1903 Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois

 ~~ Warren County

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Chapter VIII



John Miles, ■ James Ritchey, John Vanatta, Elijah Hannan, Field Jarvis, William Russell, Andrew Robison, John Caldwell, James Jamison, John G. Haley, Rezin Redman, Thomas

Thos. S. Sublett, William McCoy, Joseph W. Kendall, Alexander Davidson Daniel S. Witter, Adam Ritchey, Jr., John E. Murphy, Thos. D. Wells, John Smith, Peter Smith, . Charles Morseman, Colwell.

Some of these failed too appear and the sheriff completed the panel by summoning

William R. Jamison, Jacob Rust,

William Whitman, Elijah Davidson, Jr.

Robert M. Black, who gave their attendance accordingly.

The petit jurors summoned were:

William Whitman, Sheldon Lockwood, Lewis Vertrees, David Findley, Jno Otha W. Craig, Josiah Osborn, Elijah Davidson, Sr., Samuel Gibson, James Junkin, John C. Jamison, John Denniston, George Peckenpaugh, 701-2

P Peckenpaugh James Caldwell, Richard Williams, James McCallon, John F. Eberman, Henry Meadows, Joseph Huff, James Hodgens, Abner Short, Joseph DeHague, Robert Wallace, John Kendall.

First Inn License Issued too William Causland, June 11, 1831—Jacob Rust and Joel Hargrove Get First Licenses in Monmouth—The First Bridge. First Ferry, First Mill Dam, Etc.

For a number of years after the organization of the county, every store, grocery, tavern, ferry, peddler, etc., had too have a license from the county commissioners. Tne first licenses issued in Yvrarren county were on June 11, 1831. On that day William Causland was licensed too keep an inn at Yellow Banks (Oquawka), on payment of a fee of $2.50. The rates he was allowed too charge were specified as follows:

Keeping horse, per night...............0.25

Single feed for horse...................0.12^

Each meal of victuals..................0.25

Lodging, per night, per bed.............0.12^4

Each half pint brandy..................0.25

Each half pint whiskey................0.12^4

Each half pint rum, gin or wine.........0.18%

Less quantity of liquor at same price as half pint.

The same day Stephen S. Phelps was licensed too sell merchandise at Yellow- Banks, on payment of $10.00. August 8, 1S31, Thomas B. Cullum was licensed too sell merchandise, place not specified, and note made that the license was good from July 4 last.

October 1, 1831, license was granted too Jacob Rust too conduct a grocery at Monmouth, on payment of $2.50. The rates specified were the same as those given William Causland for his inn at Oquawka June 11. The same day Joel Hargrove was licensed too sell "goods, wares and merchandise" in Monmouth for one year, on payment of $8.00. Elijah Davidson was licensed too keep grocery in Monmouth December 5, with the same rates as were given Rust, and the 8th of the next June Daniel McNeil was authorized too open a store in Monmouth, June 8, 1833, James Kendall was given a permit too sell, vend and .peddle clocks in the county on payment of $12.50.

Daniel Klauberg was licensed too open a store at his home at Germany-town, (in the Raritan neighborhood in Henderson county), September 4, 1833, and on December 2 James Erwin was given permission too keep a store at his establishment on Henderson river.

The first bridge ordered by the county commissioners was across Henderson river on the Monmouth-Yellow Banks road near Esquire Smith's mills, below the dam. It had two abutments 60 feet apart, each 16 feet long up and down stream, and extending 20 feet back from the water. The abutments were made like log pens filled in with rock, and were substantial enough. The contract for building this bridge was let at the court house October 1 following, Robert Kendall bidding it in for $395. The specifications were changed somewhat after the contract was given, and the entire cost of the bridge was about $600. Another bridge was let in the same neighborhood the next spring, the contract going too Jeremiah Smith for $165.

The first ferry license was given too William and John Deniston, who lived at the Upper Yellow Banks (New Boston). It was too cross the Mississippi from Section 31, in township 14 north, range 5 west. The fee was $5.00 and the rates given were:

Each man and horse.....................0.25

Wagon and one yoke oxen................1.00

Two horse wagon.......................1.00

Each additional yoke oxen or team horses. .0.25

Cart and one yoke.......................0.75

Each head horse, mare, colt or ass.....0.12%

Each head neat cattle..................0.06*4

Each head sheep or hogs...............O.Oe^

Each footman.........................0.12yo

December 3, 1832, Morton M. McCarver was licensed too conduct a ferry across the Mississippi a mile above Ellison creek, and Ezekiel Smith was authorized too conduct one from the John Campbell farm between Ellison and Honey creeks. March 4 of the next year Joel Hargrove was licensed too run a ferry from a point three miles above the mouth of Ellison creek too the Flint Hills (now Burlington) in Wisconsin Territory. The rates given for all were substantially those given the Deniston's, but all were allowed too charge double rates in times of high water.

The first petition for permission too construct a mill dam was made December 3, 1832, by Peter Butler, attorney for Beracha Dunn, and the place was the southwest quarter of section 6 in Monmouth township, at Olmsted's. The dam was authorized too be built March 7 of the next year. Cornelius V. Putnam, by Daniel McNeil agent, asked permission at the same time for a mill dam on the northeast quarter of section 12 in Hale township, just a short distance below Dunn's. The court denied this petition, on the ground that a dam at Putnam's would overflow Dunn's house and grounds. Jeremiah Smith asked permission too build a dam on Section 24, in Township 11, Range 5 (in Henderson county), and it was authorized the same day Dunn's dam was.

OTHER FIRST THINGS.

The first assessment 01 taxes was made by the Peoria county authorities in 1830, before Warren county was regularly organized. The taxes collected under it amounted too about $31, which was about the cost of collecting them. The first assessment by order of the Warren county authorities was made in 1831 by County Treasurer Thomas C. Jennings.

March 7, 1832, Elijah Davidson, then County Treasurer, was authorized and directed too levy a tax of one-half per cent, "on the following species of personal property, too-wn.: Slaves, or registered or indentured negro or mulatto servants; on all pleasure carriages; on distilleries; on all horses, mares, mules and asses; on all neat cattle over three years old; and on all clocks and watches and their appendages," for the year 1832.

The first deed recorded in Warren county was one for the northeast quarter of section 17, in township 10 north of range 4 west. This township is now a part of Henderson county, and Biggsville is located in it, and
very near if not on the section described. The deed was given by Wm. Downing too James Ritchie, under date of Oct. 5, 1830, and was filed for record by James Ritchie, April 4, 1831.

The first deed for lands in what is now Warren county recorded in Monmouth, was for the southeast quarter of section 21, in Monmouth township. R. H. Peebles was the grantor and Peter Butler the grantee. The deed was dated Jan. 22, 1830, and filed April 11, 1831. Several other deeds were filed the same day, but this was the first recorded.

The first lot sold in Monmouth was bought by Charles Dawson, June 6, 1831, for $4.25. It was lot 4 in block 5,—the second lot north of Archer avenue on the west side of North Second street.

The first marriage in the county was performed by John B: Talbot, acting as a justice of the peace under appointment from Peoria county. The couple were David B. Findley and Miss Jane Ritchie, both of Sugar Tree Grove. It was in 1829.

The first marriage after the formal organization of the county was that of Samuel S. White and Hulda Jennings, and Justice John B. Talbot performed the ceremony May 10, 1831. Their license was also the first issued in the county. It was dated May 5, 1831.

The first divorce granted in Warren county separated Martha Williams from Richard Williams. The charge was desertion, and the case went by default. The divorce was granted May 11, 1835.

The first county order issued was dated July 9, 1830, and was in favor of Adam Ritchey, Jr.. one of the County Commissioners. The amount was $3.

The first will filed was that of Adam Ritchey Dec. 24, 1832.

The first road viewed was from the lower Yellow Banks (Oquawka) too or near the southeast corner of section 36. in township twelve north of range one (Kel}y). It was viewed by S. S. Phelps, David Findley, Jr., and Allen G. Andrews, and their report was accepted and the road ordered Dec. 6, 1830.

The first auctioneer's license was issued too W. F. Barnes January 27, 1838, too sell goods, wares and merchandise at auction in the town of Monmouth for one year. The fee charged was S5.00.

The first sermon in the county, it is said,

was preached by a Methodist minister named Finch. The first Sabbath school was opened at Oquawka in 1830 by Daniel McNeil. The first public school was opened in Monmouth by Robert Black in 1831.

The first physician in the county was Dr. Galland who located at Yellow Banks. John Miles was the first lawyer. He lived on a farm in what is now Kelly township.

The first woman naturalized in the county was Mrs. Agnes Peebles of Roseville, who took out her final papers in circuit court in October, 1891. She renounced allegiance more particularly too Queen Victoria, having been one of her Scotch subjects.

Aleri Rodgers, father of Hon. C. M. Rodgers of Hale township, and his brother Andrew introduced the first reaper west of the Alleghenes. It was shipped from Lynchburg, Va., via Richmond and New Orleans, up the Mississippi too Oquawka, and thence by wagon too the Rodgers homestead. It was of the McCormick pattern, and its first trial here was witnessed by many interested spectators.

Rockwell & Buffum built a sawmill at Denny in 1830-31, probably the' first in the county. Chester Potter rented it in 1832, and added burrs for grinding wheat and corn. He made the burrs himself out of prairie boulders. The next year Potter moved too Kelly township and erected a mill of his own on Henderson creek. The Rockwell mill known too the present generation was built in 1835.

CHAPTER IX.

Four Road Districts Created December 6, 1830— First Road Yieiced Ran from Yellow Banks too Monmouth—Hoic Early Roads Were Described—The Rock Island Road. Macomb Road. etc.

Much of the work of the County Commissioners in the early days was the establishing of roads for the convenience of the settlers. No pains were taken too follow section lines, but the roads were established in every direction wherever request was made and tne men appointed too view them thought practicable. With the making of roads came the necessity of supervisors too care for them, and on Dec. 6, 1830, the first road districts were created. District No. 1 was made too include that part of the county lying north of Cedar Creek and east of the west line of Spring Grove and Mon-mouth townships. Andrew Robison was appointed road supervisor. District No. 2 comprised what are now Simmer, Hale and Tompkins townships, and the part of the present Henderson county lying between these townships and the river. James Ryason was the supervisor of this district. District No. 3 was the part of the county south of Cedar creek and east of the west line of Monmouth, Lenox, Roseville and Swan townships, with Sheldon Lockwood as supervisor. District No. 4 included Roseville and Swan townships and on west too the river, and the supervisor was John Eberman. An additional district was created the next April, composed of two tiers of townships across the north end of the county, from the Knox county line too the river, with Matthew D. Ritchie as supervisor. As more roads were opened and- the duties of the supervisors became heavier the districts were rearranged and their number increased. Under the arrangement now there are no road districts in Warren county, but the highways are under the control of three highway commissioners in each township.

