a Mile from where the Mico had pass’d the Night.  They saw a Boat there, with a white Flag flying, and the Men proved to be Major Richard return’d from Augustine.

            The Indians then seem’d asham’d of their Rage, which inspir’d them to kill Men before they knew who they were.

            The same Day they return’d towards St. Andrew’s, and not having Water enough, thro’ the Narrows of Amelia, the Scout-boats were obliged to halt there; but the Indians advanced to the South End of Cumberland, where they hunted, and carried Venison to St. Andrew’s.

            Mr. Oglethorpe arriving there, was surpris’d to find the Fort in a Forwardness; the Ditch being dug, and the Parapet raised with Wood and Earth on the Land-side, and the small Wood was clear’d fifty Yards round the Fort.  This seem’d to be the more extraordinary, because Mr. Mackay had no Engineer, nor any other Assistance in that Way, but the Directions left by Mr. Oglethorpe: Besides it was very difficult to raise Works here, the Ground being a loose Sand; therefore they used the same Method to support it as Caesar mentions in the Wars of Gaul, laying Trees and Earth alternately, the Trees preventing the Sand from falling, and the Sand the Wood from Fire.—He return’d Thanks to the Highlanders, and offer’d to take any of them back; but they said, that whilst there was Danger they desired Leave to stay.  But he

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

order’d two along with him, they having Families at Darien, to whom he thought it would be agreeable for them to return.  From thence he return’d to Frederica with the white Men, and the Scout-boats.

            Next Day, being the 26th, the Indians arrived, and camp’d by themselves near the Town, and made a War-dance, to which Mr. Oglethorpe went, and all his People.  They made a Ring, in the Middle of which four sat down, having little Drums made of Kettles, cover’d with Deer-skins, upon which they beat and sung: Round them the others danced, being naked to their Waists, and round their Middles many Trinkets tied with Skins, and some with the Tails of Beasts hanging down behind them.  They painted their Faces and Bodies, and their Hair was stuck with Feathers: In one Hand they had a Rattle, in the other Hand the Feathers of an Eagle, made up like the Caduceus of Mercury: They shook these Wings and the Rattle, and danced round the Ring with high Bounds and antick Postures, looking much like the Figures of the Satyrs.

            They shew’d great Activity, and kept just Time in their Motions; and at certain times answer’d, by way of Chorus, to those that sat in the Middle of the Ring.  They stopt, and then stood out one of the chief Warriors, who sung what Wars he had been in, and describ’d (by Actions as well as by Words) which way he had vanquish’d the Enemies of his Country.  When he had done, all the rest gave a Shout of Approbation, as knowing what he said to be true.  The next Day Mr. Oglethorpe gave Presents to Toma Chi Chi and his Indians.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

and dismiss’d them with Thanks for their Fidelity to the King.

            The 28th we received Advice, that Capt. Gascoigne, with the Man of War Sloop the Hawk, was got up to the Town of Savannah, she having suffer’d much in her Passage, being near lost by Stress of Weather.  Capt. Gascoigne desiring a Pilot that knew Frederica Bar, there being none but Capt. Dymond, or Capt. Yokely, that could undertake it, Mr. Oglethorpe prevail’d with Capt. Dymond to leave his Ship and go to Savannah, to bring the Hawk into Frederica.

            Major Richard gave an Account, that he was cast away before he could get to Augustine; that Part of their Baggage was lost, but the Boat and Men were saved; that having scrambled thro’ the Breakers, and walk’d some Leagues through the Sands, they were met by Don Pedro Lamberto, a Captain of Horse, and by him conducted to the Governor, who received him with great Civility; and that the Reason of his long Stay was, to get the Boat repair’d.  He brought Letters from Don Francisco del Moral Sanchez, Captain General of Florida, and Governor of St. Augustine, to Mr. Oglethorpe, who call’d together the Freeholders, and communicated to them the Contents of the Letters, to prevent the ill Impressions that idle Reports might occasion.  There were first great Compliments, thanking him for the Letters he had received by Don Carlos Dempsey and Major Richard: Next complaining that the Creek Indians had fallen upon the Spaniards, and defeated some of them; that he daily expected farther Hostilities from them, and desired him to restrain them.

