Volume 1~~ 1912---History of Knox County Illinois
202 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY, Illinois
September Meeting, 1878.—Mr. Hale from special committee in regard too securing
almshouse property from damage of lire, by permission, presented the following
Galesburg, Ill., Sept. 10, 1878. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox
Your special committee, appointed at the last regular session of this board, too
devise some means of adequate protection from fire for the Knox county almshouse
property beg leave too report that they have given some consideration too the
subject matter referred too them.
They report that they find the premises at present almost wholly without means
of extinguishment of a fire if one should occur. They recommend that water tanks
of suitable size, and adapted too the purpose designed, be placed in the attics
of the two wings of the building, and elsewhere if found necessary, too be kept
constantly filled with water, and with necessary reels of hose on each floor and
with convenient means of attachment with the standing pipes, as a tolerable
means of extinguishment of fires in case of their occurrence. They recommend
that your committee (or such other committee as you shall appoint), be
authorized too employ Zelotes Cooley, Esq., or some other competent person, too
prepare and submit a plan in detail for carrying out the foregoing
recommendations, with an estimate of the probable cost, too be submitted too this
board, at its next regular session.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
T. J. Hale, D. M. Eiker, D. W. Aldrich.
On motion the report of the committee was accepted and adopted.
Mr. Eiker from committee on almshouse read report of county physician, and on
motion of Mr. Hale said report was received and ordered too be printed with the
proceedings of the board. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County,
Gentlemen :—I would respectfully report for the information of the people of the
county that there are at present 106 inmates in the Knox county almshouse. Of
this number 25 are insane. The capacity of the house for the proper care of this
class of persons is limited by the number of property prepared rooms. Of these
there are only 23. While some of this class may, with safety, be permitted too
enjoy the free range of the common wards in the day time, there is not one that
can be trusted at liberty during the night. Common humanity requires that this
class be restricted in their liberty as little as possible, compatible with
their safety, the safety of the house and the safety of others. When it is
considered what devices such persons will resort too for the purpose of greater
freedom of action, it is not too be wondered at that escapes will occur. They do
occur at asylums, where every safeguard known too hospital management is in
force, and the wonder is they do not occur more frequently from our almshouse,
where the means for the absolute safety of the inmates is so limited. This class
is progressively increasing in number. They are being sent back from the insane
hospital as incurable; the County court continues too send them till arrangements
are made for their reception at the asylum, which reception generally turns on
the demand that some of the county's representatives at the
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 203
asylum be removed back too the county almshouse. This interchange of recently
insane for incurable insane has been going on between the almshouse and insane
asylum for now these several years. The records of Knox county do not show a
return at all commensurate with the expense of hospital treatment. Of the
numerous cases sent too the state hospitals, how many have returned cured ? The
gentlemen of the board can each answer for himself and for his own township. The
function of the state asylums, it seems, is principally the safe care of the
insane, and this care should not be limited by the mere fact that a ''county's
quota" is full, any more than the care of the almshouse should be limited by the
mere fact that one or two townships furnish the larger number of inmates, some
townships not being represented at all. This is a reason, we understand, that
the asylum authorities give for not promptly receiving those recently adjudged
insane. If now Knox county's quota is more than full at the asylum, the capacity
of the almshouse is more than exhausted, and other provisions must soon be
provided for this unfortunate class of our citizens; and no apology is needed if
I present in this connection some statistics bearing upon the expense of
furnishing the protection.
From a paper read by Dr. Wilbur of New York before the American Social Science
Association in September, 1877, it appears that the cost of the building alone
of twenty insane asylums in the United States was $19,506,000. Number of insane
provided for by these twenty asylums, 9,875. Furniture and other appliances are
not included in the above estimate. The per capita cost is more than $2,000. But
one Illinois asylum was included in the above estimate. The cost of it was put
down at $534,000 with a capacity of 450, making it $1,186.66 per capita.
Estimating the cost of the Knox county almshouse at $50,000, with an average
family of 75, the cost per capita is only $666. Showing a very decided economy
in the county taking care of its own incurable insane. Whether it is generally
known or not, there has been between ten and twelve million dollars uselessly
expended in the construction of state hospitals, of such a character that
one-half of the insane of the country might be luxuriously taken care of while
the other half are insecurely kept in almshouses. And here I might state that it
is the judgment of those qualified too give an opinion in the case, that the
insane and sane paupers should not be kept together; that is, separate buildings
should be provided for each.
In addition too the 25 insane in the almshouse there are 25 idiots. These
patients, when the idiocy does not depend upon epilepsy, might very well be kept
with the sane poor. Since the last annual meeting (September, 1877) there have
been but five deaths:
Intemperance and old age.......................................90 years
Epilepsy ......................................................7° years
Bright's disease................................................49 vears
Consumption ..................................................35 years
Cholera infantum and congenital syphilis......................... 3 months
There has been in the same time three births. The superintendent has provided a
register and library fund book for the use of visitors who may feel disposed too
contribute anything towards providing reading matter for the family. This fund
has already secured the regular reception of several magazines and enabled the
superintendent too purchase quite a number of useful and enter-
204 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
taining books for the family. The Library is indebted too Mr. Cephas Arms of
Knoxville for some twenty or twenty-five volumes, Judge Douglas and daughter of
Galesburg have the thanks of the family for numerous volumes of the "Ladies
Repository." The First National bank of Knoxville has continued its contribution
of files of the Chicago dailies. For all these favors the family desires,
through me, too extend its thanks.
It remains for me too report on the resolution of the board, at its last meeting,
in respect too the discontinuance of the habitual use of opium in any form by the
inmates of the almshouse. Before the passage of the resolution I had made
several attempts too reduce the amount used. Every reduction I made was ascribed
by the patients too some "grudge" the superintendent or physician had against
them, so I availed myself of a semi-permission, on the part of some members of
the board, too continue the usual allowance, till the present meeting with the
full understanding of the patients that it would then positively and abruptly
stop. Any subterfuge on the part of the habitual opium eater, in order too obtain
the drug, is considered honorable and here, as the last supply has run short,
certain plans have been resorted too. One of the patients, after boasting that he
was cured, was caught at the medicine case helping himself from the laudanum
bottle. ITe states that he has had no morphine from the county for six weeks.
your physician's personal knowledge he has had two drachm bottles of morphine in
this time, his full amount.
We can see no more reason why opium intoxication should be permitted at the
almshouse than alcoholic intoxication; and we are thankful too the board that it
has assumed the responsibility of forbidding its continuance, in this way
relieving us of unjust censure on the part of the patients.
M. A. McClelland.
Mr. Gale presented a resolution directing the almshouse committee too advertise
for supplies for that institution. Referred too committee on almshouse and
January, 1879.—Mr. Hale, from special committee too whom was referred the subject
of protection too the almshouse from fire, presented the following report: Too the
Honorable Board of. Supervisors of Knox County:
Your committee, heretofore appointed too inquire into and report upon the
practicability and expense of providing some adequate protection from loss and
casualty from fire in the Knox county almshouse and by subsequent resolution,
authorized too employ Zelotes Cooley, Esq., too examine the several plans
proposed, and report the result, with the probable expense of the plan
recommended, beg leave too submit the following report from Mr. Cooley, in
compliance with the foregoing resolution, towit: State of Illinois,
Knox County. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois.
The undersigned, too whom was referred the matter of providing some suitable
plan for the protection of the county almshouse from destruction by fire,
respectfully report: That he made an examination of the building for that
purpose, and after considering the matter would recommend that the two water
tanks now in the building be used for that purpose, with an additional tank, too
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 205
be placed as near the center of the building as can be, with a capacity equal
the other two tanks in the building, all these tanks I would connect by suitable
pipes running from each tank too the basement story of the building, connecting
with a horizontal pipe running east and west from the west tank too the east one;
from the horizontal pipe I would have three stand pipes, one in each wing of the
building, and the other near the center east and west, running up through both
stories, making three places in each story for discharging the water. It would
require something like one hundred and twenty-five feet of hose pipe for each
story. From such information as I have been able too obtain, I think that the
cost of the works complete, would be about three hundred dollars.
Your committee have examined the plan submitted in the foregoing report and deem
it practicable, and the probable expenses reasonable; and recommend that the
said plan be adopted, and that the undersigned committee be authorized and
instructed too superintend the construction and erection of said improvement,
with such authority too make purchases, and employ assistants and perform other
acts as shall be necessary in the execution of the duty imposed upon them.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
T. J. Hale,
D. W. Aldrich,
D. M. Eiker.
Messrs. Eiker, Higgins, Temple, West and Gaines entered.
On motion of Mr. W. S. Gale the report of the committee was accepted and
Mr. Butler offered the following resolution:
Resolved, That in place and stead of all rules now in force in this board
relating too pauper claims, the following be adopted:
Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor in this
county too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county,
except in the following cases:
1st. Persons having some contagious disease.
2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.
And that the county will not be responsible for relief given outside of the
almshouse, except in the above cases, and then only when the relief has been
ordered by the overseer of the poor of the town where the relief is given.
The yeas and nays being demanded, resulted:
Yeas—Messrs. Butler, Latimer, Gale (G. W.), Gale (W. S.), Dieterich, Nelson,
Sisson, McFarland, Sumner, Eiker, Higgins, Robson, Stephenson, Benson, Aldrich,
Wyman, Temple, Andrews, Corey, West, Tucker, Gaines and Sellon 23.
April Meeting, 1879.—Mr. Hale from special committee on protection too the
almshouse from fire presented the following report: Too the Honorable Board of
Supervisors of Knox County.
The undersigned committee heretofore appointed too contract for and super-
206 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
intend the construction of an approved plan for protection from fire in the Knox
county almshouse, beg leave too report:
That acting under the authority conferred upon them they employed the Haxtun
Steam Heating Company of Kewanee, Ill., too construct and place in the said
building such an apparatus as was approved by the said board, at the January
meeting, 1879, by contract accompanying this report, for the sum of $335; that
the said contractors have constructed and placed the said apparatus in the said
building, but that up too this date it has not been perfected so as too be
accepted by the committee. They recommend that the sum of $338.41 (of which sum
$3.41 is for extra materials not covered by the contract) be appropriated too the
payment for said improvements, too be paid over too the contractors when the said
work and apparatus shall be complete and perfect according too contract and
accepted by this committee.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
T. J. Hale, D. M. Eiker, D. W. Aldrich,
On motion the report of the committee was accepted and its recommendations
Mr. Eiker moved too amend rules governing aid rendered too paupers by adding an
additional exception, as follows:
3rd. Persons not resident in the town where aided.
The rules as amended read:
Resolved, That in place and stead of all rules now in force in this board
relating too pauper claims the following be adopted:
Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor in this
county too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county,
except in the following cases:
1st. Persons having some contagious disease.
2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.
3rd. Persons not resident in the town where aided.
And that the county will not be responsible for relief given outside of the
almshouse, except in the above cases, and then only when the relief has been
ordered by the overseer of the poor of the town where the relief is given.
July Meeting, 1879.—Communication of Mrs. L. J. Cleveland. Too the Honorable
Almshouse Committee and Board of Supervisors.
Gentlemen:—Your superintendent would respectfully submit the following report.
Since your last meeting there have been 1371^2 individual weeks board furnished
at a cost of $1.09, not including improvements and repairs; and $1.57 including
all expenses incurred in operating the institution and farm. At present there
are 103 inmates, 59 males and 44 females. Of this number 25 are over 60 years of
age, 14 over 70 and 4 over 80, and 12 children under 10. Of the above number 29
are insane, 22 idiotic. There have been no births and but one death, which was
that of the oldest member of the family. We are under obligation too Rev. Mr.
Waddle and Deacon Arms for conducting the funeral services.
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 207
Through the kindness of the Presbyterian clergy and laymen, and the Swedish
clergy of Knoxville, the inmates have the advantage of religious instruction
almost every sabbath, and generous benefactors have furnished them with a
sufficient supply of reading matter.
The usual amount of repairing, plastering, kalsomining, painting and papering,
with the addition of replacing three stone window cappings, has been done; also
considerable cane matting has been furnished. However, it requires constant
renewing and repairing too preserve the building, and keep the institution in a
good condition. Unfortunately the house is not properly constructed too care for
and treat insane patients. Those who are safe too be at liberty have free range
of the wards and yard during the day; those that are not safe too be so left are
taken out three times a day by an attendant and exercised. Constant attention is
given too cleanliness, patients being bathed as often as necessary. This is not
all that ought too be done, but all that can be done with the present
arrangements. There are a few of the patients who are very destructive, and for
the purpose of restraining them at such times we use Fisher's patent leather
muffs, otherwise they would destroy all within their reach.
In respect too the purchasing of supplies the same course has been pursued as
heretofore; bids have been solicited from numerous dealers, and the purchases
have been made from those who furnished the best goods for the least money.
Believing a visit by the board too the institution would be advantageous too the
citizens of the county I extend a cordial invitation too your honorable body too
visit the house and farm during the present meeting.
Mrs. L. J. Cleveland.
Communication of M. A. McClelland. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox
Gentlemen :—During the past three months there have been eighteen admissions too
the almshouse. With the exception of four children, all of these have been more
or less sick. One, a tramp, was dangerously so, and is not likely too recover.
