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The General Militia

The general militia districts lay at the very bottom of the state militia system. Crawford County had eleven such companies. Insofar as they are known these eleven companies were commanded as follows:

494th (Beasley’s) Company:


Pascal, Isaiah


comm. Captain


July 17, 1823



Mann, Young


comm. Captain


August 10, 1825



Clark, Thomas S.


comm. Captain


June 14, 1827


Shelton, William


comm. Captain


July 3, 1827


Newby, Jesse


comm. Captain


April 28, 1828


Smith, John


comm. Captain


January 18, 1831


Turner, John


comm. Captain


April 8, 1831


Bailey, Urbin C.


comm. Captain


October 10, 1832


Ivey, Wilkinson


comm. Captain


June 12, 1833


McAfee, John


comm. Captain


February 11, 1836


Buis, Elbert


comm. Captain


August 22, 1836


Vinson, Wiley


comm. Captain


September 19, 1836


497th (Sandy Point) Company


Allen, John


comm. Captain


September 2, 1822


Rhodes, Birain(sic) B.


comm. Captain


January 7, 1825


Riddle, Charles E.


comm. Captain


October 22, 1828


Sawyer, Mastic


comm. Captain


March 6, 1830


Morris, James


comm. Captain


February 3, 1831


Boon, William


comm. Captain


November 2, 1832


Swart (sic), David


comm. Captain


Janaury 8, 1834


Hortman, J.G.


comm. Captain


June 3, 1839


521st. (Hammock's) Company


Wilson, Redding


comm. Captain


March 31, 1825


Verrel, William


comm. Captain


June 25, 1825


Simmons, Henry


comm. Captain


November 11, 1825


Morgan, Kinchin


comm. Captain


February 22, 1827


Hammock, Talbot D.


comm. Captain


November 22, 1828


Ogburn, Littleberry


comm. Captain


August 26, 1830


Simmons, Henry


comm. Captain


February 7, 1831


Gilpin, Thomas


comm. Captain


July 12, 1836


Stewart, Charles


comm. Captain


March 22, 1837


Davis, Robert F.


comm. Captain


March 29, 1837


Dreher, Amos


comm. Captain


March 24, 1846


522nd Company (later abolished)


Webb, Wiley


comm. Captain


July 17, 1823


Hamilton, James B.


comm. Captain


January 1, 1824


529th (Tabor's) Company


Green, Peter B.


comm. Captain


March 4, 1824


Simmons, Moses


comm. Captain


May 15, 1826


Warren, Sladder (sic)


comm. Captain


August 9, 1827


Slappy, Reubin H.


comm. Captain


January 12, 1829


Slappey, A.G.


comm. Captain


March 22, 1836


532nd (Roger's) Company


Thames, Thomas


comm. Captain


March 24, 1830


Herring, William


comm. Captain


January 1, 1834


White, James L.


comm. Captain


December 13, 1836


Rogers, Samuel


comm. Captain


September 21, 1846 recomm. August 11, 1848


573rd (Knoxville) Company


Ellis, Martin


comm. Captain


February 24, 1825


Lovett, Ephraim


comm. Captain


February 20, 1826


Moore, John O.


comm. Captain


March 6, 1827


Marshall, Chesley B.


comm. Captain


August 26, 1830


Whitaker, Wiggins W.


comm. Captain


August 10, 1831


Pinkston, Evans W.


comm. Captain


March 22, 1834


Piles, William


comm. Captain


December 2, 1836


Prosser, James A.


comm. Captain


January 1, 1831


577th (Sowell's) Company


Tiller, Bagwell B.


comm. Captain


May 27, 1825


Potter, John


comm. Captain


March 13, 1827


Bazemore, Blunt


comm. Captain


October 7, 1829


Monk, John H.


comm. Captain


June 20, 1831


593rd Company (later abolished)


594th Company (later abolished)


Kendrick, Drury


comm. Captain


November 9, 1825


Kelly, Thomas


comm. Captain


November 11, 1825


630th (Webb's) Company

(company organized about August of 1826, but earliest commissions not found)


Rowe, Matthew


comm. Captain


July 31, 1829


The Georgia Land Lottery of 1827 named the following General Militia Districts for Crawford County
 (note the duplications)

Captain Duke's Company

Captain Martin Ellis' Company (573rd Company)

Captain James B. Hamilton's Company (522nd Company)

Captain Hicks' Company

Captain Ephraim Lovett's Company (573rd Company)

Captain John O. Moore's Company (573rd Company)

Captain Ray's Company

Captain Birain B. Rhode's Company (497th Company)

Captain Bagwell B. Tiller's Company (577th Company)

Captain William's Company

Captain Redding Wilson's Company (521st Company)




The general militia companies in ante-bellum Crawford County were formed into two battalions: the 113th and 124th. On November 11, 1823 the governor commissioned John Walpole Major commanding the 113th Battalion, the first formed of Crawford County militia companies. Successive commanders of this battalion were Major James E. Slatter (comm. January 7, 1825), Major Andrew J. Preston (comm. January 2, 1833), Mojor Martin J. Sawyer (comm. April 3, 1833), Major Willis B. Scott (comm. November 19, 1834), Major James B. Hamilton (comm. November 7, 1836), Major James H. McGarrity (comm. November 10, 1837, recomm. February 3, 1838), and James P. Miller (comm. May 26, 1849).The governor commissioned Redding Wilson Major commanding the 124th Battalion, the second of Crawford County's battalions. Successive commanders of this battalion were Major Willis Boon (comm. August 8, 1827), Major T. B. Wilson (comm. May 24, 1830), Major Littleberry Ogburn (comm. October 25, 1830), Major Benjamin Smisson (comm. September 25, 1833), Major Henry J. Morgan (comm. March 8, 1834), Major Wiley Vinson (comm. April 19, 1837) Major Asa Jolly (comm. February 11, 1839), Major William G. Prater (comm. January 20, 1840), and Major William W. Trippe (comm. August 13, 1845).



Henry Mimms was commissioned colonel commanding the 52nd Regiment (Crawford County) on April 12, 1824, the first regimental commander of Crawford County. David B. Bush was commissioned colonel of the regiment on April 7, 1825; John O. Moore became colonel on March 9, 1830; Littleberry Ogburn became colonel on July 31, 1833; Mancel W. Hammock, a planter, became colonel on June 14, 1836; and Gilbin J. Green, a Knoxville lawyer, became colonel on February 19, 1845. Green represented Crawford County in the Georgia House of Representatives the same year he became regimental commander. Colonel Green moved to Griffin, Spalding County, about 1855, serving as judge of the Flint Judicial Circuit, 1856-1857. He died at his residence in Griffin on April 12, 1862. Colonel Green was followed as commander of the 52nd Regiment by John W. Oslin, commissioned colonel on May 17, 1851. Colonel Oslin was followed by Thomas Raines, commissioned colonel on April 30, 1861.



The regiments of Bibb (50th), Crawford (52nd), Houston (55th and 94th), and Dooly (92nd) Counties were originally brigaded as the 3rd Brigade of the 6th Division, commanded from 1826 by Brigadier General William Wellborn. From December 22, 1827, however, this brigade was redesignated as the 1st Brigade of the 8th Division, G.M. The commanders of this bridge were: Brigadier General William Wellborn (removed in 1831); Brigadier General Robert Augustus Beall (commissioned in 1832), Brigadier General Joseph Bennett (commissioned in 1836), (House resolution to hold election to replace Brigadier General R. A. Beall November 15, 1836) Brigadier General William G. Smith (commissioned in 1841), Brigadier General John G. Coleman (serving by 1850, removed in 1860), and Brigadier General George Russell Hunter (commissioned in 1861).



The Georgia Legislature created the 8th Division by an act assented to on December 4, 1827. It was originally organized by redesignating the 3rd Brigade of the 5th Division (Monroe, Upton and Butts Counties) and the 3rd Brigade of the 6th Division (Crawford, Bibb, Houston, and Dooly Counties) as follows:

1st. Brigade: Crawford, Bibb, Dooly, and Houston Counties

2nd Brigade: Butts, Monroe, and Upson Counties

By 1851 the 8th Division was organized as follows:

1st Brigade: Bibb, Crawford, Dooly and Houston Counties

2nd Brigade: Monroe, Pike and Upson Counties


The commanders of the 8th Division were: Major General Elias Beall (comm. 1827, removed from the district in 1835), Major General Lewis Lawrence Griffin (comm. 1835, removed from the district in 1842), Major General Egbert P. Daniel (comm. 1842, removed from the district in 1849), and Major General James W. Armstrong (comm. 1849, still serving as such in 1861).