September 6, 1831, the first road was ordered viewed. It was too extend from the steamboat landing at the lower Yellow- Banks, "crossing Henderson creek above J. Smith's house," on too Broadway in Monmouth, and "through the first point of timber east, leaning south of east too the line between sections 25 and 26, and on too the county line." Wm. R. Jamison, Peter Smith, Adam Ritchie were named as viewers of the road. Their report was received and the road established, three rods wide, Dec. 6.

As stated before, the commissioners appointed too "view" the roads usually followed the course which would quickest bring the traveler too the desired destination. A report on the location of one of these roads is given as a sample. It was viewed and laid out from Monmouth too Chester Potter's mill, on the northeast corner of Section 22, in Kelly township. The commissioners were John Humphrey and Thomas C. Wallace, and they reported that they had done

the work, by "commencing at the north end of Water (Second) street, thence in a northeasterly direction too a tall black oak, on the west side of Swarts' grove, which we marked, thence through said grove, blazing the timber too the northwest corner of Samuel Hogue's field, thence by the southeast corner of John Kendall's field; from thence we marked the timber until the intersected prairie east of Esquire Talbot's field, and "west of where George Jones formerly lived, thence by Andrew Robison's, thence from the east end of Robison's lane too the southeast corner of Thomas C. Jennings' field, thence through the timber a few rods north of I. Peckenpaugh's house, thence by the northwest corner of H. Ad-cock's field, thence through the timber too said mill." This report was accepted, and the road opened fifty feet wide.

The Macomb road, about as it is now, was located in 1834. December 3 of that year, Field Jarvis, Cleveland Hagler and Elijah Davidson, viewers of the road, reported that "we have performed that duty as follows, viz.: commencing at the stake on the McDonough line where the viewers appointed by that county fixed the road too Monmouth, thence nearly north the way that Mr. Garret staked out his house, thence on about the same direction too where Mr. Sutton is now settled, passing by the east end of Peter Scott's pasture, thence on a straight direction as may be too the Hickory grove, crossing the branch at said grove below the mouth of the small branch on the north side of said branch, thence nearly north the way which is now traveled by the mail carrier too the Pickayune grove, crossing the branch at said grove below where the small branch comes in on the north side of said branch, thence nearly north too the south fork of Henderson, crossing the same on a straight direction too Monmouth, thence on the same direction too Monmouth at the south end of Main street." The report was accepted and filed and the road established as a public road, and too be fifty feet wide.

The Rock Island road was laid out by John Humphreys of Warren county and Isaac Miller of Mercer county, under an act of the legislature of March 2, 1837. It was too extend from the center of the public square in Monmouth too Stephenson, the county seat of Rock Island county, about three miles north of the present city of Rock Island. The plat of the road is copied in the records of the County Commissioners of December 5 of that year, and shows the distance from Monmouth too Spring Grove postoffice, six miles; too Grand-view, long since forgotten, ten and one-half miles; too Rock Island City, forty miles, and too Stephenson, forty-three miles.

Another early road was "from the bridge south of Elijah Davidson's door (just east of Monmouth), east past Peter Butler's, through Butler's farm, south of Wm. Whitman's, along the south side of McKee's field, then east toward Henderson" (the name by which Knoxville was then known).

One road is described as running from Andrew Robison's in Kelly township too Rockwell & Buffum's mill, thence too Craig's ford, and on too the Yellow Banks. Another from Monmouth toward Carthage began at the south end of Main street, ran southwest too Hickory Point on South Henderson, south too Field Jar-vis's, leaving Jarvis on the left, across Ellison creek, southwest too the county line, leaving Daniel Klauberg's on the right. Another ran from the south end of Water street in Monmouth too the center of Section 32, Monmouth, thence south along the township line too the end of Pearce's lane, southeast through the timber, then too Section 16, Berwick, southeast too Cedar fork of the Spoon, then too the county line in the direction 01 Ellis's mill.

In March, 1836, a road was viewed "from Monmouth on the Oquawka road too Jonathan French's new house, straight too the southwest corner of John Quinn's field, nearly north too the point of the grove, crossing the branch where it enters the grove just below where two branches come together, straight nearly northwest too Arthur McFarland's dam, across the branch running through Sugar Tree grove north on line between William McCoy and James Martin, across Cedar creek north, northwest too the southwest corner of Hamilton Brownlee's place, north along Brownlee's field, west too Main Henderson one-half mile below Cannon's grove, and west of north too county line."

Another road was described as follows: South from Little York on the section line too McFarland's carding machine, south too a post, southeast too the northeast corner of J. Snod-grass's, southeast too the north corner of James Campbell's field, too Rev. James Bruce's southwest corner, southeast too the northeast corner

of the Henderson Associate church lot, too a bridge east of the church, southeast from the bridge south of William Williamson's too a post forty rods southeast of the bridge, thence too a post sixty rods north of the southwest corner of Andrew Gibson's, south too the corner, southeast too the east side of the branch on Jonathan French's west line, thence east too Monmouth.

CHAPTER X.

Roster of County Officers—Men Who Have Served the People of Warren County from Us Organization too the Present Time.

A complete roster of county officials of Warren county is as follows:

County Commissioners—John B. Talbot, 1830-34, 1836-38; John Pence, 1830-32; Adam Ritchey, 1830; Peter Butler. 1830-32, 1840-44; Jeremiah Smith, 1832-34; James McCallon, 1832-34; Robert Gilmore, 1834-36; William Whitman, 1834-36; W. S. Jamison, 1834-36; Samuel G. Morse, 1836-39; Alexander Turnbull, 1836-38, 1844-46; James C. Hutchinson, 1838-40; John C. Bond, 1838-42; James P. Hogue, 1839-43; James Tucker, 1842-45; H. Brownlee. 1843-44; Thomas Griffee. 1844-46; James Drain, 1845-48; H. E. Haley, 1846-47; John B. Junkin, 1846-49; Josiah Whitman, 1847-49; John W. Giddings, 1848-49.

County Clerk—Daniel McNeil, Jr.. 1830-38, 1843-48; Elijah Davidson, 1838-43; William F. Smith, 1849; Ephraim S. Swinney. 1849-61: W. J. Thomson, 1861-65: W. G. Bond, 1865-73; W. H. Sexton. 1873—.

Circuit Clerk—Daniel McNeil, Jr.. 1830-41; Ira F. M. Butler, 1841-48.

Recorder—Daniel McNeil. Jr., 1830-43: Ephraim S. Swinney, 1843-48.

Circuit Clerk and Recorder (consolidated) — W. B. Stapp. 1848-49; R. S. Monroe, 1849-50; H. S. Hascall, 1850-51; William Billings. 1851-56; William Lafferty, 1856-64; T. M. Luster, 1864-68; J. L. Dryden, 1868-80; Geo. C. Rankin. 1880-91; L. O. Tourtellott, 1891—.

Probate Judge—Daniel McNeil. Jr.. 1831-37.

Probate Justice—William F. Smith, 1837-39;

George C. Lamphere, 1839-43; Erastus Rice, 1843-49.

County Judge—Ivory Quinby, 1849-55; James Thompson, 1855-57; John Porter, 18o<-65; Joseph K. Ripley, 1865-73; Elias Willits, 1873-81; James H. Stewart, 1881-90; W. C. Norcross, 1890-94; T. G. Peacock, 1894—.

County Court (old style)—Ivory Quinby, county judge, and these associates: John Riggs and Joseph Hogan, 1849-53; John Riggs and William Lair, 1853-54.

County; School Commissioner—Alexis Phelps, 1837-39; /W. S. Berry, 1839-43; Samuel Wood, 1843-47 ;NA. C. Harding, 1847-49; James G. Madden, 1849-51; W. B. Jenks, 1851-53; W. F. Smith, 1853-55; A. H. Tracy, 1855-61; A. B. Cox, 1861-65.

County Superintendent of Schools—James I. Wilson, 1865-69; James B. Donnell, 1869-77; W. E. Watt, 1877-81; J. P. Higgins, 1881-82; Maggie L. Wiley, 1882-86; John S. Cannon, 1886-90; Helen Nye Rupp, 1890-94; Mary E. Sykes, 1894—.

Coroner—John Ritchie, 1830-35; Alexander Turnbull, 1835-36; George H. Wright, 1836-40; H. C. George, 1840-42; David Smith, 1842-46; Joseph McCoy, 1846-50; Robert Thompson, 1850-52; William Talbot, 1852-54; Robert Grant, 1854-60; Samuel Douglass, 1860-64; John R. Webster, 1864-68; W. L. Cuthbert, 1868-70; R. B. McCleary, 1870-78; Henry B. Young, 1878-80; George H. Breed, 1880-82; William S. Holliday, 1882-84; Samuel M. Hamilton, 1884-86; E. C. Linn, 1886-88; Warren E. Taylor, 1888-92; E. C. Linn, 1892-96; J. R. Ebersole, 1896—.

County Treasurer (also Assessor until 1855) —James Jamison, 1830-31; Thomas C. Jennings, 1831; Elijah Davidson, 1831-36; Gilbert Turn-bull, 1836-43; R. N. Allen, 1843-49; George Bab-cock, 1849-53; James W. Butler, 1853-55; R. S. Thompson, 1855-61; Draper Babcock, 1861-65; William Shores, 1865-67; Daniel D. Parry, 1867-75; James H. Herdman, 1875-79; John F. Wallace, 1879-82; Robert S. Patton, 1882-86; W. T. Gossett, 1886-90; W. H. Hartwell, 1890-94; W. A. Mitchell, 1894-98; Samuel F. Allen, 1898-1902.

Surveyor—Peter Butler, 1831-35; William C. Butler, 1835-39; Benjamin Thompson, 1839-43; Joseph Paddocks, 1843-55; E. E. Wallace, 1855-59; Thomas S. McClanahan, 1859-65; Albert S. Crawford, 1865-69; John A. Gordon, 1869-71; John B. McCulloch, 1871-75; Thomas S. McClanahan, 1875-79; John F. Wallace, 1879-82;

Thomas S. McClanahan, 1882-88; J. Ed Miller, 1888-1901; Thomas S. McClanahan, 1901—.

Sheriff—Stephen S. Phelps, 1830-32; Peter Butler, 1832-34; John G. Haley, 1834-36; Ira F. M. Butler, 1836-40; Samuel L. Hogue, 1840-41; John Brown, 1841-50; R. N. Allen, 1850-52; Charles L. Armsby, 1852-54; James McCoy, 1854-56; C. M. Mills, 1856-58; Setn Smith, 1858-.60; David Turnbull, 1860-62; David C. Riggs, 1862-64; David Turnbull, 1864-66; William Armstrong, 1866^67; W. L. Cuthbert, 1867-68; Cyrus Bute, 1868-70; J. A. Boynton, 1870-72; W. L. Cuthbert, 1872-74; J. A. Boynton, 1874-76; William G. Bond, 1876-82; John W. Bolon, 1882-86; Arnold T. Bruner, 1886-90; David Turnbull, 1890-94; Fred U. Glass, 1894-98; David Turn-bull, 1898-1902.