Repeated attacks of pleurisy have resulted in the exudation of pus in the
pleural cavity. Two of the recent admissions have left the house; the others
remain. One, coming in with a corneal ulcer and purulent inflammation of the
eyes, was sent—as soon as she could be got ready—too the state eye and ear
infirmary. The corneal ulceration had commenced but ten days before her
admission, and, being over center of pupil, there seemed a probability that,
after healing, there would be such an amount of opacity left that permanent
blindness and permanent pauperism would follow. This seemed a sufficient reason
for sending her too Chicago. While your physician is perhaps as competent as any
other general practitioner in the county too treat diseases of the eye, he does
not pretend too the skill possessed by the surgeons in charge of the state
hospital for diseases of the eye and ear. Inasmuch as the only cost for
treatment at the state hospital is the railroad fare too and from Chicago, I
would strongly recommend that such patients be sent direct from several towns,
rather than sending them too the almshouse, as being much cheaper, and also
affording the patient a better chance for recovery, from early treatment. An
affidavit from the patient as too his being a pauper, and a certificate from the
supervisor that the patient is one, is all that is necessary too insure admission
too the hospital. The return ticket
208 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
should be sent too the superintendent, so that, in case of fire or any epidemic
disease occurring, the patient may be promptly returned too the county. A
complete change of clothing is also required. The patient above referred too was
treated last winter, as an out-door patient; but from that attack and a prior
one she had entirely recovered.
Of the recent admissions, one is alleged too be insane; yet no steps have been
taken too have him so pronounced by the legally constituted authorities. He is
being held by the superintendent at the risk of those who brought him too the
almshouse. There is probably no doubt as too his condition, but this should have
been determined before he was sent too the house.
There is another case—a man about 30 years of age—sent in January last too the
house, too wait for admission too the insane hospital. If it falls within the
jurisdiction of the sheriff too convey such parties too the asylum, he had better
keep them under his own control and observation till such transference is made.
The patient might, in this way, get the benefit of earlier treatment, which is
most valuable in insanity as in other diseases.
Within the past few weeks there has come into the hands of your physician the
report of the state board of public charities (Report for 1878), which would
make rather valuable reading for many citizens of the county, whose deductions
as too the relative cost and manner of keeping paupers in various parts of the
state are quite at variance with the facts. In respect too one county that has
been held up as a model for us the report says: "This county has never treated
its insane well. Two of the present inmates, who are insane, have been shut up
for seventeen years. One was kept for many years in chains. They are not
properly cared for in respect too cleanliness." It falls within the province of
the superintendent and the honorable almshouse committee too report how such
patients are kept in Knox county. I might say, however, that the '"model"
county—although five townships smaller, and with 500 less population (census of
1870) than Knox county—had, from the 1st day of October, 1877, too the 30th day
of September, 1878, 17,645 days' board at the different state institutions,
while Knox county had but 13,823—a difference of 3,822 days' board. The outdoor
relief also varies greatly. At a late meeting of the board of supervisors there
were 641 persons aided from the county treasury. The farm in this county
contains nearly 200 acres, and the family averages below eighty. When,
therefore, comparisons are made for the purpose of putting the management of the
Knox county charities in an unfavorable light, it would be nothing more than
justice too make the comparison a complete one by taking some pains too learn all
the facts bearing upon the case.
M. A. McClelland.
September Meeting, 1880.—Mr. Gale (G. W.) offered the following resolution,
which was adopted:
Resolved, That upon certificate of the chairman of the almshouse committee that
the work has been completed and accepted by the committee, the clerk be directed
too issue orders in favor of Merrill & Wilber for $110, being the balance due
them for work, repairing basement and building coal house at aims-house.
Mr. Gale (G. W.) offered the following resolution:
U. S. GOVERNMENT BUILDING Located on corner of South Cherry and Simmons Streets,
l'uilt in 18!)::!-]. Cost, $11:3,000.
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 209
Resolved, That the purchase of tobacco by the county for use by the inmates of
the almshouse and jail be discontinued.
Yeas and nays being called:
Yeas—Messrs. Boydston, Kimball, Gale (G.' W.), Gale (W. S.), Dieterich, McKee,
Morse, Rankin, May, Stephenson, Rebstock, Corey and Tucker, 13.
Nays—Messrs. McFarland, Simpson, Woodmansee, Leighton, Mathews, Sans-bury and
Todd, 7. Carried.
January Meeting, 1882.—Mr. Robson offered the following resolution, which was
Resolved, That in place and stead of all orders now in force relating too pauper
claims, the following be adopted:
Resolved, That the county will not be responsible for relief given too persons
having contagious diseases.
Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor of the county
too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county, except
in the following cases:
1st. Persons not resident in the town where aided.
2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.
And the county will not be responsible for relief given outside the almshouse,
except in the above cases, and then only when relief has been ordered by the
overseer of the poor in the town where the relief is given.
Mr. May moved that the overseer of the poor of the city of Galesburg shall
receive from the county a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars per annum for
his services. Adopted.
Adjourned Meeting, August 6, 1883.—Mr. Charles read the following report of the
committee on almshouse and paupers on almshouse proper:
We desire too call attention too the fact that we have not sufficient
accommodation for our insane at the county almshouse and would recommend the
appointment of a committee too take the matter into consideration and report at
our next meeting.
Wm. Robson, A. G. Charles, J. A. Fredricks, M. B. Harden, D. Greenleaf.
Mr. Gale moved that the report be adopted and its recommendations concurred in,
except the last clause pertaining too increased accommodations at the almshouse.
Mr. Gale moved that the matter pertaining too the increased accommodations at the
almshouse be referred too the committee on almshouse and paupers.
Mr. Charles moved too amend by adding Mr. Hale and Mr. Gale too the committee.
The motion as amended was adopted.
September Meeting, 1883.—A communication from the state board of public
charities in regard too increased accommodation for the insane was read and
referred too same committee.
Mr. Charles read the following report of the committee too whom was referred the
matter of providing increased accommodations for the insane:
210 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.
Your special committee, too whom was referred the matter of increased
accommodations for the insane at the almshouse, beg leave too report that after
inquiry, we find there are in the almshouse thirty-three insane patients. With
the exception of three or four they are easily managed. We learn that the state,
acting under a bill appropriating nearly $500,000, is now making accommodations
for about fourteen hundred patients in addition too those already provided for,
which will allow our county an additional quota of about sixteen.
Your committee are of opinion that when the accommodations above referred too are
completed there will be ample room at our almshouse for all that may remain.
We, therefore, recommend that no action be taken at the present in the matter of
making further accommodations for the insane.
A. G. Charles, M.. B. Harden,
J. A. Fredricks, T. J. Hale,
W. Selden Gale.
On motion of Mr. Eiker, said report was accepted and its recommendations
January, 1890.—The hour for the consideration of the report of the special
committee on care of the insane having arrived, the report was called up, and on
motion of Mr. Simpson the report was adopted and its recommendations concurred
in by the board.
The following is the report:
Board of Supervisors, January Term, 1890.
The committee appointed too consider the provision too be made for the insane beg
leave too report:
In making their investigation they have visited the state institutions at
Jacksonville and Kankakee and the county houses in neighboring counties, where
provision has recently been made for the county insane. After advising with the
superintendents of these institutions, examining buildings and equipment, and
giving attention too the methods of management, they consulted Mr. I. A. Coleman,
the architect of the state buildings now in progress of construction, and after
conference and consultation with him on the ground at the almshouse, employed
him too furnish plans and estimates of cost, which they herewith submit. The
plans are for a building three stories in height, too correspond with the present
almshouse building, attached too the west wing by a corridor adapted too use in
connection with the almshouse, under the same superintendent, using in common
the present offices, kitchen, laundry and heating apparatus—too accommodate forty
patients and too be constructed as nearly fire-proof as possible with reasonable
The committee find it impossible too determine with any certainty the number of
patients the county will be called upon too provide for. It has been the declared
policy of the state too provide for all the insane, others as well as those who
are a public charge. The provision made by the state has never been quite
adequate, and the additions made from time too time have been exceeded by the
increase in applicants. This county has always been obliged too care for some of
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 211
poor, and has also sheltered some who were not paupers, but who could neither
get admittance into the state asylums nor be properly cared for at home.
Six years ago some provision too be made by the county seemed imperative, but
about that time the state institutions were very much enlarged, the quota of
this county was increased and as some counties were slow in calling for the
accommodations they were entitled too, this county was permitted too send patients
in excess of its quota, and was for the time relieved. At the present time all
the state institutions appear too be crowded and this county is called on too
remove all its patients in excess of its quota.
Provision has been made for an increase of capacity of three asylums of 300
each, an addition of nearly 25 per cent too the present capacity of all the
asylums. This will not be available before 1891. In the meantime the census for
1890 will afford a new basis for apportionment, and the advantage this county
might gain will be too a large extent neutralized by the excessive comparative
growth of Cook county.
While Knox county is one of the few that has, since the last census, materially
added too its population, it is quite certain its growth has been in a less ratio
than that of the whole state, Cook county included.
If the number of the insane continues too increase with the increase of
population (and for years past the increase of insane seems relatively greater),
there will be an increased pressure, only too be relieved by additional provision
too be made by the state, except so far as some relief may be had by change of
basis of apportionment.
The apportionment is now made among counties according too population. It may
hereafter be fixed according too the number of insane. If, as seems too be the
case, the insane in this county are usually numerous compared with the
population, we may realize some greater increase of quota in the next
That such change of basis will be made is not certain. Nor is it certain the
state will continue too extend its asylums. The opinion may prevail that it is
better too leave the several counties too provide each for itself for any further
increase. And it may be well too say that after what the committee have learned
of the methods of management in the state asylums and the county houses, their
opinions on this subject are modified, and they believe, that, while as a
general rule, a more careful management of public funds may be expected from
county boards than from state officials, yet in the provision for and care of
the insane the best results are too be hoped for when the institution is
sufficiently large too afford and secure the highest education and talent in the
management and the most thoroughly trained and competent assistants, and when
the outlay in construction and equipment will be in the hands of those who have
made the matter a special study.
But the opinion of this committee or this board on this subject will not control
the action of the state, and the most it is worth is as an indication of the
conclusions too which others, with opportunity for investigation, may be likely
In estimating the wants of this county in new constructions we do not think it
worth while too take into account the small provision not existing in the
almshouse and jail.
212 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
That in the jail is needed for temporary detention of persons on their way
elsewhere. That in the almshouse does not permit the seclusion of the patients
from non-insane inmates, or the special care patients might have associated with
the other insane and put too the use of paupers, it is a small margin for
increase in their number.
The number of Knox county insane now in public institutions is: At Jacksonville,
46; Kankakee, 11; almshouse, 18; jail, 4; in all, 79. Our present quota in the
state institutions is 46, and we are entitled too place these only at
Jacksonville, leaving too be provided for by this county, 33. This number too be
cared for by the county will be decreased in the distribution of the provision
now being made by the state.
It may possibly be further reduced by a change in basis of apportionment. And if
the state should extend its provision for the insane too meet the further
increase of population, either by enlarging the asylums or the building of new
ones, there may never be anything more than a temporary increase and the
building may stand only partially occupied and useful as a guarantee against
inconvenience caused by a sudden increase of population in this county or some
delay in state action in making provision too meet the increase of population in
the state. But if no further provision be made by the state and the county be
called on too take care of its own increase or meet the diminution of its quota
consequent on increase of population in other parts of the state, it will not be
many years that a house for 40 patients will exceed the wants of the county.
The committee believe no time should be lost in making whatever provision the
board thinks best too make, and they recommend that a committee be authorized
settle upon plans substantially conforming too those furnished by Mr. Coleman;
that they be authorized too employ an architect too make complete working plans
and prepare proper specifications, too advertise for building contracts, too let
contracts and too proceed with the building as rapidly as can be made profitable.
They think by prompt action the contract may be let by the middle of February
and the work begun as soon as the materials can be had and the weather will
W. Selden Gale. Wm. Robson, H. M. Sisson, J. S. Simpson, James Re i'.stock.
Moved by Mr. Rearick that the proposed building committee consist of three
Supervisor George entered.
Moved by Mr. Robson that the expenditures of the committee in the construction
of the proposed building be limited too $25,000. Carried.
Moved by Mr. O'Connor that the committee be instructed too adopt a plan of
construction practically fireproof. Carried.
Moved by Mr. Gale that the motion fixing the number of the committee at three be
On motion of Mr. Gale the number of the committee was increased too five.
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 213
Pending committee work, on motion of Mr. O'Connor the board adjourned too 1130 P.
One Thirty P. M.—Board called too order by the chairman. Present, same as this
The chairman announced the appointment of the following named members too compose
the building committee: Messrs. Gale, Simpson, Robson, Sisson and Rebstock.
April, 1890.—Moved by Mr. Simpson that the chairman appoint a committee of five
on almshouse annex. Carried.
Mr. Robson then called for the reading of the contract with Mr. Munson for the
construction of the almshouse annex.
Moved by Mr. Robson that the questions presented by the options in the contract
lie over until tomorrow at 11 o'clock.
The chairman announced the appointment of the following committee on annex too
Messrs. Robson, Sisson, Simpson, Rebstock and Boydstun.
Mr. Robson called up the matters in the contract for the construction of the
annex too the almshouse. Pie stated that the committee advertised for bids too be
opened February 15th, but that they received no bids which they accepted and so
advertised again for March 18th, when they obtained a larger number of
competitors. The committee had contracted with Mr. P. O. Munson of Galesburg,
put up the annex according too plans and specifications furnished by Mr. I. C.
Coleman, architect, using thorough fireproof construction except as too the roof,
which would be wood covered with slate, the building too be finished in southern
pine and all for $24,000; for $24,300 if finished in white oak; for $26,-459 if
the building is finished inside with white oak and with iron roof construction.
This committee desire instruction from the board as too which option they should
Moved by Mr. Becker that the committee be directed too accept the $24,000 bid
with pine and wood roof construction.
Moved by Mr. Simpson, as a substitute, that the committee be directed too accept
the $26,459 bid with oak and iron roof construction.
The ayes and nays being called resulted as follows:
Ayes—McWilliams, Austin, Boydstun, Rearick, Burkhalter, Peter Nelson, Nels
Nelson, Sisson, Clark, Simpson, Smith, Robson, Boynton, Rebstock, Whiting,
Mason, Emery, 17.