On May 15, 1826 the governor commissioned the officers for the Knoxville Independent Blues, attached directly to the 5nd. Regiment. The captain was George S. Kennedy. (Sheriff of Crawford Co., GA1826-27) The other officers commissioned at the same time were 1st. Lieutenant Elijah M. Amos, (He served as sheriff of Crawford County, GA. In 1823. He was clerk of superior court from 1830-36) 2nd. Lieutenant Coleman M. Roberts, (He served as clerk of Superior court of Crawford Co., GA in 1826) and Ensign Jeremiah C. Harvey. The Knoxville Independent Blues organized as Crawford County’s first volunteer company. The unit did not exist very long, as no later commissions are known to have been issued to officers of this corps.



The governor commissioned the following officers for the Crawford Calvary, attached to the 52nd Regiment, on February 15, 1832;
Captain John Sealey,
1st. Lieutenant Sylvanus Prince,
2nd. Lieutenant Charles Hill, and Cornet Westley Sealey.
Benjamin Beeland became first lieutenant on December 5, 1832, and
Seaborn J. Sanders became second lieutenant on April 24,1835.

The governor commissioned Robert Parham captain of the Crawford Calvary and Richardson Feagin First Lieutenant on November 17, 1835.
Absalom C. Cleveland was commissioned cornet of the troop on March 10, 1836.

The last officers were those who led the Crawford Calvary into the fight at Boykin’s Ferry.




The Creek War during the War of 1812 is well known. Much has been written on the subject, and it is taught in schools. Fort Mims and Horseshoe Bend are preserved as parks. In contrast, the Creek War with the final removal in 1836 has never received much note or publication. Shepherds Plantation and Roanoke, Georgia are names few will recognize, and can only be found by looking for a few forgotten roadside markers. Sources have been found in various county history and genealogy books, national archive material, or buried in the volumes of American State Papers on Military Affairs. In Georgia and Alabama in the early half of the 19th century, settlers moved onto the Creek land in violation of previous treaties. In the early 1830's, the federal government tried to removed the settlers in Alabama, but violence erupted. Governor Clay of Alabama  claimed all the Creek land as part of the state, and said that the settlers should be free to move in. He said that the federal government and President Jackson were violating State’s Rights by negotiating with the Indians and establishing a Creek Reservation on the land the state claimed. The federal government and President Jackson said that they had the sole right to negotiate and deal with the Indians. Settlers on Indian land refused to move, while crooked land deals stole individual land allotments from the unsuspecting Indian owners. By 1835 the once powerful Creek Confederacy had lost all its land through various treaties and crooked land deals. The dispossessed Creeks who stayed were of many different categories. Some were almost totally assimilated to the white America culture. They worked simple labor jobs, remained quiet, were a threat to no one, but were liked or trusted by no one. Other Creeks had supported the United States, but had everything taken away from them despite their friendship. Other Red Stick Creeks had tried to maintain their traditional culture way of life, but lost everything because of treaties they never signed and never agreed upon. Chiefs like MacIntosh had signed away the land and property of people he did not control and people who never had say in the matter. Now all the Creeks had lost their homes, their crops and food stores, and even clothes on their back. At the same time, settlers were moving onto the former Creek land and becoming prosperous.



1836 January 26

“Battle of Hitchity”near Bryants Ferry on the Chattahoochee River, in Stewart County, Georgia. A company of local militia fires upon 40 Creek warriors crossing the river. The Creeks defend their position on a bluff and drive off  the militia. 


1836 February 4, Thursday


Extracted from a letter received in this city, dated:

 “Colombus, 27th Jan. 1836"

Since I wrote you on the 26th, about the Indian affairs, we have had some considerable excitement. Yesterday evening, a party of Indians supposed to be about 50 in number, made and attack upon some white men 8 miles below here in a cotton patch; they fired and killed two whites. The whites also fired, but to no effect. Young John Watson was among the party, but escaped with only getting his coat shot off him. Out town was on guard all night, for it was anticipated it would be burned. 100 men took a steam boat last night and went down to where the two whites were lying dead. This morning both were brought up to town, and of all sights, it was the most shocked I ever saw. One of them had his head cut close off to this shoulders, and was otherwise horribly mangled; the other was not so badly abused. I expect we shall have a big show here before long. N.B. 4 men shot, only 2 killed.


1836 May

Tensions between the Creek Indians and white settlers flared up into war. It was no secret that the Seminoles to the south were fighting. The rumor was that the Seminoles had defeated the United States in Florida. (The U.S. had no substantial victory against the Seminoles until 1837.) Creek warriors crossed the Chattahoochee River from Alabama and attacked the town of Roanoke, Georgia. The citizens of Georgia were caught unprepared. Thousands of citizens from the countryside fled to the larger cities of Lumpkin or Columbus, Georgia. Many people were very fearful of what would happen, because un southwest Georgia, whites and Indians lived side by side. It was feared that the war of the Creeks would be worse than with the Seminoles in Florida. (Which, of course, turned out to be the opposite.) Georgia Governor William Schley allowed local counties to muster militia forces. The only problem was that the state had not prepared to fight a war. Money budgeted to purchase muskets the year before had not been spent. It was no problem finding volunteers for the militia, but many arrived for duty without arms. A call for help was sent to the federal government to send troops, but with the Seminole War in full swing down in Florida, Georgia would pretty much have to fight this one by itself. Most of the battles involved the Georgia Militia. Alabama troops refused to leave their state, and General Scott with the federal troops provided little help.


1836 May 15 Town of Roanoke Destroyed


The town of Roanoke awoke to an attack by Creek War Leader Jim Henry and 200 to 300 Creek warriors. The town was taken by complete surprise, and the Georgia Militia could not set up a defense fast enough to save the town. The Indians burned plantations, carried off Negro slaves, and destroyed livestock. Over 100 of the town’s residents were forced to flee. Fifteen residents were killed including four who were burned to death when the hotel was torched. Captain Horne of the militia was wounded, but was saved by a man who dragged him down into a ravine to hide until the Indians had left. Finally a militia force arrived to drive off Jim Henry. The destructive work of the Creeks continued. The hostiles attacked steamers on the Chattahoochee River, sinking one, and killing and wounding the crew and passengers on another. Soon 2400 refugees flooded into Columbus.


1836 May 17 - Tuesday


From THE COLUMBUS SENTINEL, Friday, May 13, 1836


Since Saturday last (May 7), our city has been in a state of unusual excitement, owing to the open hostility which was then first developed on the part of the Lower Creeks. On that day we received certain intelligence that the Ucheese and Hitchitees had broke out in open war, and that they had already sacrificed their first victim in the person of Major William R. Flournoy, formerly of Putnam County in this State. He was on his way from his plantation to Fort Mitchell, and was brutally murdered and scalped while passing from the one place to the other. His body was brought to Colombus on Saturday, and interred in the burial ground. A Mr. Hobbs,  an overseer of a plantation among the hostile savages, was the next victim. He was most barbarously murdered by being shot through the cracks of the house in which he was living. He had laid down for the night with another person, and was killed in bed. The person with him made his escape by raising one of the planks in the floor and getting under the house, where he remained until the Indians entered, and then made off into the woods. In the morning returning to the house, procured his clothes, took the corpse of the deceased, put it into a wagon and brought it in to this place. This death occurred on Saturday night (May 7). On Monday (May 9) we received the further information that hostilities had commenced on the road between Colombus and Montgomery, at Uchee Bridge and further on, and in the evening the bridge at this place and the streets leading from it where thronged with the unfortunate refugees, who were fleeing before their savage neighbors. The pitiable condition of many of them was past the power of description. Wives severed from their husbands, parents from their children, all dismayed, all terror stricken, presented a scene which we never again desire to witness. An interesting looking girl, just blooming into womanhood, was brought in on horseback behind a benevolent stranger, who had found her in the Nation, making her way, unattended, to this place. She started in company with her parents, but before they had proceeded far, they were brutally shot before her eyes. She fled to the woods and escaped from her savage pursuers and was found and brought to Colombus as above stated. A young man arrived at this place, also witnessed the savage murder of his parents. Another young man in the act of fleeing, perceived the Indians dragging away his sister. He returned, declaring that he would rescue her or die in the attempt, disappeared, and has not since been heard of. From this time their deeds of savage barbarity have been too numerous to particularize. A woman was brought in on Tuesday, wounded in the hand, whose husband had been shot dead the preceding evening at the Uchee Bridge. Col. A. B. Dawson’s negroes, who were taken by the Indians, but made their escape, state that they saw three corpses in the road near the Uchee Bridge, a man, a woman and a child, who had all been murdered. We learn that about one hundred and fifty friendly Indians have reported themselves at Fort Mitchell, and are ready to assist the whites.