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

            Major Richard, by Word of Mouth, told him, That the Governor expected an Answer back in three Weeks; that he had treated him with the greatest Civility, and desir’d him to bring it; and that the Governor had sent Advice to the Havannah of our Arrival.

By private Advices Mr. Oglethorpe was inform’d, that nortwithstanding these Professions, the Governor of Augustine had sent to buy Arms at Charles Town, and was preparing to arm the Florida Indians, in order to join the Yamasee Indians, and to send them, together with a Detachment of the Spanish Garrison, to dislodge us; and that the complaining of Hostilities from the Creeks was only to give a Reason for such an Action, and lay upon us the Blame of having begun the War; that the Garrison of Augustine consisted of five Companies, sixty Men each, and forty Horse, and that the Inhabitants of the Place amounted to above two thousand Men, Women, and Children; and that  they expected Troops would be sent from the Havannah, as soon as the Message would arrive; but that they thought they had enough already to dislodge us.

These private Advices Mr. Oglethorpe did not communicate to the People; but being doubtful of what the Event might be, in case he should be attacked before the Arrival of the Man of War, and the Independent Company, he concluded to arm a Periagua, that was a good Boat, to fit her out with Twenty Oars, and four Swivel-Guns, and to send her to the River St. John’s with a Scout-Boat in Company, called the Marine Boat; and by patrolling in that River to hinder the Indians.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

from passing it, and thereby from giving pretence of Hostilities to the Spaniards; and such a Patrole was the only way to prevent the Indians falling upon the Spaniards, against whom they were very inveterate.  He also designed that they should erect a Fort upon the Passages by the Island St. George, that the Periagua under the Shelter of those Guns might very easily hinder any Boats from coming through the Island-Passages, and send the Scout Boat to give the Alarm, which by signals of Smoak would reach St. Andrews, he ordering another Scout-Boat to cruise between Amelia and Cumberland.

            The keeping the two Ships in the River, with the Assistance of the Land Batteries, would prevent any Ships from coming up from the Sea but under a great Disadvantage.  He spoke to Toma Chi Chi Mico, who sent off Parties of the Indians into the Woods to strive to meet with the other Creek Hunters, and desire them not to hurt the Spaniards, till a Confetence was held before Mr. Oglethorpe, who would see to get Justice done to them, but to keep in the Neighbourhood of Frederica, on the Main, to see that the Spanish Horse did not pass to Darien, and to be ready, in case they attacked us, to make a Body.  Toma Chi Chi leaving most of his Men, returned to Yamacraw in all haste, in order to bring down more Indians.  Men were chiefly wanted for this Disposition; but Mr. Oglethorpe made use of such Men as were hired for Workmen, and willing to serve on that Occasion.

            The People went on with building the Storehouse but slowly, Hands being taken off for building

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

the Fort, and it was farther delay’d for want of Boards and Stuff, those which were bought in Carolina not coming up.  Mr. Oglethorpe had the Works round the Fort frased or palisaded with Cedar Posts, to prevent our Enemies turning up the green Sod.  He also had Platforms of Two-Inch Planks laid for the Cannon upon the Bastions, and took in a Piece of Marsh Ground which lay below the Fort, with a Work called the Spur, the Cannon in which are upon a level with the Water’s Edge, and make it impossible for any Boat or Ship to come up or down the River without being torn to Pieces.

            He had a Well dug in the Fort, where we found tolerable good Water, and in Plenty.  The People having no Bread, and Biscuit being dear and necessary for the Boats Service, there was an Oven built, and Mr. Oglethorpe bought off the “Time of an indented Servant, who was a Baker, and he baked Bread for all the Colony, they giving him their Allowance of Flower, and he returning to them the same Weight in Bread, the Difference made by the Water and Salt being his Gain, Fresh Bread was a great Comfort to the People.  The Indians also brought us in Plenty of Venison, which was divided as far as it would go, instead of Salt Provisions to the Sick first, then to the Women and Children, and lastly, to the strong young Men.  Whenever Venison failed, we killed Poultry, Hogs, or Sheep for the Sick.