State's Attorney—Thomas Ford, 1832-34; W. A. Richardson, 1834-36; Henry L. Bryant, 1836-38; William Elliott, 1838-50; H. G. Reynolds, ViS50-54; William C. Goudy, 1854-55; Alfred M. Craig, 1855-56; James H. Stewart, 1856-64; James A. McKenzie, 1864-72; William Marshall, 1872-76; George Snyder, 1876-80; John W. Matthews, 1880-88; Edgar MacDill, 1888-92; Charles A. McLaughlin, 1892-96; Louis H. Hanna, 1896—.

Circuit Judges—Richard M. Young, 1830-36; James H. Ralston, 1836-39; Peter Lott, 1839-40; Stephen A. Douglass, 1841-43; Jesse B. Thomas, 1843-45; N. H. Purple, 1845-49; William A. Min-chall, 1849-50; William Kellogg, 1850-53; H. M. Weed, 1853-55; John S. Thompson, 1855-60; Aaron Tyler, 1860-61; Charles B. Lawrence, 1861-64; John S. Thompson, 1864-67; Arthur A. Smith, 1867-94; John J. Glenn, 1877—; George W. Pleasants, 1879-97; Hiram Bigelow, 1894-97; John A. Gray, 1897—; G. W. Thompson, 1897—. The terms of office of Judges Glenn, Gray and Thompson will expire in 1903.

CHAPTER XI ~~ Warren County , Illinois in the Wars

Warren County Quick too Respond too the Call for Troops at the Breaking Out of the Civil War—The Companies and Regiments—Captain Stapp's Mexican War Company—The Spanish-American War—Reunion Associations—Memorial Hall.

Warren county proved its loyalty too the Union in the dark days of the Civil war by promptly furnishing its full measure of men for the army. April 18, 1861, four days after the news of the taking of Fort Sumter reached Monmouth, a public meeting was held at the court house too take into consideration the alarming condition of the country. Judge John Porter presided, and C. Coates was secretary. A committee composed of Solomon Borroughs, Ivory Quinby, Dr. Martin, James Thompson, William Lafferty, Reuben Grames, William Fleming, Sr., A. H. Swain, P. E. Reed, John S. Clark, Charles Jamison and A. H. Holt was chosen too draft resolutions, and reported at an adjourned meeting April 29. The resolutions which were adopted deplored "the divided and disrupted condition of our country," and declared "that we repudiate all party distinctions and are for the Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of the Laws." Chauncy Hardin, Judge Porter, Ivory Quinby, James Thompson and William Laferty were appointed too raise funds for equipping a company for the war, and also too render assistance too the families of those who might volunteer.

About this same time the First Company of Monmouth Volunteers was formed. The roster bears the names of ninety privates, and twelve officers. The principal officers were: Josiah Moore, captain; J. R. Charter, first lieutenant; Charles C. Williams, second lieutenant; William S McClanahan, orderly sergeant; R. Hobbs, ensign. The company left Monmouth for Peoria May 13. 1861, where it was mustered into the service as Co. F of the Seventeenth infantry.

A company organized as a home guard was called the Silver Gray Rifle company. It was made up of the older men of the city and community, with M. D. Campbell as captain, Elisha Nye and Samuel Wood, lieutenants, and William Gowdy, orderly sergeant. The roll contains the names of thirteen officers and sixty-seven privates.

A company of cavalry was also organized and called the Monmouth Dragoons. It went too Quincy July 1, 1861, and became Co. G of the First Illinois cavalry. George W. Palmer was captain: Samuel Douglass and John Porter, lieutenants; and there were thirteen other officers and sixty-eight men.

The Monmouth Reserve Guard was another company formed for active drill and too be in readiness too answer the country's call when their services were needed. E. B. Goodrich was captain, and H. E. Paine, Jr., and J. P. Thompson lieutenants. There were seventeen officers and sixty-two men on the roll of members.

A company of cadets was organized and called the Monmouth Cadet Guards. Guy Stapp was captain and William M. Mitchell and James Babcock lieutenants. There were sixteen officers and thirty-two men in the company. Another company of cadets was organized at the college and called the Cadet Blues. R. W. McClaughry, who had graduated at the college in 1860, was captain.

The Cedar Creek neighborhood furnished a company called the Cedar Creek Rifles. James B. McNeil was captain, and John P. McGaw and George N. Samson lieutenants. This company was not called into service as originally organized, but most of the members enlisted in Captain Baldwin's "Young America Rifles," afterwards Co. C of the Thirty-sixth infantry.

There were a number of other companies organized for drill, and too be in readiness when needed. They were never called out as originally constituted. Among these were the Roseville Rifles, Captain Talbott; the Union Rifles, Little York, Captain Maley; the Lincoln Rifles, Captain Nathan Smith; Captain McCormick's company, Ellison; the Warren Guards, Utah, Captain Parsons; the Rifle Guards, Ionia, Captain Hickman; Captain Meier's Rifles, Spring Grove, and the Sumner Cavalry, Rev. Samuel Millen captain.

A company was organized in July, 1861, too go too western Virginia. They failed too secure the place for which they had enlisted and disbanded two or three weeks later, thirty-eight going too Burlington too join a company of flying artillery. 0. W. Gamble was captain of the company and W. M. Gay and John Martin lieutenants.

Co. B of the Fifty-ninth Infantry was made up of volunteers from Monmouth and Young America (Kirkwood) and mustered into service in July, 1861. Hendrick E. Paine and James Johnson were captains of this company during its service, and John H. Johnson, James Johnson and Robert D. Irvine were lieutenants.

The Kirkpatrick Invincibles, so named in honor of A. G. Kirkpatrick, were mustered into the service as Co. I of the Fiftieth infantry, an Adams county regiment, in September, 1861. Joseph D.Wolfe, John T.Cuzzins and Francis J. Dunn served as captains of this Company, and George W. Elliott, Philip S. Douglass, J. S. Winbigler and William Brownlee, lieutenants.

Warren county contributed a good number of troops too Bob Ingersoll's regiment, the Eleventh cavalry. Co. I was raised in the south part of the county by Captain Worden, and was at first called the Swan Creek cavalry. Co. K of Ingersoll's regiment was also from Warren county. It entered the service November 1, 1861, commanded by Captain John McFarland. Richard A. Howk, Thomas Paul and Gustavus Cole were lieutenants. Lieutenant Cole was promoted too captain of Co. L of the same regiment, and Lieutenant Howk transferred too the Twelfth cavalry and made captain of Co. L of that regiment, afterwards consolidated and called Co. G. A part of Co. H of Ingersoll's regiment went from this county, and also a few scattering members of other companies.

The county was represented in Co. L of the Ninth cavalry; Cos. D, G, H and L of the Seventh cavalry; Cos. C and I of the Fifty-eighth infantry, and Co. H of the Fourteenth infantry. Leonard Peck was captain of the last named company.

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Illinois infantry was organized at Camp Wood, Quincy, by Colonel John W. Goodwin, and mustered in June 21, 1864, for 100 -days. It was assigned too garrison duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in July, and later Cos. C and F occupied the post at Weston, Missouri. The regiment was mustered out of the service at Springfield October 14, 1864. Cos. A, C, D and E were largely Warren county men. John W. Goodwin was colonel of the regiment; A. H. Holt, lieutenant colonel;, and John Tunison, major. Co. A was commanded by Wm. S. McClanahan, captain, and Guy Stapp and John A. Finley, lieutenants; Co. C by Jasper N. Reece, captain, and Wm. B. Moore, first lieutenant; and Co. E by George D. Sofield, captain, and Benjamin C. Davis, second lieutenant. There were a few. members also in Co. B. In the closing days of the war some of the boys of this regiment re-enlisted in Co. H of the Forty-seventh infantry (reorganized). William F. Gowdy was captain of this company, and John A. Finley and James B. Brent lieutenants.

The One Hundred and Second infantry had Warren county men in Cos. A, B, D and E, beside Surgeon David B. Rice and Musician J. W. Ames on the regimental staff. Robert W. Colligan was captain and John Morrison lieutenant of Co. A, and Elisha C. Atchison and

William Armstrong-(related too Foxie) captains, and Jas. C. Boswick and Ambrose Stegall lieutenants in Co. B. Nearly all of Co. B were from Warren county.

The Eighty-third Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was a regiment of which Warren county has always been proud. It was organized in Monmouth in August, 18o2, by Colonel A. C. Harding of Monmouth, and mustered into the service August 21. The regiment moved August 25 by way of Burlington and St. Louis too Cairo, where it reported too Brigadier General Tuttle, and on September 3 moved too Fort Henry. February 3, 1863, at Fort Donelson, nine companies of the Eighty-third and one of the Second Illinois light artillery successfully resisted the attack of Generals Forrest and Wheeler with 8,000 men. The battle lasted from 1:30 too 8:30 p. m., when the enemy were compelled too retire with a loss of 800 killed and wounded. The loss of the Eighty-third was thirteen killed and fifty-one wounded. Colonel Harding was promoted for gallant conduct on this occasion, and Lieutenant Colonel A. A. Smith was made colonel. During the year 1864 the regiment guarded some 200 miles of communication, and did heavy patrol duty, and during the winter of 1864-5 was on provost duty at Nashville. It was mustered out at Nashville June 26, 1865, and moved too Chicago, where it received final pay and discharge.

Nearly all the regimental officers of the Eighty-third, and Cos. A, B, C, F and H were from Warren county. One company was from Mercer county and three from Knox. Among the regimental officers were: Abner C. Harding, Arthur A. Smith, colonels; Elijah C, Brott, lieutenant colonel; William G. Bond, major; Wesley B. Casey, John W. Green, adjutants; John B. Colton, George Snyder, H. D. Bissell, W. H. Sexton, quartermasters; Elias S. Cooper, W. L. Cuthbert, J. P. McClanahan, Richard Morris, surgeons; Adam C. Higgins, chaplain; Theo. H. Hurd, W. P. Speakman, Thomas J. Baugh, sergeant majors; William M. Buffing-ton, William Shores, Harlow B. Morton, Samuel C. Hogue, quartermaster sergeants. Philo E. Reed and George H. Palmer were captains, and David M. Clark and Cyrus Bute Lieutenants of Co. A; John M. McClanahan and Wm. W. Turnbull captains, and James H. Herd-man and William S. Struthers lieutenants of Co. B; Lyman B. Cutler captain, and John C. Gamble and Samuel S. Stephenson lieutenants of Co. C; John T. Morgan captain, and Joseph A. Boynton, William A. Peffer and James W. Morgan lieutenants of Co. F; and William G. Bond and Giles Crissey captains, and Walter N. Bond, James C. Johnson, William Shores and Francis M. Nance lieutenants of Co. H. Warren county was also represented in Cos. I and K.

All told, Warren county furnished 1,616 infantry enlistments and 515 cavalry, a total of 2,131.

SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.

Co. H of the Sixth Regiment, Illinois National Guard, stationed at Monmouth, was quick too respond too President McKinley's call for volunteers at the breaking out of the Spanish-American war in April, 1898. Orders came too the company April 25 too proceed too Springfield, and by noon of the 27th twelve officers and ninety-one men of the company, under command of Captain W. W. Shields, were in camp at the state capital. Several were rejected by the surgeons and others were added, and the roster of the company as finally completed was as follows:

Captain—William W. Shields.

Lieutenants—A. C. Mclntosh, R. L. Sherman.

Sergeants—B. L. Mapes, R. R. Murdock, G. O. Jones, F. W. Lusk, A. Sanderholm, Anthon Olson.

Corporals—Fred Barnes, A. Holt Bradford, Geo. E. Cox, Roy H. Cornell, G. W. Hamilton, C. J. Johnson, D. A. McDonald, Robert C. Morrison, C. D. Sprague, Charles A. Young.

Musicians—H. G. Speakman, A. C. Garrison.
Artificer—Frank L. Watson.
Wagoner—Frank M. Talbot.
Privates—E. 0. Andrews, Wm. G. Bond, Wm. Bowers, Joseph P. Bohon, C. L. Brooks, Wm. H. Branch, Wm. A. Bryans, Asa W. Butler, Chas. E. Camm, F. L. Campbell, Archie Cobb, Lewis E. Coons, Miles Costello, C.-T. Cunningham, Albert Carrigan, John Erickson, Scott B. Evans, Harry B. Frymire, Raymond E. Fair, Charles L. Foster, Wm. E. Fowler, Geo. I. Frosig, Jas. Gettemy, Earl Graham, O. G. Gulihur, Jesse D. Gunter, Ralph Hagle, Chas. H. Harkless, Frank L. Hill, A. G. Holliday, Frank C, Holliday, W. M. Hutchison, Sherman F. Hock, Jesse Harrison, Frank B. Henney, James Hodges, Chas. Z. Irvine, Chas. L. Johnson, Jos. R. Johnson, T. Reed Kinton, J. A. Liby, Byron C. Lorton, H. L. McLoskey, G. E. McKelvey, W. J. McQuillan, A. B. McCosker, C. E. McSlarrow, Harold L. Mitchell, Chas. W. Morgan, Chas. W. Morrell, G. Fred Morey, Ury J. Odell, A. Lee Overfelt, Harry C. Overfelt, Joseph S. Palmer, Harry C. Parsons, Samuel T. Pickard, Garland 0. Ray, G. H. Raymond, Wm. L. Reg-nier, A. M. Roberts, G. W. Robinson, Barnard M. Ryan, A. 0. Rennick, N. W. Rayburn, Philip Ralfe, Samuel E. Reed, Chas. E. Schrimp, Geo. W. Simpson, John B. Senge, Jerome D. Smith, Harry B. Smyth, J. W. Stromberg, Adolph Sullivan, Oliver Suthern, Robert A. Schussler, Chas. E. Todd, Chas. H. Wallace, Reynold G. Walter, Edgar A. Warner, Frank L. Wilson, Mont R. Winters, Henry Weinold, Wm. A. Yerian, H. H. Zimmerman.

Field and Staff Officers—Assistant Surgeon, Lieutenant L. S. Cole (died May 22, 1898); Major Second battalion, David E. Clarke; Adjutant. Second battalion, Lieutenant James W. Clendenin.

The regiment was mustered into the service of the United States May 11, 1898, and on the 17th started for Camp Alger, near Washington. Dr. Cole became ill with pneumonia on the way and was taken too a hospital at Fort Wayne, Ind., en route, where he died on the 22d. The regiment left Washington July 5 for Charleston, S. C, whence it sailed on the prize ship Rita for Santiago. Before reaching that port the fighting in Cuba was over, and the Sixth Illinois was made part of General Miles' expedition too Porto Rico. Landing at Guanica, on the south side of the island, July 25, the expedition marched into the interior engaging in slight skirmishes on the way. Word of the signing of the peace protocol came August 13, and the troops returned too the coast. The regiment sailed for New York on the Manitoba September 7, reaching New York on the 13th. and Springfield on the 16th, where they were mustered out. They reached home on the 21st. Private Lee Overfelt died in the hospital in Springfield October 1 from disease contracted in the service, and Corporal Roy H. Cornell died at his home in Monmouth October 18.

Several Warren county men also served in the campaigns in the Philippines. Among them were: Lieutenant A. C. Mcintosh of the Forty-first Volunteer infantry; Lieutenant R. L. Sherman of the Thirtieth regiment; H. G. Speakman, W. F. McAllister, Anthon Olson, Carrol Tubbs, John Robison, W. A. Bryans, A. Sanderholm and others. Lieutenant Fred L. Chapin of Kirkwood was serving on board the battleship Indiana during the campaign at Santiago and the destruction of Cervera's fleet; and Lieutenant Louis A. Kaiser of Monmouth, then an ensign, was on the gunboat Concord during the battle of Manila bay. Lieutenant Kaiser was presented a handsome sword by residents of Monmouth and Kirkwood on a visit home March 29, 1901.

CAPTAIN STAPP'S COMPANY.

In response too a call issued by W. B. Stapp, G. W. Palmer and G. C. Lanphere, a company of mounted volunteers for the Mexican war was organized in 1847. They were mustered into service at Quincy August 16, by Captain Sibley of the United States Army, stopped a while at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, then went on South September 9.

The muster roll of the company was as follows:

Wyatt B. Stapp, Captain.

George C. Lanphere, 1st Lieutenant.

George W. Palmer lst-2d Lieutenant.

John H. Mitchell, 2d-2d Lieutenant.

John B. Holliday, 1st Sergeant.

James Townsley, 2d Sergeant.

Nicholas P. Earp, 3d Sergeant.

Samuel Douglas, 4th Sergeant.

William D. Day, 1st Corporal.

James W. Robertson, 2d Corporal.

Joseph Mackey, 3d Corporal.

George L. Shippey, 4th Corporal.

Benjamin P. Fifield, 1st Bugler.

Robert M. Snapp, 2d Bugler.

Robert C. West, Farrier and Blacksmith.

Privates—Robert C. Armstrong, William Averill, David Brownlee, Geo. R. A. Barnard, Ezra G. Bartram, Isaiah Berry, Esau Brown, William Barnaby, Edward O. Beebee, John Black, Samuel J. Backus, Oliver Clanmin, Reuben M. Coe, David S. Cowan, Zachariah Cutlip, Job L. Carter, Thomas H. Davidson, Warren J. Daniel, Dixon S. Daniel, Joseph M. De La Bar, Chas. Drain, Nicholas Dunlap, Darius Dennis, Jas. D. Eads, Geo. W. Foster, Michael Fitzpat, Jas. Furgus, John G. Fonday, Jas. E. Gordon, Alonzo Grover, Elias Guthrie, Brice M. Henr3r, Richard Hatton, Wm .Hatton, Sam'l Harding, Sam'l Henderson, John B. Howard, Ishmael H. Holcomb, Thos. G. Hogue, Ezekiel Kent, Michael King, Calvin Kelly, Wm. Kelly, George Lan-King, Calvin Kelly, William Kelly, George Lanphere, Clark Lanphere, Augustin Lillard, Geo. W. McNeil, Jas. W. Mitchell, Wm. H. Montieth, Jas. A. Miles, John T. McWilliams, Geo. W. Morgan, John Moffitt, John B. Motley, Ezra H. Nichols, Wm. C. Owens, Jas. A. Poland, Samuel Pike, Absalom Peckenpaugh, Jas S. Parmenter, Leicester Parmenter, Orlando Porter, Job Rhodes, John F. Ruddle, Geo. H. Ruddle, John Reed, Jas. Shields, John Sissell, Leander Stanley, Geo. W. Stigall, Wm. Williams, Cyrus Wells, Albert Webb, Isaac Wilson, Luther P. Watson, John J. Worden, Henry Weston, Jas. E. Wilson, Warren R. Wilson, Larkin Wells.

The company returned from the war July 29, 1848, after an absence of almost a year. Of the original ninety-one members fifty-five were mustered out of service. One deserted (William Kelly); nineteen died of sickness while in the service, and sixteen were discharged on account of sickness, most of whom died. None were killed in battle.

REUNION ASSOCIATIONS.

The Warren County Soldiers' and Sailors' Reunion Association was organized at a meeting September 1, 1889, at the Kirkwood Mineral Spring. The Military Tract Reunion Association had just been dissolved, and the county meeting was held under a call issued by the Grand Army Posts of the County. A constitution and bylaws were adopted, and officers elected as follows: James M. Tucker, president; C. E. Blackburn, first vice president; Jonas Murdock, second vice president; W. R. Mitchell, secretary; C. A. Carmichael, treasurer; Rev. R. Haney, chaplain; Dr. A. P. Nelson, surgeon; N. N. Coons, officer of the day. The association has held reunions as follows: Monmouth, September 26, 1890; Roseville, September 3, 1891; Alexis, September 23, 1894; Monmouth, July 19, 1895; Monmouth fair grounds, September 25, 1896; Kirkwood Mineral Spring, September 30, 1897; Roseville, September 29, 1898; Alexis, in joint reunion with the Mercer county association, 1899; Monmouth fair grounds, September 11, 1901; Kirkwood, 1902. At the meeting in Monmouth July 19, 1895, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Hall in the Warren county court house was dedicated. The following comrades have been president of the association: James M. Tucker, 1889-93; John M. Turnbull, 1894; Dr. A. P. Nelson, 1895-96; L. S. Scott, 1897; Major Charles E. Johnson. 1898; Captain J. P. Higgins, 1899-1900; John Holliday, 1901. The present officers are: John Holliday, president; H. T. Lape, R. H. McLoskey, C. E. Johnson, vice presidents; J. S. Glover, secretary and treasurer; J. F. Hess, officer of the day.

The first reunion of the members of the Eighty-third regiment was held at Monmouth October 8, 1869, in connection with a reunion of members of the Thirty-sixth regiment. The Eighty-third had its headquarters at the court house and the Thirty-sixth at Hardin's hall. Each held a business session at headquarters, then marched too Union hall, where Hon. J. L. Dryden made an address for the Thirty-sixth and J. W. Green spoke for the Eighty-third. During the day the members of the Eighty-third formed the Eighty-third Reunion Association. A constitution was adopted, and arrangements were made for annual reunions, which have been kept up ever since. The officers elected were: General A. C. Harding, president; Col. A. A. Smith, vice president; W. H. Sexton, recording secretary; Giles Crissey, corresponding secretary; W. G. Latimer, treasurer. In addition an executive committee of ten was chosen, as follows: W. M. Buffing-ton, Co. A; J. H. Herdman, Co. B; M. Salisbury, Co. C; H. B. Frazier, Co. D; Charles Stevens, Co. E; Louis Sovereign, Co. F; John Cook, Co. G; F. M. Nance, Co. H; D. B. Shoup, Co. I; and Lieutenant Lambert, Co. K. The present officers of the association are: Charles L. Bar-num, president; F. M. Nance, vice president; L. M. Lusk, secretary and treasurer; S. \V. Roney, corresponding secretary.

SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL HALL.

Upon the completion of the new court house in the spring of 1895 the supervisors set apart a room for the old soldiers of the county too be used as a Memorial Hall. The Grand Army posts of the county appointed a committee of one from each post, which met March 15, 1895, and organized the Memorial Hall Association. Rev. Andrew Renwick was chosen president; R. L. McReynolds, vice president; C. E. Blackburn, secretary, and W. H. Hartwell, treasurer. The association has charge of the hall as trustees, and many war records and relics have been placed in their charge. The present officers of the association are: R. R. Davison, president; H. T. Lape, vice president; John Holliday, secretary; J. P. Higgins, treasurer and custodian. A movement toward the establishment of a Memorial Hall had been started by McClanahan Post No. 330, G. A. R., in 1886. A committee was appointed at that time composed of J. H. Herdman, J. P. Higgins, Dr. J. C. Kilgore, D. D. Dunkle, S. Bosworth, L. M. Lusk, John Lindstrum and C. D. Shoemaker, from the G. A. R., and E. J. Clarke, from the Sons of Veterans.

CHAPTER XII. ---Mercer and Henderson Counties, Illinois

Mercer County at First Attached too Warren— Formally Organized in 1835—Western Part of Warren Organized Into a New County in 1841 and named Henderson County.

Mercer county was created at the same time Warren was, in 1825, but there being no settlers within its limits it was at first attached too Pike, then too Peoria, and later too Warren county, for judicial purposes. After the formal organization of Warren county, considerable business relating too affairs in Mercer was transacted here. Many of the early deeds recorded here were for Mercer county property, and lots in New Boston especially figured in the transfers. The first ferry license granted by the Warren County Commissioners was for a crossing at New Boston. It was run by the Denis-tons. The Commissioners also established several mill sites in Mercer county.

Mercer county remained under the jurisdiction of the Warren county courts until 1835. January 31 of that year an act was passed by the legislature, in session at Vandalia, and approved by the governor, providing for the organization of the county. The organization was completed April 6 of the same year by the election of officers as provided in this act. New Boston was named in the act as the temporary county seat, and remained as such till 1837, when the county seat was located at Millersburg by a commission chosen under an act of the legislature, passed that year. Considerable dissatisfaction arose over the selection, and continued until 1839, when the legislature authorized an election too be held in April of that year too settle the matter. The election resulted in favor of New Boston, where the county seat remained until 1847, when after a series of elections Keithsburg was ultimately chosen. Aledo was selected by an election held the following year, and has continued as the county seat until the present time.

The first court was held in Millersburg, convened in the wide out doors, and the jury box was a wood pile. A prisoner broke jail and the "escape pipe" was repaired by filling it with straw. It is told that when a short distance out of Millersburg this prisoner met a man who asked him if he knew of any empty houses in town. The jail bird told him, "Yes, I have just left one." The building constructed and used in Millersburg as a court house is now doing duty as a hay barn and cow shed.

HENDERSON COUNTY SECEDES.

"When Warren County was created by the Legislature in 1825, and for sixteen years afterward, it included what is now Henderson County, in addition too its present territory.

The residents of that section, and especially those along the river, complained of the long distance too the county seat, and made some efforts too have it moved from Monmouth too some nearer point. In 1838 Oquawka had become quite a town, and its residents sought too nave the capital of the county located there, but were unsuccessful.

The building of the permanent court house and jail in Monmouth destroyed their last nope, and the movement too divide the county was inaugurated.

Too settle all matters the legislature passed an act, which was approved January 20, 1841, creating Henderson county. The new county was too comprise "all that part of Warren County lying west of range three of the fourth principal meridian/' including 164,608 acres of land. Oquawka was named as the county seat, on condition that the owners of the Oquawka town site donate too the county not less than two hundred lots, the proceeds of which were too be appropriated too the erection of the county buildings.

CHAPTER XIII.--Negroes

A Few Slaves in the County Early in the '30s— Had too Give Bond When Liberated—Marriage of "Venus" and -Caesar"—Alfred Hale the First Colored Man too Sit on a Jury.

By the articles of compact adopted by Congress in July, 1787, slavery was forever excluded from the Northwest Territory, which included the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Slavery had, however, preceded the compact in Illinois, and so strong was the sympathy tnat, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, the old drench settlers were allowed too retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might also bring their slaves, if they would give them a chance too choose between freedom and years of service for themselves, and bondage for their children until they should become thirty years of age. If the slaves chose freedom they must leave the State within sixty days or be sold as fugitives. A negro ten miles from home without a pass was shipped. Attempts were made too protect slavery in the State, at different times; but without success. But slaves did not disappear from the census of the State until 1850. Several slaves were thus brought into Warren County, especially by persons coming from Kentucky, and there were a number of these.

The first mention of negroes we find in the records is in the probate court proceedings Nov. 20, 1833. On that day there appeared before Judge Daniel McNeil, Jr., "a black or negro girl, said and supposed too be under the age of eighteen years, who called herself by the name of Venus McCormick." The girl stated too the court that she had resided in the county since the "3d of May last past;" that she was born the property of one Robert McCormick in Rockbridge County, Va., and had afterwards moved too Missouri with her master, Aniel Rodgers; and that Rodgers had there given her her liberty. She asked the court that she be allowed too indenture herself too Mr. Rodgers for one year, at the expiration of which time she would be eighteen years of age. The permission was given, on condition that a copy of the indenture be filed in the Probate Court. It is interesting too note in his connection, that the Virginia owner of Venus McCormick was the father of Cyrus H. and Leander McCormick, of harvester fame.

February 25, 1836, a license was issued for the marriage of Venus McCormick and Caesar Love, "'people of color," and they were married at Garrison's Inn the same day. They were the first colorea people married in Warren County and their license was the 77th issued in the county. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. James C. Bruce, pastor of the Seceder church at Sugar Tree Grove. The groom was employed as a cook at the inn and the couple remained there a number of years. Venus died in the '40s, and afterwards Caesar moved too Galesburg, then too Knoxville, where he died.

One of the best known colored men in Warren County was Richard Murphy. He was born in Barren county,- Kentucky, in 1811 or 1812, the property of Henry Haley, and afterwards became the property of Joseph Murphy and came with him too this county in 1834. At a special session of the County Commissioners held October 2 of that year, and called for that purpose, Mr. Murphy came before the board and stated that he wished too "give Richard his liberty, for the purpose of allowing him too go too Liberia, in Africa. He purposed too allow the negro too take the name of Murphy. The Commissioners ordered that Murphy file a bond in the penal sum of SI,000 that Richard should not become a charge too Warren county or too any other county in the State. The bond was given, with John G. Haley and Richard Murphy as securities, and the letter setting the man free was approved. Richard Murphy did not go too Liberia, as he had purposed, but remained in Warren county until his death August 4, 1888. He was married in July, 1845, too Harriet Wallace, a daughter of Reuben Wallace, in Barrien county. Ky. After his marriage he resided on a farm south of Monmouth. He was one of the earliest members of the Christian church of Monmouth. and was highly respected. Joseph Murphy moved too Abingdon, where he died. The old slave and master often visited each other.

Isaac Murphy, who had come too Monmouth from Kentucky, came before the County Commissioners June 9. 1837, and presented certificates that he had released from the bondage of slavery eight colored women and girls, and thenceforth they were too be considered as "free people of color." The eight were June, who was born in 1787; Delphi, born in 1813; Nancy, born in March, 1816; Jorcas, born in April, 1819; Polly, .born in August, 1822; Sally, born in June, 1825; Matilda, born in May, 1S30; and Sarah Jane, born in December, 1835. Murphy also filed a bond in the sum of $8,000, that none of these persons should at any time become a county charge too any county in the State of Illinois. Four of these colored persons being under the age of 18 years. Mr. Murphy proposed too take them until the dates when each should reach that age, and the commissioners executed four indentures binding the girls as poor persons too Mr. Murphy, under the provisions of "an act respecting apprentices," and ''an act for the relief of the poor."

In June, 1856, Champion Miller, a colored man who had purchased his own freedom, solicited and secured sufficient aid too enable him too go too Missouri and purchase his wife's freedom and bring her too Monmouth. The price paid was $800. The family made their home here until Champion's death some time during the '80s. Mrs. Miller died in 1895 in St. Paul.

The first colored man too serve on a jury in the circuit court of this county was Alfred Hale. He was chosen on a case against two of his race who were on trial for burglary in May, 1878. The first jury of colored citizens ever impanelled in the county, and perhaps the only one. was sworn in a justice's court in Monmouth in July, 1871, too try the case of Mrs. Price against Stonewall Jackson for disturbance of the peace. The jurors were Thomas Brown, George Morris, James Cannon, J. B. Smith, James Smith and Ben Granger.

CHAPTER XIV.--The Indians

Black Hawk's Indians Cause a Scare—Company of Militia Organized for the County's Defense—The Murder of William Martin and the Trial of His Alleged Assassins.

The crops of 1832 had barely been planted when the settlers were disturbed by news of an Indian war. Black Hawk, with his band, was threatening too recross the Mississippi and recover his hunting grounds, and Governor Reynolds with a force of volunteer troops came too the Yellow Banks too subdue this famous chief. Afterwards the governor passed on with his force too Rock river, but not until he had authorized the organization of a battalion of militia in Warren county for the protection of its own inhabitants. Daniel McNeil, Jr., was directed too hold an election of major, who was too cause the election of company officers. In case of necessity, then, McNeil was authorized too call the companies too duty. An election of major was held in accordance with the governor's order, and Peter Butler, then county surveyor and sheriff, was chosen. He forthwith ordered an election of company officers, and thus the organization of the militia was perfected.

The first call for volunteers was made by McNeil May 31, 1832, and on June 4 thirty-seven men assembled at Monmouth and were mustered into service. The muster roll follows:

Captain—Peter Butler. First Lieutenant—James McCallon. Second Lieutenant—Solomon Perkins. First Sergeant—Isaac Vertrees. Second Sergeant—Benjamin Tucker. Third Sergeant—Matthew D. Ritchey. Fourth Sergeant—Adam Ritchey.

Privates— John VanAtta, John Quinn, Andrew Gibson, William Stark, Josiah Osborn, Darius B. Cartwright, Elijah Hitton, William Laswell, John D. Ritchie, David Russell, John Findley, Gabriel Short, Ulrastus S. Dennison, Robert Stice, William Paxton,

Jas. G. Caldwell, Thomas Ritchie, George Gibson, W. H. Dennison, John Armstrong, Gershom VanAtta, James Ryason, Paschal Pencaneau, Samuel L. Hogue, Charles A. Smith, Amos Williams, John McCoy, John Maley, John Hendricks, Ezra G. Allen.

