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The Atlanta Constitution
Atlanta Constitution - 13 January 1875:
23 October 1893 edition of The Atlanta Constitution
May 31, 1896
Transcribed 2/22/2003 Margie Daniels
Oct 29, 1876 - Sunday
Page 2 of 4
St. Luke's Church, Corner Walton and Spring Streets, Rev. GEORGE McCAULEY
Rector. Divine service at 10:30 a.m. and at night at 7:30 Sunday school at
4:00 p.m. The public are cordially invited. Seats free.
Second Baptist Church Corner of Washington and Mitchell Sts. Rev. A. T.
Spalding, Pastor. Preaching at 10:30 a.m. and 7:115 p.m. by the Pastor.
The public and especially strangers cordially welcomed.
St. Paul's M. E. Church, S, Corner Bell and Hunter Streets -- Rev. W. A.
DODGE, Pastor. Preaching at 10:30 a.m. and 7:15 p.m. by the pastor. Sunday
school at 3:00 p.m. sharp.
First Baptist Church Corner Walton and Forsyth Sts. Rev. Dr. GWIN Pastor.
Sermon at 10:30 a.m. to children. The public and especially strangers in
the city, cordially invited to attend.
First Methodist Church Rev. Dr. HARRISON, pastor. Preaching at 11:00 a.m.
by Rev. J. MITCHELL and 7:30 p.m. by Rev. J. B. Ford.
Payne's Chapel, Luckie Street, Rev. T. H. TIMMOUS, pastor. Preaching by
Rev. E. Q. Fuller, DD of the M E Church, 7:15 p.n. by Rev. J. A. THURMAN of
the M E Church
Evans Chapel - Corner Chapel and Stonewall Streets.
Rev. W. C. Dunlap, pastor in charge.
Preaching Rev. J. A. Thurman
P.m. Rev. J. H. Smith
Trinity Methodist Church Corner Whitehall and Peters St. Rev. W. F. COOK,
Preaching p.m. Rev. M. Freeman, DD
Pm. - Rev. Jas Mitchell
Sixth Methodist Church - South junction Peachtree St. and Merritt's Avenue
Rev/ W/ C/ Dunlap pastor
Rev. L. D. Ellington - AM
Rev. W. E. Tarpley - PM
Louisville and the Short Line
No other line can equal it.
C. R. Kelly - Gen Ticket Agent
John Kilkeny- Gen Pass Agent
John Mac Leod - Gen Sup't
Academy of the Visitation
Near Wheeling West Virginia
Parents in quest of a first class school for their daughters will do well to
investigate the claims of this celebrated academy. For thoroughness in
every dept. of female education, Mt. de chantal ranks pre-eminently high.
These facts united to the exceedingly moderate rates of board and tuition
(200 per annum) will we trust secure to this school as large and desirable
a patronage in the future as it has enjoyed in the past. For further
particulars apply for prospective to the Directress of Mount de Chantal,
Academy of the visitation near Wheeling, West Virginia.
Important to the ladies
MRS. A. F. PICKERT Has now on hand a fine stock of Millinery ruches, ties
and sash ribbons. Also a fine assortment of Hair goods, in all the shades,
hair and hat ornaments in all the latest designs, and other goods too
numerous to mention. 45 Whitehall St.
Submitted by Brenda Pierce
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday January 13, 1861
MORE FORTS SEIZED
PENSACOLA NAVY YARD FALLS, BUT U.S. HOLDS HARBOR FORTRESS
As was the case last week, the forts fell without bloodshed. This evidently was due in part to the woefully undermanned condition of the installations.
Florida and Alabama troops took the Pensacola Navy Yard and it's $156,000 worth of ordinance stores yesterday. The Yard commander Capt. J. Armstrong, wired Washington: "Having no means of resistance, I surrendered and hauled down my flag."
The troops also seized Forts San Carlos Barrancas and McRee in the harbor area. But a U.S. garrison at Barrancas, commanded by Lt. Adam Jacoby Slemmer, had moved swiftly into old, long vacant Fort Pickens on Santa Rosa Island, and thus the U.S. kept a strategic position at the mouth of the deepest harbor on the Gulf of Mexico.
Demands made yesterday for Fort Pickens' surrender were rejected.
Lt. Slemmer had occupied Ft. Pickens after receiving an order to do his utmost to prevent the seizure of the Pensacola forts--an order mailed to him in a small pink envelope, addressed in a woman's hand, apparently so it would escape detection by Alabma authorities handling the mails.
Capt. Armstrong, apparently dazed by the wild events of recent days, and wishing to have specific instructions from Washington before taking action, wrote for orders and received only instructions to keep the government informed and to be vigilant in protecting public property. His own men were divided on what action to take, and the elderly captain wept like a child before turning the yard over to the secessionists.
Louisiana seized the Baton Rouge arsenal after it was surrounded by 600 state troops. Troops moved into Forts Jackson and St. Philip (40 miles below New Orleans on the river approach to the city), Fort Pike on Lake Pontchatrain and the U.S. barracks two miles below New Orleans,
Forts Johnson and Caswell in North Carolina also were occupied--by the Smithville Guard--Tuesday night.
