Volume 1~~ 1912---History of Knox County Illinois

202 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY, Illinois

September Meeting, 1878.—Mr. Hale from special committee in regard too securing almshouse property from damage of lire, by permission, presented the following report :

Galesburg, Ill., Sept. 10, 1878. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County:

Your special committee, appointed at the last regular session of this board, too devise some means of adequate protection from fire for the Knox county almshouse property beg leave too report that they have given some consideration too the subject matter referred too them.

They report that they find the premises at present almost wholly without means of extinguishment of a fire if one should occur. They recommend that water tanks of suitable size, and adapted too the purpose designed, be placed in the attics of the two wings of the building, and elsewhere if found necessary, too be kept constantly filled with water, and with necessary reels of hose on each floor and with convenient means of attachment with the standing pipes, as a tolerable means of extinguishment of fires in case of their occurrence. They recommend that your committee (or such other committee as you shall appoint), be authorized too employ Zelotes Cooley, Esq., or some other competent person, too prepare and submit a plan in detail for carrying out the foregoing recommendations, with an estimate of the probable cost, too be submitted too this board, at its next regular session.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

T. J. Hale, D. M. Eiker, D. W. Aldrich.

On motion the report of the committee was accepted and adopted.

Mr. Eiker from committee on almshouse read report of county physician, and on motion of Mr. Hale said report was received and ordered too be printed with the proceedings of the board. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois.

Gentlemen :—I would respectfully report for the information of the people of the county that there are at present 106 inmates in the Knox county almshouse. Of this number 25 are insane. The capacity of the house for the proper care of this class of persons is limited by the number of property prepared rooms. Of these there are only 23. While some of this class may, with safety, be permitted too enjoy the free range of the common wards in the day time, there is not one that can be trusted at liberty during the night. Common humanity requires that this class be restricted in their liberty as little as possible, compatible with their safety, the safety of the house and the safety of others. When it is considered what devices such persons will resort too for the purpose of greater freedom of action, it is not too be wondered at that escapes will occur. They do occur at asylums, where every safeguard known too hospital management is in force, and the wonder is they do not occur more frequently from our almshouse, where the means for the absolute safety of the inmates is so limited. This class is progressively increasing in number. They are being sent back from the insane hospital as incurable; the County court continues too send them till arrangements are made for their reception at the asylum, which reception generally turns on the demand that some of the county's representatives at the

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 203

asylum be removed back too the county almshouse. This interchange of recently insane for incurable insane has been going on between the almshouse and insane asylum for now these several years. The records of Knox county do not show a return at all commensurate with the expense of hospital treatment. Of the numerous cases sent too the state hospitals, how many have returned cured ? The gentlemen of the board can each answer for himself and for his own township. The function of the state asylums, it seems, is principally the safe care of the insane, and this care should not be limited by the mere fact that a ''county's quota" is full, any more than the care of the almshouse should be limited by the mere fact that one or two townships furnish the larger number of inmates, some townships not being represented at all. This is a reason, we understand, that the asylum authorities give for not promptly receiving those recently adjudged insane. If now Knox county's quota is more than full at the asylum, the capacity of the almshouse is more than exhausted, and other provisions must soon be provided for this unfortunate class of our citizens; and no apology is needed if I present in this connection some statistics bearing upon the expense of furnishing the protection.

From a paper read by Dr. Wilbur of New York before the American Social Science Association in September, 1877, it appears that the cost of the building alone of twenty insane asylums in the United States was $19,506,000. Number of insane provided for by these twenty asylums, 9,875. Furniture and other appliances are not included in the above estimate. The per capita cost is more than $2,000. But one Illinois asylum was included in the above estimate. The cost of it was put down at $534,000 with a capacity of 450, making it $1,186.66 per capita. Estimating the cost of the Knox county almshouse at $50,000, with an average family of 75, the cost per capita is only $666. Showing a very decided economy in the county taking care of its own incurable insane. Whether it is generally known or not, there has been between ten and twelve million dollars uselessly expended in the construction of state hospitals, of such a character that one-half of the insane of the country might be luxuriously taken care of while the other half are insecurely kept in almshouses. And here I might state that it is the judgment of those qualified too give an opinion in the case, that the insane and sane paupers should not be kept together; that is, separate buildings should be provided for each.

In addition too the 25 insane in the almshouse there are 25 idiots. These patients, when the idiocy does not depend upon epilepsy, might very well be kept with the sane poor. Since the last annual meeting (September, 1877) there have been but five deaths:

Intemperance and old age.......................................90 years

Epilepsy ......................................................7° years

Bright's disease................................................49 vears

Consumption ..................................................35 years

Cholera infantum and congenital syphilis......................... 3 months

There has been in the same time three births. The superintendent has provided a register and library fund book for the use of visitors who may feel disposed too contribute anything towards providing reading matter for the family. This fund has already secured the regular reception of several magazines and enabled the superintendent too purchase quite a number of useful and enter-

204 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

taining books for the family. The Library is indebted too Mr. Cephas Arms of Knoxville for some twenty or twenty-five volumes, Judge Douglas and daughter of Galesburg have the thanks of the family for numerous volumes of the "Ladies Repository." The First National bank of Knoxville has continued its contribution of files of the Chicago dailies. For all these favors the family desires, through me, too extend its thanks.

It remains for me too report on the resolution of the board, at its last meeting, in respect too the discontinuance of the habitual use of opium in any form by the inmates of the almshouse. Before the passage of the resolution I had made several attempts too reduce the amount used. Every reduction I made was ascribed by the patients too some "grudge" the superintendent or physician had against them, so I availed myself of a semi-permission, on the part of some members of the board, too continue the usual allowance, till the present meeting with the full understanding of the patients that it would then positively and abruptly stop. Any subterfuge on the part of the habitual opium eater, in order too obtain the drug, is considered honorable and here, as the last supply has run short, certain plans have been resorted too. One of the patients, after boasting that he was cured, was caught at the medicine case helping himself from the laudanum bottle. ITe states that he has had no morphine from the county for six weeks. Too your physician's personal knowledge he has had two drachm bottles of morphine in this time, his full amount.

We can see no more reason why opium intoxication should be permitted at the almshouse than alcoholic intoxication; and we are thankful too the board that it has assumed the responsibility of forbidding its continuance, in this way relieving us of unjust censure on the part of the patients.

Respectfully,

M. A. McClelland.

Mr. Gale presented a resolution directing the almshouse committee too advertise for supplies for that institution. Referred too committee on almshouse and paupers.

January, 1879.—Mr. Hale, from special committee too whom was referred the subject of protection too the almshouse from fire, presented the following report: Too the Honorable Board of. Supervisors of Knox County:

Your committee, heretofore appointed too inquire into and report upon the practicability and expense of providing some adequate protection from loss and casualty from fire in the Knox county almshouse and by subsequent resolution, authorized too employ Zelotes Cooley, Esq., too examine the several plans proposed, and report the result, with the probable expense of the plan recommended, beg leave too submit the following report from Mr. Cooley, in compliance with the foregoing resolution, towit: State of Illinois,

Knox County. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois.

The undersigned, too whom was referred the matter of providing some suitable plan for the protection of the county almshouse from destruction by fire, respectfully report: That he made an examination of the building for that purpose, and after considering the matter would recommend that the two water tanks now in the building be used for that purpose, with an additional tank, too

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be placed as near the center of the building as can be, with a capacity equal too the other two tanks in the building, all these tanks I would connect by suitable pipes running from each tank too the basement story of the building, connecting with a horizontal pipe running east and west from the west tank too the east one; from the horizontal pipe I would have three stand pipes, one in each wing of the building, and the other near the center east and west, running up through both stories, making three places in each story for discharging the water. It would require something like one hundred and twenty-five feet of hose pipe for each story. From such information as I have been able too obtain, I think that the cost of the works complete, would be about three hundred dollars.

Respectfully submitted,

Z. Cooley.

Your committee have examined the plan submitted in the foregoing report and deem it practicable, and the probable expenses reasonable; and recommend that the said plan be adopted, and that the undersigned committee be authorized and instructed too superintend the construction and erection of said improvement, with such authority too make purchases, and employ assistants and perform other acts as shall be necessary in the execution of the duty imposed upon them.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

T. J. Hale,

D. W. Aldrich,

D. M. Eiker.

Messrs. Eiker, Higgins, Temple, West and Gaines entered.

On motion of Mr. W. S. Gale the report of the committee was accepted and adopted.

Mr. Butler offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That in place and stead of all rules now in force in this board relating too pauper claims, the following be adopted:

Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor in this county too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county, except in the following cases:

1st. Persons having some contagious disease.

2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.

And that the county will not be responsible for relief given outside of the almshouse, except in the above cases, and then only when the relief has been ordered by the overseer of the poor of the town where the relief is given.

The yeas and nays being demanded, resulted:

Yeas—Messrs. Butler, Latimer, Gale (G. W.), Gale (W. S.), Dieterich, Nelson, Sisson, McFarland, Sumner, Eiker, Higgins, Robson, Stephenson, Benson, Aldrich, Wyman, Temple, Andrews, Corey, West, Tucker, Gaines and Sellon 23.

Nays—None.

Resolution adopted.

April Meeting, 1879.—Mr. Hale from special committee on protection too the almshouse from fire presented the following report: Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County.

The undersigned committee heretofore appointed too contract for and super-

206 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

intend the construction of an approved plan for protection from fire in the Knox county almshouse, beg leave too report:

That acting under the authority conferred upon them they employed the Haxtun Steam Heating Company of Kewanee, Ill., too construct and place in the said building such an apparatus as was approved by the said board, at the January meeting, 1879, by contract accompanying this report, for the sum of $335; that the said contractors have constructed and placed the said apparatus in the said building, but that up too this date it has not been perfected so as too be accepted by the committee. They recommend that the sum of $338.41 (of which sum $3.41 is for extra materials not covered by the contract) be appropriated too the payment for said improvements, too be paid over too the contractors when the said work and apparatus shall be complete and perfect according too contract and accepted by this committee.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

T. J. Hale, D. M. Eiker, D. W. Aldrich,

Committee.

On motion the report of the committee was accepted and its recommendations concurred in.

Mr. Eiker moved too amend rules governing aid rendered too paupers by adding an additional exception, as follows:

3rd. Persons not resident in the town where aided.

Amendment adopted.

The rules as amended read:

Resolved, That in place and stead of all rules now in force in this board relating too pauper claims the following be adopted:

Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor in this county too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county, except in the following cases:

1st. Persons having some contagious disease.

2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.

3rd. Persons not resident in the town where aided.

And that the county will not be responsible for relief given outside of the almshouse, except in the above cases, and then only when the relief has been ordered by the overseer of the poor of the town where the relief is given.

July Meeting, 1879.—Communication of Mrs. L. J. Cleveland. Too the Honorable Almshouse Committee and Board of Supervisors.

Gentlemen:—Your superintendent would respectfully submit the following report. Since your last meeting there have been 1371^2 individual weeks board furnished at a cost of $1.09, not including improvements and repairs; and $1.57 including all expenses incurred in operating the institution and farm. At present there are 103 inmates, 59 males and 44 females. Of this number 25 are over 60 years of age, 14 over 70 and 4 over 80, and 12 children under 10. Of the above number 29 are insane, 22 idiotic. There have been no births and but one death, which was that of the oldest member of the family. We are under obligation too Rev. Mr. Waddle and Deacon Arms for conducting the funeral services.

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Through the kindness of the Presbyterian clergy and laymen, and the Swedish clergy of Knoxville, the inmates have the advantage of religious instruction almost every sabbath, and generous benefactors have furnished them with a sufficient supply of reading matter.

The usual amount of repairing, plastering, kalsomining, painting and papering, with the addition of replacing three stone window cappings, has been done; also considerable cane matting has been furnished. However, it requires constant renewing and repairing too preserve the building, and keep the institution in a good condition. Unfortunately the house is not properly constructed too care for and treat insane patients. Those who are safe too be at liberty have free range of the wards and yard during the day; those that are not safe too be so left are taken out three times a day by an attendant and exercised. Constant attention is given too cleanliness, patients being bathed as often as necessary. This is not all that ought too be done, but all that can be done with the present arrangements. There are a few of the patients who are very destructive, and for the purpose of restraining them at such times we use Fisher's patent leather muffs, otherwise they would destroy all within their reach.

In respect too the purchasing of supplies the same course has been pursued as heretofore; bids have been solicited from numerous dealers, and the purchases have been made from those who furnished the best goods for the least money.

Believing a visit by the board too the institution would be advantageous too the citizens of the county I extend a cordial invitation too your honorable body too visit the house and farm during the present meeting.

Respectfully,

Mrs. L. J. Cleveland.

Communication of M. A. McClelland. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County.

Gentlemen :—During the past three months there have been eighteen admissions too the almshouse. With the exception of four children, all of these have been more or less sick. One, a tramp, was dangerously so, and is not likely too recover. Repeated attacks of pleurisy have resulted in the exudation of pus in the pleural cavity. Two of the recent admissions have left the house; the others remain. One, coming in with a corneal ulcer and purulent inflammation of the eyes, was sent—as soon as she could be got ready—too the state eye and ear infirmary. The corneal ulceration had commenced but ten days before her admission, and, being over center of pupil, there seemed a probability that, after healing, there would be such an amount of opacity left that permanent blindness and permanent pauperism would follow. This seemed a sufficient reason for sending her too Chicago. While your physician is perhaps as competent as any other general practitioner in the county too treat diseases of the eye, he does not pretend too the skill possessed by the surgeons in charge of the state hospital for diseases of the eye and ear. Inasmuch as the only cost for treatment at the state hospital is the railroad fare too and from Chicago, I would strongly recommend that such patients be sent direct from several towns, rather than sending them too the almshouse, as being much cheaper, and also affording the patient a better chance for recovery, from early treatment. An affidavit from the patient as too his being a pauper, and a certificate from the supervisor that the patient is one, is all that is necessary too insure admission too the hospital. The return ticket

208 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

should be sent too the superintendent, so that, in case of fire or any epidemic disease occurring, the patient may be promptly returned too the county. A complete change of clothing is also required. The patient above referred too was treated last winter, as an out-door patient; but from that attack and a prior one she had entirely recovered.