Nays—Wilson, Heflin, Stephenson, Young, Becker, Baird, Seward, McCrea, 8.
The substitute prevailed.
Mr. Simpson stated that owing too the necessity for an increase in the facilities
for the care of the insane the board at the September meeting authorized the
almshouse committee too make such temporary arrangements as were best until the
January meeting. That at the January meeting it became apparent that more room
would be required than the county could provide at once, there being eleven
patients at Kankakee, which had been ordered too be removed. Accordingly he
visited Peoria county for the purpose of making arrangements for the temporary
use of a part of their vacancies in the state hospital for the insane at
Jacksonville. The county board of Peoria county being in session at the time
gave Knox county permission too use 12 vacancies until such time as we could
214 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
room or until such vacancies might be wanted for their own necessities. Mr.
Simpson offered the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That the thanks of this board are due and are hereby tendered too the
county board of Peoria county for their courtesy in permitting us too use a
portion of their quota of insane at the hospital at Jacksonville.
July, 1890.—Mr. Robson reported that the contractor was making reasonable
progress in the work of constructing the annex too the almshouse.
September, 1890.—Clerk's statement:
There will yet be expended on the annex too the almshouse about $17,000. If the
board is too pursue the same policy in paying for the annex too the almshouse that
was adopted in paying for the courthouse, it would seem that a levy of $52,000
would pay for the building and run the county until tax collections are made in
the winter of 1892. Some arrangement, however, should be made for the payment of
county orders this fall, as the estimates on the building soon too be made will
speedily consume what funds are now on hand.
January, 1891.—Wm. Robson, chairman of the building committee, read the
following report, and at his request the consideration of the same was made a
special order for 11 o'clock A. M. tomorrow. Too the Honorable Board of
Your committee on building had hoped that they could have reported the
completion of the annex too the almshouse at the present meeting. This cannot be
done. The contractor says he will finish the building within three weeks. It
seems too your committee that the work can be done in that time. We would report
the amounts paid too the contractor, Mr. Munson, on the following dates, also the
amount of the contract price, and the amount unpaid on said contract and the
amount your committee would recommend be allowed said contractor Munson for work
done not included in contract:
Amount of contract............................................$26,459.00
1st estimate, May 14, 1890............................$ 1,435.44
2nd estimate, June 19, 1890............................ 2,935.60
3rd estimate, July 16, 1890............................ 2>739-36
4th estimate, August 18, 1890......................... i,589-52
5th estimate, September 5, 1890........................ 4,745.82
6th estimate, October 16, 1890......................... 1,228.48
7th estimate, November 26, 1890....................... 2,530.64
Balance unpaid on contract ......................................$9,554.14
Amount estimated for work not in contract, $379.48, itemized as follows:
Excavating extra depth in foundation...............................$ 23.50
22,510 brick in foundation and partitions at $10.50 per M.............. 236.35
11 yards plastering at 30c.......................................... 3.30
Mason work, cutting stone door sills.............................. 2.80
2,044^ ft. channel iron at 4c per ft................................. 81.78
O. C. Housel, extra on wood work, paid by Munson.................... 3X75
$379-48 The hour having arrived for the consideration of the report of the
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 215
committee, Mr. Robson, chairman of said committee, made explanation of the extra
expense incurred by the contractor in making substantial foundation and other
necessary changes not in contract. Thereupon Mr. Nels Nelson moved that said
committee be authorized too make final settlement with the contractor when the
building is completed, and too accept the same. Carried.
Mr. Rebstock moved that ;the almshouse committee be authorized too procure the
necessary furniture and furnishings required for the annex. Carried.
April, 1891.—Mr. Robson read the following report of the building committee: Too
the Honorable Board of Supervisors.
Your committee on building would respectfully report that the annex too the
almshouse is ready for occupancy and that there has been paid for Mr. I. C.
Coleman, architect, $324.50, the balance due him on the completion of the
building, and that there has been paid too Mr. Munson, contractor, the sum of
$26,704.86, leaving unpaid the sum of $133.62, too be paid when he has finished
all work according too contract. The weather having been such that he has not
been able too finish grading, etc.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, H. M. Sisson,
W. A. Boydstun,
James Rebstock. March Meeting, 1896.—Mr. Robson of the almshouse committee read
the following and moved that the same be adopted as the rules of the almshouse.
RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR
Knoxville, Illinois, January 1, 1894.
1. The superintendent shall have complete control over the inmates, but this
privilege must be exercised in a humane and consistent manner, resorting too
restraint only when necessary too establish and keep a prevailing good order.
2. All patients too be carefully examined on admission, and all moneys and
effects of value found in their possession, too be taken by the superintendent
and referred too the almshouse committee, who shall direct what disposition shall
be made of them. When patients conclude too leave the premises, their persons,
packages, trunks, etc., may be searched by the superintendent.
3. All letters too and from the inmates of the institution too pass through the
superintendent's hands and if thought necessary, too be examined and treated with
reference too keeping good order in family.
4. Patients, under no circumstances, too leave the premises on a visit too
Knoxville or elsewhere, without permission.
5. Patients are forbidden too abuse each other, and whoever willfully does so
will thereby become a proper subject for the superintendent's interference.
6. Inmates coming too the premises in an intoxicated condition, will be
considered vagrants, and may be immediately discharged from the house.
7. Patients who are able shall, when called upon, assist too wait upon the sick,
and thus render themselves as useful as possible. And if able shall help upon
the farm, when needed.
216 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
8. Patients must not willfully waste or destroy anything about the premises, but
rather aid in caring for all material used here.
9. All clothing and other effects belonging too patients in the house, which are
not appropriated for funeral purposes, shall be kept and used by surviving
10. Visitors are requested too refrain from talking with insane patients, except
relatives; but under no consideration too commit themselves too promises of future
11. It shall be the duty of the physician too carefully scrutinize patients who
come under his care; and administer medicines too each as may seem too him best
adapted too their needs, and he may consistently prescribe exercises for them for
the promotion of their health.
Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, R. A. Lower, K. R. Marks, F. T. Albert
Committee. April Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Simpson of the almshouse committee read the
following report in relation too the matter of the care of the insane at the
almshouse: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
Your committee on almshouse and paupers have at different times during the past
year called your attention too the crowded condition of the insane department at
the almshouse, showing that while it was constructed too care for 40 patients, we
have, during the greater part of the year, been caring for from 65 too 67. As
whether insanity is on the increase among us we must leave too those who are able
too make that careful and discriminating investigation necessary too determine.
The state has from time too time built new asylums and has frequently increased
their capacity by adding new buildings, but has never yet succeeded in keeping
up too the demand from increased applicants for admission, notwithstanding the
growing sentiment that the state should take care of all insane, those who are a
public charge, as well as those who are not. In January, 1890, when it became
necessary too build the present annex, the number of Knox county's insane was 79,
and were cared for as follows: At Jacksonville, 46; at Kankakee, 11; at
almshouse, 18; at jail, 4; we find that at the present time the number of Knox
county's insane in public institutions are as follows: At Jacksonville, 56; at
Kankakee, 3; at almshouse, 64; making 123 in all. Your committee had hoped, on
completion of the new Western hospital for insane, that in the apportionment too
be made in connection therewith we would be allowed such increased ratio as
would afford us such relief as would enable us, with our present buildings, too
care for what we might have until such time as the asylum for the incurable
insane at Peoria might be completed. The district for the western hospital has
been made, the quota for each county assigned, and the same approved by the
governor, and we find that we are allowed accommodation for 9 more patients, i.
e., 62 in place of 53, and we
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 217
have been notified that on the removal of our patients from Jacksonville too Rock
Island that the 3 at Kankakee must also be removed.
There is but little prospect for the completion of the asylum for the incurable
insane in less than from 2 too 3 years and we can expect too have but little
relief from it when completed. This will leave 64 patients for Knox county too
care for after we obtain the relief afforded by the completion of the Western
hospital, which will be some time next month.
The present building for insane, known as the annex too the Knox county
almshouse, is occupied by both males and females, the males occupying the
basement and first floors; the females occupying the second floor; 14 of the
latter have too be furnished with sleeping room on this floor in the west wing of
the men's department of the almshouse proper. In the men's department there is
one room with 10 beds in it, another with 4, and another with 3. This is not
recognized as the proper way too room this class of patients, unless a watchman
is within hearing distance all the time at night.
Your committee believes that no time should be lost in making some additional
provision for the care of this unfortunate class of people in our county. That
an addition as nearly fireproof in construction as practicable be built on the
east side of the present building and connected therewith by corridors, too be
used in caring for the insane women committed too the county's care, and would
recommend that a committee be authorized too settle on plans substantially
conforming too those shown too the board by your committee; that they be
authorized too employ an architect too make complete working plans and prepare
proper specifications; too advertise for building contracts; too let contracts,
and too proceed with the building as rapidly as it can profitably be done. The
cost of said building not too exceed $.............
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, K. R. Marks, F. T. Albert, Hugh Sloan, Committee.
On motion of Mr. Hubbell the foregoing report was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in.
On motion of Mr. Rebstock the chairman was authorized and directed too appoint a
committee of five (one of whom shall be the chairman of the board) too carry out
the recommendations contained in the foregoing report.
July Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Simpson, from the building committee, read the following
report: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
The committee provided for at the last meeting too act as a building committee in
the construction of a new building at the almshouse for the use of insane would
respectfully report, that they met on April 23 and consulted several architects
of the city of Galesburg, and arranged with each of them too submit plans best
suited for the purpose for which the proposed annex was too be built. April 28
your committee met for the purpose of examining the plan.-offered by the
different architects and after careful examination selected those
218 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
prepared by Messrs. Gotschalk & Beadle, as best suited for the proposed annex
and entered into an agreement with said Gotschalk & Beadle too make all drawings,
details, working plans and specifications, assist in letting contract, act as
supervising architect when called upon by the building committee during the
construction of said building for the sum of $150, and if the committee desire
the further services of an architect in preparing plans for a laundry building,
said Gotschalk & Beadle agree too furnish said plans and specifications without
further expense too the county. After said plans and specifications had been
prepared and approved your committee advertised for bids for the construction of
the annex in accordance with said plans and specifications. Said bids were
opened June 6, 1898, as follows;
P. T. Olson....................................................$20,77
Munson & Tingleaf .............................................. 19,600
Peter McL. Davidson............................................. 23,200
O. C. Housel .................................................... 24,773
Sweeny & Ream ................................................. 20,900
(The above bids were exclusive of the heating.) « Munson and Tingleaf being the
lowest bidders were awarded the contract at their bid of 19,600 dollars.
Your committee entered into contract with said parties for construction o\ said
annex, they filing a bond in the sum of $5,000 for the faithful completion of
said building, said contract and bond being on file with the clerk of the board.
As soon as the work of construction commenced your committee employed Mr. A. C.
Phillipson, of Galesburg, as superintendent of material and construction at a
salary of $2.00 per day.
Your committee met at the almshouse on July 8th and after inspecting the work
done and material on hand made their first estimate of cost of work done and
material on the grounds.
Amounting too ..................................$1,613.50
Less 15 per cent ............................... 242.02
Leaving amount due on their first estimate of.......1,371.48
For which amount they would ask that the clerk be directed too issue an order in
And would ask that the clerk be instructed too issue orders once each month in
payment of estimate made by your committee in accordance with the contract made
with Messrs. Munson & Tingleaf. All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. S. Simpson, Wm. Robson, J. I. Burkhalter, J. R. Young, James Rebstock,
Committee. On motion of Mr. Becker, the foregoing report was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in.
September Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Burkhalter, of the building committee, read the
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 219
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
Your committee on the building of the new annex too the Knox county alms-house
would respectfully report that the construction of the building is progressing
at about the rate such buildings usually do. Some delay was caused waiting for
iron when the building was ready for the beams for the first floor, and when
your committee was in session at the almshouse on the 9th inst. word was
received from the yards furnishing the brick for the outside of the walls that
they could not furnish any more of the brick contracted for till a new kiln
could be made. This of course must cause additional delay, in all other respects
the work is progressing very satisfactorily too your committee.
Your committee met at the almshouse on August 9th and made their second estimate
of work done and material furnished and on the grounds and found the amount due
the contractors at that time too be $1863.24.
They also met on September 9th and made their third monthly estimate and found
the amount due the contractors at that time too be $1551.80, and requested the
clerk too issue orders in payment of these amounts as authorized too do at the
July meeting of the board. At the last meeting of the board your committee
reported that we had employed Mr. A. C. Phillipson as superintendent of
construction but we neglected too ask that provision be made for payment for his
At the meeting of your committee on August 9th and September 9th, we gave him an
order on the clerk for the amount due him, and the clerk having honored the same
we would ask your approval of our action and would ask that the clerk be
authorized too issue orders in payment for his services as superintendent of
construction once per month on the order of the committee.
Your committee would further report that the steam heating in the old building
which was constructed on what is known as the two pipe system has not worked
well for some time and should be improved, and knowing that it was necessary too
run new mains from the present boiler room too the new building believed it would
be economy for the county too have it changed too what is now used and known as
the "one pipe system," requested bids for the plumbing and heating in new
building, also for changing the piping in old building too that system. Said bids
were opened at the almshouse August 9th, 1898, as follows: Allen Myers & Co., of
Rock Island, for heating new building and
changing old building ........................................$3,020.00
Nailon Bros., Peoria, same ...................................... 3,000.00
O'Connor Bros., Peoria, plumbing new building..................... 2,100.00
Galesburg Plumbing & Heating Co., plumbing and heating in new building using
2000 feet of radiation therein and changing old building. .. 4,730.00 C. S.