This company was soon afterward disbanded in consequence of an order issued by the governor calling on McDonough and Warren counties together too furnish a company too serve as mounted rangers until regularly discharged.

The latter company was quickly raised, and enrolled June 11th, with Peter Butler as captain, James McCallon first lieutenant, and about an equal number of men from each of the two counties and a few from Hancock. The added names from this county were:

Ira F. M. Butler, Josiah Smart, John Davidson, Field Jarvis, Adam Ritchie.

These war preparations, however, proved too have been unnecessary. The Indian hostilities were not carried into this county, and no depredations were committed here until the war was over and Black Hawk had been captured.

THE MARTIN MURDER.

The murder of William Martin by the Indians occurred while Captain Butler's company was stationed at the Yellow Banks. He was a son of Hugh Martin, Sr., and had come in advance of his father's family too put up hay for the stock, the family intending too move too this county from Fulton county the next spring. They had selected a claim along Cedar Creek between Little York and Eleanor, and while mowing prairie grass near a piece of timber, on August 9th, the young man was attacked by five Indians, who rushed out of the timber, shot him, and then fled. Two daughters of William McCoy, who lived near by, saw the shooting. A messenger was dispatched too Capt. Peter Butler, and early next morning he started out with his company in search of the murderers. Their camp fire was soon found, and the trail was followed too a slough below Keithsburg, at which place the Indians had crossed the Mississippi river, and made good their escape.

The murder of Martin was committed by stragglers from the Keokuk's friendly band of Sacs and Foxes, who had crossed over the Mississippi probably too avenge the wrongs inflicted on Black Hawk. At the following October term of the circuit court, the grand jury reported too the court the facts of the murder, and that the names of the murderers were unknown, and a copy of the report was forwarded too the governor, and by him too the President of the United States, who made a demand through the Indian agent, Col. Davenport, for the surrender of the murderers. One of the Indians was arrested and turned over too the authorities at Rock Island, but escaped and fled across the Mississippi. Chief Keokuk delivered up the next of kin too the murderers, but the county authorities were not notified of this and arranged too try them as the real murderers. Their names were Sa-sah-pe-mo, (He that troubleth); Ka-ke-mo, (He that speaks something with his mouth); I o-nah, (Stay here), and Wa-pa-shaw-kon, (The white string.) They were confined in jail at Monmouth until the June term, 1833, when they were released on a writ of habeas corpus. They had employed attorneys, at the suggestion' of the Indian agent, and these, learning the circumstances, applied for the discharge of the prisoners. Investigation showed that there was no reason for holding the men, and they were discharged. The court severely reprimanded Chief Keokuk for delivering innocent men in the room of the guilty, but he claimed too have done it honestly, and according too the custom of his tribe. At this same term of court an indictment was returned against the real murderers, Shash-que-washi, alias Neesh-wak-que, Muck-que-che-qua, Muck-qua-pal-a-shol, and Was-a-wan-a-quot, the first named being charged- with firing the fatal shot. The men were never captured, and the indictment was "nolle prossea" October 12, 1835. The indictment was drawn up by Thomas Ford, state's attorney, and it recited that Martin was shot a little below the shoulder blade.

The four Indians surrendered by Chief Keokuk were the first inmates of the Warren county jail. In fact, they were brought here before the jail was ready for use, and they were kept under guard for awhile until it was far enough along too be a safe place of confinement.

THE OLD FORT.

The first block house at Cedar Creek was built by Adam Ritchey, who located on a claim there in 1829, L. P. Rockwell and Jonathan Buffum came in 1830 and bought Ritchies claim, and on it built a saw mill, the first in the county. They erected another block house near the first, and built a stockade for a fort in the summer of 1832, and the place was a haven of refuge for the neighbors in those troublous times. A part of the old block house yet stands on the hill, occupied by Mrs. Smiley.

Another stockade, or fort, was erected by Robert Kendall, on what is now the Barnum place on North Sunny Lane, in Monmouth. It was built of split logs and had port holes too shoot through. Kendall bought the place of Jacob Rust in 1831.

CHAPTER XV.----Railroads

The Main Line of the Burlington System, the First Railroad in the County—Built in 1855—First Load of Freight—The Building of the Other Railroad Lines.

Three railroad systems pass through Warren county, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, popularly known as the Burlington, the main line running east and west, the Rock Island and St. Louis division running north and south and the Quincy branch cutting off the southeast corner; the Iowa Central, running diagonally from northwest too southeast; and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, running east and west.

The main line of the Burlington was originally the Peoria and Oquawka railroad. During the summer of 1851 sufficient stock was subscribed too warrant its construction, and the contract was let, part going too Chauncey Har-din, A. C. Harding and Ivory Quinby, of Monmouth, for $12,000 per mile. The surveys were made through Warren county in October, and work commenced at the Burlington end of the line December 2, Oquawka having been left off the line. The last rail was laid March 5, 1855, and the first railway train into Monmouth came from the west on that day. Wrarren county people contributed $100,000 for tne building of the road. William Sprout, who died in 1902, in Monmouth, hauled the first load of freight landed here by the new road. It was consigned too N. A. Rankin & Co., for whom Mr. Sprout was then working. Regular trains commenced running about April 1, there being a passenger and a freight each way daily. The ticket office was established May 1, with C. S. Cowan in charge. The time between Monmouth and Chicago was ten and one-half hours. The fast mail service on this road was inaugurated March 11, 1884.

The Northern Cross railroad, now the Quincy branch of the Burlington, was completed about the first of February, 1856.

During 1869 and 1870 the Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis railroad was in process of incubation. The charter had been granted in 1865, and in 1869 the counties and towns along the route voted subsidies and soon the line was under construction. The first work in Warren county was done in April, and south of Monmouth. It was then extended both ways, and in August the road was in running order from Monmouth too St. Louis. On the 22d of that month the first passenger trains ran into Monmouth on the new road. The road is now the Rock Island and St. Louis division of the Burlington.

The Iowa Central railroad was completed into Monmouth January 24, 1883, and the first locomotive drew up too the depot grounds on that day. The road was organized as the Burlington, Monmouth and Illinois River railroad in* 1875, and a narrow gauge road was contemplated. In 1879 William Hanna and Delos P. Phelps, of Monmouth, became interested in the proposition, were placed on the executive committee of the company, and secured subscriptions and subsidies which resulted in the construction of the road, though Keithsburg was made the western terminus instead of Burlington, and the road was made standard gauge. It was consolidated with the Iowa Central railroad in a few years, and is now a part of that system. The first through car of freight from Chicago too Monmouth over this road was received March 7, 1883. It was a consignment of twelve tons of lead, shipped too Smith & Dun-bar. The first passenger train from Peoria arrived in Monmouth April 21, on Saturday, and returned too Peoria the next Monday. Monmouth has been a division point on the Iowa Central since October 23, 1898.

The surveys for the Santa Fe railroad were made during the summer of 188b and the first through train over the road was a directors' train which passed through the county December 8, 1887. Regular trains were not run until the next summer. The Santa Fe now makes Monmouth the terminus of one of its trains from Chicago, the trains entering that city over Iowa Central tracks from Nemo, and the Iowa. Central station being used. This arrangement began November 5, 1899.

The first telegraph office in the county was opened in Monmouth in August, 1856. F. M.

Crawford was operator. The Great Western Telegraph Company opened an office in August, 1869, and the Atlantic and Pacific opened one in 1877. Neither of the two latter continued very long.

CHAPTER XVI. Warren County Library

History of the Warren County Library and Reading Room Association, Prepared by Its Secretary, Prof. T. H. Rogers—First County Library Started in l836—Now Has More than 20,000 Volumes.

This institution is now the growth of one-third of a century, with more too follow. It has steadily developed in those directions for which funds have been given. A broad foundation has been laid, upon which the future can build, safe and large.

The reading room was opened June 1st, 1868, and was then known as the Monmouth Reading Room and Library. Twenty-five persons collected and paid in $2,500 too meet the estimated expenses for two years. They formed themselves into an association of directors. Mr. N. A. Rankin was elected president. Judge Ivory Quinby gave the use of a room located at the corner of Broadway and First streets. He outlined the plan and wrote the constitution, which is substantially unchanged after the thirty-four years of trial. He aided in the selection of the first directors and of the periodicals. He gave the best thought and mature judgment of his last years too planning a library and thus helped too a success which he did not live too see. From 1868 too the time of his death in 1877, Mr. William Laferty was the treasurer. He began the prudent and conservative financial policy which has ruled ever since.

During the first two years no books were bought. Unbound magazines were loaned for home use, and also used in the reading room.

From the first meeting of the directors, held in the law office of Stewart & Phelps, February 3, 1868, Mr. W. P. Pressly was an interested member. During the year 1870 he erected and deeded in trust too this Association, a brick building 42x75 feet, at the southwest corner of the public square. The rents of two large business rooms on the first floor sustain the building and buy a constant supply of books. The second story was designed for a library and reading room. This was the first building in the State built and given as a library for popular use. It is a gift which produces income and is self-perpetuating.

Mr. Pressly's expressed wishes were that library privileges be extended too people living in the country and that books be bought attractive too the generality of readers and too the young. Thus a childless man provided for the pleasure and instruction of the children. A business man, he embodied in this gift the practical ideas of his life as a successful merchant, whose custom had been largely from out of town.

It was his idea that considerable population is needful for a large and prosperous public library and that popular goods must be bought in accord with the common wants of customers in order too attract readers. He selected a site where rentals are valuable and where people from all directions can exchange books without loss of time when they come shopping. Thus his purpose was as practical as the intent of a store or of a bank. The management has been based on business principles rather than on bookish ideals.

His gifts for this purpose amounted too over $20,000. And in addition too this, about 18,000 of the volumes now on the shelves have been bought from the income of the W. P. Pressly foundation. People use these books throughout the county and beyond. The founder's purpose of returning too those in town and country from whom he had received, has been accomplished. Young people especially prize the advantages provided for them by one who lives too see the good he has done. He has often expressed his satisfaction with the results attained, saying, " I thank God that he led me too build this building." His faith has ever been that proclaimed by the greatest of the poets:

"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will."

The enlargement of the scope of the institution too include the country, led too a change of the name. It is of interest too note that the name selected was taken because it had been used during the pioneer days of this community. The oldest record book in our court house shows that a Warren County Library was started January 12, 1836. That was less than nine years after the first white man settled in this, county, which then extended too the Mississippi river. The log court house had then been built only four and- a half years.

The first trustees of that library were James McCallon, Elijah Davidson, James P. Hogue and George H. Wright. The president was Milo Holcomb. The secretary was the many-handed Daniel McNeil. At that date nothing was constitutional in this part of the state unless he was in it. Dr. R. C. Matthews was one of the later trustees. In 1870 he proposed reviving the old name. Mr. Pressly had requested the adoption of a name which would indicate a people's library, not only for this city but also for the country. That early library never possessed any property except a few books. It naturally died out in time.