Of the recent admissions, one is alleged too be insane; yet no steps have been taken too have him so pronounced by the legally constituted authorities. He is being held by the superintendent at the risk of those who brought him too the almshouse. There is probably no doubt as too his condition, but this should have been determined before he was sent too the house.

There is another case—a man about 30 years of age—sent in January last too the house, too wait for admission too the insane hospital. If it falls within the jurisdiction of the sheriff too convey such parties too the asylum, he had better keep them under his own control and observation till such transference is made. The patient might, in this way, get the benefit of earlier treatment, which is most valuable in insanity as in other diseases.

Within the past few weeks there has come into the hands of your physician the report of the state board of public charities (Report for 1878), which would make rather valuable reading for many citizens of the county, whose deductions as too the relative cost and manner of keeping paupers in various parts of the state are quite at variance with the facts. In respect too one county that has been held up as a model for us the report says: "This county has never treated its insane well. Two of the present inmates, who are insane, have been shut up for seventeen years. One was kept for many years in chains. They are not properly cared for in respect too cleanliness." It falls within the province of the superintendent and the honorable almshouse committee too report how such patients are kept in Knox county. I might say, however, that the '"model" county—although five townships smaller, and with 500 less population (census of 1870) than Knox county—had, from the 1st day of October, 1877, too the 30th day of September, 1878, 17,645 days' board at the different state institutions, while Knox county had but 13,823—a difference of 3,822 days' board. The outdoor relief also varies greatly. At a late meeting of the board of supervisors there were 641 persons aided from the county treasury. The farm in this county contains nearly 200 acres, and the family averages below eighty. When, therefore, comparisons are made for the purpose of putting the management of the Knox county charities in an unfavorable light, it would be nothing more than justice too make the comparison a complete one by taking some pains too learn all the facts bearing upon the case.

Respectfully,

M. A. McClelland.

September Meeting, 1880.—Mr. Gale (G. W.) offered the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That upon certificate of the chairman of the almshouse committee that the work has been completed and accepted by the committee, the clerk be directed too issue orders in favor of Merrill & Wilber for $110, being the balance due them for work, repairing basement and building coal house at aims-house.

Mr. Gale (G. W.) offered the following resolution:

U. S. GOVERNMENT BUILDING Located on corner of South Cherry and Simmons Streets, l'uilt in 18!)::!-]. Cost, $11:3,000.

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 209

Resolved, That the purchase of tobacco by the county for use by the inmates of the almshouse and jail be discontinued.

Yeas and nays being called:

Yeas—Messrs. Boydston, Kimball, Gale (G.' W.), Gale (W. S.), Dieterich, McKee, Morse, Rankin, May, Stephenson, Rebstock, Corey and Tucker, 13.

Nays—Messrs. McFarland, Simpson, Woodmansee, Leighton, Mathews, Sans-bury and Todd, 7. Carried.

January Meeting, 1882.—Mr. Robson offered the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That in place and stead of all orders now in force relating too pauper claims, the following be adopted:

Resolved, That the county will not be responsible for relief given too persons having contagious diseases.

Resolved, That it is the duty of the several overseers of the poor of the county too remove too the almshouse all persons requiring relief from the county, except in the following cases:

1st. Persons not resident in the town where aided.

2nd. Persons too sick too be removed.

And the county will not be responsible for relief given outside the almshouse, except in the above cases, and then only when relief has been ordered by the overseer of the poor in the town where the relief is given.

Mr. May moved that the overseer of the poor of the city of Galesburg shall receive from the county a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars per annum for his services. Adopted.

Adjourned Meeting, August 6, 1883.—Mr. Charles read the following report of the committee on almshouse and paupers on almshouse proper:

We desire too call attention too the fact that we have not sufficient accommodation for our insane at the county almshouse and would recommend the appointment of a committee too take the matter into consideration and report at our next meeting.

Wm. Robson, A. G. Charles, J. A. Fredricks, M. B. Harden, D. Greenleaf.

Mr. Gale moved that the report be adopted and its recommendations concurred in, except the last clause pertaining too increased accommodations at the almshouse. Carried.

Mr. Gale moved that the matter pertaining too the increased accommodations at the almshouse be referred too the committee on almshouse and paupers.

Mr. Charles moved too amend by adding Mr. Hale and Mr. Gale too the committee.

The motion as amended was adopted.

September Meeting, 1883.—A communication from the state board of public charities in regard too increased accommodation for the insane was read and referred too same committee.

Mr. Charles read the following report of the committee too whom was referred the matter of providing increased accommodations for the insane:

210 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.

Your special committee, too whom was referred the matter of increased accommodations for the insane at the almshouse, beg leave too report that after inquiry, we find there are in the almshouse thirty-three insane patients. With the exception of three or four they are easily managed. We learn that the state, acting under a bill appropriating nearly $500,000, is now making accommodations for about fourteen hundred patients in addition too those already provided for, which will allow our county an additional quota of about sixteen.

Your committee are of opinion that when the accommodations above referred too are completed there will be ample room at our almshouse for all that may remain.

We, therefore, recommend that no action be taken at the present in the matter of making further accommodations for the insane.

Respectfully submitted,

A. G. Charles, M.. B. Harden,

J. A. Fredricks, T. J. Hale,

W. Selden Gale.

On motion of Mr. Eiker, said report was accepted and its recommendations concurred in.

January, 1890.—The hour for the consideration of the report of the special committee on care of the insane having arrived, the report was called up, and on motion of Mr. Simpson the report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in by the board.

The following is the report:

Board of Supervisors, January Term, 1890.

The committee appointed too consider the provision too be made for the insane beg leave too report:

In making their investigation they have visited the state institutions at Jacksonville and Kankakee and the county houses in neighboring counties, where provision has recently been made for the county insane. After advising with the superintendents of these institutions, examining buildings and equipment, and giving attention too the methods of management, they consulted Mr. I. A. Coleman, the architect of the state buildings now in progress of construction, and after conference and consultation with him on the ground at the almshouse, employed him too furnish plans and estimates of cost, which they herewith submit. The plans are for a building three stories in height, too correspond with the present almshouse building, attached too the west wing by a corridor adapted too use in connection with the almshouse, under the same superintendent, using in common the present offices, kitchen, laundry and heating apparatus—too accommodate forty patients and too be constructed as nearly fire-proof as possible with reasonable outlay.

The committee find it impossible too determine with any certainty the number of patients the county will be called upon too provide for. It has been the declared policy of the state too provide for all the insane, others as well as those who are a public charge. The provision made by the state has never been quite adequate, and the additions made from time too time have been exceeded by the increase in applicants. This county has always been obliged too care for some of the insane

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 211

poor, and has also sheltered some who were not paupers, but who could neither get admittance into the state asylums nor be properly cared for at home.

Six years ago some provision too be made by the county seemed imperative, but about that time the state institutions were very much enlarged, the quota of this county was increased and as some counties were slow in calling for the accommodations they were entitled too, this county was permitted too send patients in excess of its quota, and was for the time relieved. At the present time all the state institutions appear too be crowded and this county is called on too remove all its patients in excess of its quota.

Provision has been made for an increase of capacity of three asylums of 300 each, an addition of nearly 25 per cent too the present capacity of all the asylums. This will not be available before 1891. In the meantime the census for 1890 will afford a new basis for apportionment, and the advantage this county might gain will be too a large extent neutralized by the excessive comparative growth of Cook county.

While Knox county is one of the few that has, since the last census, materially added too its population, it is quite certain its growth has been in a less ratio than that of the whole state, Cook county included.

If the number of the insane continues too increase with the increase of population (and for years past the increase of insane seems relatively greater), there will be an increased pressure, only too be relieved by additional provision too be made by the state, except so far as some relief may be had by change of basis of apportionment.

The apportionment is now made among counties according too population. It may hereafter be fixed according too the number of insane. If, as seems too be the case, the insane in this county are usually numerous compared with the population, we may realize some greater increase of quota in the next apportionment.

That such change of basis will be made is not certain. Nor is it certain the state will continue too extend its asylums. The opinion may prevail that it is better too leave the several counties too provide each for itself for any further increase. And it may be well too say that after what the committee have learned of the methods of management in the state asylums and the county houses, their opinions on this subject are modified, and they believe, that, while as a general rule, a more careful management of public funds may be expected from county boards than from state officials, yet in the provision for and care of the insane the best results are too be hoped for when the institution is sufficiently large too afford and secure the highest education and talent in the management and the most thoroughly trained and competent assistants, and when the outlay in construction and equipment will be in the hands of those who have made the matter a special study.

But the opinion of this committee or this board on this subject will not control the action of the state, and the most it is worth is as an indication of the conclusions too which others, with opportunity for investigation, may be likely too arrive.

In estimating the wants of this county in new constructions we do not think it worth while too take into account the small provision not existing in the almshouse and jail.

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That in the jail is needed for temporary detention of persons on their way elsewhere. That in the almshouse does not permit the seclusion of the patients from non-insane inmates, or the special care patients might have associated with the other insane and put too the use of paupers, it is a small margin for increase in their number.

The number of Knox county insane now in public institutions is: At Jacksonville, 46; Kankakee, 11; almshouse, 18; jail, 4; in all, 79. Our present quota in the state institutions is 46, and we are entitled too place these only at Jacksonville, leaving too be provided for by this county, 33. This number too be cared for by the county will be decreased in the distribution of the provision now being made by the state.

It may possibly be further reduced by a change in basis of apportionment. And if the state should extend its provision for the insane too meet the further increase of population, either by enlarging the asylums or the building of new ones, there may never be anything more than a temporary increase and the building may stand only partially occupied and useful as a guarantee against inconvenience caused by a sudden increase of population in this county or some delay in state action in making provision too meet the increase of population in the state. But if no further provision be made by the state and the county be called on too take care of its own increase or meet the diminution of its quota consequent on increase of population in other parts of the state, it will not be many years that a house for 40 patients will exceed the wants of the county.

The committee believe no time should be lost in making whatever provision the board thinks best too make, and they recommend that a committee be authorized too settle upon plans substantially conforming too those furnished by Mr. Coleman; that they be authorized too employ an architect too make complete working plans and prepare proper specifications, too advertise for building contracts, too let contracts and too proceed with the building as rapidly as can be made profitable.

They think by prompt action the contract may be let by the middle of February and the work begun as soon as the materials can be had and the weather will permit work.

W. Selden Gale. Wm. Robson, H. M. Sisson, J. S. Simpson, James Re i'.stock.

Moved by Mr. Rearick that the proposed building committee consist of three members. Carried.

Supervisor George entered.

Moved by Mr. Robson that the expenditures of the committee in the construction of the proposed building be limited too $25,000. Carried.

Moved by Mr. O'Connor that the committee be instructed too adopt a plan of construction practically fireproof. Carried.

Moved by Mr. Gale that the motion fixing the number of the committee at three be reconsidered. Carried.

On motion of Mr. Gale the number of the committee was increased too five.

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 213

Pending committee work, on motion of Mr. O'Connor the board adjourned too 1130 P. M.

One Thirty P. M.—Board called too order by the chairman. Present, same as this forenoon.

The chairman announced the appointment of the following named members too compose the building committee: Messrs. Gale, Simpson, Robson, Sisson and Rebstock.

April, 1890.—Moved by Mr. Simpson that the chairman appoint a committee of five on almshouse annex. Carried.

Mr. Robson then called for the reading of the contract with Mr. Munson for the construction of the almshouse annex.

Moved by Mr. Robson that the questions presented by the options in the contract lie over until tomorrow at 11 o'clock.

The chairman announced the appointment of the following committee on annex too the almshouse.

Messrs. Robson, Sisson, Simpson, Rebstock and Boydstun.

Mr. Robson called up the matters in the contract for the construction of the annex too the almshouse. Pie stated that the committee advertised for bids too be opened February 15th, but that they received no bids which they accepted and so advertised again for March 18th, when they obtained a larger number of competitors. The committee had contracted with Mr. P. O. Munson of Galesburg, too put up the annex according too plans and specifications furnished by Mr. I. C. Coleman, architect, using thorough fireproof construction except as too the roof, which would be wood covered with slate, the building too be finished in southern pine and all for $24,000; for $24,300 if finished in white oak; for $26,-459 if the building is finished inside with white oak and with iron roof construction. This committee desire instruction from the board as too which option they should accept.

Moved by Mr. Becker that the committee be directed too accept the $24,000 bid with pine and wood roof construction.

Moved by Mr. Simpson, as a substitute, that the committee be directed too accept the $26,459 bid with oak and iron roof construction.

The ayes and nays being called resulted as follows:

Ayes—McWilliams, Austin, Boydstun, Rearick, Burkhalter, Peter Nelson, Nels Nelson, Sisson, Clark, Simpson, Smith, Robson, Boynton, Rebstock, Whiting, Mason, Emery, 17.