NEW SONG ABOUT A FLAG
After seeing the flag unveiled, Mr. Harry R. McCarthy, an Irish comedian playing an engagement at the Jackson Theatre, wrote about it in verses set to an Irish air, "The Irish Jaunting Car." (A jaunting car is a buggy pulled by one horse or a donkey.)
The chorus of Mr. McCarthy's song, already printed in newspapers and being sung about the state goes: "Hurrah! Hurrah! For Southern rights hurrah! Hurrah for the Bonnie Blue Flag that bears a single star!"
NEW YORK TO SECEDE?
Elements in this city, led by Mayor Fernando Wood, are pushing a plan to secede from the Union and form a free city. Wall Street leaders are being asked to support the move.
MR. SHERMAN RESIGNS
S.C. "DEMANDS" SUMTER
AGENTS SENT TO PRESIDENT; GEORGIA SOLON ACCEPTS POSSIBILITY OF WAR
Charleston, S.C.----South Carolina Atty.-Gen. I. W. Hayne has been sent to Washington to "demand the delivery of Ft. Sumter," Gov. F. Pickens (Ft. Pickens in Pensacola was named for an ancestor of this gentleman) yesterday wrote Pres. Buchanan. A previous attempt by South Carolina agents failed.
"The demand," said Gov. Pickens "is suggested because of my earnest desire to avoid bloodshed which a persistance in your attempt to retain the possession of that fort will cause." Gov. Pickens promised "the valuation of such property will be accounted for" by South Carolina "upon the adjustment of its relatiopns with the United States, of which it was a part."
With Mr. Hayne are Mr. Robert Gourdin and Ft. Sumter's Lt. Norman Hall.
They have not yet arrived in Washington. But on Monday the President, in a lengthy letter to Congress, de fended as "clear and undeniable" the government's right and duty to use military force defensively against those who assail the property of the federal government."
He begged Congress to find a solution, saying "the fact cannot be disguised that we are in the midst of a great revolution."
Congress this week was laced by the crossfire of angry talk. Sen. Jefferson Davis (Miss.) charged the government broke faith with South Carolina by shifting men from Ft. Moultrie to Ft. Sumter and he upheld the right of states to secede.
Sen. Robt. Tombs (Ga.) said "the success of abolitionists and their allies, under the name of the Republican Party, has produced it's logical result already. They have, for long years, been sowing dragon's teeth and they have finally got a crop of armed men. The Union....is disolved......We have appealed from time to time to you to give us our constitutional rights and you have refused them.
"We appeal to you again to restore these rights. Restore them and restore peace, fraternity and unity to all of us. Refuse them and we will ask you to let us depart in peace. Refuse that, and then you present us, as you must, with war. We accept that. We will nail our colors to the mast, inscribed on them Liberty and Equality, and we will trust to the sword and the god of battles for security, tranquility and peace." (Loud applause.)
There was also a petition asking for a national convention in Philadelphia Mar. 4; memorials favoring a national referendum on the Crittenden proposal; approval of House resolution commending Ft. Sumter's Maj. Robert Anderson.
Sen. W.H. Seward (N.Y.) yesterday outlined the great injury the country would suffer if the union were dissolved, and in the house announcement was made yesterday of the withdrawal of Mississippi's representatives. Though Southern representatives objected to the Navy appropriation bill ($11 million, providing reduced sums for Navy yards), it was passed though Southerners were promised a debate on the Army appropriation bill.
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, January 13, 1861
3 MORE STATES SECEDE
FLORIDA, MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA NOW INDEPENDENT
Within 48 hours, the Union lost three more states this week--
Florida's legislature voted 62-7 at Tallahassee Thursday to
In all three states, there were appeals from "cooperationists"
The decisions brought on the most intense excitement--and here
Mississippi's secession ordinance was read to an audience
Gov. John J. Pettus ordered artillery to Vicksburg to hail boats
President--elect Abraham Lincoln was hanged in effigy in Mobile
Florida's legislature worked up to secession by stages, declaring
On Thursday the cause was given impetus by a telegram from
It was in Alabama that the greatest opposition to secession was
Secessionists arrived at Montgomery of one mind--to take the
It was argued that secession was impolitic, that the co-operation
But the Alabama convention was under the firm control of Mr.
Mississippi's secession ordinance was prepared by Mr. Lucius Q.C.
Alabama invited other seceding states to send representatives to
Georgia is the next state to consider a secession. Her special
The Union of 31,443,321 people has now lost more than two million
FLORIDA'S FT. PICKENS AGAIN REFUSES TO SURRENDER; FT. SUMTER IS QUIET.
Pensacola, Fla.---Lt. Adam Slemmer on Friday again rejected demands by secessionist Col. William Chase that he surrender Ft. Pickens to the secessionists.
Lt. Slemmer, who 10 days ago shifted his forces from Ft. San Carlos De Barrancas (across the bay) to unoccupied but stronger Ft. Pickens on Santa Rosa Island (west of Pensacola), commands 81 men in the unfinished fort.
(Pickens, ironically, was named for the late grandfather of the present South Carolina governor, a secessionist.)
Col. Chase, Massachusetts-born, is in charge of various state troops numbering more than 1,000.