            Twenty-eighth of March, Mr. Robert Ellis arrived here in a Boat from Savannah.  Mr. Oglethorpe received him with great Civility, upon Account of Mr. Penn, Proprietor of Pensilvania,

 

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. April.

who had sent to the poor People of the Town of Savannah, at the Beginning of that Settlement, one hundred Barrels of Flower, as a Present, which had been of very great   Service and Relief to them.  We bought of Mr. Ellis several Profisions which the Colony had occasion for.

            The 30th, Mr. Oglethorpe agreed with Mr. Jonathan Brian to furnish him with eighteen Hands to assist him in cutting Roads through that Part of Georgia, which is from the River Savannah to the River Ogeechee, and for that Purpose, to begin, by making a Road passable from his own House in Carolina to the River Savannah, and thereby carry all Things along with him, that were necessary, for the Support of the Men.  In the Evening Mr. Bryan and Mr. Barnwell set out for Carolina, of their own accords promising, that if we should be attacked, they would come down with a large Number of Volunteers from thence.  We also received advice from Savannah, that the Chiefs of the Cheehaws, and another Town of the Creek Indians, were arrived there, and would come over to our Assistance in case any body disturbed us in our Settlements.

            The 31st, Mr. Horton, who had 500 Acres of Land granted by the Trustees, went to take Possession of it, being on the other side of the Branch of the Alatamaha, and about six Miles below the Town.  Mr. Oglethorpe ordered one of the Scout-Boats to carry him:  The Captain was left ill ashore.  He found the Land exceeding rich.  The Scout-boat having Orders to fire a Swivel-Gun by way of Signal, that we might know how the Lands bore

 

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. April.

from the Town, the young Fellow who fired the Gun, loading it again and again, fired it three times by way of Rejoicing, and at the third Fire the Gun being overloaded, burst, and the Splinters wounded him very dangerously in the Brain.  Mr. Horton returned with the Boat and wounded Man directly, and notwithstanding the Surgeons took all possible care of him, he died the next Day, being the first Man that died at Frederica.

May.

            The 2nd day of May, Mr. Horton was sent down with a Scout-Boat to escort a Periagua loaded with Ammunition, Cannons, Boards for Platforms, and other Necessaries for St. Andrews, together with a Message to Ensign Mackay, to come up to consult upon the present Posture of Affairs, and to bring with him such of the Highlanders whose Interest in Planting required their Return to Darien; and during his Absence to leave Mr. Cuthbert to command at St. Andrews.

            Boats daily arrived from Savannah, or Port Royal, with Fowls, Hogs, and other live Stock, for the Use of the Colony; and those from Savannah seldom came without some Volunteers to offer their Service to Mr. Oglethorpe, upon the present Apprehension.  And all the Inhabitants of their Town, and this Province, show’d the greatest Readiness to do every thing necessary for the general Defence.  And he was forced to send positive Orders to prevent those who had Plantations from coming down to the Southward, left thereby they should lose their next Harvest; and both they and the People of Port Royal thought, it was better to dispute with the Spaniards here, than stay for the event, being thoroughly satisfied that if the Spaniards dislodged this Settlement, they must of course be destroyed.

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. May.

            Mr. Oglethorpe received a Letter from Augustine by way of Charles Town,  giving an Account that there had been an Alarm there, that they hourly expected Ships to their Assistance from the Havannah; that the General had beat to Arms and the Trumpet sounded to Boot and Saddle; and that all the Horse, and a Detatchment of Foot, were marched out; and that the Pohoia King of the Florida’s was expected in a little more than a Month, with a great Number of Indians; that the Spaniards had not Arms for them, but that there were Proposals made by some Persons who were Runaways from Carolina, to buy at Charles Town Arms, Ammunition and Presents both for them and the Creek Indians, the Spaniards intending to gain the Upper Creeks from the English Interest,.  They had also sent to buy Provisions at New York, in order to have sufficient to maintain the Troops that they expected from the Havannah.