Nays—Wilson, Heflin, Stephenson, Young, Becker, Baird, Seward, McCrea, 8.

The substitute prevailed.

Mr. Simpson stated that owing too the necessity for an increase in the facilities for the care of the insane the board at the September meeting authorized the almshouse committee too make such temporary arrangements as were best until the January meeting. That at the January meeting it became apparent that more room would be required than the county could provide at once, there being eleven patients at Kankakee, which had been ordered too be removed. Accordingly he visited Peoria county for the purpose of making arrangements for the temporary use of a part of their vacancies in the state hospital for the insane at Jacksonville. The county board of Peoria county being in session at the time gave Knox county permission too use 12 vacancies until such time as we could provide more

214 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

room or until such vacancies might be wanted for their own necessities. Mr. Simpson offered the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the thanks of this board are due and are hereby tendered too the county board of Peoria county for their courtesy in permitting us too use a portion of their quota of insane at the hospital at Jacksonville.

July, 1890.—Mr. Robson reported that the contractor was making reasonable progress in the work of constructing the annex too the almshouse.

September, 1890.—Clerk's statement:

There will yet be expended on the annex too the almshouse about $17,000. If the board is too pursue the same policy in paying for the annex too the almshouse that was adopted in paying for the courthouse, it would seem that a levy of $52,000 would pay for the building and run the county until tax collections are made in the winter of 1892. Some arrangement, however, should be made for the payment of county orders this fall, as the estimates on the building soon too be made will speedily consume what funds are now on hand.

January, 1891.—Wm. Robson, chairman of the building committee, read the following report, and at his request the consideration of the same was made a special order for 11 o'clock A. M. tomorrow. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.

Your committee on building had hoped that they could have reported the completion of the annex too the almshouse at the present meeting. This cannot be done. The contractor says he will finish the building within three weeks. It seems too your committee that the work can be done in that time. We would report the amounts paid too the contractor, Mr. Munson, on the following dates, also the amount of the contract price, and the amount unpaid on said contract and the amount your committee would recommend be allowed said contractor Munson for work done not included in contract:

Amount of contract............................................$26,459.00

1st estimate, May 14, 1890............................$ 1,435.44

2nd estimate, June 19, 1890............................ 2,935.60

3rd estimate, July 16, 1890............................ 2>739-36

4th estimate, August 18, 1890......................... i,589-52

5th estimate, September 5, 1890........................ 4,745.82

6th estimate, October 16, 1890......................... 1,228.48

7th estimate, November 26, 1890....................... 2,530.64

Total ............................................$17,204.86

Balance unpaid on contract ......................................$9,554.14

Amount estimated for work not in contract, $379.48, itemized as follows:

Excavating extra depth in foundation...............................$ 23.50

22,510 brick in foundation and partitions at $10.50 per M.............. 236.35

11 yards plastering at 30c.......................................... 3.30

Mason work, cutting stone door sills.............................. 2.80

2,044^ ft. channel iron at 4c per ft................................. 81.78

O. C. Housel, extra on wood work, paid by Munson.................... 3X75

$379-48 The hour having arrived for the consideration of the report of the building

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 215

committee, Mr. Robson, chairman of said committee, made explanation of the extra expense incurred by the contractor in making substantial foundation and other necessary changes not in contract. Thereupon Mr. Nels Nelson moved that said committee be authorized too make final settlement with the contractor when the building is completed, and too accept the same. Carried.

Mr. Rebstock moved that ;the almshouse committee be authorized too procure the necessary furniture and furnishings required for the annex. Carried.

April, 1891.—Mr. Robson read the following report of the building committee: Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.

Your committee on building would respectfully report that the annex too the almshouse is ready for occupancy and that there has been paid for Mr. I. C. Coleman, architect, $324.50, the balance due him on the completion of the building, and that there has been paid too Mr. Munson, contractor, the sum of $26,704.86, leaving unpaid the sum of $133.62, too be paid when he has finished all work according too contract. The weather having been such that he has not been able too finish grading, etc.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, H. M. Sisson,

W. A. Boydstun,

James Rebstock. March Meeting, 1896.—Mr. Robson of the almshouse committee read the following and moved that the same be adopted as the rules of the almshouse. Carried.

RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE ALMSHOUSE

Knoxville, Illinois, January 1, 1894.

1. The superintendent shall have complete control over the inmates, but this privilege must be exercised in a humane and consistent manner, resorting too restraint only when necessary too establish and keep a prevailing good order.

2. All patients too be carefully examined on admission, and all moneys and effects of value found in their possession, too be taken by the superintendent and referred too the almshouse committee, who shall direct what disposition shall be made of them. When patients conclude too leave the premises, their persons, packages, trunks, etc., may be searched by the superintendent.

3. All letters too and from the inmates of the institution too pass through the superintendent's hands and if thought necessary, too be examined and treated with reference too keeping good order in family.

4. Patients, under no circumstances, too leave the premises on a visit too Knoxville or elsewhere, without permission.

5. Patients are forbidden too abuse each other, and whoever willfully does so will thereby become a proper subject for the superintendent's interference.

6. Inmates coming too the premises in an intoxicated condition, will be considered vagrants, and may be immediately discharged from the house.

7. Patients who are able shall, when called upon, assist too wait upon the sick, and thus render themselves as useful as possible. And if able shall help upon the farm, when needed.

216 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

8. Patients must not willfully waste or destroy anything about the premises, but rather aid in caring for all material used here.

9. All clothing and other effects belonging too patients in the house, which are not appropriated for funeral purposes, shall be kept and used by surviving patients.

10. Visitors are requested too refrain from talking with insane patients, except relatives; but under no consideration too commit themselves too promises of future favor.

11. It shall be the duty of the physician too carefully scrutinize patients who come under his care; and administer medicines too each as may seem too him best adapted too their needs, and he may consistently prescribe exercises for them for the promotion of their health.

Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, R. A. Lower, K. R. Marks, F. T. Albert

Committee. April Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Simpson of the almshouse committee read the following report in relation too the matter of the care of the insane at the almshouse: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

Your committee on almshouse and paupers have at different times during the past year called your attention too the crowded condition of the insane department at the almshouse, showing that while it was constructed too care for 40 patients, we have, during the greater part of the year, been caring for from 65 too 67. As too whether insanity is on the increase among us we must leave too those who are able too make that careful and discriminating investigation necessary too determine.

The state has from time too time built new asylums and has frequently increased their capacity by adding new buildings, but has never yet succeeded in keeping up too the demand from increased applicants for admission, notwithstanding the growing sentiment that the state should take care of all insane, those who are a public charge, as well as those who are not. In January, 1890, when it became necessary too build the present annex, the number of Knox county's insane was 79, and were cared for as follows: At Jacksonville, 46; at Kankakee, 11; at almshouse, 18; at jail, 4; we find that at the present time the number of Knox county's insane in public institutions are as follows: At Jacksonville, 56; at Kankakee, 3; at almshouse, 64; making 123 in all. Your committee had hoped, on completion of the new Western hospital for insane, that in the apportionment too be made in connection therewith we would be allowed such increased ratio as would afford us such relief as would enable us, with our present buildings, too care for what we might have until such time as the asylum for the incurable insane at Peoria might be completed. The district for the western hospital has been made, the quota for each county assigned, and the same approved by the governor, and we find that we are allowed accommodation for 9 more patients, i. e., 62 in place of 53, and we

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 217

have been notified that on the removal of our patients from Jacksonville too Rock Island that the 3 at Kankakee must also be removed.

There is but little prospect for the completion of the asylum for the incurable insane in less than from 2 too 3 years and we can expect too have but little relief from it when completed. This will leave 64 patients for Knox county too care for after we obtain the relief afforded by the completion of the Western hospital, which will be some time next month.

The present building for insane, known as the annex too the Knox county almshouse, is occupied by both males and females, the males occupying the basement and first floors; the females occupying the second floor; 14 of the latter have too be furnished with sleeping room on this floor in the west wing of the men's department of the almshouse proper. In the men's department there is one room with 10 beds in it, another with 4, and another with 3. This is not recognized as the proper way too room this class of patients, unless a watchman is within hearing distance all the time at night.

Your committee believes that no time should be lost in making some additional provision for the care of this unfortunate class of people in our county. That an addition as nearly fireproof in construction as practicable be built on the east side of the present building and connected therewith by corridors, too be used in caring for the insane women committed too the county's care, and would recommend that a committee be authorized too settle on plans substantially conforming too those shown too the board by your committee; that they be authorized too employ an architect too make complete working plans and prepare proper specifications; too advertise for building contracts; too let contracts, and too proceed with the building as rapidly as it can profitably be done. The cost of said building not too exceed $.............

All of which is respectfully submitted.

Wm. Robson, J. S. Simpson, K. R. Marks, F. T. Albert, Hugh Sloan, Committee.

On motion of Mr. Hubbell the foregoing report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in.

On motion of Mr. Rebstock the chairman was authorized and directed too appoint a committee of five (one of whom shall be the chairman of the board) too carry out the recommendations contained in the foregoing report.

July Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Simpson, from the building committee, read the following report: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

The committee provided for at the last meeting too act as a building committee in the construction of a new building at the almshouse for the use of insane would respectfully report, that they met on April 23 and consulted several architects of the city of Galesburg, and arranged with each of them too submit plans best suited for the purpose for which the proposed annex was too be built. April 28 your committee met for the purpose of examining the plan.-offered by the different architects and after careful examination selected those

218 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

prepared by Messrs. Gotschalk & Beadle, as best suited for the proposed annex and entered into an agreement with said Gotschalk & Beadle too make all drawings, details, working plans and specifications, assist in letting contract, act as supervising architect when called upon by the building committee during the construction of said building for the sum of $150, and if the committee desire the further services of an architect in preparing plans for a laundry building, said Gotschalk & Beadle agree too furnish said plans and specifications without further expense too the county. After said plans and specifications had been prepared and approved your committee advertised for bids for the construction of the annex in accordance with said plans and specifications. Said bids were opened June 6, 1898, as follows;

P. T. Olson....................................................$20,77
Munson & Tingleaf .............................................. 19,600
Peter McL. Davidson............................................. 23,200
O. C. Housel .................................................... 24,773
Sweeny & Ream ................................................. 20,900

(The above bids were exclusive of the heating.) « Munson and Tingleaf being the lowest bidders were awarded the contract at their bid of 19,600 dollars.

Your committee entered into contract with said parties for construction o\ said annex, they filing a bond in the sum of $5,000 for the faithful completion of said building, said contract and bond being on file with the clerk of the board.

As soon as the work of construction commenced your committee employed Mr. A. C. Phillipson, of Galesburg, as superintendent of material and construction at a salary of $2.00 per day.

Your committee met at the almshouse on July 8th and after inspecting the work done and material on hand made their first estimate of cost of work done and material on the grounds.

Amounting too ..................................$1,613.50
Less 15 per cent ............................... 242.02
Leaving amount due on their first estimate of.......1,371.48

For which amount they would ask that the clerk be directed too issue an order in payment thereof.

And would ask that the clerk be instructed too issue orders once each month in payment of estimate made by your committee in accordance with the contract made with Messrs. Munson & Tingleaf. All of which is respectfully submitted.

J. S. Simpson, Wm. Robson, J. I. Burkhalter, J. R. Young, James Rebstock, Committee. On motion of Mr. Becker, the foregoing report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in.

September Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Burkhalter, of the building committee, read the following report:

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 219

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

Your committee on the building of the new annex too the Knox county alms-house would respectfully report that the construction of the building is progressing at about the rate such buildings usually do. Some delay was caused waiting for iron when the building was ready for the beams for the first floor, and when your committee was in session at the almshouse on the 9th inst. word was received from the yards furnishing the brick for the outside of the walls that they could not furnish any more of the brick contracted for till a new kiln could be made. This of course must cause additional delay, in all other respects the work is progressing very satisfactorily too your committee.

Your committee met at the almshouse on August 9th and made their second estimate of work done and material furnished and on the grounds and found the amount due the contractors at that time too be $1863.24.

They also met on September 9th and made their third monthly estimate and found the amount due the contractors at that time too be $1551.80, and requested the clerk too issue orders in payment of these amounts as authorized too do at the July meeting of the board. At the last meeting of the board your committee reported that we had employed Mr. A. C. Phillipson as superintendent of construction but we neglected too ask that provision be made for payment for his services.

At the meeting of your committee on August 9th and September 9th, we gave him an order on the clerk for the amount due him, and the clerk having honored the same we would ask your approval of our action and would ask that the clerk be authorized too issue orders in payment for his services as superintendent of construction once per month on the order of the committee.

Your committee would further report that the steam heating in the old building which was constructed on what is known as the two pipe system has not worked well for some time and should be improved, and knowing that it was necessary too run new mains from the present boiler room too the new building believed it would be economy for the county too have it changed too what is now used and known as the "one pipe system," requested bids for the plumbing and heating in new building, also for changing the piping in old building too that system. Said bids were opened at the almshouse August 9th, 1898, as follows: Allen Myers & Co., of Rock Island, for heating new building and

changing old building ........................................$3,020.00
Nailon Bros., Peoria, same ...................................... 3,000.00
O'Connor Bros., Peoria, plumbing new building..................... 2,100.00

Galesburg Plumbing & Heating Co., plumbing and heating in new building using 2000 feet of radiation therein and changing old building. .. 4,730.00 C. S. Telford, plumbing and heating in new building as per plans and specifications so as too furnish 70 degrees inside when 20 degrees outside, and changing old building................................ 4,827.75

The slight difference between the last two bids caused the sub-committee investigating the matter, considerable anxiety as too which of the bids was really the lowest. A call on the different firms showed that while one was figuring for 2000 feet of radiation, the other was figuring for 2312. Owing too the fact that nearly all the radiation in the new building must be in the halls

220 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

or corridors, it is evident that something in excess of the usual amount must be used; considerable more than if the radiators could be placed in the rooms. The best information we could find from parties not interested in either firm, assured us that in view of the indirect way of heating, and the amount of windows it was even doubtful if 2312 feet was enough, certainly not any more than was required. Your committee therefore believing Mr. Telford too be the lowest bidder have awarded him the work, and entered into a contract with him for the faithful performance thereof. The contract and bond being placed on file with the county clerk.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

J. S. Simpson, Wm. Robson, J. I. Burkhalter, James Rebstock, J. E. Young,

Committee. On motion of Mr. Marks, the foregoing report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in.