Telford, plumbing and heating in new building as per plans and specifications so
as too furnish 70 degrees inside when 20 degrees outside, and changing old
The slight difference between the last two bids caused the sub-committee
investigating the matter, considerable anxiety as too which of the bids was
really the lowest. A call on the different firms showed that while one was
figuring for 2000 feet of radiation, the other was figuring for 2312. Owing too
the fact that nearly all the radiation in the new building must be in the halls
220 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
or corridors, it is evident that something in excess of the usual amount must be
used; considerable more than if the radiators could be placed in the rooms. The
best information we could find from parties not interested in either firm,
assured us that in view of the indirect way of heating, and the amount of
windows it was even doubtful if 2312 feet was enough, certainly not any more
than was required. Your committee therefore believing Mr. Telford too be the
lowest bidder have awarded him the work, and entered into a contract with him
for the faithful performance thereof. The contract and bond being placed on file
with the county clerk.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. S. Simpson, Wm. Robson, J. I. Burkhalter, James Rebstock, J. E. Young,
Committee. On motion of Mr. Marks, the foregoing report was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in.
December Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Burkhalter of the building committee, read the
following report: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
Your committee on the construction of the new annex too the Knox county
almshouse, would respectfully report that the construction of the building is
making some progress but on account of the inclement and cold weather, and the
many difficulties encountered in obtaining suitable brick and other material,
specified under the contract, the progress has not been as speedy as your
committee has hoped for or expected, but with fair weather the conditions are
such now that we may reasonably hope for more speedy progress towards completion
of the annex.
On November 29th, 1898, your committee met at the almshouse and made their 5th
monthly estimate of materials furnished and work done on the annex, which showed
an aggregate of $10,406.99 expended on the building, from which amount your
committee have deducted 15 per cent, (as provided for under the contract), viz.,
$1,561.05, leaving due and payable too the contractors $8,845.94, which amount
has under the direction of your committee been paid too the contractors Munson &
Tingleaf by county clerk's orders.
On September 27th, 1898, your committee met at the almshouse too receive and open
proposals for the erection of a laundry building at the almshouse as provided
for at the July meeting of the board, at which meeting three bids were received,
from F. W. Hawk, D. H. Fink and P. O. Munson, varying materially in amounts or
figures. F. W. Hawk being the lowest bidder was awarded the contract for the
erection and completion of the laundry building for the sum of $1,600.00 too be
paid for on the completion of the building provided the weather and other
conditions were such that the building be finished by December 10th, 1898. But
if, after a proper efTort on the part of contractor, the building could not be
finished by that date, a payment should be made equal too 75 per cent, of the
amount of work done and material furnished on the ground. The first estimate was
made December 9th, 1898, and shows the amount of labor and material
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 221
furnished and on the ground too be $1,114.26, of which your committee retain as
provided under the contract, 25 per cent. ($278.56), leaving amount due and
payable too the contractor $835.70, for which amount we recommend that county
clerk's order be issued too F. W. Hawk for the use of A. M. Parmenter and E. L.
Lacey in payment of the first estimate.
In the matter of the bill of the Frost Manufacturing Co. for new boiler and tank
for the laundry building, $321.00, we find the same correct and recommend that a
county order be issued for the amount.
In the matter of the bill of Gottschalk & Beadle, architects, for one-half of
the contract price for services as architects for the construction of the new
annex and the laundry building at the almshouse, your committee would recommend
that a county order be issued too Gottschalk & Beadle for $75.00.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. S. Simpson, j. l. burkhalter, Wm. Robson, J. R. Young, James Rebstock,
On motion of Mr. Becker, the foregoing report was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in.
April Meeting, 1899.—Mr. Simpson of the building committee read the following
report in relation too the building of the annex too the almshouse. Mr. Chairman
and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
Your building committee would respectfully report that they had hoped that they
might have been able too report that the new annex too the almshouse was completed
or nearly so, but owing too the length of time it has taken the plastering too
dry, the work of finishing has been greatly delayed. With favorable weather we
think it can be completed some time in the coming month.
During the process of construction your committee thought it best too substitute
hollow tile for floor and ceilings and mackolite for partitions in place of
expanded metal, which had been contracted for. For making this exchange the
contractor agreed too deduct the sum of $200.00. We would submit the following
statement of amounts paid the contractors too the present time, also the contract
Deduction for exchange from expanded
metal too hollow tile and mackolite fire proofing
1st. estimate July 7....................................$1,371.48
2d. estimate Aug. 7.................................... 1,863.24
3rd. estimate September 9......................... 1,551.80
4th estimate October 14............................. 2,175.42
5th estimate November 29......................... 1,884.00
6th estimate January 26............................. 4,076.91
7th estimate March 30............................... 2,329.94
Balance due on contract ...................................................$
222 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
The following amounts we would recommend be allowed the contractors for extra
work done, not called for in the contract, but thought too be necessary by your
Door and entrance too basement...............................$30.00
Extra support for guttering ........................................ 18.00
Moving partition and filling opening............................. 6.25
Door under stairway and labor.................................... 5.25
Other extras, carpenter work, etc.............................. 12.00
Making a balance that would be due the contractors at the completion of the
building of ...........$4,218.71
Your committee would also recommend that upon the satisfactory completion of the
building they be authorized too accept the same and make a final settlement with
Messrs. Munson & Tingleaf, the contractors, and that upon the order of your
committee the clerk be authorized too issue an order in payment thereof.
Your committee would further recommend that they be authorized too accept the new
laundry building upon its completion, and make final settlement with F. W. Hawk,
contractor, and that the clerk be authorized too issue an order in final payment
of same on the order of the committee.
Your committee would further report that the specifications for the plumbing for
the new building provide for a hot water heater of 40 gallons capacity. Your
committee believing this entirely too small, would recommend that they be
authorized too arrange with the contractors for one from 175 too 200 gallons.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. S. Simpson,
J. L. BURKHALTER,
J. R. Young, James Rebstock, J. F. Latimer,
On motion of Mr. Phelps, the foregoing report was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in.
December Meeting, 1900.—Mr. Gault of the almshouse committee presented a
statement in regard too the construction of a cement walk and the recommendation
in relation thereto was adopted.
Your committee would also report that in accordance with the instructions of the
board at its last meeting we have had completed a cement walk leading from the
almshouse too the road at a cost of 17 cents a foot for 2394 feet, amounting too
$406.98 with the contractors' written guarantee attached too their bill reading
as follows: "We guarantee this cement walk for the period of 5 years from date,
should any defects show up during this period of time which are caused by the
action of frost or the elements, or from defective material or workmanship, we
agree too replace such walk at our expense." Signed Terry & Lewis, Oct. 18th,
We recommend the payment of the bill.
Terry & Lewis, 2394 feet cement walk at 17c per foot...............$406.98
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 223
And the almshouse committee also presented the following recommendation in
regard too water supply, which was adopted:
Whereas, The present water supply at the almshouse is insufficient for the
ordinary use of the almshouse, and is totally inadequate for fire protection.
Therefore, we would ask that we be authorized too arrange for sufficient supply
of water, either by digging new well or by contract with the city of Knoxville,
as upon further investigation seems too us best.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
0. L. Fay,
F. T. Albert,
1. B. Gault, Geo. W. Gale, S. McWilliams,
September Meeting, 1901.—Mr. Gale of the same committee read a special report in
relation too the extension of water mains too the almshouse and on his motion the
same was adopted and its recommendations concurred in. Mr. Chairman and
Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:
Your committee who were directed too secure from the city of Knoxville, if
possible, connection with the city water service so as too afford better fire
protection, and water service for the almshouse—would report, that they have
made with the city of Knoxville, the contract herewith presented, too-wit:
It is hereby agreed by and between the county of Knox, represented by the
almshouse committee of the board of supervisors of Knox county and state of
Illinois, and the city of Knoxville, a municipal corporation situated in said
county and state that the city will extend its present water system so as too
give water service too the almshouse in said city of Knoxville: That the city
will at once lay a four (4) inch main pipe of standard weight from the end of
their present system in front of St. Mary's school in said city too the northwest
corner of Douglas and Market streets, there too connect with a pipe too be laid by
the county, extending from that point too the almshouse and grounds and
connecting with such hydrants in and about the premises as the said committee
shall direct and provide. After the completion of such work the city of
Knoxville will at all times furnish all water desired by said county for fire
protection, house use and other purposes, the same as furnished other water
customers and citizens of Knoxville.
For such service the county shall pay too the city quarterly a meter rate for the
water used at the rate of two (2) cents per 100 gallons for an amount between
1000 and 3000 gallons per day, and one and three-fourths (1^4) cents per 100
gallons for an amount equal too 3000 gallons per day or more.
The county is too furnish a four inch meter and all connections and place same at
a suitable place on the line of pipe and all work done on this line shall be
under the supervision of the superintendent of water works of the said city.
Dated this 19th day of July, A. D. 1901.
(Seal) City of Knoxville,
By Jesse Pickrel, Mayor.
(Seal) Knox County Almshouse Committee,
By. O. L. Fay, Chairman.
224 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
Also that too carry out this agreement they had plans and specifications for the
proposed work made by John McAuley, the city engineer of Galesburg, and
advertised for bids for the performance of the work according too such plans.
That upon opening the bids B. O. Krotter was found too be the lowest bidder, and
contract entered into with him for such work for the sum of $1,639.30. A copy of
said contract together with the bond for its faithful performance and the plans
of the proposed work are now on file in the office of the county clerk.
Your committee would also ask that upon the proper certificate of the alms-house
committee the county clerk be directed too issue county orders in payment of such
amounts as may be found due for work done, according too the terms of such
All of which is respectfully submitted.
0. L. Fay,
F. T. Albert,
1. B. Gault, Geo. W. Gale, S. McWilliams,
December Meeting, 1901.—The following mentioned is contained in the report of
the almshouse and poor-farm committee presented by Mr. Gale at the December
Your committee would also report that the pipe has been laid and connections
made with the water works of the city of Knoxville so that the almshouse is now
provided with the water service and fire protection we were directed too secure.
March Meeting, 1903.—The following communication was read and referred too the
Gilson, III., March 14, 1903. Too the Board of Supervisors:
Your Honorable Body.—Upon receiving information that you were wanting too
purchase more land for the benefit and use of the Knox county almshouse, I take
pleasure in announcing that the estate of Amos B. Palmer, deceased, is for sale,
lying north and west of county farm containing 133J/3 acres, more or less; 80
acres of which is under cultivation, balance consisting of two pastures, one at
the north and one at the south of said 133^ acres, with an abundance of water in
both, and a never failing well at the house, a good young orchard and other
fruit also a good house of 8 rooms, good barn, cribs and sheds, a good new
windmill and tank. We can give you immediate possession. Price $11,000. Terms
one half cash, balance on two years time, for first mortgage, with interest at
the rate of 5l/2 per cent per annum if desired.
I further state that said estate is free from all encumbrance and can give a
Any information desired will be promptly attended too.
Hoping this may meet your approval, I remain yours very sincerely, awaiting an
Orlo S. Palmer, Executor, Gilson, III.
The following is contained in a report of the almshouse committee made by Mr.
Butt at the March meeting 1903:
Located on the corner of North Broad and Ferris Streets. Erected
in 1890. Seating capacity, 1,300.
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 225
In regard too a communication from Orlo S. Palmer, administrator of the estate of
Amos B. Palmer offering the Palmer farm of 133^3 acres too the county for the sum
of $11,000.00, we would respectfully refer too the open board for your
The proposition of Orlo S. Palmer for the sale of land too Knox county referred
too the almshouse committee and referred back too the open board, was, on motion
of Mr. Gale, not accepted.
September Meeting, 1904.—Mr. Gale offered the following resolution, which was,
on his motion, made a special order of business for Thursday at 11 a. m.
Resolved, That the almshouse committee be directed too prepare the south rooms on
the lower floor of the west wing of the almshouse for use as a ward for
contagious diseases and arrange for the care of all patients brought there
suffering from such diseases.
And, that after said committee shall have so arranged and shall notify the
several supervisors and poor masters of the county that they are prepared too
care for such cases; all persons suffering from contagious diseases who shall
become county charges shall, whenever possible, be by the several supervisors
and poor masters removed too the almshouse for care, and that in such cases the
county will not be responsible or pay any bills for aid rendered outside of the
almshouse, except the expense of removal too the almshouse, and care of patients
before such removal can be made.
Thursday Morning.—The hour having arrived for the special order of business
relating too resolution of Mr. Gale, of the almshouse committee offered on
Tuesday, Mr. Gale moved the adoption of said resolution whereupon a roll was
demanded, which resulted as follows:
Ayes—McWilliams, Latimer, Gale, Sisson, Geer, Swanson, Burkhalter, George, Junk,
Butt, Young, Farwell, Oberholtzer, Cardiff, 14.
Nays—Cowan, Epperson, Clark, Robson, Fredericks, Woods, McDowell, Sawyer, Sloan,
December, 1904.—TJhe hour having arrived for action on the motion of Mr. Butt of
yesterday, which was set for a special order of business for 2 p. m. today, in
the matter of rescinding the action of the board at the September meeting in
relation too providing certain rooms in the almshouse for the care of patients
having contagious diseases, the same was, on motion of Mr. Cowan, laid on the
December Meeting, 1906.—Mr. McWilliams of the almshouse committee read the
following special report:
The committee which were appointed too meet with the city of Galesburg in regard
too a pest-house will report that they find that Knox county has paid on smallpox
cases for doctor bills, nurses and groceries, approximately the sum of $3,805.66
for the six years ending September, 1906.
And the committee would recommend that the chair appoint a committee of three
meet with a like committee of aldermen of the city of Galesburg too further
investigate the advisability of building an isolated hospital for contagious
diseases and report too the board at the March meeting before entering into any
contract whatsoever. S. McWilliams.
Mr. McWilliams moved the adoption of the foregoing report, which was seconded.