These misguided Indians have at length commenced the work of death, which had so long been apprehended by our settlers in the counties of Alabama. A large body of them, variously estimated from 500 to 1500 warriors, have congregated about 25 miles South East from this city, and are scouring the country in all directions from their hiding place, or head quarters, indiscriminately butchering our neighbors, men, women and children – plundering their houses, destroying their stock, and laying waste their farms. On Monday last, this city presented a scene of confusion and distress, such as we never before witnessed. Our streets were crowded with wagons, carts, horses and footmen, flying for safety from rifle and tomahawk of the Indians – many of them having left behind their all of earthly possessions – and some their protectors and friends, husbands, wives and children, who had fallen before the murderous savage. We are unable to ascertain with any certainty, the names or the number of those who have been murdered by these lawless savages – William Flournoy, Hammond, McKissar, wife and overseer, Davis, Hobbs, several negroes, and in all probability, many others, (we fear Dr. Welborn among them) have been killed, and the Indians are yet pursuing their bloody work. Where it will end, Heaven knows. Every man (except Gov. Clay) must now see the necessity of prompt and vigilant measures with these deluded men. What can be done? The new settlements of Alabama are completely in their hands – and unless efficient measures are immediately adopted, we may not hope that our own frontiers will escape their depredations. It is altogether probable that the surrounding settlements of Georgia and Alabama will experience a greater loss of life and property than has been known for many years from an Indian War. It is supposed that the Creek might raise a force of 500 hostile warriors – and nothing can prevent a regular organization of this large force, but prompt and systematic measures on the part of Georgia and Alabama. If the Executive chair of our sister State was filled by a man possessing an ounce of common sense, a single drachm of energy and decision, we should expect a speed termination of hostilities. As it is, however, we have no hope of subduing the disturbers, except by a prompt and efficient organization of volunteer corps. We hope this step will be taken at once, both by Alabamians and Georgians – and that they will not wait for the authority of General Jackson or Gov. Clay, to repel and punish their enemies. We understand that the officers of this brigade are taking the proper steps for placing the frontier in a state of defense. Our city volunteer companies, the Guards and Blues, are on drill everyday, and on guard every night: the city is under strict military law – and we believe that every necessary precaution is in exercise to render our town secure. This, however, is only a small part of the frontier, and every man feels the importance of securing the whole. Will our governor do his duty? We believe that the time has come when no compromise will answer the ends of justice and humanity. Let the friendly Indians, if any such there are, be assembled inside the walls of a strong fort, and receive all due protection. But it will not answer the purpose to trust them at large. If they are friendly, it becomes them at once to separate from the hostile party and take close quarters. And let an uncompromising war be waged against all who delay or refuse to com in; there is no time now to inquire who are friendly and who are hostile. We understand runners have been sent to all who are peaceable; if they refuse to come in they must be the sufferers. We hope the matter will be soon settler. It is better to endure the fatigue of a long campaign, and to suffer the lost of a few men, than to be longer harassed by a tribe who obtain our confidence but abuse it, and who wear the smiles of friendship only to secure the chance of scapling those whom they profess attachment.



Previous in our last publication all the settlers below the Federal road, had come in. Since that time the Indians have destroyed a family. (Mr. Davis, consisting of seven person) a few miles above the Federal road, and many of the settlers in that neighborhood have fled to town, and many of the settlers in that neighborhood have fled to town. The plantations below Fort Mitchell have been sacked, and a few negroes are missing. Several of the buildings on these plantations were burned to the ground on Tuesday and Wednesday nights. The bridges also on Big Uchee and Little Uchee, have also been burned. The furniture of all the deserted houses which have been visited is destroyed, and cattle killed. A scouting party of fifty men went out yesterday, but returned without finding Indians, except a small party of friendly Indians, who were coming in for protection. Last night it was expected that the plantations in Broken Arrow Bend, from 3 to 7 miles below this would be burned. A party of 40 whites and 15 friendly Indians repaired to the place, to defend the plantations. They returned this morning. The Indians did not show themselves. This morning a latter was received from Marshall’s settlement 15 miles above this, containing information that the neighbors had yesterday embodied themselves, (30 in number) they had a small brush with about 50 Indians, killed one and wounded several others. So that it is certain that they are hostile above the Federal road also. From all we can learn, the Hitchetees, Uchees, and Tallassees, are all hostile. This is the opinion of Neo Micco, the head Chief.


1836 May 19-Thursday,



We receive the most alarming intelligence from the West! The Creek Indians have risen, and are murdering all within their reach! Men, women and children are indiscriminately butchered and scalped! The white settlers in the Creek Nation are leaving their homes and their property, and flying for their lives. It is said 37 have been massacred. The mail stage from Colombus west, after going 10 or 15 miles, and finding the road filled with women and children, some barefoot, others with nothing on but their night clothes, flying from the Indians, the passengers became alarmed, and the stage turned back. The Chiefs we understand profess friendship, but state they cannot restrain their people. It is said many discontented Cherokees have joined them.


COLUMBUS HERALD, Tuesday evening


It becomes our painful duty to announce the death by violence of Major William B. Flounoy, formerly of Putnam, Co., Ga. He was on his way to Fort Mitchell, to complain of Indian depredations, and was brutally murdered and scalped by some of the Creeks, a few miles below that place. A Mr. Hobbs has also been murdered while asleep by the same treacherous foe. A young man who was lying in bed with Mr. Hobbs, made his escape by immediately raising a plank of the floor and creeping under the house. More than a hundred individuals, including negroes and whites, have fled to Georgia for safety; others are coming in. The settlers have nearly all come in – several were murdered on the road yesterday.



For The Macon Georgia Telegraph

Mr. Editor - Please publish the enclosed letter, and oblige Yours T.

Cullumbus May 14 1836


Dear Kuzen – We is all on us in most awful fix out here the inguns is shuten the white folks to kill – You noes as wellas I does the people hear never done nothen to none of the inguns, but has always treeted em better than they treeted theirselves. Manny is the white peeple in alabam that those inguns has kilt, and one man has inform me that they has shot 2 steambots and ilt all the passingers. All os us is afeard they will burn up this hear town ef we doesn’t git help sune. everybody is so frightened that they don’t feel safe, them people is Jerard in perticuler. All them ne which owns town property here and clames the inguns land is fighten night and day with all their mite. None ov em has run away. some has bizness to the New York, and some is gone thear to sea Bascum and agile both together. we keeps out a strong gard ever night to giv the alarm ef the inguns cum, so we kin all have a fare start on save ourselfs in time. Some ov the land byers talk wrothy an they say they meen to make the inguns smell ginger and you noes as well as me they don’t stop at nothers they take a notion to do. See all our folks huzen Josh and all, and tell em to cum an help us fite _Jineral Jacksen is the eleen things and has plenty money to pay all as sint kilt. the peeple here promises to treet all the seegers jist as well as the Florida peeple did, and then nobody will have no casion to grumble any more than they did what went a sogering down there.       joel Hawley

Govs clay wont do no fires at all, but we hope our jorgy governor will stand up to his fodder this life ef he don’t it’s a gone goos with cullumbus.        j Hawley

I is jist heerd that the way the inguns is using up the stages and the peoeple in em is a catuion.