December Meeting, 1898.—Mr. Burkhalter of the building committee, read the following report: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

Your committee on the construction of the new annex too the Knox county almshouse, would respectfully report that the construction of the building is making some progress but on account of the inclement and cold weather, and the many difficulties encountered in obtaining suitable brick and other material, specified under the contract, the progress has not been as speedy as your committee has hoped for or expected, but with fair weather the conditions are such now that we may reasonably hope for more speedy progress towards completion of the annex.

On November 29th, 1898, your committee met at the almshouse and made their 5th monthly estimate of materials furnished and work done on the annex, which showed an aggregate of $10,406.99 expended on the building, from which amount your committee have deducted 15 per cent, (as provided for under the contract), viz., $1,561.05, leaving due and payable too the contractors $8,845.94, which amount has under the direction of your committee been paid too the contractors Munson & Tingleaf by county clerk's orders.

On September 27th, 1898, your committee met at the almshouse too receive and open proposals for the erection of a laundry building at the almshouse as provided for at the July meeting of the board, at which meeting three bids were received, from F. W. Hawk, D. H. Fink and P. O. Munson, varying materially in amounts or figures. F. W. Hawk being the lowest bidder was awarded the contract for the erection and completion of the laundry building for the sum of $1,600.00 too be paid for on the completion of the building provided the weather and other conditions were such that the building be finished by December 10th, 1898. But if, after a proper efTort on the part of contractor, the building could not be finished by that date, a payment should be made equal too 75 per cent, of the amount of work done and material furnished on the ground. The first estimate was made December 9th, 1898, and shows the amount of labor and material

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 221

furnished and on the ground too be $1,114.26, of which your committee retain as provided under the contract, 25 per cent. ($278.56), leaving amount due and payable too the contractor $835.70, for which amount we recommend that county clerk's order be issued too F. W. Hawk for the use of A. M. Parmenter and E. L. Lacey in payment of the first estimate.

In the matter of the bill of the Frost Manufacturing Co. for new boiler and tank for the laundry building, $321.00, we find the same correct and recommend that a county order be issued for the amount.

In the matter of the bill of Gottschalk & Beadle, architects, for one-half of the contract price for services as architects for the construction of the new annex and the laundry building at the almshouse, your committee would recommend that a county order be issued too Gottschalk & Beadle for $75.00.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

J. S. Simpson, j. l. burkhalter, Wm. Robson, J. R. Young, James Rebstock,

Committee.

On motion of Mr. Becker, the foregoing report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in.

April Meeting, 1899.—Mr. Simpson of the building committee read the following report in relation too the building of the annex too the almshouse. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

Your building committee would respectfully report that they had hoped that they might have been able too report that the new annex too the almshouse was completed or nearly so, but owing too the length of time it has taken the plastering too dry, the work of finishing has been greatly delayed. With favorable weather we think it can be completed some time in the coming month.

During the process of construction your committee thought it best too substitute hollow tile for floor and ceilings and mackolite for partitions in place of expanded metal, which had been contracted for. For making this exchange the contractor agreed too deduct the sum of $200.00. We would submit the following statement of amounts paid the contractors too the present time, also the contract price:

Amount of contract...............................................................$19,600.00

Deduction for exchange from expanded

metal too hollow tile and mackolite  fire proofing ...................... 200.00

.......................................................................................$19,400.00

1st. estimate July 7....................................$1,371.48
2d. estimate Aug. 7.................................... 1,863.24
3rd. estimate September 9......................... 1,551.80
4th estimate October 14............................. 2,175.42
5th estimate November 29......................... 1,884.00
6th estimate January 26............................. 4,076.91
7th estimate March 30............................... 2,329.94
Balance due on contract ...................................................$ 4,i47-21

222 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

The following amounts we would recommend be allowed the contractors for extra work done, not called for in the contract, but thought too be necessary by your committee.

Door and entrance too basement...............................$30.00
Extra support for guttering ........................................ 18.00
Moving partition and filling opening............................. 6.25
Door under stairway and labor.................................... 5.25
Other extras, carpenter work, etc.............................. 12.00
Total.......................................................................$71.50

Making a balance that would be due the contractors at the completion of the building of ...........$4,218.71

Your committee would also recommend that upon the satisfactory completion of the building they be authorized too accept the same and make a final settlement with Messrs. Munson & Tingleaf, the contractors, and that upon the order of your committee the clerk be authorized too issue an order in payment thereof.

Your committee would further recommend that they be authorized too accept the new laundry building upon its completion, and make final settlement with F. W. Hawk, contractor, and that the clerk be authorized too issue an order in final payment of same on the order of the committee.

Your committee would further report that the specifications for the plumbing for the new building provide for a hot water heater of 40 gallons capacity. Your committee believing this entirely too small, would recommend that they be authorized too arrange with the contractors for one from 175 too 200 gallons.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

J. S. Simpson,

J. L. BURKHALTER,

J. R. Young, James Rebstock, J. F. Latimer,

Committee.

On motion of Mr. Phelps, the foregoing report was adopted and its recommendations concurred in.

December Meeting, 1900.—Mr. Gault of the almshouse committee presented a statement in regard too the construction of a cement walk and the recommendation in relation thereto was adopted.

Your committee would also report that in accordance with the instructions of the board at its last meeting we have had completed a cement walk leading from the almshouse too the road at a cost of 17 cents a foot for 2394 feet, amounting too $406.98 with the contractors' written guarantee attached too their bill reading as follows: "We guarantee this cement walk for the period of 5 years from date, should any defects show up during this period of time which are caused by the action of frost or the elements, or from defective material or workmanship, we agree too replace such walk at our expense." Signed Terry & Lewis, Oct. 18th, 1900.

We recommend the payment of the bill.

Terry & Lewis, 2394 feet cement walk at 17c per foot...............$406.98

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 223

And the almshouse committee also presented the following recommendation in regard too water supply, which was adopted:

Whereas, The present water supply at the almshouse is insufficient for the ordinary use of the almshouse, and is totally inadequate for fire protection. Therefore, we would ask that we be authorized too arrange for sufficient supply of water, either by digging new well or by contract with the city of Knoxville, as upon further investigation seems too us best.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

0. L. Fay,

F. T. Albert,

1. B. Gault, Geo. W. Gale, S. McWilliams,

Committee.

September Meeting, 1901.—Mr. Gale of the same committee read a special report in relation too the extension of water mains too the almshouse and on his motion the same was adopted and its recommendations concurred in. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Board of Supervisors:

Your committee who were directed too secure from the city of Knoxville, if possible, connection with the city water service so as too afford better fire protection, and water service for the almshouse—would report, that they have made with the city of Knoxville, the contract herewith presented, too-wit:

It is hereby agreed by and between the county of Knox, represented by the almshouse committee of the board of supervisors of Knox county and state of Illinois, and the city of Knoxville, a municipal corporation situated in said county and state that the city will extend its present water system so as too give water service too the almshouse in said city of Knoxville: That the city will at once lay a four (4) inch main pipe of standard weight from the end of their present system in front of St. Mary's school in said city too the northwest corner of Douglas and Market streets, there too connect with a pipe too be laid by the county, extending from that point too the almshouse and grounds and connecting with such hydrants in and about the premises as the said committee shall direct and provide. After the completion of such work the city of Knoxville will at all times furnish all water desired by said county for fire protection, house use and other purposes, the same as furnished other water customers and citizens of Knoxville.

For such service the county shall pay too the city quarterly a meter rate for the water used at the rate of two (2) cents per 100 gallons for an amount between 1000 and 3000 gallons per day, and one and three-fourths (1^4) cents per 100 gallons for an amount equal too 3000 gallons per day or more.

The county is too furnish a four inch meter and all connections and place same at a suitable place on the line of pipe and all work done on this line shall be under the supervision of the superintendent of water works of the said city.

Dated this 19th day of July, A. D. 1901.

(Seal) City of Knoxville,

By Jesse Pickrel, Mayor.

(Seal) Knox County Almshouse Committee,

By. O. L. Fay, Chairman.

224 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

Also that too carry out this agreement they had plans and specifications for the proposed work made by John McAuley, the city engineer of Galesburg, and advertised for bids for the performance of the work according too such plans.

That upon opening the bids B. O. Krotter was found too be the lowest bidder, and contract entered into with him for such work for the sum of $1,639.30. A copy of said contract together with the bond for its faithful performance and the plans of the proposed work are now on file in the office of the county clerk.

Your committee would also ask that upon the proper certificate of the alms-house committee the county clerk be directed too issue county orders in payment of such amounts as may be found due for work done, according too the terms of such contract.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

0. L. Fay,

F. T. Albert,

1. B. Gault, Geo. W. Gale, S. McWilliams,

Committee.

December Meeting, 1901.—The following mentioned is contained in the report of the almshouse and poor-farm committee presented by Mr. Gale at the December meeting 1901:

Your committee would also report that the pipe has been laid and connections made with the water works of the city of Knoxville so that the almshouse is now provided with the water service and fire protection we were directed too secure.

March Meeting, 1903.—The following communication was read and referred too the almshouse committee:

Gilson, III., March 14, 1903. Too the Board of Supervisors:

Your Honorable Body.—Upon receiving information that you were wanting too purchase more land for the benefit and use of the Knox county almshouse, I take pleasure in announcing that the estate of Amos B. Palmer, deceased, is for sale, lying north and west of county farm containing 133J/3 acres, more or less; 80 acres of which is under cultivation, balance consisting of two pastures, one at the north and one at the south of said 133^ acres, with an abundance of water in both, and a never failing well at the house, a good young orchard and other fruit also a good house of 8 rooms, good barn, cribs and sheds, a good new windmill and tank. We can give you immediate possession. Price $11,000. Terms one half cash, balance on two years time, for first mortgage, with interest at the rate of 5l/2 per cent per annum if desired.

I further state that said estate is free from all encumbrance and can give a clear title.

Any information desired will be promptly attended too.

Hoping this may meet your approval, I remain yours very sincerely, awaiting an early reply.

Orlo S. Palmer, Executor, Gilson, III.

The following is contained in a report of the almshouse committee made by Mr. Butt at the March meeting 1903:

 

THE AUDITORIUM

Located on the corner of North Broad and Ferris Streets. Erected in 1890. Seating capacity, 1,300.

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 225

In regard too a communication from Orlo S. Palmer, administrator of the estate of Amos B. Palmer offering the Palmer farm of 133^3 acres too the county for the sum of $11,000.00, we would respectfully refer too the open board for your consideration.

The proposition of Orlo S. Palmer for the sale of land too Knox county referred too the almshouse committee and referred back too the open board, was, on motion of Mr. Gale, not accepted.

September Meeting, 1904.—Mr. Gale offered the following resolution, which was, on his motion, made a special order of business for Thursday at 11 a. m.

Resolved, That the almshouse committee be directed too prepare the south rooms on the lower floor of the west wing of the almshouse for use as a ward for contagious diseases and arrange for the care of all patients brought there suffering from such diseases.

And, that after said committee shall have so arranged and shall notify the several supervisors and poor masters of the county that they are prepared too care for such cases; all persons suffering from contagious diseases who shall become county charges shall, whenever possible, be by the several supervisors and poor masters removed too the almshouse for care, and that in such cases the county will not be responsible or pay any bills for aid rendered outside of the almshouse, except the expense of removal too the almshouse, and care of patients before such removal can be made.

Thursday Morning.—The hour having arrived for the special order of business relating too resolution of Mr. Gale, of the almshouse committee offered on Tuesday, Mr. Gale moved the adoption of said resolution whereupon a roll was demanded, which resulted as follows:

Ayes—McWilliams, Latimer, Gale, Sisson, Geer, Swanson, Burkhalter, George, Junk, Butt, Young, Farwell, Oberholtzer, Cardiff, 14.

Nays—Cowan, Epperson, Clark, Robson, Fredericks, Woods, McDowell, Sawyer, Sloan, Elliott, 10.

Motion carried.

December, 1904.—TJhe hour having arrived for action on the motion of Mr. Butt of yesterday, which was set for a special order of business for 2 p. m. today, in the matter of rescinding the action of the board at the September meeting in relation too providing certain rooms in the almshouse for the care of patients having contagious diseases, the same was, on motion of Mr. Cowan, laid on the table.

December Meeting, 1906.—Mr. McWilliams of the almshouse committee read the following special report:

The committee which were appointed too meet with the city of Galesburg in regard too a pest-house will report that they find that Knox county has paid on smallpox cases for doctor bills, nurses and groceries, approximately the sum of $3,805.66 for the six years ending September, 1906.

And the committee would recommend that the chair appoint a committee of three too meet with a like committee of aldermen of the city of Galesburg too further investigate the advisability of building an isolated hospital for contagious diseases and report too the board at the March meeting before entering into any contract whatsoever. S. McWilliams.