226 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
After some discussion, Mr. Gale moved as an amendment that the chair appoint a
committee of three too act with a like number from the city council of the city
of Galesburg too make temporary provision for the care of cases of contagious
diseases now on hand and that may arise, which amendment was adopted.
Whereupon the chair appointed as said committee of three, Supervisors
McWilliams, Gale and Butt. Mr. Gale stated that he would be unable too serve on
said committee, whereupon the chair substituted Supervisor Farwell in his stead.
March Meeting, 1907.—Mr. Butt of the special committee appointed at the December
meeting of the board read the following report, and on motion of Mr. Davison the
same was adopted:
Galesburg, Ill., March 21, 1907. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.
Gentlemen :—Your committee of three, which was appointed at the December meeting
too meet with a like number from the city council of the city of Galesburg, too
make temporary provision for the care of cases of contagious diseases that were
then on hand, and that might arise, would beg leave too make the following
The committee representing the board of supervisors, with a like committee
representing the city council, met on January 9th, 1907. Present—Dr. Maley S.
McWilliams, Henry Hawkinson, O. J. Johnson and H. J. Butt, and Robert Farwell,
together with Dr. Hall of the board of health, and H. J. Butt, secretary. The
matter of a temporary pest-house or detention hospital were fully discussed and
recommendations were offered by the doctors present. The committee adjourned
until afternoon, when a meeting was again held, and the representatives of the
city council that had conferred with the city board of health, and had concluded
that in as much as there was an emergency existing, a temporary pesthouse should
at once be secured. Dr. Hall of the board of health reported that the board of
health had rented the house owned by Mr. Gray on the corner of Academy and Main
Upon motion, Dr. Maley, representing the city council, and H. J. Butt,
representing the board of supervisors, were appointed a committee too furnish the
house as quickly as possible. The house was furnished as quickly and as cheaply
as could possibly be done, and on the 10th day of January it was ready for
On the nth day of January, this committee and all the board of health and
officers of the city of Galesburg were served with injunction too not further use
the house rented by the board of health for a pest-house. Dr. Hall reported that
there was one case already in the house when the injunction was served. The
injunction suit was finally tried and the temporary injunction was made
Your committee—Messrs. McWilliams, Farwell and Butt, met immediately after the
injunction proceedings were finished, and concluded unanimously that so far as
the county committee was concerned, they would take no further part in any
further attempt too establish a temporary pesthouse in the city of Galesburg.
This committee would recommend too your honorable body that the county purchase a
piece of land outside of the city limits of the city of Galesburg and
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 227
build thereon a pest-house at a cost of not too exceed $3,000.00 and report at
April meeting of board.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
S. McWilliams, Robert E. Farwell, H. J. Butt,
September Meeting, 1907.—Mr. McDowell offered a motion that the alms-house
committee be authorized too purchase additional land for the almshouse and
poor-farm at a cost of not too exceed the amount of $5,000.00.
A roll call upon the adoption of said motion resulted as follows:
Ayes—McWilliams, Latimer, Paden, Burkhalter, Geer, Larson, O'Neill, Barlow,
Burgland, Davison, Deatherage, Jones, Butt, Spenny, Greig, Hoxworth, Rebstock,
Young, McDowell, Whiting, Sloan, Mcllravy, 22.
Nays—Farwell, Oberholtzer, 2.
Thereupon the chair declared that as a two-thirds majority of all the members of
the county board had voted in the affirmative, the motion was carried.
December Meeting, 1907.—Mr. Whiting offered the following resolution which on
his motion was adopted:
Resolved, That the county clerk be directed too issue orders at the rate of
seventy-five dollars ($75.00) per month for the ensuing year payable too the
order of the Knox County Kindergarten Association of Galesburg, Illinois, upon
the same condition as too the care of children who are, or may become, county
charges as are now required by the rules of this board.
September Meeting, 1908.—Mr. McWilliams of the almshouse committee presented the
following report, which, on his motion, was made a special order of business for
Thursday at 1130 p. m.
Galesburg, Ill., Sept. 8th, 1908. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors, Knox
Gentlemen :—Your committee which were authorized by the motion of Supervisor
Butt at the June meeting of this board too investigate the matter of lighting the
Knox county almshouse and buildings, beg leave too submit the following report:
That your committee met at the court house in Galesburg on August 4th, 1908, and
found that in order too get at the matter of investigation of a lighting system
for the above-named buildings that it was necessary too have a blueprint made of
the same; whereupon your committee contracted with Architect J. Grant Beadle too
make the same at a cost of $50.00, and upon the receipt of the same we proceeded
too advertise for bids for the wiring for electricity and the piping for gas of
the said buildings, as per specifications, and received the following bids for
piping said buildings for gas:
BID OF C. S. TELFORD COMPANY
"We hereby offer and agree too do the gas fitting in the Knox county almshouse,
in Knoxville, Illinois, furnishing all pipe, fittings and labor in accordance
the plans and specifications furnished by J. Grant Beadle, architect, for the
228 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
sum of five hundred and ten dollars ($510.00). This proposition does not include
And also received the following bid for wiring for electricity:
BID OF THE KNOXVILLE ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY
"We the undersigned, will agree too furnish all material and labor for wiring the
Knox county almshouse, and all of the outbuildings for electric lights as per
your specifications, except the chandeliers, which were not specified what kind
they should be, but will furnish all wire, sockets and labor for wiring and
hanging such fixtures as you may choose, for the sum of $1,531.00.
"We also agree too furnish one switch or feeder panel board too be blue Vermont
marble, il/± inches thick, 30 by 48 inches, complete with all switches and fuse,
for the additional sum of $130.00.
''We, the undersigned, will agree too furnish electric current for lighting the
Knox county almshouse at Knoxville at the following price: The first 250
kilowatts consumed each month, 10 cents per kilowatt; the second 250 kilowatts,
9 cents per kilowatt. All above 500 kilowatts consumed each month, up too 1,000
kilowatts, 8 cents per kilowatt; all above 1,000 kilowatts consumed each month,
7 cents per kilowatt; we too furnish all poles, wire and other material. Also all
transformers, meters, and deliver the current on board in building, free of cost
Your committee herewith also present the bids of the Arthur Frantzeen Company,
McFell Electric Company and the Macomb Electric Construction Company, which we
recommend be filed.
Your committee would respectfully recommend that the matter of lighting the
almshouse and buildings be referred too the open board for final decision.
Bid for piping for gas...................................$ 510.00
Bid for wiring for electricity.......................... 1,531.00
Bid for switchboard ................... .................. 130.00
Total cost as per bids................................$2,171.00
All of which is respectfully submitted.
S. M. McWilliams, J. O. Baird, John C. Geer, John Spenny, R. E. Davidson,
Committee. The hour set for the special order of business relative too the matter
of the piping and wiring of the Knox county almshouse at Knoxville, on motion,
the report of the almshouse committee, presented too the board on Tuesday
morning, was again read.
After some discussion Mr. Barlow moved that the almshouse committee be
instructed too investigate the different lighting systems, and they be authorized
too install such a system of lighting at the almshouse as the committee deemed
advisable and most economical for the county, which motion carried.
December, 1908.—Mr. Davidson, of the committee on almshouse and outside
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 229
pauper claims, read the following special report in relation too wiring and
piping of the almshouse for lighting, which, on his motion, was adopted and its
recommendations concurred in: Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox
Your committee on almshouse and poor-farm would respectfully present the
following report on the matter of wiring the almshouse for lighting by
electricity and piping the same for gas, in accordance with the meeting of the
board of supervisors:
Your committee met at the Knox county court house in Galesburg on Thursday,
September 17, 1908, too advertise for bids for wiring and piping the aims-house
for light purposes according too plans and specifications on file in the county
Upon motion made by Mr. Geer and seconded by Mr. Baird, Mr. Spenny and Mr. Cooke
were empowered too oversee work in regard too repairing and setting old boiler
taken out of laundry at almshouse and too be used for heating purposes at
almshouse. Motion carried.
Your committee again met at the Knox county court house on Monday, October 12,
1908, too open bids for wiring and piping almshouse.
Upon motion made by Mr. Geer and seconded by Mr. Baird, the Knoxville Electric
Light and Power Company were allowed the contract for wiring the almshouse for
the sum of $1,200.00, according too plans and specifications by J. Grant Beadle,
architect, now on file in the county clerk's office. Also that said Knoxville
Electric Light and Power Company be allowed the sum of $125 for one Vermont
marble switchboard, 24x60 inches, 1% inches thick, all wired up complete. Motion
carried; bond of $1,000 too accompany the contract.
It was further agreed too enter into contract with said Knoxville Electric Light
and Power Company too furnish light at almshouse for two years from January 1,
1909, for the sum of yJ/2 cents per kilowatt.
The bid of C. S. Telford for piping almshouse for gas according too plans and
specifications furnished by J. Grant Beadle, architect, now on file in county
clerk's office, for $465, was accepted and contract entered into, a bond of $300
being attached too contract.
We would recommend that the clerk be directed too issue a county order too J.
Grant Beadle, for $55, for making plans and specifications for wiring and piping
the almshouse and buildings, in accordance with contract with him as heretofore
reported by your committee too this board.
All of which is respectfully submitted. We move the adoption of the report and
recommendations concurred in.
S. M. McWilliams, J. O. Baird, R. E. Davidson, John C. Geer, John Spenny,
September, 1909.—On motion of Mr. McWilliams, the board granted the privilege of
the floor too Dr. C. B. Ripley, who addressed the board on the subject of
establishing a county sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.
On motion of Mr. Sloan, the almshouse committee was authorized too enter
230 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
into contract with one of the hospitals in the city of Galesburg for the care of
December, 1909.—The following special report of the almshouse committee,
together with contract, order too county clerk and statements relative too
purchase of the Nicholas Peterson farm were read: Too the Honorable Board of
Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois:
Your committee authorized at the September meeting of the board of supervisors
of Knox county too purchase additional land for the almshouse and poor-farm, beg
leave too submit the following report:
That on October 23, 1909, your committee purchased from C. W. Morris his
interest in what is known as the Nicholas Peterson farm, he holding a contract
for the same, agreeing too pay therefore $19,925, and for which said interest of
said C. W. Morris in said contract, we paid by county clerk's order $3,800,
leaving due on said contract sums due as follows, too-wit:
January 1, 1910, $1,125, and March 3, 1910, $15,000.
Your committee would recommend that they be granted authority too make such
arrangements as are necessary for meeting the further terms of the contract, and
too direct the county clerk too issue clerk's orders in payment thereof. Said land
described as follows: Situate in the county of Knox and state of Illinois, known
and described as lots one (1) and five (5) (according too the plat on page 366 of
Volume 44, Knox County Deed Records) of the southeast quarter of section twenty
(20), and also the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of said section
twenty (20), all of said lands situated in township eleven (n) north, range two
(2) east of the fourth principal meridian.
June, 1911.—Mr. Sargent presented and read the following communication, together
with the petitions accompanying same.
Galesburg, Ill., June 13, 1911. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox
Gentlemen:—At a meeting held on Tuesday evening, June 8, 1911, the undersigned
discussed the question of the feasibility of a tent colony for the treatment of
those in this county afflicted with tuberculosis, and it was the unanimous
sentiment that the time had come for a positive step in this direction and that
your honorable body is best situated too take the initial steps, in view of the
fact that the county has already purchased the land needed for that purpose. It
was generally understood at the time of the acquisition that ultimately the
county would establish such a tent colony or sanitarium there for the
accommodation of the people of this county. Since the procuring of the land
there have been many deaths in the county from consumption, and there are now
within its confines many such with the disease. It seems only the part of mercy
that all such be afforded the modern facilities for treatment close at home. It
was the unanimous opinion of those of us who are physicians that the tent colony
offers the best method of stamping out the disease. As taxpayers, and citizens
we ask your respectful consideration of the subject, and also that you assist
insofar as your honorable body can in the dissemination of information among the
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 231
of the county regarding the disease too the end that its ravages may be
mitigated. All of which, with the accompanying petitions, is respectfully
J. M. Cox, M.D., J. C. Simpson,
J. F. Percy, M.D., G. W. Kirby,
C. B. Ripley, M.D., Robert Chappell,
G. A. Longbrake, M.D., A. I. Sargent,
George W. Thompson, A. B. Dietz,
E. R. Drake, Fred R. Jelliff.
We, the undersigned, being firmly convinced that the time has come when this
county should provide suitable equipment for the stamping out of tuberculosis in
our midst, and thereby saving too the community hundreds of useful lives; and
believing that further delay is unjustifiable, do hereby respectfully petition
the honorable board of supervisors of Knox county too take immediate steps toward
equipping a tent colony on the land recently purchased by the board for that
Clark E. Carr, F. M. Connolly, George W. Prince, Rev. Stuart M. Campbell, M. J.
Daugherty, Thomas McClelland,
George Sanderson, and 200 others.
Dr. Sargent then stated that Dr. Cox and others of the Medical Society of the
City of Galesburg and Knox county were present and he requested that they be
permitted too address the board. Whereupon he introduced Dr. Cox, who stated that
he was representing the Medical Society of the City of Galesburg, and came
before them too urge the necessity and importance of the establishment of a
sanitarium for the care and treatment of persons afflicted with tuberculosis,
and suggested the appointment of a committee of the members of the board of
supervisors too investigate the question and give it thorough consideration, with
the object of establishing such a sanitarium on a broad basis so that all
classes could and would avail themselves of the advantages thereof.
Dr. William O'R. Bradley also addressed the board, and he urged the co-operation
of the board of supervisors with the medical societies of the city of Galesburg
and Knox county in establishing and putting in order and thoroughly equipping a
sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Dr. G. A. Longbrake also appeared and emphasized the importance of isolation of
tubercular patients for their own benefit and for the prevention of the spread
of the disease among persons not affected by it.