From the Republican Herald Extra

Columbus, Monday Noon May 16



In the Creek Nation, at this moment, the scenes of Florida are being acted over. The wild savage, frenzied by the smell of blood in his nostrils, is prowling the wilderness, skulking around plantations, leveling the deadly rifle at the breast of the white man, scalping the unoffending wife and mother, and beheading the innocent and unsuspecting babe! We have heard of some cases which made the blood chill in our veins: a house, in which lived a man, his wife and six children, was suddenly surrounded by a savage band, who entered the peaceful domicile, inhumanly massacred every soul, securing the scalps of all, and severing each child’s head from its body! The house of a Mr. Colton was attacked, and himself butchered without a moment’s warning, or the least opportunity for risistance. We believe, in all, from forty to fifty murders have been committed, besides numbers of negroes on plantations. Fires have been kindled in every direction; farm houses, cotton gins, out-houses, corn cribs, and all of value, swept away from the honest and industrious Planter, who was laudably striving to locate himself comfortably for life, and provide for his children. The hostile Indians have been found as low down the river as Irwinton, and as high up as the Federal Road, or about thirty miles above that point. The following towns and tribes of Indians, are without doubt, hostile: a part of the Uchees, the Hitchaties, the Pah-lo-cho-ko-los, the So-wok-ko-los, and a part of the Ufallays. Neah Matulee, Chief of the Hitchaties, etc. is full of ill-feeling towards white people, and determined on revenge. Old Neah-Micco, the head of the Creek Nation, must be considered as hostile, having been sent for several times, to come in and hold a friendly talk - and as often refusing to comply with the request. Col. Crowell has been acquainted with this old Chief for a series of years, and they have been on terms of strict friendship. Neah-Muthlee refused to come in to Col. Crowell, and sent him word that “the young men of his nation were bent on war.” The Indians have acted with a great deal of boldness thus far in this war. Notwithstanding Fort Mitchell is well defended, and picketed in the most secure and substantial manner, yet one night last week, the hostile for approached within thirty to fifty yards of the pickets, entered the hospital and carried off whatever they pleased. It was not deemed the prudent, of course, for the officers or soldiers to leave the fortification. Many friendly Indians have fled for safety to Fort Mitchell, and the pickets are now full to overflowing. On Saturday night, the mail from Montgomery to this place, was attacked about 20 miles distant from here; a driver on that route was riding along the road on horseback, about 50 yards ahead of the stage, when he was fired upon by, as he supposed, about 30 Indians (and from what he could discover, he thought there must have been at least 100 in the gang) who, wonderful to relate, all missed their mark! His horse taking fright, threw him, and he thereby made his escape to the swamp. Soon after he heard firing behind, and when he reached the next stage stand, the horses had arrived there without the stage, having about them some remains of the harness. Mr. Adams an agent who was in the stage made his escape; the stage upset, which enabled him to leap into the bushes and thereby save his life. A driver who was on the box (Mr. Green) and Mr. Russell, who was inside, it is supposed were killed, There were nineteen horse in company belonging to the stage line, out of which three have been recovered, and they were pierced with several bullets. Not content with their foul deeds on “terra firma”, the savages have approached to the brink of the Chatahoochee, and made their death marks on board of our steam-boats. The Hyperion, Capt. Smyth, while ascending our river on yesterday, was fired upon by the Indians, some 15 to 20 in number, who had stationed themselves on the plantation of the Messrs Abercrombies; about eight miles below this place. Eight rifles were discharged in quick succession, and at first fire, Mr. Broekway, the first pilot on the Hyperion, who was standing on the boiler deck, fell dead, being shot in the throat, one of the pilots. Mr. Smith, was badly wounded, and four other individuals whose names we have not learned. The boat was run ashore, and the passengers fled from her in terror and dismay. The old Georgian, whilst lying at Roanoke, was set on fire by the Indians and burned; not a soul on board escaped, except the engineer. The town of Roanoke was at the same time fired and burned to ashes. The citizens were to _____ in, and we believe no lives were lost. P.S. We are informed that a contest is going on between Col. Spivy’s company of mounted Volunteers, and a party of Indians on the Alabama side of the Chattahoochee. A sharp firing has been heard withing the last hour, and no doubt a severe battle is now being fought. An express was sent to Talbot country, this morning by Maj. Howard, ordering a Regiment from that county. Also, a Battalion from Harris county - should these troops come they will afford us great assistance.





From several persons who were at the burning and massacre of Roanoke, we have learnt some additional particulars. Roanoke was a small village lying on the Chattahoochee, in Stewart county, some 40 miles below Columbus. The first attack was made on Friday night 13th. inst. By some 30 Indians, as is supposed, who fired upon the steamer Georgian and killed all on board. They attacked the village, but were driven off by the whites who rallied the spot. The second attack was made on Sunday morning, 16th. inst. Just before day by some 300 Indians. A block house we understand had been erected and picketed in. The accounts do not agree as to the number of person there - some say there were 70 or 80 in all - we believe there were 20 to 25 men, besides women, children and negros.  It seems they were not anticipating an attack, most of them being asleep in their own houses. The first that alarmed them, was the firing of rifles and the yelling of the savages.  The men sprung to their arms, and returned the Indians fire - but seeing their number so large, immediately retreated, breaking their way through their mist. Nine whites and three blacks were killed at the first fire, and 8 or 9 wounded. It is not known what injury the Indians received. One man says he saw four fall. It was reported at first, that Col. F.G. Gibson and Capt. U. Horn were among the killed - we are happy in being able to contradict the report. They were both wounded, the latter severely. Mr. Anderson Williams (brother in law of Col. Gibson) was among the slain. The Indians carried a good many negroes and horses away with them. A confidential letter from Col. G. Written from Lumpkin the day after, this describes the attack upon Roanoke, and his miraculous escape. “No apprehension was felt of an attack, the men had nearly all gone out to Limpkin, not more than 20 men were in camp, which was near the warehouse. I was sleeping in my own room, Gasaway (Williams) was up stairs alone - just before day break I was awakened by the firing of the Indians - at that moment three fired through the window at my bed - I sprang out of bed, and on looking round could distinguish them at each window - I ran into the dining room where I found every window occupied by two to three, and whenever I passed they fired on me, I determined to sell my life as dearly as possible, feeling confident my last hour had come - caught up my gun, hollered to Gazaway to make his escape - burst open the door going into the passage, when a volley was discharged at my breast- closed it and rain to the other door, determined to hazard all in endeavoring to join the men at camp-on opening it two fired, and a number approached-I fired, shut the door, caught up another gun, opened and ran out of the door-from the door to the fence I passed through the midst of 20 to 30, all shooting as fast as they could fire, some lying down-I ran so near their powder burnt my clothes-met a number at the fence-got through all untouched, except a blow given with a gun or something else, which nearly arrested me. I then, finding the men flying in all direction, reached and found a thick place of bushes growing over the branch laid-down in the water below the spring, the Indians passing within a few paces, constantly, expecting every moment to be butchered. Shortly afterwards, Talbot, Capt. Horn, (who was wounded) and another gentlemen, pursued by several Indians, came to my retreat. I then gave us again all earthly hope of escape, and told them I had determined to run down and jump into the river. The insisted on my staying and all dying together, As our maker would have, the savages at that time, commenced burning houses to which their attention was chiefly drawn, and we lay until 12 o’clock, suffering all that men could suffer in the cold water from the spring. On coming out was so benumbed with cold and bruised, could not walk up the hill. On reaching the bluff, discovered to our great joy a party of soldiers had come to our relief and that the Indians had fled. We reached Lumpkin about dark. Gazaway seeing the Indians all flock after me, when I left the house, sprang out of the second story window and made his escape, without being fired on. Poor Anderson! He was shot in the head face to face with the savage and expired without a groan. Kershaw was shot in his own home; his wife and child with Mr. Pierce, reminded until the house was in flames and near falling in, when they made their escape. The two Mr. Donalson’s were sleeping in the back room of my house - they fell and were burnt up. One or two in Matthew’s house - making in all 8 whites. Our dwelling and warehouse, Joice’s store, Starke’s store, Rood and Seymour’s, Matthews dwelling and hew house, all burnt. Peter (black boy) fought near Anderson bravely. The Indians made great exertions to kill him.” For several days after the burning of Roanoke, we learn the Indians kept possession of the place. On Sunday morning and expedition moved against it, with the intention of giving battle to the Indians if any were there. On arriving at the spot they found no Indians on the ground. A hard battle was expected, as in two or three previous skirmishes the Indians had remained masters of the field. The people are turning out in the counties surrounding Roanoke, on both sides of the Chattahoochee en masse, determined to defend the soil with their lives.



From the Columbus Enquirer

Columbus, Wednesday, May 18, 1836


This morning Mr. H. Smith’s negroes were attacked by a party of Indians near Columbus, only 4 miles off, where they are said to be collected a considerable number. One negro badly wounded. Capt. Miles’ company from Harris, and quite a number of volunteers from this city (mounted men), with the Columbus Guards under Lieutenant Ware, and the Muscogee Blues, Capt. P.T. Schley, on foot, left at 8 o’clock in pursuit of the Indians. They marched over 15 miles of ground in the vicinity of the neighboring plantations and returned in the afternoon, without having any sight of the enemy, who no doubt discovered them and fled to the swamps. The passengers last in from the stage, inform us that the Indians are dispersed all along the road destroying furniture, feasting upon their spoils, burning up houses, and rejoicing over their victories. From all we can learn, they are thus scattered in small parties through the region, except in settlements 15 to 30 miles below Columbus, where they are combined in much larger companies. They are no doubt thus acting with the hope of eluding pursuit, and it may be that their object is to profess friendship, whenever they find themselves overpowered, and likely to suffer. And we do hope, for the peace and safety of the country, that they may be disappointed in their cunning devices. Whoever may be appointed to command in the campaign should bear in mind these things.


Since our last page was make up we have seen the friendly Indians who were dispatched a day or two since to invite Neahah Micco and his people, who were friendly, to come in. They found a large collection of Indians at the towns 25 miles West of this place. They enquired for Neahah Micco and were told that he had gone in company with Tuskeena to the Tallapoosa towns, to talk with the Chiefs, but that they knew he would not come in, as he was rallying his men to fight. \they saw Efarremathla; the next principal Chief - he avowed himself hostile - said his people had not killed any of the whites, but they had plundered their houses to get provisions, and that as the whites had threatened to kill his people they should all fight. They found a great many friendly Indians in the camps, who had gone there under the belief that Neahah Micco would be friendly - and who were now prevented by the hostiles from returning - two of their number attempted to escape day before yesterday and were shot down. They swear vengeance upon every Indian who joins the whites. The messengers had some talk with the friendly Indians in the camp, and gathered from them the following particulars. That the hostile party was very large and increasing daily - that they had a regular line of spies along the Big Uchee and from its head waters down to Irwinton, 60 miles; that the swamp of this creek and its branches was the place of deposit for their plunder, women and children and was strongly guarded; that they had taken Roanoke, several stages, three steamboats and a little village. [We supposed col. Canty’s plantation.] They boasted much of their conquests and intended to cross the Chatahoochee and take the plantations beyond Columbus. They understood Columbus was well guarded and would not try to take it - but thought the whites would be afraid to leave town to attack them in the neighborhood, round about. On Tuesday night a large party of Chehaws, Hitchetees and Uchees had been sent to burn the bridge at Columbus to keep the whites from getting over - and they enquired of our Indians whether it was burnt. The Uchee Indians at Fort Mitchell, who professed to be friendly with the whites, had done there as spies, and had told them all about the strength and situation of the Fort - and that they intended to take it, and get the guns and ammunition. They said they could learn all they wanted from these Uchees as they were put out at night as guards, and would come and talk to their men. The above is a substance of the information brought us thro the friendly messengers. Gen. Marshall, who knows them well, thinks it may be relied upon as correct. When they had obtained the information, and were about to leave, the hostiles stopped them and said they should not come back, They remained some time at the camp, and finally got away by promising to come home and carry all their people out to join the hostile party.