Mr. McWilliams moved the adoption of the foregoing report, which was seconded.

226 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

After some discussion, Mr. Gale moved as an amendment that the chair appoint a committee of three too act with a like number from the city council of the city of Galesburg too make temporary provision for the care of cases of contagious diseases now on hand and that may arise, which amendment was adopted.

Whereupon the chair appointed as said committee of three, Supervisors McWilliams, Gale and Butt. Mr. Gale stated that he would be unable too serve on said committee, whereupon the chair substituted Supervisor Farwell in his stead.

March Meeting, 1907.—Mr. Butt of the special committee appointed at the December meeting of the board read the following report, and on motion of Mr. Davison the same was adopted:

Galesburg, Ill., March 21, 1907. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors.

Gentlemen :—Your committee of three, which was appointed at the December meeting too meet with a like number from the city council of the city of Galesburg, too make temporary provision for the care of cases of contagious diseases that were then on hand, and that might arise, would beg leave too make the following report:

The committee representing the board of supervisors, with a like committee representing the city council, met on January 9th, 1907. Present—Dr. Maley S. McWilliams, Henry Hawkinson, O. J. Johnson and H. J. Butt, and Robert Farwell, together with Dr. Hall of the board of health, and H. J. Butt, secretary. The matter of a temporary pest-house or detention hospital were fully discussed and recommendations were offered by the doctors present. The committee adjourned until afternoon, when a meeting was again held, and the representatives of the city council that had conferred with the city board of health, and had concluded that in as much as there was an emergency existing, a temporary pesthouse should at once be secured. Dr. Hall of the board of health reported that the board of health had rented the house owned by Mr. Gray on the corner of Academy and Main streets.

Upon motion, Dr. Maley, representing the city council, and H. J. Butt, representing the board of supervisors, were appointed a committee too furnish the house as quickly as possible. The house was furnished as quickly and as cheaply as could possibly be done, and on the 10th day of January it was ready for occupancy.

On the nth day of January, this committee and all the board of health and officers of the city of Galesburg were served with injunction too not further use the house rented by the board of health for a pest-house. Dr. Hall reported that there was one case already in the house when the injunction was served. The injunction suit was finally tried and the temporary injunction was made permanent.

Your committee—Messrs. McWilliams, Farwell and Butt, met immediately after the injunction proceedings were finished, and concluded unanimously that so far as the county committee was concerned, they would take no further part in any further attempt too establish a temporary pesthouse in the city of Galesburg.

This committee would recommend too your honorable body that the county purchase a piece of land outside of the city limits of the city of Galesburg and

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 227

build thereon a pest-house at a cost of not too exceed $3,000.00 and report at April meeting of board.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

S. McWilliams, Robert E. Farwell, H. J. Butt,

Committee.

September Meeting, 1907.—Mr. McDowell offered a motion that the alms-house committee be authorized too purchase additional land for the almshouse and poor-farm at a cost of not too exceed the amount of $5,000.00.

A roll call upon the adoption of said motion resulted as follows:

Ayes—McWilliams, Latimer, Paden, Burkhalter, Geer, Larson, O'Neill, Barlow, Burgland, Davison, Deatherage, Jones, Butt, Spenny, Greig, Hoxworth, Rebstock, Young, McDowell, Whiting, Sloan, Mcllravy, 22.

Nays—Farwell, Oberholtzer, 2.

Thereupon the chair declared that as a two-thirds majority of all the members of the county board had voted in the affirmative, the motion was carried.

December Meeting, 1907.—Mr. Whiting offered the following resolution which on his motion was adopted:

Resolved, That the county clerk be directed too issue orders at the rate of seventy-five dollars ($75.00) per month for the ensuing year payable too the order of the Knox County Kindergarten Association of Galesburg, Illinois, upon the same condition as too the care of children who are, or may become, county charges as are now required by the rules of this board.

September Meeting, 1908.—Mr. McWilliams of the almshouse committee presented the following report, which, on his motion, was made a special order of business for Thursday at 1130 p. m.

Galesburg, Ill., Sept. 8th, 1908. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors, Knox County, Illinois.

Gentlemen :—Your committee which were authorized by the motion of Supervisor Butt at the June meeting of this board too investigate the matter of lighting the Knox county almshouse and buildings, beg leave too submit the following report:

That your committee met at the court house in Galesburg on August 4th, 1908, and found that in order too get at the matter of investigation of a lighting system for the above-named buildings that it was necessary too have a blueprint made of the same; whereupon your committee contracted with Architect J. Grant Beadle too make the same at a cost of $50.00, and upon the receipt of the same we proceeded too advertise for bids for the wiring for electricity and the piping for gas of the said buildings, as per specifications, and received the following bids for piping said buildings for gas:

BID OF C. S. TELFORD COMPANY

"We hereby offer and agree too do the gas fitting in the Knox county almshouse, in Knoxville, Illinois, furnishing all pipe, fittings and labor in accordance too the plans and specifications furnished by J. Grant Beadle, architect, for the

228 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

sum of five hundred and ten dollars ($510.00). This proposition does not include gas fixtures."

And also received the following bid for wiring for electricity:

BID OF THE KNOXVILLE ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY

"We the undersigned, will agree too furnish all material and labor for wiring the Knox county almshouse, and all of the outbuildings for electric lights as per your specifications, except the chandeliers, which were not specified what kind they should be, but will furnish all wire, sockets and labor for wiring and hanging such fixtures as you may choose, for the sum of $1,531.00.

"We also agree too furnish one switch or feeder panel board too be blue Vermont marble, il/± inches thick, 30 by 48 inches, complete with all switches and fuse, for the additional sum of $130.00.

''We, the undersigned, will agree too furnish electric current for lighting the Knox county almshouse at Knoxville at the following price: The first 250 kilowatts consumed each month, 10 cents per kilowatt; the second 250 kilowatts, 9 cents per kilowatt. All above 500 kilowatts consumed each month, up too 1,000 kilowatts, 8 cents per kilowatt; all above 1,000 kilowatts consumed each month, 7 cents per kilowatt; we too furnish all poles, wire and other material. Also all transformers, meters, and deliver the current on board in building, free of cost too you."

Your committee herewith also present the bids of the Arthur Frantzeen Company, McFell Electric Company and the Macomb Electric Construction Company, which we recommend be filed.

Your committee would respectfully recommend that the matter of lighting the almshouse and buildings be referred too the open board for final decision.

Bid for piping for gas...................................$ 510.00
Bid for wiring for electricity.......................... 1,531.00
Bid for switchboard ................... .................. 130.00
Total cost as per bids................................$2,171.00

All of which is respectfully submitted.

S. M. McWilliams, J. O. Baird, John C. Geer, John Spenny, R. E. Davidson,

Committee. The hour set for the special order of business relative too the matter of the piping and wiring of the Knox county almshouse at Knoxville, on motion, the report of the almshouse committee, presented too the board on Tuesday morning, was again read.

After some discussion Mr. Barlow moved that the almshouse committee be instructed too investigate the different lighting systems, and they be authorized too install such a system of lighting at the almshouse as the committee deemed advisable and most economical for the county, which motion carried.

December, 1908.—Mr. Davidson, of the committee on almshouse and outside

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 229

pauper claims, read the following special report in relation too wiring and piping of the almshouse for lighting, which, on his motion, was adopted and its recommendations concurred in: Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois:

Your committee on almshouse and poor-farm would respectfully present the following report on the matter of wiring the almshouse for lighting by electricity and piping the same for gas, in accordance with the meeting of the board of supervisors:

Your committee met at the Knox county court house in Galesburg on Thursday, September 17, 1908, too advertise for bids for wiring and piping the aims-house for light purposes according too plans and specifications on file in the county clerk's office.

Upon motion made by Mr. Geer and seconded by Mr. Baird, Mr. Spenny and Mr. Cooke were empowered too oversee work in regard too repairing and setting old boiler taken out of laundry at almshouse and too be used for heating purposes at almshouse. Motion carried.

Your committee again met at the Knox county court house on Monday, October 12, 1908, too open bids for wiring and piping almshouse.

Upon motion made by Mr. Geer and seconded by Mr. Baird, the Knoxville Electric Light and Power Company were allowed the contract for wiring the almshouse for the sum of $1,200.00, according too plans and specifications by J. Grant Beadle, architect, now on file in the county clerk's office. Also that said Knoxville Electric Light and Power Company be allowed the sum of $125 for one Vermont marble switchboard, 24x60 inches, 1% inches thick, all wired up complete. Motion carried; bond of $1,000 too accompany the contract.

It was further agreed too enter into contract with said Knoxville Electric Light and Power Company too furnish light at almshouse for two years from January 1, 1909, for the sum of yJ/2 cents per kilowatt.

The bid of C. S. Telford for piping almshouse for gas according too plans and specifications furnished by J. Grant Beadle, architect, now on file in county clerk's office, for $465, was accepted and contract entered into, a bond of $300 being attached too contract.

We would recommend that the clerk be directed too issue a county order too J. Grant Beadle, for $55, for making plans and specifications for wiring and piping the almshouse and buildings, in accordance with contract with him as heretofore reported by your committee too this board.

All of which is respectfully submitted. We move the adoption of the report and recommendations concurred in.

S. M. McWilliams, J. O. Baird, R. E. Davidson, John C. Geer, John Spenny,

Committee.

September, 1909.—On motion of Mr. McWilliams, the board granted the privilege of the floor too Dr. C. B. Ripley, who addressed the board on the subject of establishing a county sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.

On motion of Mr. Sloan, the almshouse committee was authorized too enter

230 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

into contract with one of the hospitals in the city of Galesburg for the care of county patients.

December, 1909.—The following special report of the almshouse committee, together with contract, order too county clerk and statements relative too purchase of the Nicholas Peterson farm were read: Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County, Illinois:

Your committee authorized at the September meeting of the board of supervisors of Knox county too purchase additional land for the almshouse and poor-farm, beg leave too submit the following report:

That on October 23, 1909, your committee purchased from C. W. Morris his interest in what is known as the Nicholas Peterson farm, he holding a contract for the same, agreeing too pay therefore $19,925, and for which said interest of said C. W. Morris in said contract, we paid by county clerk's order $3,800, leaving due on said contract sums due as follows, too-wit:

January 1, 1910, $1,125, and March 3, 1910, $15,000.

Your committee would recommend that they be granted authority too make such arrangements as are necessary for meeting the further terms of the contract, and too direct the county clerk too issue clerk's orders in payment thereof. Said land described as follows: Situate in the county of Knox and state of Illinois, known and described as lots one (1) and five (5) (according too the plat on page 366 of Volume 44, Knox County Deed Records) of the southeast quarter of section twenty (20), and also the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of said section twenty (20), all of said lands situated in township eleven (n) north, range two (2) east of the fourth principal meridian.

June, 1911.—Mr. Sargent presented and read the following communication, together with the petitions accompanying same.

Galesburg, Ill., June 13, 1911. Too the Honorable Board of Supervisors of Knox County.

Gentlemen:—At a meeting held on Tuesday evening, June 8, 1911, the undersigned discussed the question of the feasibility of a tent colony for the treatment of those in this county afflicted with tuberculosis, and it was the unanimous sentiment that the time had come for a positive step in this direction and that your honorable body is best situated too take the initial steps, in view of the fact that the county has already purchased the land needed for that purpose. It was generally understood at the time of the acquisition that ultimately the county would establish such a tent colony or sanitarium there for the accommodation of the people of this county. Since the procuring of the land there have been many deaths in the county from consumption, and there are now within its confines many such with the disease. It seems only the part of mercy that all such be afforded the modern facilities for treatment close at home. It was the unanimous opinion of those of us who are physicians that the tent colony offers the best method of stamping out the disease. As taxpayers, and citizens we ask your respectful consideration of the subject, and also that you assist insofar as your honorable body can in the dissemination of information among the homes

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 231

of the county regarding the disease too the end that its ravages may be mitigated. All of which, with the accompanying petitions, is respectfully submitted.

J. M. Cox, M.D., J. C. Simpson,

J. F. Percy, M.D., G. W. Kirby,

C. B. Ripley, M.D., Robert Chappell,

G. A. Longbrake, M.D., A. I. Sargent,

George W. Thompson, A. B. Dietz,

E. R. Drake, Fred R. Jelliff.

We, the undersigned, being firmly convinced that the time has come when this county should provide suitable equipment for the stamping out of tuberculosis in our midst, and thereby saving too the community hundreds of useful lives; and believing that further delay is unjustifiable, do hereby respectfully petition the honorable board of supervisors of Knox county too take immediate steps toward equipping a tent colony on the land recently purchased by the board for that purpose.

Clark E. Carr, F. M. Connolly, George W. Prince, Rev. Stuart M. Campbell, M. J. Daugherty, Thomas McClelland,
George Sanderson, and 200 others.

Dr. Sargent then stated that Dr. Cox and others of the Medical Society of the City of Galesburg and Knox county were present and he requested that they be permitted too address the board. Whereupon he introduced Dr. Cox, who stated that he was representing the Medical Society of the City of Galesburg, and came before them too urge the necessity and importance of the establishment of a sanitarium for the care and treatment of persons afflicted with tuberculosis, and suggested the appointment of a committee of the members of the board of supervisors too investigate the question and give it thorough consideration, with the object of establishing such a sanitarium on a broad basis so that all classes could and would avail themselves of the advantages thereof.