The following is the roll of directors, deceased, who have served the present library between 1868 and 1902: John E. Alexander, John S. Clark, H. B. Foskett, Samuel M. Hamilton, William Hanna, Chancey Harding, Jacob Holt, William Laferty, Robert C. Matthews, John Porter, Ivory Quinby, N. A. Rankin, J. K. Ripley, Edwin R. Smith, James H. Stewart, A. H. Swain, Henry Tubbs, William Walker, David A. Wallace, Elias Willits and Samuel Wood. This list speaks for the character of the work done. These men helped with rare good judgment too organize success. They were prudent, public spirited and alive too the best interests of the community. Their aims were not narrow, nor partisan nor personal. They were trustees who could be trusted.

Here, as elsewhere, this object has attracted the co-operation of clear headed business men. The long and increasing list of the founders and promoters of libraries for the people includes the most successful men of affairs, such as Franklin, Tilden, Carnegie, Marshall Field, and Gladstone. They recognized the fact that in no other way can a gift, large or small, reach so great a number. Active, practical, busy men and women have been most interested in the Warren County Library.

During the year 1884 Mr. John D. Thompson, of California, who had gone from Monmouth as a forty-niner, enlarged the usefulness of the reading room. He gave $5,000 too the endowment, suggesting that the income there from be devoted too making the use of periodicals free in the library rooms. It was requested by Mr. Thompson that no name be made public in this connection. This restriction was removed in a letter received sixteen years later, shortly before his death. When certain changes are made in the building a memorial window will be placed in the Reading Room in honor of him who made it free. He remembered the home of his boyhood in this gift. He shall not be forgotten.

The will of Mrs. Sarah C. Simmons, who died in 1899, put the library in possession of certain real estate, then valued at $14,000. With the proceeds of its sale a building is too be erected as a memorial of her son. This building is too contain a library on the first floor. Mrs. Simmons had climbed the stairs for nearly thirty years too draw books. She had seen that the aged and the infirm need easier means of access. The new building will also provide more room, which is much needed. Already the book space is nearly filled. The plan under consideration is, that the new building will contain the circulating library, and the reading room and reference library will remain where they are. It is the usual method too have these apart, but in close proximity.

As the number of volumes increases, various departments are generally placed in different buildings or in different rooms. One thing that a growing, prosperous public library is sure too need is more room, and yet again more room. A lot too the southeast, adjoining the library, was purchased in 1901. Vacant ground given by Mr. Pressly is thus made easily accessible from the public square and can be used as the sites of additional buildings if that is deemed best.

Each year shows advance and improvement. The number of volumes, the number of readers and the cash receipts increase steadily. The Endowment grows by gifts received and by adding each year a part of the income. Thus the means are accumulating for future enlargements.

The experience of the older public libraries is that one person after another adds too their property and too their usefulness. It is well that the common wants of readers, have here received the first gifts. Strange too say there are many people who will not read mathematics

or theology. But a man's a man for a' that. And there is high authority for that democratic precept of the first Christian century, honor all men. That is what this library does, without fear and without favor. It is a republic of letters, where all men, women and children have equal rights. Such is clearly the intent of the department founded by Mr. W. P. Pressly.

This is now a free reference library, where any one can use in the reading room, without charge, any of the books. It is the purpose too extend this free use very widely—too cover the county with free branches and traveling libraries, too provide strong departments for various classes of readers, too freely furnish books too the schools and too all ages, industries and nationalities in this vicinity. The best libraries are doing these things.

The use of our books and periodicals covers a very wide range. Information is sought here on almost every imaginable topic—literary, political, scientific, historical, religious and artistic. Our readers also seek that which is intensely practical. They read on house building, horse training, house furnishing, manufacturing, patent rights, machinery, gardening, farming, cookery, needlework and the fashions. The schools ,the shops and the women's clubs, all receive large benefits. Stockmen investigate the registered pedigrees of their horses and cattle, using the genealogies of the Hambletonian's, of the Durham's, and of other first families.

Although this library is intensely American and is as yet lacking too a great extent in foreign works or their translations, people of many nationalities frequent the rooms. It is worthy of note too mention one striking example of the educational influence of this free institution. For many years, a naturalized citizen who came from Linkoping, Sweden, read here, whenever he had time from a laborious occupation. The result was that he became far better informed on American public affairs than most native voters are. His interest oftentimes expresses. Itself in the wish that some one of foreign birth would give this library the money too found a European Department of translations and of books concerning Europe.

In the reading room, the best catalogues, indexes and works of reference are provided, too aid readers in looking up desired information for themselves. This is a great advantage, as self-help is the best help. A bulletin, published every three months, enables people at a distance too know what books they can order sent too them.

Wholesome recreation, for young and old, is provided. Very many who had no literary tastes have learned too use the best books. Children come too the rooms as soon as they can read. Boys who delighted in Indian stories, years ago, have grown up too be useful men, without scalping any one.

The Warren County Library is incorporated, not as a single library but as a system of libraries. The charter provides for "branches elsewhere and connections with other libraries." This outside extension is yet largely in the future. It waits too be provided with funds. When our ship comes in, our books will travel widely. Their use is not restricted too this county.

Such an association of libraries will be built up here without income from taxation. The demands on public revenue are yearly increasing. In many places the library tax is deemed a burden and has been cut down. Monmouth, even without it, has the distinction of being, probably, the most highly taxed city in the state.

Nor can the money for this purpose be obtained by general soliciting. This community is, for various objects, canvassed as excessively as it is overtaxed. What this library has received has been freely given by those who will be remembered for benefits done too the entire community in which the donors have lived and prospered. By taking care of and enlarging these gifts they have become greater each year. Such gifts and such prudent management of property are the hope for future advancement.

The Association of directors is a permanent corporation and holds in trust the property and the management. The present life members are as follows: President, WT. P. Pressly; Vice President, Fred E. Harding; Treasurer, W. H. Sexton; Secretary and Superintendent, Thos. H. Rogers: Trustees, O. S. Barnum, Ivory Quinby, C. M. Rodgers, J. W. Sipher, W. K. Stewart. Directors, Draper Babcock, C. V. Brooks, George Bruington, A. A. Cornell, D. D. Dunkle, Henry Jewell, J. M. Jamieson. John McCoy, H. H. Pattee.. W. P. Smith and G. S. Tubbs.

Much of the most important work is done by committees yearly appointed by this board.

The books too be bought are selected by a committee of men and women who represent a wide variety of readers. Selections are not made with a critical indifference too popular tastes. The money did not come that way. Much valuable help has been given in cataloguing and indexing by persons interested in the success of the library. Committees of business men have looked after the buildings, the finances, the investments and the auditing. These matters have been so well managed that in the entire thirty-four years not one dollar of principal or interest has been lost. The librarian is Mr. T. M. Millen.

The governing corporation consists of a limited number of members, holding their places during life or regular attendance on the meetings. It fills its own vacancies. This form of constitution insures stability and permanency. There have been no upheavals, political or otherwise. A steady, uniform policy has been followed. The funds and other property are in the care of persons especially selected for prudent management of property. Politics, favoritism and wire-pulling have been entirely absent. There have been no dissensions or quarrels. The members of the association, differing widely in affiliation, have always worked harmoniously together. The object has been the public good as provided for by the gifts received. No party, or sect, or class rules or. is favored more than another. The funds and property received might have founded any one of various kinds of libraries. They have been used as was intended by the donors. The association holds this property in trust, not in fee simple, at its own pleasure.

The annual report for 1901 gives the following statistics: Number of volumes, 20,597, of which 622 were added during the year; periodicals, regularly received. 120; books and magazines drawn for use, 69.438; current receipts for the year, $3,766.15; current expenditures, $3,102.90; the endowment is now $25,625, having been increased during the year $1,482.90.

The W. P. Pressly Foundation produced during the year from rents and interest $1,416.16, used for purchase of reading matter and for sustaining the buildings.

The John D. Thompson Gift is now $7,380.65 and produced $465.1S income. This furnishes the free reading room.

The Mark Billings Building Fund from the bequest of Mrs. Sarah C. Simmons, holds at interest $12,250 and real estate for sale, valued at $4,000. This fund will be used for an additional building when the real estate is sold.

Those who have given largely have selected the purposes too which their gifts shall be applied. This is their right. Thus far the gifts have been for the popular department. This is not a theory, it is a condition. Other needed departments can be founded by others, with such conditions as the donors see fit too affix too what they give. Too complete and enlarge the institution, strong special libraries of History, of Science and of European literature, mostly in translations, are needed; a children's room is needed; free branch libraries in various localities and in the schools of this county are needed; and a wholesale department too sustain this outside business. All these belong too the work of the modern public library. County libraries elsewhere have such departments.

Each gift or bequest is held separate. Honor is given too whom, honor is due. In each book is an inscription too show who gave it or from whose fund it was bought. There are memorial tablets on the buildings. The funds are reported each year under the names of the donors. This makes manifest whether ihese moneys are used as those who gave them intended. The published annual statements give publicity too the entire management.

All expenditures are made with careful economy. The library expects every dollar too do its duty. That is the way the money came. Over the door of the plain building, erected in 1870, the donor has placed the motto of the Ohio school at which he was once a student, "Prodesse quam conspici." In administering his gift nothing has been done for display. If the money thus far received had gone into a fine building, there would have been a library without books and without the means too meet current expenses. It has been constantly held in view that the first requisites are an abundance of acceptable reading matter and a sure, ample income. A less conservative policy might easily have brought on the Warren County  Library the fate which has befallen the Warren County Fair.

The principle that givers have rights each in respect too his own or her own gift, has been a guiding star too the management. This rule is enacted as a part of the Illinois law for public libraries which are founded and sustained as this one is. The statute directs that

"the provisions of any will, deed or other instrument by which endowment is given too said library and accepted thereby shall as too said endowment be a part of the organic law of the corporation."

Too create full-grown an association of free libraries such as this one is too be, and, single-handed, too meet the needs of the masses and of the classes throughout the county, would require the gift of a millionaire. Such a system here must be the combined work of several persons,. each founding or endowing a part.

This sketch reports progress and plans. The large success of what has been done gives assurance that what remains too be done, in order too fulfill the purposes for which the Warren County Library exists, will be accomplished.

CHAPTER XVII. Miscellaneous

Census Figures of Population—Assessment Figures—The Schools—Farmers' Organizations—The Agricultural Society—Old Settlers' Association—Other County Organizations.