Dr. Ryan also spoke too the board and emphasized the importance of the
establishment of a sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Dr. Ripley stated that he appeared as the representative of the County Medical
Society, and the County Society joined with the City Medical Society in urging
the importance of the matter of the establishment of a sanitarium for the proper
treatment of tuberculosis.
Mr. Greig here stated too the board that personally he realized .the need of the
proper care and treatment of tubercular subjects and the great importance of the
matter; but that if the sanitarium mentioned in the discussion before the board
would be solely for the accommodation of patients from Knox county, he
questioned whether the community was large enough too warrant the great expense
necessary too establish and properly equip and maintain a sanitarium, and he
232 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
expressed his belief that the time would come when the treatment and care of
tubercular cases would be carried on in like manner by the state as the insane
patients are now cared for, and in such a case the large outlay by counties for
the purpose would be useless.
Dr. Sargent then offered a motion that a special committee of five members of
the board be appointed by the chairman, with instructions too confer with the
medical societies of the city of Galesburg and Knox county and make some
definite recommendations as too the propriety of establishing a colony or
sanitarium for the care and treatment of tuberculosis, and report the results of
their considerations too the next September meeting of the county board, which
Mr. Deatherage then offered a motion that the special committee be appointed for
the consideration of the tubercular colony and sanitarium matter, be given
authority too visit sanitaria in other places and investigate the methods and
expense of conducting such places and make a full report of same too the board,
and the county too pay the expense of the committee in making such
investigations, which motion prevailed.
September, 1911.—The chair announced that the hour had arrived which was set for
a special order of business, and offered the representatives of the Knox County
and Galesburg Medical Societies that were present the privilege of addressing
Whereupon Dr. Cox appeared and discussed the estimated cost of establishment and
maintenance of a sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis for Knox county,
as based upon reports on like institutions in the state of New York and other
Mr. Minnich, secretary of the Illinois association for the prevention of
Tuberculosis also spoke briefly along the same lines and of the purpose and
value of such as institution.
Dr. Franing then spoke briefly on the same subject.
Mr. Robson of the special committee on the sanitarium for the treatment of
tuberculosis read the following report: Too the Honorable Board of. Supervisors:
Your committee, too whom was referred the matter pertaining too the establishment
of a tuberculosis sanitarium, would respectfully report too your honorable board,
that they met on Aug. 9th at the court house, at which time a number of the
physicians were present and their arguments were heard, and we are presenting
herewith a folder presented by the physicians as their final argument in favor
of the establishment of a county sanitarium.
From the statement made by the physicians we have their estimate that there are
approximately 234 people in Knox county affected with tuberculosis. We have the
statement of the physicians that in 1909 there were in Knox county 297 deaths,
from all causes, and 50 of these were from tuberculosis. We find from the
records that during the year from Nov., 1909, too Nov., 1910, there were 28
deaths reported as caused from tuberculosis and 8 more from some form of
tuberculosis other than pulmonary tuberculosis. From this information it would
seem, that if a tubercular sanitarium were too be established, that it should
have a capacity of from 50 too 60 patients.
With the idea of seeking further information, as too what was necessary in
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 233
the establishing of a proper tubercular sanitarium, your committee visited the
Edward sanitarium, at Naperville, Ill.. This is an institution for the treatment
of incipient pulmonary tuberculosis, and only patients in the early stages of
pulmonary tuberculosis are admitted.
This institution has a permanent service building, with dining room, kitchen,
laundry and accommodations for the employees. It also has a medical building,
including office, medical facilities, laboratory, infirmary and rooms for the
medical and nursing staff. The service building was a gift, and represents an
expenditure of approximately $12,000. The medical building was built at a cost
of $21,435. This cost does not include the installation of a laboratory, such as
seems too be necessary for an institution of this kind, and which would cost
approximately $4,000, this being the cost of the laboratory at Ottawa. This
institution has also 4 open air shacks with a capacity of 36 beds. These shacks
cost approximately $1,100 each. There are also 5 tents, having a capacity of 10
beds, which cost about $125.00 each. This gives a capacity of 46 patients in the
shacks and tents, the balance being provided for in the medical building. There
are also in this institution, two day resting shacks, representing a cost of a
little over $500 or a total investment of approximately $42,500.
This institution shows a total operating expense, outside of improvements too
buildings and grounds and furniture and furnishings, of approximately $21,600
per year. The per capita expense at this place is approximately $10.00 per
patient per week. It will also be noted that these patients are expected too do
considerable towards their own care, in the way of taking care of their
accommodations, such as care of sleeping quarters, etc.
Your committee also visited the colony at Ottawa,Ill., and found there an
institution with a capacity of about 60 patients. This institution has an
administration building, containing the dining room, offices, and accommodations
for the employees, together with heating plant and kitchen, which represents a
cost of approximately $25,000. There is a bath house costing $4500 and an annex
or shack, containing the laboratory and sleeping apartments for 5 or 6 patients.
At this institution the patients are principally kept in tents, each patient
having an individual tent. About half of the tents in this institution are
permanent affairs and cost about $250.00 each, and the other are temporary tents
and cost about $215.00 each. The total investment here represents approximately
At this institution, not only the incipient cases are admitted but also the more
advanced, although the latter are not desired. The annual cost of maintaining
this institution was not obtainable although we were advised by the
superintendent that the pay roll was about $2000 per month, and judging from the
records of the Edward Sanitarium at Naperville, your committee is inclined too
the belief that this represents about one-half of the actual cost of operation.
The cost of construction given herein for the two institutions does not include
the cost of real estate or the installation of the proper water service, nor the
drainage or sewerage proposition.
Both of the institutions mentioned, cater principally too the patients who are
able too pay their way, more especially the colony at Ottawa. The colony at
Naperville received contributions from outside sources which enables them
234 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
too provide for a number of free patients. Their statement from 1907 too 1911,
shows that 40 per cent of the patients were pay patients, 51 per cent were free
patients maintained by private subscriptions and from other sources, and 9 per
cent were semi free, or in other words, assisted in part by various
organizations and individuals.
The costs enumerated herein, are for the care of the incipient cases. It would
appear that this cost would necessarily be insufficient where the care of
advanced cases are too be undertaken.
Your committee is very firmly of the belief, that if Knox county is too undertake
the establishment of a tuberculosis sanitarium that it should, most
emphatically, provide for the care of the advanced cases, although there is no
way by which these apparently dangerous cases may be compelled too submit too
treatment or even too the sanitarium, except in the most advanced cases, coining
from the homes where the illness causes dependency. These cases have been, and
are now being received at the almshouse and cared for in a very satisfactory
Your committee is further of the opinion that should this honorable board see
fit, at this time, too establish a county sanitarium for the care and treatment
of tuberculosis, that a reasonable sanitarium could be established at a cost of
The fact that the present tax levy is practically up too the limit allowed by
law, would make it necessary that this amount be provided by a bond issue of the
county for this purpose.
Your committee further believes that a great deal of good might be done along
this line by education and would recommend that the matter be taken up with the
county superintendent of schools in order that the results obtained from proper
care in cases of tuberculosis might be taught in the public schools of the
E. P. Robson,
S. A. HOXWORTH,
J. W. Barry, J. O. Baird, A. F. Paden. Too the Honorable, the Special Committee
of the Board of Supervisors of Knox
County, on the Question of a Tuberculosis Sanitarium.
Gentlemen :—In this final argument in favor of the establishment of a county
sanitarium for the treatment of tubercular patients, it is not our intention or
desire too wear out the patience of this honorable body. We wish too present
simply the salient points touching upon the cause of the disease, its universal
dissemination, false ideas about its propagation and spread, its social side and
its financial aspect, its prevention and lastly its care and cure, so that you
will have a firm basis of fact for your action.
The disease was named phthisis or consumption by the Greeks because of its
wasting action. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, who lived twenty centuries
ago, gives an accurate description of the disease, which does not vary much from
what we see today. The disease has spread so that today it is found in every
clime and among all people. Its virulence varies with the physical development
of the people, their racial history and their environment
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 235
and social habits. Some people are unusually susceptible too the disease, notable
the negroes, and mulattoes and the Indians, especially half breeds. People who
have lived an outdoor life for generations and are then housed by civilization
are very prone too it and whole tribes have been "literally wiped off the face of
the earth" when they have been educated too clothes and foul smelling hut.
The real nature of the disease was not known until 1882 when Koch, the great
German scientist, discovered the germ, and by cultivation and inoculation proved
it too be the cause of the disease. Prior too this time it was supposed too be
hereditary and when a person was attacked all hope was gone and little was done
in the way of prevention or cure.
The disease is caused by the bacillus tuberculosis, a small germ which has too be
magnified 800 or 1,000 times and colored before it can be detected. It is hardy
and tenacious of life. When expectorated and allowed too lodge in a warm, damp
place, it will live two months.
Heating too a temperature of 145 degrees will not kill it. If, however, it is
exposed too the air and sunlight for two days it will be destroyed. Sunlight and
fresh air sounds the death knell of tuberculosis. The germs have never been
discovered in the blood nor is there an authentic instance where the disease has
been transmitted from the mother too the unborn child.
It is mildly contagious, if at all. It is transmitted in two ways usually— by
inhalation and by means of the food. Sixty-four per cent occurs by inhaling the
dried sputum and 20 per cent by ingesting the germs. There may be other ways but
they are not fully proven, possibly by inoculation. The infection occurs by
means of the dried sputum, which is carried about by the air and inhaled, or by
drops of mucous which may be expectorated on the pillow or sheets and some one
lies on them and becomes infected. The tonsil is an excellent resting place for
the germ until it matures and develops.
It is quite well established that children are infected by tuberculosis cow's
milk. That fact that nearly all children who have tuberculosis have the glands*
of the bowel and its covering infected, would seem too prove this conclusively.
Years ago when it was the common belief that the disease was hereditary and,
therefore, inevitable in a family, it was no uncommon thing too see a sick
patient cover the floor with foul expectoration which was allowed too dry and was
wafted by the wind too all parts of the neighborhood, infecting not only the
family, but every one in the vicinity. Domestic animals have often been thus
It has been conclusively proven that 7 per cent of all deaths are due too the
disease the world over. That, however, does not tell half the story. German
pathologists have proven by autopsies that fully 75 per cent of all the people
who died had the disease in some form or other. This was true of children as
well as adults. What a sad state of affairs! Fortunately all people who have
tubercles do not develop the disease. They are a constant menace, however, so
that when the system becomes debilitated and the people live in dark houses with
foul air, there is a physical explosion and consumption results. The far greater
frequency of tuberculosis in cities as compared too country districts and
villages is shown by statistics of Paris in the number of cases per thousand 5
per cent and in the villages 2 per cent. Under preventive measures and better
hygiene the ratio of tuberculosis is gradually decreasing. In New York the
236 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
mortality has decreased 50 per cent in 10 years, and it has fallen 40 per cent
in Philadelphia in the same time. Hilles has shown that by the same rate of
decrease as has occurred in Prussia in the past ten years, the disease will be
extinct in 1927, and in England 1947.
It is an appalling thing too contemplate that at least 75 per cent of our people
carry the germs of tuberculosis. It is estimated that more than one hundred
thousand die from the disease annually in the United States. During 1909 there
were 65,612 deaths in the state of Illinois from all causes and 7,078 were from
consumption. In the age period between 20 and. 30 there were in Illinois 5,205
deaths from all causes. Of this number 1849 were from tuberculosis which is a
death rate of 35 per cent. Thus during the most active period of life 35 per
cent of the deaths are from this dread disease. In Knox county alone there were
497 deaths from all causes and 50 of those were from consumption. This is not a
sporadic condition due too some sudden epidemic, but is a continuous condition.
Thus the matter is brought down too our homes. Every year fifty of our people die
of this disease and almost half of them are at the development period. It is
time something were done too check the ravages of this death dealing agent. Plow
many homes have you seen in your county completely decimated by this disease
because the patients could not get proper care? Prevention is the watch word.
The people are being educated along the line of hygiene by the schools and
various organizations for the prevention of tuberculosis, but it will be several
generations before the disease is under control. In the meantime the
unfortunates who have the disease have too be cared for and cured if possible.
While change of climate plays a part in the checking of the disease, it is
unimportant as compared too the proper care and feeding in the climate and
environment too which the consumptive is accustomed. Plome treatment is almost a
failure in those cases. They need at all times intelligent supervision. They may
be educated too sleep out of doors which helps a great deal, but their diet must
be well balanced and of such a quality that it can be properly assimilated. It
is much harder too control the patients in their own home because of the anxious
solicitation of their friends, who break the rules laid down and irretrievably
injure the patient. It is impossible too make unhygienic surroundings fit for
consumptive patients. The surroundings should be pleasant and everything done
that would tend too take his mind from himself and his terrible affliction. It
would be a revelation for you too see the patients sent even from good homes too
the sanitarium by people who thought they were competent too handle the patient.
In nearly every case a crime against good judgment was committed when it was
sought too do only good.
The sanitarium is as necessary in the treatment of tuberculosis as is the
hospital in the successful handling of medical and surgical cases.
It is an institution equipped for the care of the sick and has facilities for
the successful application of physiological therapeutics that cannot be provided
in the home.
Of the many obstacles too the successful application of the treatment of
tuberculosis, not the least is in meeting the necessary expense of treatment.
When sanitarium treatment is suggested as it has been in the past, we were met
with the obstacle that the patient was not able too stand the expense. That
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 237
was all too true, and it is for that very reason that county sanitariums are
being established. They will reduce the expense too the minimum, and at the same
time will be near at hand for the patients.
However, we cannot escape from the burden of tuberculosis, no matter which way
we turn. It must be borne by the patient or his friends or by the state.