            He received at the same time a Letter from Don Carlos Dempsey, by the Governor of Augustine’s Order, acquainting him that the Indians had fallen upon a Post of theirs, called Picolata, and killed some of their Men, and that he from thence seemed to conclude, that the Indians would not molest them unless they had some private Countenance.

            Upon these Advices, to restrain the Indians, and prevent any Pretence of a Rupture upon their Account with the Spaniards, Mr. Oglethorpe hasten’d the sending out the Marine-Boats; and he also sent an Express to hasten the Independent Company from Port Royal, and the Man of War from Savannah.

 

 

 

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

 

1736. May.

            On the 10th in the Evening Ensign Delegal arrived with a Detachment of 30 Men of the Independent Company under his Command, all active willing young Fellows; they had heard from Charles Town of the general Report of the Spaniards Intention to dislodge us; Mr. Delegal had made them row Night and Day, relieving their Oars with the Soldiers, in order to come up time enough for Service.  Mr. Oglethorpe went immediately on Board them, and for fear of losing time, suffered none to land, but ordered Provisions and English strong Beer, to be carried on Board and distributed amongst the Soldiers.  As also a Present of Wine to Ensign Delegal.  They went forward with the same Tide of Ebb, and Mr. Oglethorpe went down with the Scout-Boat, and posted them upon the East Point of the Island; which projects into the Ocean, a pleasant and healthful Place, open to the Sea Breezes.  There is a Beach of white Sand for four or five Miles long, so hard that Horse Races might be run upon it.  It commands the entry of Jekyl Sound, in such a manner that all Ships that come in at this North Entry, must pass within shot of the Point, the Channel lying under it, by reason of a Shoal which runs off from Jekyl Island.  Having pitched upon the Ground for a Fort, Mr. Oglethorpe ordered a Well to be dug, and found good Water; after which he returned to Frederica.

            On the 13th in the Evening the Marine Boat and a Periagua, with Men and Provisions for three Months, together with Arms, Ammunition and Tools, sailed to the Southward.  On board her was Major Richard, with Answers from Mr. Oglethorpe to the Captain General of Florida’s Letters, acquainting him, that being greatly

 

 

A Voyage to Georgia;

 

1736. May.

desirous to remove all occasions of Uneasiness, upon his Excellency’s frequent Complaints of the Incursions of the Indians into the Spanish Dominions, Mr. Oglethorpe had sent down some armed Boats to patrole the Rivers which separate the King of Great Britian’s Dominions from those of Spain, to hinder any lawless Persons from sheltering themselves in the British Dominions, and from thence molesting his Catholick Majesty’s Subjects, and to restrain the English Indians from invading them.  He returned him Thanks for his Civilities, and express’d his Inclination for maintaining a good Harmony between the Subjects of both Crowns; and that pursuant to his Excellency’s Desire, he has sent back Major Richard, together with an English Gentlemen, to wait upon his Excellency.

            This Body of Men was commanded by Captain Hermsdorf, and under him by Mr. Horton, the latter of whom had Orders to go with Major Richard to Augustine; and Captain Hermsdorf had Orders, after having fortified the Parts which commanded the Pass by Water, to make the Boats patrole up the River Saint John, to prevent our friendly Indians from passing the Rivers, and advise all they met to return to Mr. Oglethorpe at Frederica.

            The 16th we receiv’d Advice from Fort Saint Andrews, that they had seen some Ships out at Sea.  This Day also return’d some Men whom Mr. Oglethorpe had sent to look out a Way by Land to the Sea-Point, which they had found, and brought Advice from Ensign Delegal, that he had already cast up a small Entrenchment, mounted some Cannon, and had seen some ships lying off and on, and, as they thought, heard several Guns fire at Sea, but so very distant as not to be quite certain.  We began to be apprehensive that the Hawk was