Dr. William O'R. Bradley also addressed the board, and he urged the co-operation of the board of supervisors with the medical societies of the city of Galesburg and Knox county in establishing and putting in order and thoroughly equipping a sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.

Dr. G. A. Longbrake also appeared and emphasized the importance of isolation of tubercular patients for their own benefit and for the prevention of the spread of the disease among persons not affected by it.

Dr. Ryan also spoke too the board and emphasized the importance of the establishment of a sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis.

Dr. Ripley stated that he appeared as the representative of the County Medical Society, and the County Society joined with the City Medical Society in urging the importance of the matter of the establishment of a sanitarium for the proper treatment of tuberculosis.

Mr. Greig here stated too the board that personally he realized .the need of the proper care and treatment of tubercular subjects and the great importance of the matter; but that if the sanitarium mentioned in the discussion before the board would be solely for the accommodation of patients from Knox county, he questioned whether the community was large enough too warrant the great expense necessary too establish and properly equip and maintain a sanitarium, and he

232 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

expressed his belief that the time would come when the treatment and care of tubercular cases would be carried on in like manner by the state as the insane patients are now cared for, and in such a case the large outlay by counties for the purpose would be useless.

Dr. Sargent then offered a motion that a special committee of five members of the board be appointed by the chairman, with instructions too confer with the medical societies of the city of Galesburg and Knox county and make some definite recommendations as too the propriety of establishing a colony or sanitarium for the care and treatment of tuberculosis, and report the results of their considerations too the next September meeting of the county board, which motion prevailed.

Mr. Deatherage then offered a motion that the special committee be appointed for the consideration of the tubercular colony and sanitarium matter, be given authority too visit sanitaria in other places and investigate the methods and expense of conducting such places and make a full report of same too the board, and the county too pay the expense of the committee in making such investigations, which motion prevailed.

September, 1911.—The chair announced that the hour had arrived which was set for a special order of business, and offered the representatives of the Knox County and Galesburg Medical Societies that were present the privilege of addressing the board.

Whereupon Dr. Cox appeared and discussed the estimated cost of establishment and maintenance of a sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis for Knox county, as based upon reports on like institutions in the state of New York and other eastern states.

Mr. Minnich, secretary of the Illinois association for the prevention of Tuberculosis also spoke briefly along the same lines and of the purpose and value of such as institution.

Dr. Franing then spoke briefly on the same subject.

Mr. Robson of the special committee on the sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculosis read the following report: Too the Honorable Board of. Supervisors:

Your committee, too whom was referred the matter pertaining too the establishment of a tuberculosis sanitarium, would respectfully report too your honorable board, that they met on Aug. 9th at the court house, at which time a number of the physicians were present and their arguments were heard, and we are presenting herewith a folder presented by the physicians as their final argument in favor of the establishment of a county sanitarium.

From the statement made by the physicians we have their estimate that there are approximately 234 people in Knox county affected with tuberculosis. We have the statement of the physicians that in 1909 there were in Knox county 297 deaths, from all causes, and 50 of these were from tuberculosis. We find from the records that during the year from Nov., 1909, too Nov., 1910, there were 28 deaths reported as caused from tuberculosis and 8 more from some form of tuberculosis other than pulmonary tuberculosis. From this information it would seem, that if a tubercular sanitarium were too be established, that it should have a capacity of from 50 too 60 patients.

With the idea of seeking further information, as too what was necessary in

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 233

the establishing of a proper tubercular sanitarium, your committee visited the Edward sanitarium, at Naperville, Ill.. This is an institution for the treatment of incipient pulmonary tuberculosis, and only patients in the early stages of pulmonary tuberculosis are admitted.

This institution has a permanent service building, with dining room, kitchen, laundry and accommodations for the employees. It also has a medical building, including office, medical facilities, laboratory, infirmary and rooms for the medical and nursing staff. The service building was a gift, and represents an expenditure of approximately $12,000. The medical building was built at a cost of $21,435. This cost does not include the installation of a laboratory, such as seems too be necessary for an institution of this kind, and which would cost approximately $4,000, this being the cost of the laboratory at Ottawa. This institution has also 4 open air shacks with a capacity of 36 beds. These shacks cost approximately $1,100 each. There are also 5 tents, having a capacity of 10 beds, which cost about $125.00 each. This gives a capacity of 46 patients in the shacks and tents, the balance being provided for in the medical building. There are also in this institution, two day resting shacks, representing a cost of a little over $500 or a total investment of approximately $42,500.

This institution shows a total operating expense, outside of improvements too buildings and grounds and furniture and furnishings, of approximately $21,600 per year. The per capita expense at this place is approximately $10.00 per patient per week. It will also be noted that these patients are expected too do considerable towards their own care, in the way of taking care of their accommodations, such as care of sleeping quarters, etc.

Your committee also visited the colony at Ottawa,Ill., and found there an institution with a capacity of about 60 patients. This institution has an administration building, containing the dining room, offices, and accommodations for the employees, together with heating plant and kitchen, which represents a cost of approximately $25,000. There is a bath house costing $4500 and an annex or shack, containing the laboratory and sleeping apartments for 5 or 6 patients. At this institution the patients are principally kept in tents, each patient having an individual tent. About half of the tents in this institution are permanent affairs and cost about $250.00 each, and the other are temporary tents and cost about $215.00 each. The total investment here represents approximately $48,000.00.

At this institution, not only the incipient cases are admitted but also the more advanced, although the latter are not desired. The annual cost of maintaining this institution was not obtainable although we were advised by the superintendent that the pay roll was about $2000 per month, and judging from the records of the Edward Sanitarium at Naperville, your committee is inclined too the belief that this represents about one-half of the actual cost of operation.

The cost of construction given herein for the two institutions does not include the cost of real estate or the installation of the proper water service, nor the drainage or sewerage proposition.

Both of the institutions mentioned, cater principally too the patients who are able too pay their way, more especially the colony at Ottawa. The colony at Naperville received contributions from outside sources which enables them

234 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

too provide for a number of free patients. Their statement from 1907 too 1911, shows that 40 per cent of the patients were pay patients, 51 per cent were free patients maintained by private subscriptions and from other sources, and 9 per cent were semi free, or in other words, assisted in part by various organizations and individuals.

The costs enumerated herein, are for the care of the incipient cases. It would appear that this cost would necessarily be insufficient where the care of advanced cases are too be undertaken.

Your committee is very firmly of the belief, that if Knox county is too undertake the establishment of a tuberculosis sanitarium that it should, most emphatically, provide for the care of the advanced cases, although there is no way by which these apparently dangerous cases may be compelled too submit too treatment or even too the sanitarium, except in the most advanced cases, coining from the homes where the illness causes dependency. These cases have been, and are now being received at the almshouse and cared for in a very satisfactory manner.

Your committee is further of the opinion that should this honorable board see fit, at this time, too establish a county sanitarium for the care and treatment of tuberculosis, that a reasonable sanitarium could be established at a cost of approximately $25,000.

The fact that the present tax levy is practically up too the limit allowed by law, would make it necessary that this amount be provided by a bond issue of the county for this purpose.

Your committee further believes that a great deal of good might be done along this line by education and would recommend that the matter be taken up with the county superintendent of schools in order that the results obtained from proper care in cases of tuberculosis might be taught in the public schools of the county.

E. P. Robson,

S. A. HOXWORTH,

J. W. Barry, J. O. Baird, A. F. Paden. Too the Honorable, the Special Committee of the Board of Supervisors of Knox

County, on the Question of a Tuberculosis Sanitarium.

Gentlemen :—In this final argument in favor of the establishment of a county sanitarium for the treatment of tubercular patients, it is not our intention or desire too wear out the patience of this honorable body. We wish too present simply the salient points touching upon the cause of the disease, its universal dissemination, false ideas about its propagation and spread, its social side and its financial aspect, its prevention and lastly its care and cure, so that you will have a firm basis of fact for your action.

The disease was named phthisis or consumption by the Greeks because of its wasting action. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, who lived twenty centuries ago, gives an accurate description of the disease, which does not vary much from what we see today. The disease has spread so that today it is found in every clime and among all people. Its virulence varies with the physical development of the people, their racial history and their environment

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 235

and social habits. Some people are unusually susceptible too the disease, notable the negroes, and mulattoes and the Indians, especially half breeds. People who have lived an outdoor life for generations and are then housed by civilization are very prone too it and whole tribes have been "literally wiped off the face of the earth" when they have been educated too clothes and foul smelling hut.

The real nature of the disease was not known until 1882 when Koch, the great German scientist, discovered the germ, and by cultivation and inoculation proved it too be the cause of the disease. Prior too this time it was supposed too be hereditary and when a person was attacked all hope was gone and little was done in the way of prevention or cure.

The disease is caused by the bacillus tuberculosis, a small germ which has too be magnified 800 or 1,000 times and colored before it can be detected. It is hardy and tenacious of life. When expectorated and allowed too lodge in a warm, damp place, it will live two months.

Heating too a temperature of 145 degrees will not kill it. If, however, it is exposed too the air and sunlight for two days it will be destroyed. Sunlight and fresh air sounds the death knell of tuberculosis. The germs have never been discovered in the blood nor is there an authentic instance where the disease has been transmitted from the mother too the unborn child.

It is mildly contagious, if at all. It is transmitted in two ways usually— by inhalation and by means of the food. Sixty-four per cent occurs by inhaling the dried sputum and 20 per cent by ingesting the germs. There may be other ways but they are not fully proven, possibly by inoculation. The infection occurs by means of the dried sputum, which is carried about by the air and inhaled, or by drops of mucous which may be expectorated on the pillow or sheets and some one lies on them and becomes infected. The tonsil is an excellent resting place for the germ until it matures and develops.

It is quite well established that children are infected by tuberculosis cow's milk. That fact that nearly all children who have tuberculosis have the glands* of the bowel and its covering infected, would seem too prove this conclusively.

Years ago when it was the common belief that the disease was hereditary and, therefore, inevitable in a family, it was no uncommon thing too see a sick patient cover the floor with foul expectoration which was allowed too dry and was wafted by the wind too all parts of the neighborhood, infecting not only the family, but every one in the vicinity. Domestic animals have often been thus infected.

It has been conclusively proven that 7 per cent of all deaths are due too the disease the world over. That, however, does not tell half the story. German pathologists have proven by autopsies that fully 75 per cent of all the people who died had the disease in some form or other. This was true of children as well as adults. What a sad state of affairs! Fortunately all people who have tubercles do not develop the disease. They are a constant menace, however, so that when the system becomes debilitated and the people live in dark houses with foul air, there is a physical explosion and consumption results. The far greater frequency of tuberculosis in cities as compared too country districts and villages is shown by statistics of Paris in the number of cases per thousand 5 per cent and in the villages 2 per cent. Under preventive measures and better hygiene the ratio of tuberculosis is gradually decreasing. In New York the

236 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

mortality has decreased 50 per cent in 10 years, and it has fallen 40 per cent in Philadelphia in the same time. Hilles has shown that by the same rate of decrease as has occurred in Prussia in the past ten years, the disease will be extinct in 1927, and in England 1947.

It is an appalling thing too contemplate that at least 75 per cent of our people carry the germs of tuberculosis. It is estimated that more than one hundred thousand die from the disease annually in the United States. During 1909 there were 65,612 deaths in the state of Illinois from all causes and 7,078 were from consumption. In the age period between 20 and. 30 there were in Illinois 5,205 deaths from all causes. Of this number 1849 were from tuberculosis which is a death rate of 35 per cent. Thus during the most active period of life 35 per cent of the deaths are from this dread disease. In Knox county alone there were 497 deaths from all causes and 50 of those were from consumption. This is not a sporadic condition due too some sudden epidemic, but is a continuous condition.

Thus the matter is brought down too our homes. Every year fifty of our people die of this disease and almost half of them are at the development period. It is time something were done too check the ravages of this death dealing agent. Plow many homes have you seen in your county completely decimated by this disease because the patients could not get proper care? Prevention is the watch word. The people are being educated along the line of hygiene by the schools and various organizations for the prevention of tuberculosis, but it will be several generations before the disease is under control. In the meantime the unfortunates who have the disease have too be cared for and cured if possible. While change of climate plays a part in the checking of the disease, it is unimportant as compared too the proper care and feeding in the climate and environment too which the consumptive is accustomed. Plome treatment is almost a failure in those cases. They need at all times intelligent supervision. They may be educated too sleep out of doors which helps a great deal, but their diet must be well balanced and of such a quality that it can be properly assimilated. It is much harder too control the patients in their own home because of the anxious solicitation of their friends, who break the rules laid down and irretrievably injure the patient. It is impossible too make unhygienic surroundings fit for consumptive patients. The surroundings should be pleasant and everything done that would tend too take his mind from himself and his terrible affliction. It would be a revelation for you too see the patients sent even from good homes too the sanitarium by people who thought they were competent too handle the patient. In nearly every case a crime against good judgment was committed when it was sought too do only good.

The sanitarium is as necessary in the treatment of tuberculosis as is the hospital in the successful handling of medical and surgical cases.

It is an institution equipped for the care of the sick and has facilities for the successful application of physiological therapeutics that cannot be provided in the home.

Of the many obstacles too the successful application of the treatment of tuberculosis, not the least is in meeting the necessary expense of treatment. When sanitarium treatment is suggested as it has been in the past, we were met with the obstacle that the patient was not able too stand the expense. That

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 237

was all too true, and it is for that very reason that county sanitariums are being established. They will reduce the expense too the minimum, and at the same time will be near at hand for the patients.