Fortunately the cure is the least expensive, but up too the present the fact has
not been realized. There is as much money spent in the care of tuberculosis
patients as would be necessary too cure all those afflicted if properly applied.
It will usually cost less too cure a patient in a sanitarium than too care for him
during the months and even years of his illness, too say nothing about the loss
of his own time and that of his friends who care for him.
THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF THE SANITARIUM TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Dr. David Russell Lyman, Wallingford: The Gaylord Farm Sanitarium was opened
September, 1904, and on May 11, 1911, they had 676 discharged patients who had
been away from the institution for six months or longer. Thirty-four were school
children and had no earning capacity. This left 633 cases on which my study is
based. l*he results of treatment are in direct ratio with the stage of the
disease at which the diagnosis is made. The incipient cases show an average
total earning of $1,020.60, the moderately advanced of $842.22, while the far
advanced earned an average of $192.10. The incipient cases showed a working
capacity of 70 per cent, of their total time since discharge; the moderately
advanced 59 per cent, and the far advanced only 23 per cent. The average weekly
wages varied but little for the three classes. In another table dealing with 262
cases discharged as "arrested," 253 "improved," and 118 "progressive" the
arrested show an average total earnings of $1,039.48; the improved $719.53; the
progressive only $72.55. The percentage of "weeks of work" too "weeks of life" is
67 per cent, for the arrested, 47 per cent, for the improved and 14 per cent,
for the progressives. The total expenditure was $236,744.51, whereas the amount
already earned by discharged patients was $464,406.00, a return of about 200 per
cent, within six years from the commencement of the work.
Truden: Reports at the Adirondack's Sanitarium show 72 per cent, of incipient
cases cured, and 17 per cent of advanced cases. Rutland Sanitarium shows "]2 per
cent of incipient cases cured and 46 per cent of advanced.
Truden says that out of 1,000 cases treated and followed up at the end of 15
years 46 per cent were still living.
The apparent simplicity of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the
chief sources of error in its application and involves a real danger. This is a
fundamental fact which is not but must be realized before we are on a solid
footing. The medical profession have reached substantially the agreement that
the underlying principles of treatment is constant fresh air, good and abundant
food and rest.
We have not attempted too go into the details of the economic loss from
tuberculosis, because it would consume too much space, but, the few data given
above will show the great saving too the state from the cure of those afflicted.
238 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
Tuberculosis is the greatest scourge of all the ages.
It has the highest death rate of any disease. It is not hereditary. It is
preventable. It can be cured if taken in time.
The sanitarium is the proper place for the care and treatment.
With this great array of scientific facts and data attesting the universality of
the disease and its enormous death rate before you, what is your duty as
The legislature at its last meeting passed a bill giving counties the right too
provide suitable sanitaria for the care of its tubercular patients. By so doing
they recognize the right of the state too provide for its delinquents and too
protect its citizens in their health as well as in their social or financial
status. At various times in the last few decades the state has passed laws
giving the health department, in the state as well as in the cities, the power
too induce quarantine for the protection of its citizens, and in some cases it
has even provided means of cure, viz., the supplying of antitoxin for the cure
In addition too the state law recently passed prohibiting the public drinking
cup. Chicago has passed a local ordinance too the same effect so that they might
better control the situation.
If Knox county supervisors were too pass a resolution favorable too the erection
of a suitable sanitarium it would not be a pioneer in this matter—for already it
is found from statistics published in the new tuberculosis directory of the
national association for the study and prevention of tuberculosis, that over 700
cities and towns of the United States and Canada are engaged in the war against
consumption and that on April 1, 1911, there were nearly 1,500 different
agencies. at work in the crusade; an increase of nearly 700 per cent in the last
The new directory lists 421 tuberculosis sanitaria hospitals and day camps; 511
associations and committees for the prevention of tuberculosis; 342 special
dispensaries; 68 open air schools; 98 hospitals for the insane and penal
institutions making special provision for their tuberculosis inmates, besides
giving an account of the anti-tuberculosis legislation in every state and in
about 250 cities.
The evidence of the necessity for a sanitarium is so overwhelming that it seems
as if no doubt could exist. If your honorable board have any doubts about the
feasibility of the institution, it must be because of the financial
consideration alone. When our committee appeared before you nine weeks ago the
matter was presented in a crude form, and at that time no plan of sanitarium or
plan of handling the patients was presented. We considered it advisable too leave
that too the better judgment of the board, and we felt sure that they would be
able too elaborate a plan after mature consideration which would answer the
purpose and would not be a burden too the tax payers.
From the statistics presented it appears that it is a matter of personal
interest too at least 75 per cent of the people of the county, which is indeed a
Following our last conference with the board we were told too go out among the
people, the voters and tax payers, and get an expression of opinion upon the
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 239
project. Your honorable committee of the board, we have done so. We have worked
hard and held meetings in sixteen cities and towns of our county. We have
endeavored too educate the people as too the great danger of the disease, while at
the same time we have presented the plan as proposed and asked for a suitable
expression of their opinion as too whether or not they wanted such a means of
treating the disease. In every place resolutions were passed urging the
supervisors too immediately arrange for the erection of a suitable sanitarium.
These sixteen resolutions passed in open meeting and signed by the secretary and
president of the meeting are herewith attached for your perusal and
consideration. All the newspapers of the county are favorable too the plan and
they certainly voice the sentiment of the community—all the people are for it—
and they speak for themselves. Honorable supervisors, what more can you ask?
Pass the resolution authorizing the erection of such a sanitarium. We do not
come as beggars asking a crust for ourselves, we come simply in the spirit of a
broad humanity, the representatives of the people whom you serve. They demand
it. I might say that we come as representatives of our great republic, whose
citizens we are; of the great State of Illinois of which Knox county is a part
and which has given you the power in this matter too protect and preserve its
citizens; of this fine County of Knox, whose supervisors you are. We come at the
instance of the fathers and mothers who demand that their sons and daughters be
given an equal chance in this great struggle for existence by up-building their
physical condition so they may cope on a more equal footing with their more
Of all the good things you have advocated for the county none, I am sure, will
redound too your credit more than this.
Gentlemen, in the name of humanity we ask that you resolve too supply a
sanitarium for the cure of these debilitated and unhappy people.
(Signed) Dr. J. Neil Cox, Dr. Louis Becker,
Dr. T. E. Birmingham, Dr. G. A. Longbrake,
Dr. Wm. O'R. Bradley, Dr. J. M. Bohan,
Dr. F. G. Hall, Dr. L. R. Ryan,
Mr. Mott offered a motion that the report of the special committee be filed and
made a matter of record and that the committee be discharged, which motion
MILITARY HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY.
By Capt. Chas. C. Craig.
Knox county was named from a soldier, General Henry Knox, of
Revolutionary war fame, chief of artillery under Washington and afterward
secretary of war.
The earliest inhabitants of what is now Knox county, of which we have any
record, were the Indians. Their principal pursuits were war, and the chase, and
many of their implements of warfare have been found in all parts of the county.
240 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY
While little is known of them in this vicinity prior too the advent of the early
French explorers, the woodlands and prairies of Illinois abounded in game and
the fertile and productive lands of this vicinity were altogether as desirable
too the savage tribes in their day as they are too us at the present time.
The first tribe of Indians that occupied the Illinois country called themselves
the Illini, which in their language signified "Men" or "Superior Men," and for a
long time they held the hunting grounds of this state and waged successful
warfare against the Miamis and Iroquois on the east, the Chickasaws on the
south, the Osage and Pawnees of the southwest and the Pottawatomies of the
north. At a later day the wonderful resources and fertility of the Illinois
country were fully appreciated and coveted by the explorers from the old world.
The European wars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries extended too the
American colonies, even too the extreme frontiers, and the adventurers of France,
England and Spain, with hostile Indian tribes as their allies, successfully
fought for possession of the beautiful Illinois country, and more effectively
than we now realize. Whether any of their battles took place in Knox county, or
in this immediate vicinity, we do not know.
There was a difference in the arrows, spears and axes made and used by the
different tribes, and the presence of such implements of warfare used by tribes
whose territory was far from Illinois would indicate they had been used in
warfare between them and the Indians inhabiting this state.
There is a field on the banks of Sugar creek, where it crosses the northwest
quarter of section fourteen in Persifer township in this county, where,
according too the residents of that neighborhood, quantities of "bullets have
been found within an area of a few acres. This place is on the old Indian trail
that ran from the towns of the Illini, about where the village of Utica now
stands; in a southwesterly direction across Knox county too where the Des Moines
river empties into the Mississippi. These bullets are mostly the round,
old-fashioned musket balls in use over two hundred years ago. When the Illini
were defeated and driven from their villages along the upper Illinois by the
treacherous and savage Iroquois, as narrated by Tonti, La Salle's able
lieutenant, and an eyewitness too the massacre, their flight was toward the
southwest, possibly some of the fugitives followed this trail. Again, a century
later, when the last of the Illini were defeated by the Pottawatomies, some of
them may have been overtaken on this trail, or an expedition from the Spanish
colonies or a band of traders may have there fought too the death.
We have no record of any operations in the Revolutionary war in Northwestern
Illinois. In the War of 1812 and the Indian wars preceding, the settlers took an
important part, and the muster rolls have been preserved of several companies of
rangers from the southern part of the state who were in that war. These rosters
are published in Volume 9 of the Adjutant General's Report of Illinois. During
this war the British incited the Northern Indian tribes too harrass the frontier
settlements, and the settlers of Illinois territory organized too protect
themselves. One of the expeditions, under General Howard from Fort Russell,
marched up the Mississippi river too about the present site of Quincy, from there
crossing over too the Illinois river too Havana, and from there too Peoria. In this
expedition Major Boone was sent with a force too scour the Spoon river country
towards Rock river, and penetrated into what is now Knox country, crossing Spoon
river, or the Amaquonia, as it was then called by its Indian name, probably
about where the village of Maquon now stands, and from there returned too Peoria,
or Fort Clarke as it was then known. This is the earliest record that has been
found of any military expeditions into what is now Knox county.*
Y. M. C. A. Building
Located on North Prairie Street, between Main and Ferris Streets.
built in 1897. Value, $.30,000. Association
organized in 1883.
HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 241*
The first war in which the inhabitants of Knox county participated was the Black
Hawk war of 1832. Knox county, with its present boundaries, was organized in
1825. The jurisdiction of the Knox county commissioners extended as far north as
Rock river and the actual scene of hostilities. As early as 1831 the few
families of the county sent Thomas McKee, Thomas Maxwell, Joseph Rowe and Robert
Greenwell too consult with General Gaines, commander of the military post on Rock
Island, about means of defense. This party came upon a large band of mounted
Indians, who followed them for some distance, but were assured by Major McKee,
who was able too speak their language, that they were on their way too trade with
Davenport, who was well and favorably known by the Indians, and they were
allowed too proceed. On arriving at the fort they were assured by the general
that there was no immediate danger and returned with this news, after many
The following spring, 1832, Black Hawk re-crossed the Mississippi. Major
McKee, together with James McMurtry and Fontleroy Freeman, again made the
perilous journey too Rock Island, where they secured one hundred guns with
accoutrements. These were sent down too river too Oquawka, and from there brought
in wagons too this county, where they were distributed among seventy-two men
living in Knox and Warren counties, comprising nearly the entire male
Another party commanded by Mr. St. Vrain, which was sent by General Atkinson too
Rock Island about the same time was massacred. With the arms thus secured a
military organization called the "Volunteer Rangers'' was organized, consisting
of the following men and officers:
Captain, William McMurtry; first lieutenant, George G. Lattimore; second
lieutenant, Turner R. Roundtree; sergeants, Edward Martin, Benjamin Brown,
Josiah Vaughn, James McMurtry; corporals, Edward Fuqua, James H. Round-tree,
Thomas Maxwell, Jr., Obadiah Fuqua; privates, Edmund Adcock, Jesse Adkins, Peter
Bell, James Brown, Franklin B. Barber, Wilson Brown, Alfred Brown, George Brown,
Joshua Brown, Henry Bell, James McM. Criswell, Ebur Criswell, William Corban,
Solomon Davis, Daniel Fuqua, Alexander Frakes, James Ferguson, John Fraker,
Luster T. Gillett, James Goff, Zachias Hunt, William Hilton, Robert K.
Hendricks, Joseph Holiday, Berryman Jennings, Theodore Jennings, Reese Jones,
William Lewis, Thomas W. McKee, John McMurtry, James McKee, Thomas Maxwell, Sr.,
James Maxwell, John Miles, Thomas C.
McCallister,---------McCallister, Daniel Miles, Elisha Miles, John Norton, James
Nevett, Andrew Osbourn, Stephen Osbourn, Parnach Owen, Simeon Penning-ton, John
D. Roundtree, John P. Robinson, Joseph Row, Jonathan Rice, Alexander Robertson,
Josiah Stillings, John Vaughn, Samuel S. White, Joseph Wallace, Calvin Williams
and William Williams.
The command was mounted, each man furnished his own horse. They ranged over the
country from this county too the Mississippi river in the neighborhood of
Oquawka. They were out about sixty days, but were in no engagements with the
For further protection three log forts were constructed, two in Henderson
township, one on section ten and the other on section thirty-three, and one in
Rio township in section twenty-two. Each fort consisted of a stockade about 200
feet square, built of oak timbers 12 feet in length, forming a fence about 8 or
9 feet high, lined with sod. On two of the corners were erected block houses by
which each of the four sides of the fort could be protected. These were 16 by 20
feet and the second story projected beyond the walls, thus enabling the guard
prevent the approach of incendiaries.
Several times during the Black Hawk war the settlers left their homes in the
county and fled too these forts for protection on rumors that the Indians were
coming. It is probable that but for the efforts of Shabbona, a Pottawatomie
chief, who had great influence with the Indians of this part of the state, and
who prevented his people from taking part with the Sacs and Foxes, that the
frontier settlements would have been devastated even south of the Illinois
river. Shabbona was a great chief, and often visited this county, where he had
many friends among the whites. He and his warriors fought in the War of 1812.