His demand for surrender came two days after Florida Sens. D. L. Yulee and Stephen R. Mallory, who had previously urged capture of the fort, wired Florida Gov. Perry: "No blood must be shed before a Southern Confederacy is formed" and "Jefferson Davis tells me to say that in the present state of affairs, the Pensacola forts are not worth one drop of blood."
In the meantime, these events were transpiring: Ft. Mc Ree west of Ft. Pickens on the mainland, has been occupied by secessionists. Col Chase has wired the Mayor of New Orleans for 2,000 men, the latter saying he would comply if Florida would equip them, and Florida officials agreed.
Since Florida seceded Jan. 10, various federal officials--including judges--have resigned, as has Commodore J. Armstrong, who surrendered the Pensacola Navy Yard. Lt. Slemmer reported one of his men fired on a body of 10 reconnoitering secessionists Sunday night and adds that his men are worn out with labor in repairing Ft. Pickens.
It is also reported that Lt. Slemmer's wife, who went back to Ft. Barancas "without any ostensible business," was arrested there as a spy.
On Friday, the Joseph Whitney docked at Ft. Jefferson, on Garden Key in the Tortugas, with Maj. Arnold and his company of artillery as reinforcements for Capt. Meigs.
And Pres. Buchanan has approved the sending of the sloop-of-war Brooklyn with 90 men from Ft. Monroe, Hampton Roads, to reinforce Ft. Pickens. The Brooklyn, which had been sent days ago to help the Star of the West in her attempt to aid Ft. Sumter, is to leave this week.
At Ft. Sumter, matters have calmed down since the Star of the West attempted to land reinforcements there on Jan. 9 but was repelled.
Indeed Maj. Anderson feels his position secure and Secretary of War Joseph Holt wrote him Wednesday that there is now no plan to reinforce him but aid would be sent if requested.
The Sumter defenses are reported in readiness though South Carolina secessionists are also hard at work reinforcing the batteries at Ft. Moultrie, north of Sumter across the channel.
In the meantime, Gov. F. Pickens has forbidden the U.S. treasurer of Charleston from paying the drafts of the federal paymaster in favor of Maj. Anderson and his command, and the sub-treasurer has refused accordingly, the War Department has learned.
Maj. Anderson has been unable to contract for food in Charleston and his men are subsisting mainly on pork, flour hard bread and a diminishing store of beans.
The men are not apprehensive of an attack, feeling they are prepared, but suffer somewhat from the monotony, the inaction, the chill rains, the lack of tobacco and prickly mattresses made of shavings. But morale is high--boosted by the knowledge that the northern press is filled with compliments about their determined position in the isolated fort.
Lt. T. Talbot, sent to Washington to report the Star of the West incident, returned to Sumter last night, bringing with him the government's stated confidence in Maj. Anderson. On Friday, Lt. R.K. Meade left for his Richmond, Va. home, responding to the dispatch that his mother had died.
But it seems that Maj. Anderson won't leave, though he has been invited to attend a Masonic festival in Albany, NY on Jan. 30. Responding to this invitation--regarded as absurd in view of Maj. Anderson's predicament--he wrote the Masons Tuesday of his "regrets" that he could not attend but thanked them for their Union loving sentiments."
The major added that he hoped the severance of states from the Union may not be "cemented in blood."
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, February 3, 1861
BROOKLYN NEARING FT. PICKENS WITH AID.
Washington--The warship Brooklyn, with two companies led by
More troops reported for duty in Washington this week--and the
From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Sunday, March 10, 1861
COAL, WATER CUT OFF AT PENSACOLA Pensacola, Fla.--
The U.S. man-o-war Brooklyn and other U.S. vessels will no
From The Atlanta-Journal Constitution
March 31, 1861
C. S. A. REQUISITIONS 2,000 GEORGIA TROOPS. Montgomery, Ala.---The
Montgomery, Ala.---Three commissioners sail today for Europe to
83 OFFICERS HAVE QUIT UNION ARMY. Washington---A total of 83
CRISIS IN FLORIDA Confederate and Union Forces Converging on Ft.
SOUTH "SEIZES" "DIXIE'S LAND"
Richmond, Va.---The owner of the copyright of "Dixie's Land" has
PICKENS REINFORCEMENT GOES AWRY
Pensacola, Fla.---The first attempt to land U.S. soldiers to
Meanwhile the Confederated forces at Pensacola have grown to
Authorities in Washington were informed by courier yesterday
Capt. Adams held that he must obey prior orders from the
The Confederates at Pensacola are from Florida, Louisiana,
More troops are on the way. The Florida First Infantry mustered
Meanwhile, efforts are being made to complete the Montgomery-to-
And in Mississippi, wealthy gentlemen have raised a purse of
ANTI-SOUTHERN PAPERS GEORGIA JURY'S TARGET
The grand jury of Greene County, Ga., has issued a presentment
And at Anderson, S.C., a dentist, Dr. John T. Horne, was sent to
GEORGIA FORMS NEW REGIMENT Macon, Ga.---
Gov. Brown reviewed the troops and addressed them at Ft.
The regiment includes the Gate City Guards of Atlanta and units
Eight companies left yesterday for Pensacola in the Confederate
They are an interesting lot. The Bainbridge Independent
Some units have fancy names--such as the Perry Southern Rights
James N. Ramsey of Columbus has been elected regimental colonel.