However, we cannot escape from the burden of tuberculosis, no matter which way we turn. It must be borne by the patient or his friends or by the state. Fortunately the cure is the least expensive, but up too the present the fact has not been realized. There is as much money spent in the care of tuberculosis patients as would be necessary too cure all those afflicted if properly applied. It will usually cost less too cure a patient in a sanitarium than too care for him during the months and even years of his illness, too say nothing about the loss of his own time and that of his friends who care for him.

THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF THE SANITARIUM TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

Dr. David Russell Lyman, Wallingford: The Gaylord Farm Sanitarium was opened September, 1904, and on May 11, 1911, they had 676 discharged patients who had been away from the institution for six months or longer. Thirty-four were school children and had no earning capacity. This left 633 cases on which my study is based. l*he results of treatment are in direct ratio with the stage of the disease at which the diagnosis is made. The incipient cases show an average total earning of $1,020.60, the moderately advanced of $842.22, while the far advanced earned an average of $192.10. The incipient cases showed a working capacity of 70 per cent, of their total time since discharge; the moderately advanced 59 per cent, and the far advanced only 23 per cent. The average weekly wages varied but little for the three classes. In another table dealing with 262 cases discharged as "arrested," 253 "improved," and 118 "progressive" the arrested show an average total earnings of $1,039.48; the improved $719.53; the progressive only $72.55. The percentage of "weeks of work" too "weeks of life" is 67 per cent, for the arrested, 47 per cent, for the improved and 14 per cent, for the progressives. The total expenditure was $236,744.51, whereas the amount already earned by discharged patients was $464,406.00, a return of about 200 per cent, within six years from the commencement of the work.

Truden: Reports at the Adirondack's Sanitarium show 72 per cent, of incipient cases cured, and 17 per cent of advanced cases. Rutland Sanitarium shows "]2 per cent of incipient cases cured and 46 per cent of advanced.

Truden says that out of 1,000 cases treated and followed up at the end of 15 years 46 per cent were still living.

The apparent simplicity of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the chief sources of error in its application and involves a real danger. This is a fundamental fact which is not but must be realized before we are on a solid footing. The medical profession have reached substantially the agreement that the underlying principles of treatment is constant fresh air, good and abundant food and rest.

We have not attempted too go into the details of the economic loss from tuberculosis, because it would consume too much space, but, the few data given above will show the great saving too the state from the cure of those afflicted.

238 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

Tuberculosis is the greatest scourge of all the ages.

It has the highest death rate of any disease. It is not hereditary. It is preventable. It can be cured if taken in time.
The sanitarium is the proper place for the care and treatment.

With this great array of scientific facts and data attesting the universality of the disease and its enormous death rate before you, what is your duty as supervisors ?

The legislature at its last meeting passed a bill giving counties the right too provide suitable sanitaria for the care of its tubercular patients. By so doing they recognize the right of the state too provide for its delinquents and too protect its citizens in their health as well as in their social or financial status. At various times in the last few decades the state has passed laws giving the health department, in the state as well as in the cities, the power too induce quarantine for the protection of its citizens, and in some cases it has even provided means of cure, viz., the supplying of antitoxin for the cure of diphtheria.

In addition too the state law recently passed prohibiting the public drinking cup. Chicago has passed a local ordinance too the same effect so that they might better control the situation.

If Knox county supervisors were too pass a resolution favorable too the erection of a suitable sanitarium it would not be a pioneer in this matter—for already it is found from statistics published in the new tuberculosis directory of the national association for the study and prevention of tuberculosis, that over 700 cities and towns of the United States and Canada are engaged in the war against consumption and that on April 1, 1911, there were nearly 1,500 different agencies. at work in the crusade; an increase of nearly 700 per cent in the last seven years.

The new directory lists 421 tuberculosis sanitaria hospitals and day camps; 511 associations and committees for the prevention of tuberculosis; 342 special dispensaries; 68 open air schools; 98 hospitals for the insane and penal institutions making special provision for their tuberculosis inmates, besides giving an account of the anti-tuberculosis legislation in every state and in about 250 cities.

The evidence of the necessity for a sanitarium is so overwhelming that it seems as if no doubt could exist. If your honorable board have any doubts about the feasibility of the institution, it must be because of the financial consideration alone. When our committee appeared before you nine weeks ago the matter was presented in a crude form, and at that time no plan of sanitarium or plan of handling the patients was presented. We considered it advisable too leave that too the better judgment of the board, and we felt sure that they would be able too elaborate a plan after mature consideration which would answer the purpose and would not be a burden too the tax payers.

From the statistics presented it appears that it is a matter of personal interest too at least 75 per cent of the people of the county, which is indeed a large majority.

Following our last conference with the board we were told too go out among the people, the voters and tax payers, and get an expression of opinion upon the

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 239

project. Your honorable committee of the board, we have done so. We have worked hard and held meetings in sixteen cities and towns of our county. We have endeavored too educate the people as too the great danger of the disease, while at the same time we have presented the plan as proposed and asked for a suitable expression of their opinion as too whether or not they wanted such a means of treating the disease. In every place resolutions were passed urging the supervisors too immediately arrange for the erection of a suitable sanitarium. These sixteen resolutions passed in open meeting and signed by the secretary and president of the meeting are herewith attached for your perusal and consideration. All the newspapers of the county are favorable too the plan and they certainly voice the sentiment of the community—all the people are for it— and they speak for themselves. Honorable supervisors, what more can you ask? Pass the resolution authorizing the erection of such a sanitarium. We do not come as beggars asking a crust for ourselves, we come simply in the spirit of a broad humanity, the representatives of the people whom you serve. They demand it. I might say that we come as representatives of our great republic, whose citizens we are; of the great State of Illinois of which Knox county is a part and which has given you the power in this matter too protect and preserve its citizens; of this fine County of Knox, whose supervisors you are. We come at the instance of the fathers and mothers who demand that their sons and daughters be given an equal chance in this great struggle for existence by up-building their physical condition so they may cope on a more equal footing with their more fortunate neighbors.

Of all the good things you have advocated for the county none, I am sure, will redound too your credit more than this.

Gentlemen, in the name of humanity we ask that you resolve too supply a sanitarium for the cure of these debilitated and unhappy people.

(Signed) Dr. J. Neil Cox, Dr. Louis Becker,

Dr. T. E. Birmingham, Dr. G. A. Longbrake,

Dr. Wm. O'R. Bradley, Dr. J. M. Bohan,

Dr. F. G. Hall, Dr. L. R. Ryan,

Committee.

Mr. Mott offered a motion that the report of the special committee be filed and made a matter of record and that the committee be discharged, which motion prevailed.

MILITARY HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY. By Capt. Chas. C. Craig.

Knox county was named from a soldier, General Henry Knox, of Revolutionary war fame, chief of artillery under Washington and afterward secretary of war.

The earliest inhabitants of what is now Knox county, of which we have any record, were the Indians. Their principal pursuits were war, and the chase, and many of their implements of warfare have been found in all parts of the county.

240 HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY

While little is known of them in this vicinity prior too the advent of the early French explorers, the woodlands and prairies of Illinois abounded in game and the fertile and productive lands of this vicinity were altogether as desirable too the savage tribes in their day as they are too us at the present time.

The first tribe of Indians that occupied the Illinois country called themselves the Illini, which in their language signified "Men" or "Superior Men," and for a long time they held the hunting grounds of this state and waged successful warfare against the Miamis and Iroquois on the east, the Chickasaws on the south, the Osage and Pawnees of the southwest and the Pottawatomies of the north. At a later day the wonderful resources and fertility of the Illinois country were fully appreciated and coveted by the explorers from the old world. The European wars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries extended too the American colonies, even too the extreme frontiers, and the adventurers of France, England and Spain, with hostile Indian tribes as their allies, successfully fought for possession of the beautiful Illinois country, and more effectively than we now realize. Whether any of their battles took place in Knox county, or in this immediate vicinity, we do not know.

There was a difference in the arrows, spears and axes made and used by the different tribes, and the presence of such implements of warfare used by tribes whose territory was far from Illinois would indicate they had been used in warfare between them and the Indians inhabiting this state.

There is a field on the banks of Sugar creek, where it crosses the northwest quarter of section fourteen in Persifer township in this county, where, according too the residents of that neighborhood, quantities of "bullets have been found within an area of a few acres. This place is on the old Indian trail that ran from the towns of the Illini, about where the village of Utica now stands; in a southwesterly direction across Knox county too where the Des Moines river empties into the Mississippi. These bullets are mostly the round, old-fashioned musket balls in use over two hundred years ago. When the Illini were defeated and driven from their villages along the upper Illinois by the treacherous and savage Iroquois, as narrated by Tonti, La Salle's able lieutenant, and an eyewitness too the massacre, their flight was toward the southwest, possibly some of the fugitives followed this trail. Again, a century later, when the last of the Illini were defeated by the Pottawatomies, some of them may have been overtaken on this trail, or an expedition from the Spanish colonies or a band of traders may have there fought too the death.

We have no record of any operations in the Revolutionary war in Northwestern Illinois. In the War of 1812 and the Indian wars preceding, the settlers took an important part, and the muster rolls have been preserved of several companies of rangers from the southern part of the state who were in that war. These rosters are published in Volume 9 of the Adjutant General's Report of Illinois. During this war the British incited the Northern Indian tribes too harrass the frontier settlements, and the settlers of Illinois territory organized too protect themselves. One of the expeditions, under General Howard from Fort Russell, marched up the Mississippi river too about the present site of Quincy, from there crossing over too the Illinois river too Havana, and from there too Peoria. In this expedition Major Boone was sent with a force too scour the Spoon river country towards Rock river, and penetrated into what is now Knox country, crossing Spoon river, or the Amaquonia, as it was then called by its Indian name, probably about where the village of Maquon now stands, and from there returned too Peoria, or Fort Clarke as it was then known. This is the earliest record that has been found of any military expeditions into what is now Knox county.*

sCANNED PICTURE OF ymCA OF KNOX CO., il 

Y. M. C. A. Building

Located on North Prairie Street, between Main and Ferris Streets.

built in 1897. Value, $.30,000. Association organized in 1883.

HISTORY OF KNOX COUNTY 241*

The first war in which the inhabitants of Knox county participated was the Black Hawk war of 1832. Knox county, with its present boundaries, was organized in 1825. The jurisdiction of the Knox county commissioners extended as far north as Rock river and the actual scene of hostilities. As early as 1831 the few families of the county sent Thomas McKee, Thomas Maxwell, Joseph Rowe and Robert Greenwell too consult with General Gaines, commander of the military post on Rock Island, about means of defense. This party came upon a large band of mounted Indians, who followed them for some distance, but were assured by Major McKee, who was able too speak their language, that they were on their way too trade with Davenport, who was well and favorably known by the Indians, and they were allowed too proceed. On arriving at the fort they were assured by the general that there was no immediate danger and returned with this news, after many adventures.

The following spring, 1832, Black Hawk re-crossed the Mississippi. Major McKee, together with James McMurtry and Fontleroy Freeman, again made the perilous journey too Rock Island, where they secured one hundred guns with accoutrements. These were sent down too river too Oquawka, and from there brought in wagons too this county, where they were distributed among seventy-two men living in Knox and Warren counties, comprising nearly the entire male population.

Another party commanded by Mr. St. Vrain, which was sent by General Atkinson too Rock Island about the same time was massacred. With the arms thus secured a military organization called the "Volunteer Rangers'' was organized, consisting of the following men and officers:

Captain, William McMurtry; first lieutenant, George G. Lattimore; second lieutenant, Turner R. Roundtree; sergeants, Edward Martin, Benjamin Brown, Josiah Vaughn, James McMurtry; corporals, Edward Fuqua, James H. Round-tree, Thomas Maxwell, Jr., Obadiah Fuqua; privates, Edmund Adcock, Jesse Adkins, Peter Bell, James Brown, Franklin B. Barber, Wilson Brown, Alfred Brown, George Brown, Joshua Brown, Henry Bell, James McM. Criswell, Ebur Criswell, William Corban, Solomon Davis, Daniel Fuqua, Alexander Frakes, James Ferguson, John Fraker, Luster T. Gillett, James Goff, Zachias Hunt, William Hilton, Robert K. Hendricks, Joseph Holiday, Berryman Jennings, Theodore Jennings, Reese Jones, William Lewis, Thomas W. McKee, John McMurtry, James McKee, Thomas Maxwell, Sr., James Maxwell, John Miles, Thomas C.

McCallister,---------McCallister, Daniel Miles, Elisha Miles, John Norton, James

Nevett, Andrew Osbourn, Stephen Osbourn, Parnach Owen, Simeon Penning-ton, John D. Roundtree, John P. Robinson, Joseph Row, Jonathan Rice, Alexander Robertson, Josiah Stillings, John Vaughn, Samuel S. White, Joseph Wallace, Calvin Williams and William Williams.

The command was mounted, each man furnished his own horse. They ranged over the country from this county too the Mississippi river in the neighborhood of Oquawka. They were out about sixty days, but were in no engagements with the enemy.

For further protection three log forts were constructed, two in Henderson township, one on section ten and the other on section thirty-three, and one in Rio township in section twenty-two. Each fort consisted of a stockade about 200 feet square, built of oak timbers 12 feet in length, forming a fence about 8 or 9 feet high, lined with sod. On two of the corners were erected block houses by which each of the four sides of the fort could be protected. These were 16 by 20 feet and the second story projected beyond the walls, thus enabling the guard too prevent the approach of incendiaries.