A force of about 500 effective men, under command of Brig. Gen. Beall, of the 19th division, marched into Chambers and Macon counties, last Sunday(16th). Gen. B. Found a small body of hostile Indians at Liehatoca town, near the Chambers and Macon line - he had a brush with them, killed two or three and captured some 6 or 8 others - among the latter, the Chief and the prophet of the town. Only one man lost on our side. The prisoners are confined in Chambers jail. After scouring the country thoroughly during the time for which the men volunteered Gen. B. Returned to Georgia line. Maj. Gen. S. A. Bailey, of the 10th Division, left the Georgia line on Friday morning, with the force of near 800 effective men - half of them friendly Indians - for the purpose of attacking a large body of  hostiles, who were reported to be assembled in the Chewackla swamp. We learn that Gen. Bailey has so arranged the plan of attacked, that his friendly Indians should drive the swamp, whilst the balance of his forces would skirt it, to prevent the hostiles from escaping. We anxiously await the prediction, that if they are found, Gen. B. will give a good account of the murderous rascals. For the promptness with which Gen. Bailey and Beall have acted in the present crisis, they are entitled to the warmest gratitude of their fellow citizens, especially of those whose lives and property exposed to the tender mercies of the savage bloodhounds. Capt. Wm. Davis, one of the settlers in the upper edge of Russell co. returned from his place on Friday, 21sr. He informs us that as yet his building are standing but that those of Pierce A. Lewis, Esq. And Mr. White, near by, are entirely destroyed. The torch was applied to them last Wednesday. Not a house left standing - even the hen coops were burned to the ground. A negro girl, belonging to H.S. Smith, Esq. Of our town, who was taken, among other negros, by the Indians last Tuesday, got away on Friday morning and came home. She reports that about one hundred of the Chehaws, or Oponney’s Indians are collected in the mile 8 swamp. They have several negroes, and a great quantity of plunder with them, which they have take from the settlers. Since the last Battle at Roanoke, in which contrary to our first accounts, some two or three whites were killed, the Indians are reported to have assembled there in a strong body and fortified themselves with cotton bales in one of the warehouses. Their object, no doubt, it to keep up a strong force at that point on the Georgia side, to received and carry across the river, the property which they design taking from the frontier settlers. Whether we shall be able with our present force, to disappoint them, remains to be tried. Today (Saturday) 300 men from Columbus will try to experiment. A part of them left yesterday by land, the balance this morning in naval order, on steamboat. Their object is to storm the fort from the steamer, and cut off the enemy’s retreat with mounted infantry in the rear. As soon as we hear from them we will let our readers know the result. Last night (Friday) a Mr. Scott, who was confined in the jail at Girard, on suspicion of being accessory to Indian depredations, was cut out and made his escape. It is thought the Indians aided him in cutting out, but no one knows that this is the fact, nor is there any positive evidence that Scott favored the Indians. We learn this morning that a negro man belonging to paddy Carr, a friendly Indian, was shot near this place yesterday evening while driving his master’s team. It is extremely hazardous to get out of sight of town on the Alabama side. The Indians are scattered in every direction, lying in ambush, ready to glut their enmity upon any who fall in their path. A few nights since a man and his wife were killed only one mile from the bridge. The old lady was shot down in her cow pen, while milking. Col. Richardson, at the head of 26 volunteers from Capt. Nichol’s company, (which is stationed on the river, a few miles above Columbus) went out on a scouting expedition yesterday. They did not see the enemy, but found fresh signs in several places and took a pony belonging to the hostiles. They think from what they saw, that the Indians have out their spies in every direction, to secure them against the approach of the whites. General White, with 300 men will leave this place tomorrow (Sunday) at 9 o’clock, for the purpose of attacking the Indians said to be assembled in the 8 mile swamp. Capt. Carnes with 130 men, leaves to-day to scour the Upatoie swamp, on this side the river, where Indians were seen yesterday. -Enquirer




From the Montgomery Ala. Journal May 16th


We give the following statement from the Tallassee, which may be relied upon as correct:


TALLASSEE, May 14, 1836


On the morning of the 11th an Express arrived, informing us that the Maugahatchee, and Lucheeboga Indians were in arms. And committing depredations and murders; two men with teams had been murdered about two miles from Saugahatehee creek, and the Indians were rapidly approaching this place. In a few hours all the families in that vicinity arrived here; we called a meeting of citizens, appointed a committee of vigilance, and sent Expresses in all directions for assistance. On receipt of this intelligence, Hopothio, Yoholo, Tuckabatchee, Sichee Colonels, Mad Blue, chiefs of the Tuchabarehees, Tustenngga-Chopco, chiefs of the Tallasses, and Hatchee-Chubby Tim, repaired to his place and immediately dispatched runners to all the Friendly Indians, to collect their Warriors and meet here. We sent out a party of ten men, to reconnoiter, who returned with the intelligence that the Indians had broken open the houses which had been deserted to withing twelve miles of this place, destroyed all the furniture, killed the stock, and burned some of the buildings. As the scouts come in sight of the houses they saw an Indian come out, mount his horse and flee; they pursued him as far as was prudent and then returned. When they again reached the houses, two sqauws escaped from them, leaving two ponies laden with goods they had taken from the houses. On the morning of the 12th, we removed all the females and children to the lower settlements. The mean, about 80 in number, placed themselves under Capt. Broadnax, of the Tallasse Guards, who proclaimed Marital Law. The Indians began to collect on Friday. We received 50 to 60 volunteers from Wetumpka. Early this morning every man that could procure a horse together with the Tuckabatehee chiefs, and 300 warriors, mounted and on foot, started for the scene of disturbances, and returned this evening, with three prisoners, concerned in the murder of the teamsters, and taken in the act of firing on our men. They would have been shot, but for hope that we might obtain information from them, We have received from good authority, intelligence that the Indians are coming down Ufaubee creek, murdering, burning and plundering all in their way. Tomorrow morning we intend talking up our line of march for these Indians, with the determination to return conquerors or not at all. All the Indians on the west side of the Tallapoosa are our friends, and much credit is due the above named chiefs, for their prompt and valuable assistance. Several companies left here a few days since, destined for the scene of action. We have not heard from them since they left Line Creek, but understand they are destined for Fort Mitchell where, should they be able to meet the savages, in any thing like an embodied form we have every confidence in believing we shall hear a good account of them. There are so many various rumors afloat, that we cannot attempt to give a statement of the actual condition of the Creek county; yet we cannot but believe that the distress – though, beyond a doubt, great – is not, after all, so serious as the reports generally, in circulation, would lead the public to believe. We have had no mail from Columbus since Sunday, measures, have been taken, however, to procure a guard, which will, we hope, hereafter, secure to us, the safe and regular receipt of the mails. – Enquirer, June 3.