Artillery thundered and 7,000 people shouted farewell at the
On the eve of departure of the Quitman Guards of Forsyth,
There are said to be 10,700 men in 214 companies in Georgia now.
In Atlanta two prominent Georgia secessionists took an opposite
(He is not anxious for border states--including Virginia--to
Mr. Benjamin Hill said at the Antitedum Thursday night: "The
OTHER NEWS OF INTEREST Brenham, Tex.---A war that will "fill our
In a speech here Sunday, Gen. Houston said: "The soil of our
He protested "against surrendering the federal
Any well-informed man may see, he went on, that the states of
There were more resignations this week from the Union Army by
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, April 14, 1861
SUMTER TIME LINE
Tuesday: Pres. Jefferson Davis preferred assault: Secretary of State Robert Toombs (cautioning against the theory that war would unite the Confederacy and bring border states into the fold) said "War at this time.......is suicide, murder, and will lose us every friend at the North. The firing upon that fort will inaugurate a civil war greater than any the world has yet seen.
Wednesday: War Secretary Leroy Walker wired Beauregard: "You will at once demand its (Sumter's) evacuation, and if this is refused, proceed in such manner as you may determine, to reduce it." (In Charleston, tension, poor discipline, bickering generals troubled Beauregard; Virginia's ex-Rep. Roger Pryor delivered a fiery speech, promising his state's secession, saying, "Give the old lady time.......she is a little rheumatic," and urging, "Strike a blow!")
Thursday (3:30 P.M.): Three Beauregard aides arrived at Sumter, demanded its evacuation and promised safe conduct; Anderson refused adding: "If you do not batter us to pieces, we shall be starved out in a few days." This was relayed to Montgomery; Walker telegraphed Beauregard; "Do not desire needlessly to bombard Ft. Sumter" and asked when Anderson promised to evacuate; Confederates burned ship hulks east of Sumter to prevent entry of vessels.
Friday (12:45 A.M.): Beauregard's aides asked Anderson when his food shortage would force him to evacuate; hoping the relief expedition would arrive before noon Monday, he said he would evacuate by then, unless hostilities began or he received other instructions. At 3:20 A.M. (Friday), one aide, Col. James Chestnut, wrote Anderson: "We have the honor to notify you that he (Beauregard) will open the fire of his batteries on Ft. Sumter in one hour from this time." At 3:30 the aides left, rowed to Ft. Johnson (west of Cummings Point), ordered Capt. G. S. James to fire a signal shot at 4:30 A.M. Capt. James offered Mr. Pryor the opportunity, Mr. Pryor who had been urging "Strike a blow!" declined saying, "I could not fire the first gun of the war."
Friday (4:30 A.M.): The shot was fired, followed by other batteries (fiery secessionist and agriculturalist Edmund Ruffin reportedly shot the first shell from Cummings Point), There were no batteries at Charleston--but its wharves, streets and rooftops were immediately thronged with people, some praying, some jubilant.
Sumter's guns did not immediately respond; the men ate breakfast about 6 a.m. Friday (fat pork and water) as bombs fell in their midst. Capt. Abner Doubleday, just before 7 a.m., fired the first retort; Sumter's 32-pound cannon, used almost wholly since its heavier guns were to exposed to the enemy, did little damage (most of it at Ft. Moultrie). Confederate shells tore away upper wall sections, set some fires, most of them quickly extinguished; some hardy secessionists rowed out to get a better view; a shell cut Sumter's flag halyards and the emblem was stuck at half mast. Friday evening's rain helped snuff out a barracks blaze. As Union ships waited outside the harbor (watched by torch-bearing Confederates in boats Friday night), Confederate mortars kept up their fire.
Yesterday: Charleston's business was suspended (one furniture merchant announced that his promised "sale will.....take place as soon as Ft. Sumter is taken"). As rain diminished about 8 a.m. Confederate fire was increased; thousands watched as Sumter appeared to be an inferno; inside Sumter was a nightmare, the blaze causing shells and grenades to explode, but the fort continued to fire an occasional shell. When the flagstaff was decapitated (12:48 p.m.), fire singed men replaced it with a spar.
Suddenly Texas Col. L. T. Wigfall appeared at Sumter. Though unauthorized to do so, he told Anderson that Beauregard "wishes to stop this and to set upon what terms you will evacuate this work." Anderson said: "Instead of noon on the 15th, I will go now." They worked out the terms of evacuation about 1:30 p.m. yesterday and the Union flag was hauled down.
Shortly thereafter, aides of Beauregard, seeing the flag down, arrived, learned of Wigfall's maneuver and told Anderson he came without authority. Anderson threatened to resume the conflict but negotiations were begun. (As they did, Mr. Pryor took a drink from a Sumter bottle, mistakenly imbibing some dangerous iodide of potassium. Hearing his agonized cries, a Union surgeon pumped out his stomach.)
Total casualties of the war's first battle: Four Confederates (not including Pryor) slightly wounded, four Union men injured, one secessionist horse killed. Charleston was untouched (Sumter was struck 600 times). The secessionists are jubilant; their hero Beauregard. Gov. Pickens in a victory speech last night, exalted: "We have met them......and we have conquered. We have defeated their 20 millions."