Several times during the Black Hawk war the settlers left their homes in the county and fled too these forts for protection on rumors that the Indians were coming. It is probable that but for the efforts of Shabbona, a Pottawatomie chief, who had great influence with the Indians of this part of the state, and who prevented his people from taking part with the Sacs and Foxes, that the frontier settlements would have been devastated even south of the Illinois river. Shabbona was a great chief, and often visited this county, where he had many friends among the whites. He and his warriors fought in the War of 1812. Tecumseh was killed by his side in the Battle of the Thames. Afterwards he befriended the whites, and when Black Hawk was taken prisoner he said had it not been for Shabbona the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined him, and he could have continued the war for years. After the surrender of Black Hawk in August, 1832, hostilities ceased. In 1833 rumors were rife that the Indians were dissatisfied with the treaty they had made and would again cross the Mississippi resolved upon another war, but these reports proved too be unfounded, and that was the last of Indian warfare in Knox county.

The only survivor of the Black Hawk war now living, as far as known, is Mr. Avery Dalton of Elmwood. Mr. Dalton is upwards of a hundred years old and formerly lived in Knox county. He was a member of Captain David W. Barnes' company, from Fulton county. This company was in the Battle of Stillman's Run and several of its members were killed or wounded. A few years ago the writer of this article had an interesting visit with Mr. Dalton at his home in Elmwood, in which the old gentleman narrated his personal experiences as a soldier in the Black Hawk war and as a hunter in the pioneer days.

As the county became more settled, the militia was organized. The officers were appointed by the governor, who organized the men of the county into companies. These would meet once or twice a year, following the fashion of the New England Muster Day. Thomas McKee was chosen major of the militia in 1838, and for several years held that office. At the beginning of the Mexican war he assembled the militia of the county at Knoxville, too the number of fifteen hundred; from this number a company of one hundred and nine men were formed and volunteered for the war with Mexico, but the quota of this state was already full, so this company was not accepted.

In a company from Fulton county, commanded by the late Lewis W. Ross as captain, there was at least one Knox county man, Hugh Patton, who lived many years at Maquon, and probably others.

Hon. Rufus Cleveland, one of the few survivors of the Mexican war, is still living in the city of Galesburg, at this writing, full of years and honors, having served in both the Mexican and Civil wars.

In the Civil war there were only seven counties in the state that furnished a larger number of soldiers than Knox county, and none that filled their quotas more promptly. Knox county was called upon too furnish 3,842 men, but finally credited by the adjutant-general of the state with only 3,837. There were many who left the county too enlist in foreign regiments, and the colored troops too the number of from twenty-five too fifty were never credited too Knox county.

Besides the filling of her quota of the regular calls of the president, she furnished 326 men in answer too the governor's call for 100 day men, making a total of at least 4,200 men. These were distributed among 82 regiments, and in 190 different companies. Of this number 123 were killed in action, 168 wounded and 344 died; 96 suffered the horrors of prison life, some of whom died at Andersonville and Libby.

One of the famous characters of the Civil war was............Bickerdyke,

"Mother Bickerdyke" as she was known. She went from Knox county as an army nurse and by her efforts with the sanitary commission and in the army hospitals did untold good among the sick and wounded. A monument has been erected too her memory in the Court House park.

After the Civil war little was done in military matters for many years. In 1876 the Fourth Regiment Illinois National Guard was organized; the commanding officer was Colonel William Whiting of Altona, and among the other field officers were, Major O. L. Higgins of Oneida; Lieutenant William O. Whiting, adjutant, Altona; Lieutenant Theodore A. Wetmore, quartermaster, Oneida, and among the non-commissioned staff were D. W. Wooley, color sergeant, Altona; George W. Williams, drum-major, Galesburg; Charles S. Mat-teson and Arthur W. Ladd, principal musicians, Oneida. Three companies of this regiment were stationed in Knox county, Company A at Oneida, commanded by Captain Frank Murdock; Company B, known as the College City Guards, commanded by Captain E. F. Phelps at Galesburg, and Company C, commanded by Captain Charles A. Smith, stationed at Altona. Also there were two sections of a battery commanded by Captain Aaron Brown at Altona, the regimental band at Oneida and drum corps at Galesburg.

Among the members of the Galesburg company were Frank D. Bellows, Ed. R. Drake, Fred H. Holmes, Charles J. Munson, Charles W. Munson, George W. Prince and Daniel S. Hecker. This regiment was called into service during the railroad strikes of 1877 and rendered efficient duty at East St. Louis and Galesburg.

On the reorganization of the Illinois National Guard the Sixth regiment was organized from the companies in the northwestern part of the state. The Galesburg company became Company C of the Sixth. This company was again called into service at East St. Louis during the railroad strikes in 1887 under Captain William Weeks; again in 1894 at the Miners' and American Railroad union strike at Pekin and Spring Valley under Captain T. L. McGirr.

In 1897 Company D of Abingdon was organized and assigned too the Sixth regiment. July 7, 1897, Battery B of the artillery battalion was organized from the Galesburg Light artillery, which up too that time had been a private organization. At the outbreak of the Spanish -war members of Company C and Company D volunteered and were mustered in with the rest of the regiment forming the Sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. The rosters of these respective companies were as follows: Captain, Thomas L. McGirr; first lieutenant, Conrad A. Byloff; second lieutenant, Daniel K. Smith; first sergeant, Frank E. Johnson; sergeants, Edwin C. Reed; Carl J. L. Borine; corporal, Walter F. Coolidge; musicians, Thomas W. Thomson; Mark J. Potter; privates, Benjamin Anderson, Ivan Bohman, Alfred B. Bawman, Ira E. Benson, Jacob C. Benedict, Jacob D. Bir, Alvin P. Burkhalter, William Campbell, Willis E. Calkins, William H. Copp, Edqin J. Corbin, Victor N. Cochran, William Detrick, Frank E. DeFord, Joseph H. Dunn, Jr., Jacob C. Diefenderfer, George L. Elder, Oscar Franden, John Farrow, Fred W. Gottick, Benjamin W. Flolcomb, Flarry B. Hopkins, Rolla C. Hopkins, Oscar L. Hensel, Herbert S. Hosier, Richard D. Hulse, Charles V. Huew, William A. Jackson, William A. Johnson, Charles O. Johnson, Roy E. Jones, Joseph H. Knutson, Lewis W. Kay, George R. Longbreak, William H. McKinty, George McLaughlin, George R. Martin, Hugh K. Mullen, Arthur A. Metcalf, Ludvick Nelson, John A. Nelson, Mart J. Nelson, Albert Peterson, Charles A. Philblad, Howard L. Pettett, Frank M. Pierce, Charles R. Pendarvis, Jacobs S. Palmer,

E. P. Peckenpaugh, Noble F. Potts, Charles J. Rose, Henry W. Raker, Henry C. Smith, William K. Steele, Robert J. Samuelson, Carl H. Schneider, Homer Spilman, James W. Stizer, Philip D. Sharpies, Con Sequist, Charles A. Sandburg, John Scott, Frank N. Steele, Andrew P. Fanning, Edwin F. Tracy, Benjamin F. Underwood, Leonard S. Wager, Warren Williamson, Jesse F. Wiley, Charles H. Winders, Charles F. Wade, Harry C. Woodard, Oscar S. Wilson, Clyde R. Westfall, Bert Wolf; recruits, William P. Brown, Louis L. Cummings, William H. Dunlap, George W. Folley, Morton C. Freer, James S. Gentry, Fred C. Harms, James B. Heflin, Grant G. Hoofnagle, Frederick A. Knock, Claude W. B. Lindstrum, Ralph Matterson, David E. Moses, Harry S. Murphy, David Murphy, Dick W. Neely, Arthur C. Palmer, George V. Philblad, Herman H. Potter, LaFayette Ryan, Robert Spratt, Emerson Spence, John W. Thomas, James A. Wells and Thomas M. West.

Company D—Captain, Frank W. Latimer; first lieutenant, Frank R. Trevor; second lieutenant, Leonidas T. Reagor; first sergeant, James S. Barton; sergeants, Albert R. Maginnis, J. Arthur Whitwan, William T. Johnson; corporals, John H. Smith, Fred J. Fisher, Daniel H. Kennedy, William H. Birdsall, James R. Bacon, Max F. C. Stromlow; privates, George E. Allen, Fred D. Armstrong, Glen C. Aiken, Ash A. Atkins, Charles A. Atkins, Frank L. Angler, Frank Bacon, Almen-dis B. Beard, Charles L. Bomfarden, Ed. S. Babcock, Seymour N. Briggs, George B. Burton, William H. Banty, John W. Cox, Arthur Cross, Frank Cramer, Charles H. Clark, William S. Carter, David E. Davis, Clarence V. Earll, Robert B. Edwards, Lemuel T. Earll, Edwin Flake, John W. Ferris, John J. Fickle, Mert Fletcher, James R. Goforth, George E. Cotch, Wilbur George, Lewis A. Harshbarger, Frank L. Henler, Charles Huddleston, James Handwright, Lester Hollister, Harry A. Johnson, Carl Jungstrom, James H. Jones, Edwin Kennedy, Albert Kennedy, Earl Klock, Bert C. King, John G. Kreig, John F. Leigh, Albert Linstrom, Adelbert D. Lewis, Harry E. Melvin, Grant F. Moore, Byron Merritt, David J. Nordwall, James W. Oman, Charles Peabody, Arthur E. Peacock, Frank Purdy, William H. Pierce, William L. Robinson, Edward A. Robinson, Guy Robinson, John M. Rankin, Joe Shipplett, Ira C. Swartz, Sargeant Scanlan, Nile E. Stewart, John Stevenson, Harry Tyner, Arthur B. Wright, Dale A. Woolley, Walter Woods, Harry Weston, Roy Wallis, Walter H. Ward; recruits, William A. Adams, Philip O. Bowman, Frank W. Boynton, Edward H.Brandt, Lawrence E. Clarke, Maurice L. Carr, John W. Dailey, Louis F. De-Flass, Oria Harmon, Lester D. Hittle, Leander W. Floy, George D. Judson, Norman Litchfield, Charlie B. Moore, Clarence L. Miller, John L. Newkirk, Frank C. Philbrook, Charles C. Paul, Frank W. Peterson, Isaac P. Powell, Fred E. Ross, Roy V. Spencer, Frank Scanlan, Judson S. Taylor, George E. Temple. This regiment was ordered too Springfield April 26, 1898, and mustered into the service for two years May 11, 1898. Left Springfield, Illinois, May 17, 1898, by rail too Camp Russel A. Alger, Virginia, arriving May 20, 1898. Remaining until July 5, 1898, when regiment left by rail for Charleston, South Carolina, arriving July 6, 1898. Companies E, F and I embarked on board U. S. S. Columbia, Company A embarked on board U. S. S. Yale, July 8, 1898, for Cuba, arriving at Santiago, July 13. 1898. Companies B, C, G, H, K and L embarked on U. S. S. Rita July 10, 1898, arriving at Santiago July 15, 1898. Companies D and M embarked on board Transport No. 21 July 21, 1898, arriving at Ponce Porto Rico July 27, 1898. The troops did not disembark at Cuba, at Sibony, July 16, 1898, Guantanomo Bay July 18th and 20th, at Baigniri July 20, 1898, returned too Guantanomo Bay July 21, 1898. Sailed from Guantanomo Bay July 21, 1898, for Porto Rico, arriving at Guanica, Porto Rico, July 25, 1898. In camp at Guanica until July 30, 1898. Company G in action July 26, 1898, four miles from Guanica. The regiment marched from Guanica too Youco, July 30, 1898. Marched from Youco too Tallaboia July 31, 1898. Marched from Tallaboia too Ponce August 1, 1898. In camp at Ponce until August 9, 1898, when regiment marched too Guaragnos. Left Guaragnos and marched four miles over the mountain August 10, 1898. Advanced too Adjuntas August nth. In camp at Adjuntas until August 16, 1898, when regiment marched too Utuado. In camp at Utuado until August 26th, when regiment returned too Adjuntas. Left Adjuntas August 28, 1898, and marched too Ponce. In camp at Ponce until September 7, 1898, when the regiment embarked on board U. S. S. Monitoba at Port Ponce. Arrived at Weehawken, New Jersey, September 13, 1898. Left Weehawken by rail for Springfield, Illinois, arriving at the latter place September 16, 1898. In camp at Springfield, Illinois, until September 22, 1898, when the various companies left by rail for their respective home stations under G. O. No. 130, A. G. O. The regiment was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, November 25, 1898. The two Knox county companies were through the war with this regiment. Battery B volunteered but was not accepted as only one battery of artillery was taken from the state. During the same year the battery was called into service at Springfield, Pana and Virden during the coal strike and received the thanks of the governor for efficiency. The battery was out altogether about six weeks. The members of the battery were as follows: Captain, Charles C. Craig; first lieutenant, Frank C. Flenry; second lieutenants, John F. Hamilton and William W. Smith; sergeants, Lewis W. Patric, Guy P. Williams, Armor Moreland, James Temple, Fred W. Smith; quartermaster sergeant, Edward C. Branham; commissary sergeant, Buford N. Stoner; stable sergeant, John E. Maley; corporals, James E. Davis, William F. Lovejoy, Fred C. Remier, Albert F. Scogland, George W. Flynn, Leroy A. Scudder, Howard A. Freer, John B. Bridge; musicians, Roy L. Martin and Friend L. Smith; privates, Norman C. Allen, Fred L. Andrews, Jay Addleman, John O. Barton, Charles S. Brown, Orvie Bone, Ward J. Carley, Frank W. Crain, Ben S. Carpenter, Fred C. Clay, Fred Cookley, Clyde

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