From the Columbus Enquirer, June 3


Sunday morning 8 Indians were brought in by a small party of white men, who arrested them on their way to Neah Micco’s camp. They professed friendship, and showed a pass given them by Tom Car, but were very properly detained and put under guard. Two Cuseta chiefs and one white man arrived in town the same evening from the camp of Neah Micco. They state that Neah-ah-Mathla arrived at Neah Micco’s just previous to their leaving, and said that he was friendly to the whites – that he left his own camps to prevent his people from killing him – that they were mostly hostile and disposes to fight, but that he was bent on peace. He denies ever having received any message to come in, and said it never was his intention to be hostile. They were examined on Monday by Gen. Sanford, and stated that they were sent by the two chiefs as ambassadors, to learn in what manner they would be treated should they wish to come in and be friendly. They were sent back with instructions to inform the two chiefs that they must come in immediately – that If they remained where they now are they would be considered hostile and treated as such. We learn from a gentleman recently from Chambers county, Ala., that most of the Indians in that part of the nation have come in as friendly. All that are disposed to be hostile have left there, and have probably joined Neah-ah-Mathia, or some other hostile chief. He states that parties of volunteers, made up from the settlers, and from Meriwether, Troup &c. have made frequent incursions into the enemies, country - killed a dozen Indians, in all, given protection those disposed as friendly, and driven the hostiles down into the counties below. We entertain strong hopes, that the determined measures now being persued by the authorities of the United States and the State of Georgia and Alabama, will bring the difficulty with the Creeks to a speedy termination. There is we understand to be no delay in the business. As soon as the Troops ordered out by our Governor, can be assembled and equipped for service, they will be led on to the conflict under the directions of able and experienced officers. This is just as it should be. War with the savages requires prompt and energetic movements. Delay emboldens and temporary success on their part, makes them more daring. The measures for their conquest should be, as is now the case, taken at once. Our executive, and we are proud to say it, has acted in this matter as became the highest officer, of as brave and patriotic a people as the world affords. From us, this word of commendation may not be received in the spirit it is given. We care not, how he does his duty, what may have been our former prejudices against him, these are now forgotten. We see him as the Governor of the State, prompt and decisive on an important occasion, and for this, we tender him our thanks and think him entitled to the thanks of the State. The Columbus Guards commanded by Capt. Urquhart, the Rifle company, commanded by Capt. Thomas C. Evans, and the Artillery company, commanded by Capt. Thomas Hosey, all volunteer companies of this place, have been regularly mustered into the service of the United States. These boys generally show fight, when it comes to their urn, and will give a good account of themselves in almost any crowd.

The following companies destined for the expedition against the Creeks are now on the west bank of the river near this place.


Bibb Cavalry


Capt. McCall


Monroe Cavalry


Capt. Fluelenn


Pike Cavalry


Capt. Bush


Houston Cavalry


Capt. Dennard


______ Cavalry


Capt. Lynch


Southern Rifles (infantry)


Capt. Miller


1 Comp. Of Drafts from Harris


Capt. Vardeman


3 Comp. Of Drafts from Monroe


Capt. Russell and Stewart


Fayette Calvary


Capt. Simson


1 Company from Jones(infantry)


Capt. Hardeman

Consisting in all of about 700 men. Other companies from other parts of the State are on the way and will be at head quarters in a few days. By a letter received from Chambers county, Ala., and from other sources upon which reliance may be placed, we are informed that Broad, who is said to have been engaged with the hostile Indians in there murders and robberies, has been arrested and is now in safe keeping. If he is guilty, as there is strong probability, we hope he will receive such elevation for his military exploits, as is authorized by the laws in such cases made and provided.



Our private advices from Columbus (in addition to the details which we have taken from the papers) inform us that an express arrived at Columbus on the 3d, (last Friday) from Fort McCrary bringing the intelligence that the Crawford Infantry, Capt. Carr, but commanded by Maj. Brown, consisting of sixty or seventy men, had a fight with the Indians on the same morning. This intended crossing the river at Boykin’s Ferry, marched to the place, laid in ambush, when shortly about sixteen Indians in four canoes, started across. The whites fired and three Indians were seen to tumble from the canoes into the river. The Indians on the opposite bank then presented themselves, and returned the fire. The firing continued across the river, until the ammunition of the whites was exhausted, when they retired. The number of Indians computed by the men at five hundred, but is supposed to be exaggerated. One white man was killed: Mr. Crosby, of Crawford. IT is supposed four Indians were killed. Three companies left Columbus on the 4th, for the scene of action. Southern Recorder


We stated in a former number, that General Woodward had visited our city, together with 8 Indians and 11 white men. Gen. W. made an effort to beat up Volunteers during his visit with a view to scour the Nation, but his exertions proved abortive, there being no spare arms or ammunition in town at this time; and he returned, we believe, with but 8 men. We had entertained some fears for his safety, as his route homeward lay directly through a section of country, where the Indians were known to be hostile. It was with pleasure we were informed Saturday last, that he reached home in safety. He however discovered a small party of Indians on his way, who were standing on top of a hill watching his movements; from their position Gen. W. had good reason to believe that there were probably a large number of hostiles on the other side of the hill. After a moment’s reflection, Woodward concluded to charge upon them, and on doing so the Indians fled to the thicket. The steamboat Metamora on her passage from Apalachacola was fired on by Indians about 8 miles above Roanoke. The Metamora was pressed at Irwinton by Capt. Wood, who had under his command two volunteer companies from Randolph county, Ga., and the Volunteer Guards, commanded by Capt. Booth, from Pike county, Alabama, - in all about 130 men . –Their object was to run up to Columbus on the steamboat with a view to pick up a fight with the Indians if possible; and as they desired, so they had it. About 20 hostiles appeared on the west bank of the river, and pulled trigger on the boat; three individuals were wounded among the whites - Messrs. Owens, Smith, and Butler. Mr. Owens, dangerously; Capt. Booth was smoothly shaved by an Indian bullet, it passing over the surface of his chin, and leaving not a whit of beard behind. In this “sharp shooting” there were from 10 to 15 Indians killed.


To The Editor of the Georgia Telegraph: Columbus June 3, 1836


There are now about 1500 troops on the Chattahoochee, stationed at West Point, Columbus, Fort Twiggs and Fort McCrary. Head Quarters are at Fort Ingersoll, and on the opposite side of the river. The troops were on yesterday all mustered into the regular service. Of course, Gen. Scott is now in supreme command - General Sanford having command of the Georgia Troops. Gen. Jesup will start for Tuskeegee, in the nation, midway between Columbus and Montgomery, where the Alabama troops are said to be collected, of which he will assume the command. Troops are continually pouring in from different counties in our State, but there is a deficiency in arms, ammunition and stores; a full supply, however, will be here in a few days, when the troops will be ordered into the union, with the exception of a sufficient force to protect our town. There is no doubt of the hostility of the Creeks, and they will have to be subdued by forces of the arms. Governor Schley addressed the troops on their being mustered into the service yesterday, in a patriotic and elegant speech, which seemed to inspire them with confidence and courage. The governor is pursuing a firm, prompt and energetic course in relation to this Indian disturbance, which must insure him the high commendations of the people of Georgia. Gen. Scott has been quite ill; but is convalescent today. Yours, &c.


To the Editor of the Georgia Telegraph: Columbus June 5

“The Troops are all stationed across the river, on the Alabama side, where they have built a log fort. The Indians made an attempt on Friday to cross the river to the Georgia side, about 15 miles below this, but were fired upon across the river and 5 killed - one white man was killed out of the Cavalry, from Crawford county. Had or men reserved their fire until the Indians had got nearly over, they might all have been killed or captured. Maj. Howard left yesterday morning with about 150 mounted men, to prevent their crossing; but it is the opinion here that they crossed the preceding night, and are making their way to Florida to join the Seminoles, and will destroy their way to Florida to join the Seminoles, and will destroy everything that lies in their tracks. Ge. Jesup started yesterday morning with about 100 mounted men including the Bibb Calvary, to penetrate the Creek Nation as far as Tuskegee. The Columbus Guard and the Rifle Company, have this moment gone by on their march to Fort McCrary. 26 hostile Indians, brought by the friendlies, are in jail at Montgomery, Alabama.

Battle of Shepherd’s Plantation

The Battle of Shepherd’s Plantation in Stewart County, Georgia was one of the more costly battlers for the Georgia Militia Company commanded by Captain Hammond Garmany from Gwinnet County was mustered and sent down to Stewart County to defend the settlements and help round up the Creeks.

1836 June 9


As they were sitting down for dinner in the afternoon they heard two shots in the distance. Thinking that it was another local militia company, they went to investigate. Apparently these shorts were part of a carefully laid trap by the Creels that the company soon found itself in. Garmany’s Company went about a half mile, and the men carried nothing but their arms and ammunition. They found the Creeks in a wooded spot, and took cover behind trees and fired. The Creeks fell back, and the company moved forward and fired again. The Creeks moved back a second time, and the company moved forward again. Soon Garmany’s men noticed that each time they would send a volley of fire, the Creeks would move back further and further, but each time more warriors would join the Creeks. Garmany’s men, numbering about 40, soon found themselves almost surrounded by at least 250 Creek warriors. Captain Garmany ordered a retreat so they would not get completely surrounded. The company fired and fell back, and ran. The soldiers started to get separated and scattered. Captain Garmany with several of the men fall back a half-mile to a local farm and homestead. Not all of the men joined him, and some fell back to other wooded areas. Garmany reached the farm, and the soldiers set up defensive positions. Creek warriors were approaching from the other side of the homestead. Close fighting ensued. Captain Garmany was shot in the thigh, and at first the men thought he was killed until he let them know that he is still alive. The soldiers were surrounded and under heavy fire. Suddenly 30 militia soldiers arrived under the Command of Major Jernigan of Stewart County. Jernigan was three miles away at Fort Jones, and was aware that Garmany may need help when he heard the firing in the distance. Jernigan’s men fired on the Indians and distracted them enough for Garmany and his men to escape. 17 more soldiers of Garmany’s company later arrived from nearby Fort McCreary. Of the other soldiers that scattered and were not with Garmany, they had a very difficult time. Creek Warriors chased them over two miles through woods and homesteads. Eight men of Garmany’s command were killed; most being from this second group that were scattered. They were found hiding in different places and killed one by one. One private describes that he was fleeing so fast that he was dropping everything, including his oversized clothes that were slowing him down. By the time he was found by another soldier, he had nothing but his musket without his bayonet or cartridge box; and hiding in the mud of the swamp. Being naked and covered in muck, the soldier who found him almost mistook him for a Creek warrior.