U.S. REINFORCES FT. PICKENS
On Friday night, While Ft. Sumter was under fire at Charleston, 200 troops and a battalion of Marines were landed at Pickens--heretofore held by a force of only 81 men--from U.S. vessels which have been waiting in the harbor.
Orders to put the troops ashore were delivered by Navy Lt. John Lorimar Worden, who reached Pensacola after a five-day overland journey from Washington, during which he was stopped twice for questioning by Confederate authorities.
At the suggestion of Navy Secretary Gideon Welles, Lt. Worden had memorized the orders he was to deliver, and did not carry a copy of them. He put them in writing upon reaching the flagship Wyandotte, after first obtaining a pass to the ship from the Confederate commander here, Brig. Gen. Braxton Bragg. Lt Worden told Gen. Bragg he had no orders to deliver.
MERRIMACK TO BE MOVED
From The Atlanta-Journal Constitution Sunday, May 12, 1861.
BRAGG NEEDS MUNITIONS.
In a letter to Secretary of War Walker, he declared Monday: "Five thousand sets of infantry accouterments are necessary for the preservation of our ammunition. It is now carried by the men in their pockets, and one day's hard service would destroy it all. A supply of musket cartridges is also a first necessity.
The present supply here would last me in an engagement about 30 minutes. Our best defense against the (U.S.) fleet--shells--cannot be used for want of fuses. Not one has yet reached me.
These items are not mentioned by way of complaint, for I know full well the difficulties and embarrassments which surrounded the (War) Department, but simply to show how utterly impossible it is to check the enemy in his operations."
TWO MORE SECEDE.
The additions will bring the number of Confederate states to 10, assuming Virginia's voters also ratify secession May 23, which like Tennessee's voters, they are certain to do. At any rate, the Confederate Congress is certain of it; that body voted Tuesday to admit Virginia as the eighth state.
North Carolina also is moving closer to secession. Her voters will choose delegates to a secession convention tomorrow.
Meanwhile Kentucky is still split over the entire question, Maryland moved closer to the Union side and citizens of western Virginia continued to agitate for withdrawal from the state because they disapprove of disunion.
Arkansas' ordinance of secession was passed by a state convention with only one dissenting vote. The convention has full legislative power.
After the Tennessee General Assembly had acted Monday, Gov. Isham G. Harris chose three commissioners "to enter into military a military league with the authorities of the Confederate states......."
Tennessee also passed a bill to raise a "provisional force of volunteers" consisting of 55,000 men, and to allow Gov. Harris to sell $5,000,000 in bonds to equip them. Among other things, the bill also provides that soldiers shall be allowed 40 cents a day for the use and risk of their horses.
In North Carolina, the first regiment raised by the state elected officers yesterday--D. H. Hill, colonel; C.C. Lee, lieutenant colonel; J. H. Lane, major.
In Kentucky, Gov. Beria Magoffin urged the legislature to call a state convention to decide whether that state shall secede.
In Maryland, now occupied by Union troops, the legislature was urged to unite for the protection of the state. Significantly, a union recruiting office was opened in Baltimore.
In Wheeling, Va., a center of dissatisfaction with Virginia's secession, it was reported that 2,000 stands of arms had arrived. Speakers favoring separation from eastern Virginia were applauded last night. Two companies of Wheeling militia went into Union service.
HOUSTON JOINS SOUTH.
"Sectional prejudices, sectional aggrandizement and sectional pride stimulate the North in prosecuting this war," he said in a speech here. "The trouble is upon us, and no matter how it came or who brought it on, we have to meet it. Whether we have opposed this secession movement of favored it, we must alike meet the consequences."
The time has come, he said, when a man's section is his country. "I stand by mine."
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, August 11,
ACTIVITY IN FLORIDA Union-Held Ft. Pickens Is Aided;
Pensacola Fla.---Vessels of both North and South continue to
The garrison of Ft. Pickens (on Santa Rosa Island near here)
Still another Union vessel, the Illinois has taken to
Meanwhile the privateer Jefferson Davis, whose base is
There is some indication, however, that the Union's costal
UNION ARMY COURT PROBES WHETHER COLONEL WAS DRUNK IN BATTLE.
Gen. Richardson charged that Col. Miles was drunk during the
The colonel, put in charge of a battlefield area by Gen. I.
McClellan SITS FOR BRADY. Washington--Union General George
FEMALE SPY TAKEN Alexandria, Va.---A woman dressed in the uniform
From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, September 8, 1861
ACTION IN FLORIDA
COLONEL DEAD OF WOUND
FREE NEGROES DONATE
THE WAR DIARY
Augusta, Ga.--The Constitutionalist on Friday again requested donations of blankets and clothing for the soldiers who will need them this winter.
Cleveland, Ohio--A young woman has been discovered in the guise of a soldier at Camp Wood. She gives her name as Mary Smith , from Dayton, and said that she wanted to go to war to avenge the death of her only brother. This is the second time, she said, she has been discovered. It was her ability at sewing and the way she handled a dishcloth in the kitchen that first made others suspicious.
New Orleans, La.--Some 450 Texas volunteers arrived here yesterday enroute to join Confederate forces in Virginia.