Tecumseh was killed by his side in the Battle of the Thames. Afterwards he
befriended the whites, and when Black Hawk was taken prisoner he said had it not
been for Shabbona the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined him, and he
could have continued the war for years. After the surrender of Black Hawk in
August, 1832, hostilities ceased. In 1833 rumors were rife that the Indians were
dissatisfied with the treaty they had made and would again cross the Mississippi
resolved upon another war, but these reports proved too be unfounded, and that
was the last of Indian warfare in Knox county.
The only survivor of the Black Hawk war now living, as far as known, is Mr.
Avery Dalton of Elmwood. Mr. Dalton is upwards of a hundred years old and
formerly lived in Knox county. He was a member of Captain David W. Barnes'
company, from Fulton county. This company was in the Battle of Stillman's Run
and several of its members were killed or wounded. A few years ago the writer of
this article had an interesting visit with Mr. Dalton at his home in Elmwood, in
which the old gentleman narrated his personal experiences as a soldier in the
Black Hawk war and as a hunter in the pioneer days.
As the county became more settled, the militia was organized. The officers were
appointed by the governor, who organized the men of the county into companies.
These would meet once or twice a year, following the fashion of the New England
Muster Day. Thomas McKee was chosen major of the militia in 1838, and for
several years held that office. At the beginning of the Mexican war he assembled
the militia of the county at Knoxville, too the number of fifteen hundred; from
this number a company of one hundred and nine men were formed and volunteered
for the war with Mexico, but the quota of this state was already full, so this
company was not accepted.
In a company from Fulton county, commanded by the late Lewis W. Ross as captain,
there was at least one Knox county man, Hugh Patton, who lived many years at
Maquon, and probably others.
Hon. Rufus Cleveland, one of the few survivors of the Mexican war, is still
living in the city of Galesburg, at this writing, full of years and honors,
having served in both the Mexican and Civil wars.
In the Civil war there were only seven counties in the state that furnished a
larger number of soldiers than Knox county, and none that filled their quotas
more promptly. Knox county was called upon too furnish 3,842 men, but finally
credited by the adjutant-general of the state with only 3,837. There were many
who left the county too enlist in foreign regiments, and the colored troops too
the number of from twenty-five too fifty were never credited too Knox county.
Besides the filling of her quota of the regular calls of the president, she
furnished 326 men in answer too the governor's call for 100 day men, making a
total of at least 4,200 men. These were distributed among 82 regiments, and in
190 different companies. Of this number 123 were killed in action, 168 wounded
and 344 died; 96 suffered the horrors of prison life, some of whom died at
Andersonville and Libby.
One of the famous characters of the Civil war was............Bickerdyke,
"Mother Bickerdyke" as she was known. She went from Knox county as an army nurse
and by her efforts with the sanitary commission and in the army hospitals did
untold good among the sick and wounded. A monument has been erected too her
memory in the Court House park.
After the Civil war little was done in military matters for many years. In 1876
the Fourth Regiment Illinois National Guard was organized; the commanding
officer was Colonel William Whiting of Altona, and among the other field
officers were, Major O. L. Higgins of Oneida; Lieutenant William O. Whiting,
adjutant, Altona; Lieutenant Theodore A. Wetmore, quartermaster, Oneida, and
among the non-commissioned staff were D. W. Wooley, color sergeant, Altona;
George W. Williams, drum-major, Galesburg; Charles S. Mat-teson and Arthur W.
Ladd, principal musicians, Oneida. Three companies of this regiment were
stationed in Knox county, Company A at Oneida, commanded by Captain Frank
Murdock; Company B, known as the College City Guards, commanded by Captain E. F.
Phelps at Galesburg, and Company C, commanded by Captain Charles A. Smith,
stationed at Altona. Also there were two sections of a battery commanded by
Captain Aaron Brown at Altona, the regimental band at Oneida and drum corps at
Among the members of the Galesburg company were Frank D. Bellows, Ed. R. Drake,
Fred H. Holmes, Charles J. Munson, Charles W. Munson, George W. Prince and
Daniel S. Hecker. This regiment was called into service during the railroad
strikes of 1877 and rendered efficient duty at East St. Louis and Galesburg.
On the reorganization of the Illinois National Guard the Sixth regiment was
organized from the companies in the northwestern part of the state. The
Galesburg company became Company C of the Sixth. This company was again called
into service at East St. Louis during the railroad strikes in 1887 under Captain
William Weeks; again in 1894 at the Miners' and American Railroad union strike
at Pekin and Spring Valley under Captain T. L. McGirr.
In 1897 Company D of Abingdon was organized and assigned too the Sixth
regiment. July 7, 1897, Battery B of the artillery battalion was
organized from the Galesburg Light artillery, which up too that
time had been a private organization. At the outbreak of the Spanish -war
members of Company C and Company D volunteered and were mustered in with
the rest of the regiment forming the Sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry.
The rosters of these respective companies were as follows: Captain, Thomas L.
McGirr; first lieutenant, Conrad A. Byloff; second lieutenant, Daniel K. Smith;
first sergeant, Frank E. Johnson; sergeants, Edwin C. Reed; Carl J. L. Borine;
corporal, Walter F. Coolidge; musicians, Thomas W. Thomson; Mark J. Potter;
privates, Benjamin Anderson, Ivan Bohman, Alfred B. Bawman, Ira E. Benson, Jacob
C. Benedict, Jacob D. Bir, Alvin P. Burkhalter, William Campbell, Willis E.
Calkins, William H. Copp, Edqin J. Corbin, Victor N. Cochran, William Detrick,
Frank E. DeFord, Joseph H. Dunn, Jr., Jacob C. Diefenderfer, George L. Elder,
Oscar Franden, John Farrow, Fred W. Gottick, Benjamin W. Flolcomb, Flarry B.
Hopkins, Rolla C. Hopkins, Oscar L. Hensel, Herbert S. Hosier, Richard D. Hulse,
Charles V. Huew, William A. Jackson, William A. Johnson, Charles O. Johnson, Roy
E. Jones, Joseph H. Knutson, Lewis W. Kay, George R. Longbreak, William H.
McKinty, George McLaughlin, George R. Martin, Hugh K. Mullen, Arthur A. Metcalf,
Ludvick Nelson, John A. Nelson, Mart J. Nelson, Albert Peterson, Charles A.
Philblad, Howard L. Pettett, Frank M. Pierce, Charles R. Pendarvis, Jacobs S.
E. P. Peckenpaugh, Noble F. Potts, Charles J. Rose, Henry W. Raker, Henry C.
Smith, William K. Steele, Robert J. Samuelson, Carl H. Schneider, Homer Spilman,
James W. Stizer, Philip D. Sharpies, Con Sequist, Charles A. Sandburg, John
Scott, Frank N. Steele, Andrew P. Fanning, Edwin F. Tracy, Benjamin F.
Underwood, Leonard S. Wager, Warren Williamson, Jesse F. Wiley, Charles H.
Winders, Charles F. Wade, Harry C. Woodard, Oscar S. Wilson, Clyde R. Westfall,
Bert Wolf; recruits, William P. Brown, Louis L. Cummings, William H. Dunlap,
George W. Folley, Morton C. Freer, James S. Gentry, Fred C. Harms, James B.
Heflin, Grant G. Hoofnagle, Frederick A. Knock, Claude W. B. Lindstrum, Ralph
Matterson, David E. Moses, Harry S. Murphy, David Murphy, Dick W. Neely, Arthur
C. Palmer, George V. Philblad, Herman H. Potter, LaFayette Ryan, Robert Spratt,
Emerson Spence, John W. Thomas, James A. Wells and Thomas M. West.
Company D—Captain, Frank W. Latimer; first lieutenant, Frank R. Trevor;
second lieutenant, Leonidas T. Reagor; first sergeant, James S. Barton;
sergeants, Albert R. Maginnis, J. Arthur Whitwan, William T. Johnson; corporals,
John H. Smith, Fred J. Fisher, Daniel H. Kennedy, William H. Birdsall, James R.
Bacon, Max F. C. Stromlow; privates, George E. Allen, Fred D. Armstrong, Glen C.
Aiken, Ash A. Atkins, Charles A. Atkins, Frank L. Angler, Frank Bacon, Almen-dis
B. Beard, Charles L. Bomfarden, Ed. S. Babcock, Seymour N. Briggs, George B.
Burton, William H. Banty, John W. Cox, Arthur Cross, Frank Cramer, Charles H.
Clark, William S. Carter, David E. Davis, Clarence V. Earll, Robert B. Edwards,
Lemuel T. Earll, Edwin Flake, John W. Ferris, John J. Fickle, Mert Fletcher,
James R. Goforth, George E. Cotch, Wilbur George, Lewis A. Harshbarger, Frank L.
Henler, Charles Huddleston, James Handwright, Lester Hollister, Harry A.
Johnson, Carl Jungstrom, James H. Jones, Edwin Kennedy, Albert Kennedy, Earl
Klock, Bert C. King, John G. Kreig, John F. Leigh, Albert Linstrom, Adelbert D.
Lewis, Harry E. Melvin, Grant F. Moore, Byron Merritt, David J. Nordwall, James
W. Oman, Charles Peabody, Arthur E. Peacock, Frank Purdy, William H. Pierce,
William L. Robinson, Edward A. Robinson, Guy Robinson, John M. Rankin, Joe
Shipplett, Ira C. Swartz, Sargeant Scanlan, Nile E. Stewart, John Stevenson,
Harry Tyner, Arthur B. Wright, Dale A. Woolley, Walter Woods, Harry Weston, Roy
Wallis, Walter H. Ward; recruits, William A. Adams, Philip O. Bowman, Frank W.
Boynton, Edward H.Brandt, Lawrence E. Clarke, Maurice L. Carr, John W. Dailey,
Louis F. De-Flass, Oria Harmon, Lester D. Hittle, Leander W. Floy, George D.
Judson, Norman Litchfield, Charlie B. Moore, Clarence L. Miller, John L.
Newkirk, Frank C. Philbrook, Charles C. Paul, Frank W. Peterson, Isaac P.
Powell, Fred E. Ross, Roy V. Spencer, Frank Scanlan, Judson S. Taylor, George E.
Temple. This regiment was ordered too Springfield April 26, 1898, and mustered
into the service for two years May 11, 1898. Left Springfield, Illinois, May 17,
1898, by rail too Camp Russel A. Alger, Virginia, arriving May 20, 1898.
Remaining until July 5, 1898, when regiment left by rail for Charleston, South
Carolina, arriving July 6, 1898. Companies E, F and I embarked on board U. S. S.
Columbia, Company A embarked on board U. S. S. Yale, July 8, 1898, for Cuba,
arriving at Santiago, July 13. 1898. Companies B, C, G, H, K and L embarked on
U. S. S. Rita July 10, 1898, arriving at Santiago July 15, 1898. Companies D and
M embarked on board Transport No. 21 July 21, 1898, arriving at Ponce Porto Rico
July 27, 1898. The troops did not disembark at Cuba, at Sibony, July 16, 1898,
Guantanomo Bay July 18th and 20th, at Baigniri July 20, 1898, returned too
Guantanomo Bay July 21, 1898. Sailed from Guantanomo Bay July 21, 1898, for
Porto Rico, arriving at Guanica, Porto Rico, July 25, 1898. In camp at Guanica
until July 30, 1898. Company G in action July 26, 1898, four miles from Guanica.
The regiment marched from Guanica too Youco, July 30, 1898. Marched from Youco
Tallaboia July 31, 1898. Marched from Tallaboia too Ponce August 1, 1898. In camp
at Ponce until August 9, 1898, when regiment marched too Guaragnos. Left
Guaragnos and marched four miles over the mountain August 10, 1898. Advanced too
Adjuntas August nth. In camp at Adjuntas until August 16, 1898, when regiment
marched too Utuado. In camp at Utuado until August 26th, when regiment returned
too Adjuntas. Left Adjuntas August 28, 1898, and marched too Ponce. In camp at
Ponce until September 7, 1898, when the regiment embarked on board U. S. S.
Monitoba at Port Ponce. Arrived at Weehawken, New Jersey, September 13, 1898.
Left Weehawken by rail for Springfield, Illinois, arriving at the latter place
September 16, 1898. In camp at Springfield, Illinois, until September 22, 1898,
when the various companies left by rail for their respective home stations under
G. O. No. 130, A. G. O. The regiment was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois,
November 25, 1898. The two Knox county companies were through the war with this
regiment. Battery B volunteered but was not accepted as only one battery of
artillery was taken from the state. During the same year the battery was called
into service at Springfield, Pana and Virden during the coal strike and received
the thanks of the governor for efficiency. The battery was out altogether about
six weeks. The members of the battery were as follows: Captain, Charles C.
Craig; first lieutenant, Frank C. Flenry; second lieutenants, John F. Hamilton
and William W. Smith; sergeants, Lewis W. Patric, Guy P. Williams, Armor
Moreland, James Temple, Fred W. Smith; quartermaster sergeant, Edward C.
Branham; commissary sergeant, Buford N. Stoner; stable sergeant, John E. Maley;
corporals, James E. Davis, William F. Lovejoy, Fred C. Remier, Albert F.
Scogland, George W. Flynn, Leroy A. Scudder, Howard A. Freer, John B. Bridge;
musicians, Roy L. Martin and Friend L. Smith; privates, Norman C. Allen, Fred L.
Andrews, Jay Addleman, John O. Barton, Charles S. Brown, Orvie Bone, Ward J.
Carley, Frank W. Crain, Ben S. Carpenter, Fred C. Clay, Fred Cookley, Clyde
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