Gwinnett County Early History

Captain Garmany and his mounted volunteers left Lawrenceville on May 26, 1836, and arrived in Columbus on June 3rd. His company was mustered into service of the United States Army and then continued down the river, arriving at Shepherd’s Plantation, about 40 miles south of Columbus on the afternoon of June 6th. Twenty five of the men were sent to guard a fort situated on the river, not far away. On June 9th shots were heard approximately a half mile away. The men were dispatched to that location, finding Indians preparing for battle. Battle ensued, and Captain Garmany was seriously wounded. Major Jernigan, in charge of the local militia at Fort Stewart, arrived with his men and charged the enemy. It was judged that thirty or more Indians were killed. In Captain Garmany’s company either were killed and four wounded. Gwinnett County volunteers who were killed were Ensign J. S. Lacy, Orderly-Sergeant James C. Martin, James H. Holland, Robert T. Holland, James M. Allen, William M. Sims (by exhaustion), J. A. V. Tate, and Henry W. Paden. The wounded were Captain Hammond Garmany, John R. Alexander, Thomas W. Hunt and William Stapp. In 1837 a meeting was held in Lawrenceville yo decide to have the bodies of the eight young men who died at Shepherd’s Plantation brought back to Gwinnett common grave on Friday, February 17th, 1837, in the northwest corner of the courthouse yard. In 1840 a marble monument was erected on the site by Henry Fitzsimmons. Those of the Stewart County company who fell in the battle were: David Delk, Esq.; Jared Irwin, Esq.; Captain Robert Billups and a young man named Hunter. They were all gentlemen of the first standing. Mr. Delk was a member of the bar, and occupied a very respectable station in his profession. Mr Irwin was Clerk of the Inferior Court of Stewart County. Their loss will be long regretted by the citizens of Stewart County and their numerous friends.-MACON GEORGIA TELEGRAPH, June 23, 1836


1836 May 19 - Thursday



News of the increasing hostility of the Creeks

1836 May 19

General Thomas Sidney Jesup becomes commander of the western troops involved in the Creek war, and soon comes in conflict with General Scott over conflicting tactics and strategies.


1836 May

The Hyperion was fired upon at Woolfolk’s Bend, 8 miles south of Columbus. The pilot, John Brockway, was killed at the wheel. His engineer and a few others were wounded in the attack. This shooting forced owners to board up the lower deck of the vessel for safety precautions. 


1836 May 22

Creek Indians surround and attack the town of Irwinton, Alabama (today the city of Eufaula.) They are repulsed after sustaining heavy losses.


1836 June 9

The steamboat Metamora on the Chattahoochee River, carrying Georgia militia troops, is fired upon by a large number of the Creek warriors on the shore, about 20 miles south of  Columbus, Georgia.


1836 June 22 to October 22

A company of Florida Militia from Columbia County has several battles against the Creeks in the Okefenokee Swamp area, claiming to have killed and taken prisoners many Indians.


1836 July 1

General Scott declares the Creek War in Georgia and Alabama over. The announcement is premature. 84 years old Neamathla and hundreds of his warriors are marched 90 miles in chains from Fort Mitchell to Montgomery, Alabama. Scott estimates there are only about 200 Creels still at large in the swamps or on their way to Florida.


1836 July 3

The Battle of Chickasawachee Swamp in Baker County, Georgia ends with defeat for the Creeks. Soldiers route the Indians from an almost impenetrable island in the swamp and secure all the Indian’s supplies and food.


1836 July 10

Battle of Brushy Creek. Georgia militia pursues and attacks Creeks retreating into Florida. At the beginning of the battle, the Indians have the advantage but with the arrival of more troops, they are forced to retreat and disappear into the swamp. The Creeks left in such a hurry that many babies were found abandoned and dead. The same day there is a skirmish on the Alapaha River in Georgia.


1836 July 24

Skirmish near Wesley Chapel, Stewart County, Georgia. Creeks defeat and drive away a company of Georgia Militia.


1836 July 25

 Battle of Nochaway. A company of Georgia Militia under Major Jernigan pursues the Creeks the next day and engages them in a fierce fight in the swamp on Nochoway Creek. The soldiers are out numbered and forced to withdraw from the battle.


1836 July 27

Georgia militia forces continue to battle the Creeks in the swamp of Nochoway Creek. Very hard fight until the soldiers attack the hammock from two different sides and completely drive out the Creeks from area.


1836 August 27

Battle of Cow Creek in southern Georgia. Georgia militia forces find and attack Creeks who are heading into the Okefenokee Swamp. Over the next year, Georgia and Alabama militia untils will search the remote areas of Georgia for any Creeks. There are a few skirmishes where they find and attack small groups that have little food or weapons.


In 1837,

The Florida Militia will lead a relentless campaign against the Creeks in Florida, and in some instances will brutally kill defenseless Creek prisoners.


1837 February 3

Skirmish between Alabama Militia and Creek Indians near Cowikee Creek, southeast Alabama.


1837 February

Skirmish with Creek Indians and Alabama Militia and Creek Indians and Alabama Militia along Pea River in Alabama at Hobby Bridge.


1837 March 25

Battle along the Pea River in Alabama near Hobby Bridge. Alabama Militia forced find and overrun an Indian camp in the swamp. Many of the soldiers are firing in the water at heavily defended Indian camp. The battle last for almost four hours with heavy casualties on both sides. There is a lot of close hand-to-hand combat with even the Creek women from the camp fighting and firing weapons. The soldiers eventually take the camp with a cost of about a dozen casualties, and maybe as many as 50 Creeks killed. This would be the last battle in Georgia and Alabama as the war with the Creeks shift south to Florida. Then in June 1840, hostile Indians made one last desperate attack on the Chatthoochee just below Eufaula when they fired on the steamboat Irwinton. They killed the cabin boy, John Gill. But the pilot and passengers escaped injury by lying flat on the deck. Three Indians succeeded in climbing aboard the steamboat from their canoe. Crewmen and a passenger beat them with wrenches or stabbed them, then tossed all three into the wheel which tore them to pieces.


This is a family bible containing the deaths of two of the men who died at Shepherd’s Plantation.


Bible Record of William Holland and Alcey Bramlett

Contributed by Barb Sharkey and Nicki Osborne

Transcribed by Deb Deniss


Family Record


William Holland was married to Alcey Bramlett on the 24th day of February 1812. [ Alcey is daughter of John and Mary (Peak) Bramlett of Laurens and Greeneville Co., S. C. William is the son of Amelia Tarrant Phillips and Solomon Holland.]



William Holland was bornd November 17th 1788

Alcey Holland his wife was bornd December the 5th 1792

James H. Holland ther son was bornd March the 24th 1813

Robert T. Holland ther son was bornd May 9th 1815

William K. Holland ther son was bonrd September the 3rd 1818



William Holland died November 11th 1868 Aged 79 yrs 11 mon 24 days

Alcey Holland died June 25th 1870 Aged 77 yrs 6 mo 20 days

James H. Holland was Killed June 9th 1839 by the Creek Indians at Shepherds Plantation Stewart Co. Georgia Aged 23 years 2 mo 15 days

Robert T. Holland was Killed June 9th 1836 by the Creek Indians at Shepherds Plantation Stewart Co. Georgia Aged 21 years 1 month



Elizabeth Ann Holland ther daughter was bornd Sept 12th 1823


John W. T. Holland ther son was bornd Jenuary 14th 1826

Mariah L. F.. M. Holland ther daughter was bornd February 19th 1828

Martha T J A D Holland ther daughter was bonrd August 31st 1831 [This is Julia Ann Rosamond in the Rosamond Bible records]

Marcena C G Holland ther daughter was bonrd June 22nd 1834



Marcena..C..G..Traywick Died March 1st 1872 Aged 37 years 8 month 9 days [Marcena C. G. Traywick is Marcena C. G. Holland]



By William Henry Sparks 

William Henry Sparks, author, born on St. Simon’s island, Georgia, January 16, 1882. He was taken in infancy to his father’s plantation in Greene county, and in his eighteenth year was sent to complete his education in Litchfield, Connecticut, where he subsequently studied law. On his return to Georgia he practiced his profession and was a member of the legislature. In 1830 he removed to Nachez, Mississippi. Engaged largely in sugar-planting, and about 1850 he entered into a law partnership with Judah P. Benjamin in New Orleans, which was dissolved ten years later. He declined many public offices, once only accepting the nomination for United States senator from Louisiana, but withdrawing in favor of his friend, Alexander Barrow. He contributed largely to southern publications, and among other verses wrote “Somebody’s Darling”, “The Dying Year”, and “The Old Church-Bell”. He published “The Memories of Fifty Years” (Philadelphia 1870 ; 4th ed., 1882), and left ready for the press a second volume; also “Father Anselmo’s Ward”, “Chilecah”, “The Women with the Iron-Gray Hair”, and other manuscripts. William Henry Sparks in his “Memories of Fifty Years”, wrote of some very interesting people and gave a very good description of life in Central Georgia in the early 1800's. I will quote some of this in this edition because it pertains to Crawford Co., Ga. I will quote other passages from his book in later edition as they pertain to subject used in the TRACER.