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, October 13, 1861
CONFEDERATES RAID FLORIDA CAMP
Pensacola, Fla.---Both sides are claiming victory in a fierce encounter which took place on Santa Rosa Island when a Confederate force landed, raided and destroyed a Union camp near here.
The mission of the Confederates was fulfilled: the 1090 Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana and Georgia troops overran the camp of the 6th New York Zouaves in the predawn darkness of Wednesday morning.
The surprised Zouaves fled to the safety of Ft. Pickens, the union installation on the island.
The Confederates beat off one counterattack, but, tarrying to plunder the enemy camp, were set upon by a strong Union force, armed with long range Enfield rifles, before they departed by boat for the mainland.
Their departure was delayed when the propeller of a steamer, which was towing open barges of troops became entangled in a cable.
While the steamer and barges drifted, Federal soldiers on the beaches poured rifle fire into the barges. With their shorter-range guns, the Confederates could not return an effective fire.
Fourteen Union troops were killed. 29 were wounded and 24 were captured or are missing. The Confederates lost 18 killed, 39 wounded and 30 captured.
Confederate killed included Capt. R. H. Bradford (of Madison, Fla.). Among those captured by the Confederates is Capt. Israel Hodges.
In the meantime, it was learned that Gen. Edmond K. Smith has been named to replace Gen. John B. Grayson as commander of the middle and Eastern Florida Department. And on Wednesday and Thursday, Confederates at Tampa seized two sloops, the William Batty and the Lyman Dudley (both out of Key West with licenses to fish along the coast). Thirteen prisoners were taken.
UNION FLEET SCATTERED AT NEW ORLEANS
New Orleans, La.---A Confederate flotilla led by an ironclad (a former ice-breaker to which a cast iron ram had been fixed) attacked and scattered the federal fleet at the mouth of the Mississippi yesterday morning.
The Confederates claim to have sunk one ship. The Union version is that, while one vessel was damaged and an attempt was made to scuttle another, all its vessels escaped.
The ironclad ram which spearheaded the Confederate attack is the "Manassas," known here as the "Turtle" because of the leveling of the superstructure.
Built by private capital and subsequently seized by Confederate authorities, it rammed the side of a Union vessel in the predawn darkness and its crew left the fight believing had inflicted a mortal blow on the Union sloop-of-war Preble.
But Union accounts say the ship was the sloop-of-war Richmond and that while she was damaged and later went temporarily aground, she did not sink.
The "Turtle," commanded by Flag Officer Charles Austin, led the "mosquito fleet" of small boats collected at New Orleans by Commander George N. Hollins into the midst of four Union blockading vessels before the presence of the Confederates was discovered.
It struck one ship at a speed of 10 knots, withdrew and struck again.
Flag Officer Austin ordered "The Turtle" after another vessel, but the impact of the ramming had broken a condenser, putting one of the ironclads two engines out of commission. The ironclad sailed away as the Union vessels began to open fire, shooting away one of the "Turtle's" smokestacks and toppling the other into the vent of the first.
Dense smoke choked the crew until Engineer William Hardy, held held on the sloping deck by Flag Officer Austin as shells rained all about, cut the stack wreckage away.
Meanwhile a signal for the other Confederate vessels to come into the fight has misfired, and it was not until well after daylight that Commodore Hollings was able to send the rest of little fleet after the Union ships.
The gunboats Ivy, McRae, and Tuscaroraos then engaged the Union vessels in a furious cannonade that did not significant damage to either side.
However the Richmond and Vincennes went aground and in a mix-up of signals Vincennes Commander Robert Handy, received what he took to be a signal from the Richmond to abandon ship. He ordered a slow match ignited to fire the magazine and took off the crew.
Then he learned to his amazement that the Richmond had signaled "get under way," and a party was put back aboard the Vincennes to put out the slow match.
Only afterward was it learned that the seaman who lit the fuse, not taking his commander seriously, had cut off the burning end and thrown it overboard to prevent the ship's destruction.
The Vincennes was freed after 32 cannon and all shot were tossed overboard. Lightened and humiliated, it along with the other Union vessels, departed.
RUM TRIGGERS FRACAS
Danesville, Va.---"Demon Rum" precipitated a tragic affair Monday night at the temporary of the Union's 50th Connecticut Regiment.
During the turmoil of pitching tents and preparing supper in the midst of a terrific storm, an unprincipled spectator smuggled a hogshead of liquor into the lines, and before detected by the officers, enough had been disposed of to create the great disturbance.
An affray occurred, in which one citizen was killed, two or three wounded and several horses and cattle shot. Gen. N. Banks then issued an order that all liquor within the limits of the pickets be destroyed, and those found selling it be arrested.
From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, October 27 1861.
PENSACOLA FORT HIT.
Pensacola, Fla.---Union forces have subjected Ft. McRae to such a heavy bombardment that Gen. Braxton Bragg, the Confederate commander here is considering abandoning the installation.
The guns of Ft. Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, and of the ships Niagara and Richmond brought the fort under fire Tuesday and Wednesday.
The Confederate steamer Time also was attacked by the Union ships as she entered Pensacola Harbor.