 Abstracted by Elaine Watson  Bone



“Let There be Light”

W. N. & C. E. Benns, Editors and Publishers

Official Organ Of Taylor County

Vol. XXVII                                                                                                                              No. 7

Butler, Georgia, Tuesday, December 2, 1902



Mr. H. P. Graville, of Tennille, spent Sunday in Butler. Miss Eme Slappy is visiting friends and relatives in Micanopy, Fla. Miss Julia Barfield, of Talbot County, is visiting her grandfather, Mr. Enoch Garrett.




At the office of Judge J. E. Davant in Butler, Wednesday afternoon, December 26th, were united in marriage, Miss Eula Bell Smith to Mr. John Vann; Judge Davant, Ordinary, officiating. The marriage of Rev. J. E. Ellis and Miss Eva Ruffin and Mr. Albert Carter at Reynolds n Sunday united two of the most prominent young couples in the county. They have many friends who wish them abundant happiness.


Mrs. Flurry Dead

Mrs. M. A. Flurry, mother of Mr. W. T. Foster, of Buena Vista, died at her home near Tazewell on Friday November 14th, at the advanced age of 70 years. Her remains were laid to rest at Tazwell November 5th. Rev. J. T. Adams, of Butler, performing the burial rites. She had been a member of the Methodist church since childhood and lived a consistent Christian life. She had been a sufferer for fifteen years and bore her suffering with Christian fortitude - Buena Vista Patriot



Of the many fine porkers killed last week the best one we have heard of was killed by Mr. Robert L. Fountain which weighed 518 pounds. Capt. T. H. Frierson had some difficulty in opening the new bank safe Saturday owing to the displacement of a small bolt which prevented the combination from working freely. Mr. Walter Eakle will teach out the unexpired term of school at Fickling’s Mill contracted to Miss Helen Montfort who has been summoned home on account of sickness in her father’s family. Mr. E. G. Windham, formerly of Reynolds, has adopted the profession of law and will be found in the office of Col. R. S. Foy. Mr. Windham is one of the brightest young men in the county and will make a success of his chosen profession. The Lohanon Academy, near Grangerville, was destroyed by fired on Sunday night Nov. 23rd. The fire was not discovered until too late to save the building and contents, which were quickly consumed. The cause of the fire was incendiary. There was no insurance and the loss falls very heavy upon the patrons of the school as well as upon Prof. Jeff Johnson. Coca-Cola has been brought under the ban with cigarettes by the Georgia law makers. The manufacturer must pay $300, the wholesaler $200 and the retailer $10 a year. The tax on cigarettes was raised to $25, and it is stipulated that this amount must be paid by everyone who keeps cigarette papers to give the customers.


Thanksgiving Service

On the evening of Thanksgiving a union program of the Epworth Leagues was presented at the Methodist church, the church being appropriately decorated for the occasion. Each number on the program had its direct bearing on Thanksgiving and was well received by a good congregation. The program was as follows:

Scripture Reading and Prayer - Rev. G. W. Childress

Song: “America” - Junior and Senior Leagues 

Recitation: “Little Quaker Maids” - Four little girls

Recitation by six children

Song: “Count your Blessings” by Junior and Senior Leagues

Recitation by Bernard Spillers

Recitation by Jewel Sealy

Recitation by Philip Davant

Recitation by Aurilia Childs

Recitation by Mabel Harry

Reading: “The First Thanksgiving” - C. E. Benns.

Song by Leagues

Reading: Prof. J. M. Richardson


Song No. 132

Reading: Rev. G. W. Childress.



The marriage of great importance to Reynolds and community was solemnized at the Methodist church in Reynolds Thursday night November 27th. Rev. John E. Ellis, the pastor of the church, led to the altar Miss Neva Marshall. Mr. Ellis has been on this charge one year, which is his first in the conference, and his highly thought of by all. He is a north Georgia boy, is a very bright young minister. Miss Marshall is a member of the family of that name native to this section, but connected wit the pioneer family of Marshalls from which several strong Baptist preachers have sprung. The couple left on the night train for the Methodist Episcopal conference soon to convene at Thomasville. The wedding was a quite pretty affair and Rev. Paul Ellis, the groom’s brother, performed the ceremony. The Methodist people are hoping Mr. Ellis will be returned to his work. The attendants were Misses Hattie Griffith, of Macon; Moore, of Macon, Roberta Souder, Ruby Ingram and Emma Marshall, of Reynolds and Messrs Dollie Bland, of Macon, Charles L. Pyron, Fernando A. Ricks, C. Brown Marshall and W. Earl Marshall of Reynolds. Messrs J. Gray Hicks and R. C. Souder were ushers. The church was beautifully decorated with palms, ferns and pot-plants. While the ritual was being read Miss Eva Ruffin, pianist, and Mr. B. H. Newson, violinist, played in soft, sweet tunes, “Love’s Old Sweet Song.” After the ceremony the bridal party were given a reception at the home of the bride’s father, Mr. T. J. Marshall. Among the visitors from a distance to the wedding were Mr. And Mrs. T. P. Marshall, Mrs. E. H. Marshall, Miss Agness Muchison, C. H. Rice, Dr. G. P. Gostin, Mr.s E. H. Greene, and C. A. Greene, of Macon; G. B. Howard and C. H. Matthews, of Atlanta; Mrs. C. E. Ellis, of Demorist; Mrs. I. C. Norvell, of New York.


In Memoriam of William H. Walls.

Sad indeed when the heavy hand of sorrow falls upon a happy home and bears from the bright fire-side one of the inmates to eternity. The words fail to express the grief when the sad message came into the home of Mr. Henry Walls, cast its shadow and took from the fond parents little Willie. By a band of angels he was borne and carried safe to the tender Shepherd’s fold. Willie a bright little boy, has gone to the better land, his pure spirit quit this world of sorrow and found lodgment in the Saviour’s arms October 23rd.



“Let There be Light”

W. N. & C. E. Benns, Editors and Publishers

Official Organ Of Taylor County

Vol. XXVII                                                                                                                              No. 8

Butler, Georgia, Tuesday, December9, 1902


Administrators Sale


Georgia – Taylor County


By virtue of an order from the Court of Ordinary of said county, will be sold before the court house door at Butler, said state and county, on the first Tuesday in January next, to the highest and best bidder, within the legal hours of sale, the following described lands to wit: Fifty acres in the north-east corner of lot of land number 146, and fifty acres in the north-west corner of lot number 143; all in the second district of Taylor County, Ga., and known as the Ben Williford place. Sold as the property of B. C. Williford, deceased. Terms cash. J. B. Fowler Administrator estate of B. C. Williford.


Administrators Sale

Georgia – Taylor County

By virtue of an order from the Court of Ordinary, of Meriwether County, granted at the December term 1902, by A. J. Hinton, Ordinary of said county. Will be sold on the first Tuesday in January, 1903, before the Court House door in the town of Butler, Taylor County, Ga., between the legal hours of sales, to the highest bidder, the following described property to-wit. All of the lot of land number 58, containing 202 ½ acres more or less; also the north half of lot of land number 39 containing 101 1/4 acres more or less. Said tract land containing in all 303 3/4 acres more or less and bounded as follows: On the north by lands of Mrs. O. L. Caldwell, Herbert Pope and Jim Beeland, east by Jim Whittle and Colbert and Garrett, and west by Bickley estate. Said land lying and being in the 17th District of originally Muscogee county now Taylor county, Georgia. Said lands sold as the property of Wiley Reynolds, late of Meriwether County, deceased. Terms cash. H. W. Reynolds Administrator de bonis non. of estate of Riley Reynolds, deceased.


For Year’s Support

Georgia – Taylor County

Mrs. Lucinda Ray, having made applications for a twelve month’s support out of the estate of William H. Ray, late of said county, deceased, and the appraisers duly appointed to set apart the same, having filed their return; all persons concerned hereby required to show cause if any they can, before the court of Ordinary to be held in and for said county on the first Monday in January next, why said application should not be granted.



Taylor county tracer.
Transcriptions of Old Georgia Newspapers



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