The shelling intensified hostilities between the two camps. They enjoyed rather placid relations until a few weeks ago when Union troops destroyed the Confederate-held dry dock and fired a ship. The Confederates retaliated by landing a force on Santa Rosa Island and overrunning a Union Camp last week.
Meanwhile Florida Gov. John Milton reported to the War Department in Richmond that at St. Marks, on the Gulf of Mexico, there are "howitzers and empty shells. No powder or fuse to prepare them."
He announced he would not appoint a surgeon general for Florida troops until absolutely necessary, since he feels the state cannot afford the $3000 salary of the position.
Orders assigning Confederate Gen. E. Kirby Smith to the Florida command were revoked this week by the adjutant general's office. Reportedly Gen Smith will be assigned to duty in Virginia. The Florida commander will be Brig. Gen. James H. Trapier, now in South Carolina.
Gen. Trapier is to replace Gen John B. Grayson who died at Tallahassee Monday after an extended illness.
NAVY ASSAULT SET
Forterss Monroe, Va.---The Union's huge naval expedition, whose assault point is still a military secret, is expected to leave from near this point within days.
Many vessels of all types are massed here, some carrying 13,000 troops, artillery and hundreds of horses required for the land assault. (The "Great Republic" has 900 horses aboard, for example.)
Ships came to Hampton Roads, near here, from New York and Annapolis mainly. Among those sailing from Annapolis last Sunday were the Atlantic, Daniel Webster, Roanoke, Empire City, Ariel, Ocean Queen, Vanderbilt, Baltic, Marion, Parkersburg, Illinois, and the Coatzacoalcos.
Commodore Samuel F. Dupont is the naval commander of the expedition, with Gen. Thomas W. Sherman in charge of the land forces.
Various newspapers have conjectured that the assault will be made between Port Royal, S.C. and Brunswick, Ga.
Purpose of the assault is to drive a wedge in the side of the Confederacy and to strengthen the union blockade of Southern ports.
A UNION DEFEAT
Leesburg, Va.---What was intended to be a "slight demonstration" by which Union troops (were) to force the Confederates out of this town on the Potomac River ended Monday in diaster for the Federals.
Ambushed by a strong Confederate force and driven down the steep sides of Ball's Bluff with no possible means of escape, the Union Union forces lost 921 men, including their commander, Col Edward D. Baker, former U.S. Congressman and friend of Pres. Lincoln.
Union Gen. G. B. McClellan had ordered the "slight demonstration" 40 miles from Washington and Brig. Gen. Charles F. Stone began to execute it Sunday.
Under Col. Baker, troops crossed the river in few boats and scaled the 70-foot high bluff. (McClellan had not ordered a crossing.)
They inched forward about a mile, expecting to sight a Confederate camp reportedly in the vicinity.
Instead they found a strong Confederate unit under Col. Nathan G. (Shanks) Evans.
Quite unprepared for this, Union officers fed their men into the battle on a piecemeal basis and receiving heavy fire, were compelled to retreat.
At the river, the troops had the choice of swimming, surrendering or being killed.
When the fighting ended, 49 Union troops were dead, 158 were wounded and 714 were missing or captured. The Confederate estimate is that 650 were captured. In fact, 525 already have been marched into Richmond.
The Confederates lost 149 men--33 killed, 115 wounded, and one missing.
Col. Baker died on the field of battle. With nearly his last breath he declared: ".....let us do all we can and die bravely."
The Union wounded include Lt. Col. Paul J. Revere, grandson of the Revolutionary War's Paul Revere; Lt. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., son of the poet; and Brig. Gen. Frederick W. Lander, a well-known railroad surveyor in prewar years.
The defeat, while on a much smaller scale, is the most irritating turn of events to the North since the rout at Manassas.
In particular, the death of Col. Baker has angered many congressmen. The defeat is being compared with the rout of the federals at Bull Run. The setback Monday, being in such proximity to Washington, is also prompting talk of an official investigation into the disaster.
From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, November 24,
UNION BATTERS FLORIDA FORT Pensacola, Fla.---Union and
In the largest engagement here to date, an observer estimated
The guns of the Union's Ft. Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, are
The Union gunners used 50,000 pounds of powder and kept three
In addition to damaging Ft. McRae heavily, the Union battered
The town of Warrington, near Pensacola, was about two thirds
Casualties on both sides are light. The Union lost one private
Three times fires were started in Ft. McRae, but the powder
Gov. John Milton complained to Richmond about the arms
Gov. Milton added this acid comment: "It would have been
If not promptly aided by men munitions and trained officers,
POSTAL AFFAIRS: GOOD AND BAD Stamps are in the news this week.
Statistics for the Union post office department show that for
Postal matters in the Confederacy, however are glum.
The Atlanta Intelligencer complained Thursday: "What is the
The reason may lie in the fact that virtually all the stamps
NEW YORK---A fleet of old Union ships loaded with stone and
MOBILE---The Confederate gunboat Tuscarorao was burned to the
MISSISSIPPI---The Vicksburg Sun says it has been informed that
From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Sunday, Dec. 8, 1861
Pensacola, Fla.---Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg reports he has
Yesterday, Gen R. E. Lee ordered medical officers in Florida to
Gov. John Milton on Friday signed a bill changing the name if
Milledgeville, Ga.---Over the objection of Gov. Joseph E.
With a Federal force already landed at Tybee Island, near the
Ostensibly, the aim of the measure is to rid the state of the
So pronounced is the breach between the governor and the
Indeed Gov. Brown thundered his protest to the House Thursday,
"I will be responsible for none of the consequences," warned
He questioned whether the state troops could be transferred to
If the state units are disbanded, Gov. Brown warned in a
The governor was denounced on the floor of the House for what
On Tybee Island, meanwhile, the U.S. Marines landed last week,
NEW POLITICAL UNIT IS DESIGNATED AS "WESTERN VIRGINIA"
It has not yet been admitted to the Union.
Western Virginia--as a political entity--has been seeking to
Union Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, commander of the Department of
From the Atlanta Journal-Constitution
C. S. A. IS PULLING TROOPS FROM FLORIDA TO AIDE TENNESSEE FORCES
Tallahassee, Fla.---Because of Confederate defeats in Tennessee, Florida will be stripped of some troops to bolster Gen. A. S. Johnston south of Nashville. Confederate War Secretary Benjamin has informed Gen. Robert E. Lee, commander of the coastal areas of Georgia, South Carolina and east Florida, that troops must be withdrawn into more defensible limits. Benjamin said the Memphis-Richmond railroad must be held at any price and that the only troops to be retained in east Florida would be for the defense of the Apalachicola River. Troops are also being diverted from Gen. Braxton Bragg's command at Pensacola. The decision lays bare an area of east Florida which is expected to be under attack soon. The Union's navy and army campaign against Fernandina, Fla.---near the Georgia-Florida line---is ready to move. COL.
FORREST IS TRYING TO SAVE SUPPLIES
Nashville, Tenn.---Confederate Lt. Col. Nathan B. Forrest's cavalry, having stopped looting by dint of sabers and gun butts brought down upon the heads of plunderers, strove to get the huge mountain of Confederate supplies out of this city yesterday. All available railroad rolling stock and every wagon that could be impressed was being loaded with ammunition, clothing, food and other supplies. Forrest, who early last Sunday succeeded in sneaking his men out of Ft. Donelson before it surrendered reached Nashville on Tuesday and was given command of the city by Gen. John B. Floyd, who fled the fort by boat. Forest found a civilian mob plundering both government and private property. No officials remained in the city to stop them. He stationed men about the public commissary and ordered he mob to disperse. When it did not, he rode with his men into the crowd.
NEW ORLEANS NEARLY SET. UNION PREPARATIONS TO ASSAULT.
Ship Island, Gulf of Mexico---Capt. David Glasgow Farragut, commander of the armada which is to attempt the capture of New Orleans, arrived here Thursday and immediately commenced preparations for the assault. Yesterday he ordered a survey team to go to the mouth of the Mississippi River, take soundings in the passes and mark the safest channels for his ships with buoys. He ordered also the U. S. S. Brooklyn to seize the telegraph station at Head of the Passes and cut the telegraph wire to New Orleans. In New Orleans, meanwhile, foreign nationals who had protested the prospect of being compelled to serve in the militia outside the city were told by Gov. A. B. Moore that he does not expect to order men from the city for defensive duty. Upriver from the city, Georgia brothers Asa and Nelson Tift are concerned because an engine shaft for their huge ironclad, the Mississippi has not arrived from Richmond, where it is being fabricated. Hoping to hurry things along, they wrote Navy Secretary Stephen R. Mallory yesterday: "It is unfortunate we have not the shaft, as we could put it on one of the engines at once."
UNION PREPARING TO BOMB FT. PULASKI
Lee Wants To Destroy "Indefensible" Brunswick. Tybee Island, Ga.---Spurred on by Gen. George B. McClellan, the Union army chief, preparations were begun this week for the bombardment of Ft. Pulaski. Capt. Quincey A. Gillmore, chief engineer for the Union expeditionary force operating from Hilton Head Island, S.C. was sent to Tybee Island, opposite Ft. Pulaski, Wednesday to take command. Heavy guns for the bombardment began to arrive at Tybee, Friday. The Cleveland, Ohio, Plain Dealer erroneously reported that Savannah was already "probably captured." Gilmore believes he can reduce the fort with rifled cannon, though many military men believe no cannon can bring down the thick walls of a masonry fort such as Pulaski. Meanwhile, the fort was cut off from communication with Savannah, up the Savannah River. This was accomplished by the removal of obstructions in the many island channels. These hitherto had kept Union vessels from getting between the fort (on Cockspur Island at the river's mouth) and the mainland. While this went on, Gen. Robert E. Lee, Confederate commander in this area, had batteries on St. Simon's Island and Jekyll Island removed and proposed to burn the town of Brunswick, down the coast from Savannah. Gen. Lee wrote Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper on Tuesday that Brunswick is indefensible and that, moreover, the enemy would be much benefited if he could use it's many comfortable buildings. The town is predominantly a summer resort, he said, and is at this time mostly uninhabited. The men and guns from St. Simon's and Jekyl Islands are being sent to Savannah. To Gen. Roswell S. Ripley, the commander at Charleston, S.C., Lee wrote Wednesday to ask if exposed and isolated points around Charleston could be abandoned so the lines of defense could be contracted.
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