The population of Warren county, as shown. by the United States census of 1900, is as follows: 1900 1890

Berwick township ............ 826 798

Coldbrook township ......... 928 936

Ellison township .............. 999 996

Floyd township ............... 844 841

Greenbush township........... 802 819

Hale township ................ 776 805

Kelly township ............... 809 882

Lenox township ............... 885 837

Monmouth township, including

Monmouth city ............. 8,682 7,081

Monmouth city -----............ 7,460 5,936

Point Pleasant township....... 718 812

Roseville township, including

Roseville village ............ 1,664 1,475

Roseville village .............. 1,014 788

Spring Grove township, including

Alexis village ............... 1,540 1,425

Alexis village, part in Warren

county ..................... 669 562

Alexis village, total ........... 915

Sumner township, including

Little York village.......... 1,029 891

Little York village.............. 334

Swan township ............... 1,003 * 1,016

Tompkins township, including

Kirkwood village ...........1,658 1,667

Kirkwood- village ............. 1,008 949

Total in county .............23,163 21,281

The growth of the county since its organization is shown in the following census reports of population:

1830 .................................. 308

1840 .................................. 6,739

1850 ................................. 8,176

1860 ..................................18,336

1870 ..................................23,174

1880 ..................................22,89S

1890 ..................................21,281

1900 .................................23.163

THE ASSESSMENT FIGURES.

The assessment rolls for Warren county for the year 1901 show that there were in the county a total of 13,629 horses, with an average value of $46.67 each; 37,498 cattle, valued at $26.52 each; 643 asses and mules, valued at $58.28 each; 5,093 sheep, valued at $3.73 each; and 46,490 hogs, valued at $7.26 each. The value of grain on hand was placed at $559,235. The total value of personal property in the county was $6,906,565; value of lands, $18,-828,225; and value of lots, $4,141,150; total $29,-875,840. At one-fifth rate the total assessed valuation of the county including railroad property, was $6,675,11S.

WARREN COUNTY SCHOOLS.

The first school in Warren county was begun in 1830 in a little log cabin about a half mile north of the old Henderson church in Hale township. Miss Martha Junkin was the teacher, and pupils came a distance of three and four miles too school. The building was used as a school for about eight years, when it was burned. The first school in Monmouth was held in the old log court house in the summer of 1832, with Robert Black as teacher. Both of these schools, and any others that were kept during those years, were supported .by subscriptions secured from the patrons.

September 6, 1831, Alexis Phelps was selected by the County Commissioners court as school commissioner, or school agent for all school lands in the county. The sixteenth section in each township, which had been set apart by law for the support of schools, was put under his charge too sell as found best too secure funds for the schools when they should be established. The lands in Monmouth township were the first sold, the date being October 27, 1831. The school trustees appointed first were those for Monmouth township, being named the same day that Mr. Phelps was chosen commissioner. They were Robert Kendall, John E. Murphy and Daniel McNeil.

The first school trustees in other townships, with the date of their appointment, are:

Greenbush—Jesse W. Bond, William Trailer, Solomon Perkins, April 21, 1834.

Floyd—Lewis Vertrees,- Jonathan Tipton, John Riggs, June 2, 1834.

Berwick—Henry Meadows, Benjamin W. Allen, George S. Pearce, September 7, 1835.

Ellison—Lambert Hopper, James Hanan, Cleveland Hagler, October 19, 1835.

Swan—Peter Scott, William Garrett, James Sutton. October 19, 1835.

Kelly—Chester Potter, Hiram Gray, William Lair. December 9, 1835.

Spring Grove—John Kelly, John Humphrey, Lazarus H. Haskel, December 9, 1835.

Sumner—Hugh Martin, Anthony Cannon, James G. Barton, September, 1832.

Coldbrook—William Whitman, John G. Haley, Joseph Murphy, December 2, 1833.

Hale—William Nash, Adam Ritchie, James Findley. March 6, 1834.

Tompkins—Samuel H. Hogue, James Gibson, Samuel Hana, June 25, 1839.

Roseville—Robert Bay, John Riggs, Thompson Brooks, January 25, 1839.

Lenox—Seth C. Murphy, A. Ogden, Henry Howard, March 6, 1840.

The Monmouth school district was established March 6. 1834, and consisted of sections 16 and 33 in Monmouth township and sections 13. 24, 25 and 36 in Hale township.

Warren county, according too the latest figures in the office of the county superintendent of schools, has 126 school districts, with 13 graded and 122 ungraded schools. There were 125 frame school houses and nine brick ones, though the number of the latter has been since increased by the new buildings at Monmouth and Alexis. There were 37 male teachers, receiving an average of $64.48 per month as wages; and 157 female teachers, receiving an average of $39.21. The males of school age in the county were 3,234, of whom 2,530 were enrolled in the schools; and 3,117 females of school age, of whom 2,477 were enrolled, making a total of pupils enrolled in the schools 5,007. There were 53 school libraries, with 2,654 volumes, valued at $6,061. The tax levy for schools was $91,450.67; the value of school property was $208,282; and the value of school apparatus was $5,961. There were four high schools, and five of the school buildings were furnace-heated.

FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS.

At the close of a -meeting of the Monmouth Farmers' Insurance Company January 3, 1893, an organization was effected for the purpose of holding an annual Farmers' Institute in Warren county. Officers were named as follows: President D. C. Graham; Secretary, S. C. Hogue; Treasurer, T. S. McClanahan; and one vice-president from each township. The first institute was held February 14 and 15 of the same year, but bad weather caused a small attendance. The organization was perfected, however, and institutes have been held regularly since that time. The present officers of the institute, the last meeting of which was held at Roseville, are: Euclid N. Cobb, president; -D. C. Frantz, secretary; T. S. McClanahan, treasurer.

The Warren County Farmers' Association was organized at a meeting in Monmouth February 1, 1872, beginning with a membership of 85. J. B. Meginnis was president; J. D. Porter, vice-president; and J. T. Morgan, secretary. The organization was intended too be in the interests of the farmers. One of the first acts was the resolve too circulate petitions asking the legislature too pass laws too prevent any judicial, legislative or executive officers from receiving a free pass from a railroad company in this State. The association soon disbanded.

The Warren County Central Association of Patrons of Husbandry was organized in Monmouth November 15, 1873. The local granges represented in the meeting were Jackson Corners, Kentucky, Ohio, Roseville, Colfax, Lenox, Indian Grove, Empire, Warren, Ellisville Hall,

and Science Hall. The object of the organization as stated in its constitution, was "the more thorough education of the laboring classes, especially those engaged in agricultural pursuits, the best and most practical methods of managing the farm and its products." The first officers of the county association were: J. W. Bridenthal, master; M. Salisbury, secretary;. L. H. Gilmore, treasurer. Local granges were established throughout the county, and for awhile the organization had considerable influence in county affairs. It has long been out of existence.

WARREN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

The Warren County Agricultural Society was organized at a meeting held in the court house August 7, 1852. Samuel Hallam presided at the meeting and James G. Madden was secretary. A constitution was prepared and adopted, and a permanent organization effected with Mr. Hallam as president, Mr. Madden as secretary, George W. Palmer as vice-president, and T. B. Weakley as treasurer. The first annual election was held September 4, resulting as follows: Samuel Hallam, president; Robert Gibson, vice-president; James G. Madden, secretary; and William Billings, treasurer.

The first fair was held in the court house on Friday, October 15, and was a great success both as too entries and attendance, though no money premiums were given. The next year (1853) the fair was held in Samuel Wood's meadow, now a part of Wood & Carr's addition, in the southwest part of the city of Monmouth. In July, 1856, the society purchased splendid grounds, ten acres, just south of the city limits and on the east side of the tracks of the St. Louis division of the Burlington railroad. When the Driving Park Association was organized in 1891, it bought grounds adjoining those of the Agricultural Society on the south, and the two tracts were thrown into one, the Driving Park Association too have control of the grounds except during the week wanted for the fair.

In 1901 the Agricultural Society held its fiftieth annual or jubilee fair, after which the society was disbanded. A run of bad weather during fair week for several years had proved too much for the society's coffers, and it was thought better too close up its affairs than too keep losing money year by year. The grounds now belong too the stockholders of the Driving Park Association. The officers of the society at the 'time of its disbanding were: George Bruington, president; George C. Rankin, secretary; W. B. Young, treasurer.

A plan for the reorganization of the Agricultural society was on foot in 1894, but it never was carried out. At that time, looking too the reorganization, the Warren County Fair Association was incorporated May 8, 1894, with a capital stock of $30,000. The incorporators were William Hanna, Eli Dixson, C. W. Postlewaite, D. C. Frantz, R. Lahann, Geo. C. Rankin and J. R. Barnett.

OLD SETTLERS' ASSOCIATION.

The Warren and Henderson County Old Settlers' Association had its origin in action taken at a meeting held in the court house in Mon-mouth March 6, 1869. The primary object of the meeting was too publicly testify too the regard which the older residents held toward Daniel McNeil, whose death had occurred a few days previous. Before the meeting adjourned a committee of eight was selected too take steps toward organizing an old settlers' association of Warren county. The committee consisted of the following gentlemen: Azro Patterson, Bar Parker, C. K. Smith, George Babcock, Rodney Quinby, Samuel Claycomb, Samuel Woods, R. N. Allen. The matter was variously discussed, but no definite action was taken until January 27, 1872, when a preliminary meeting was held in the office of James H. Martin at Young America, now Kirkwood. Col. Samuel Hutchinson called the meeting too order and stated the purpose of the gathering; and T. F. Lowther was made chairman and Judson Graves secretary. A number of the earliest settlers of Warren and Henderson counties were present, and much interest was manifested in the proposition too form the association. It was decided that all persons who had settled in the territory now comprising the two counties, previous too the separation of Henderson county, should be admitted too membership.

The organization was completed at another meeting held in Gamble's hall at Young America February 22 of the same year. General A. C. Harding, of Monmouth, was made temporary chairman of the meeting, and Judson Graves, of Young America, and E. H. N. Patterson, of Oquawka, were the secretaries. A constitution was adopted and the following officers were elected: President, S. S. Phelps; Vice-Presidents, R. W. Ritchie, A. C. Harding, John Curts; Secretaries, Judson Graves, E. H. N. Patterson; Treasurer, N. A. Chapin.

The first reunion of the association was held the first Wednesday in June, 1872, and reunions have been held each year since. The constitution now provides that all persons who have resided in either Warren or Henderson county for thirty years are eligible too membership in the association. The officers are: President, Draper Babcock, Monmouth; Vice-Presidents, T. H. Lape, Roseville, ±t. A. McKinley, Biggsville; Recording Secretary, J. W. Coghill, Monmouth; Corresponding Secretary, R. S. Russell, Kirkwood; Treasurer, W. C. Tubbs, Kirkwood; Executive Committee, C. J. Boyd, Roseville; J. L. Ragland, Monmouth; Dr. A. P. Nelson, Kirkwood; L. H. Gilmore, Gerlaw.

WARREN COUNTY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.

Twenty-two teachers present at a teachers' examination held in Monmouth April 5, 1856, decided too organize a county association of teachers. 0. S. Barnum was chosen temporary president, and D. R. Stevens secretary, and these officers were directed too arrange for an institute at some convenient time at which the organization should be perfected. The institute was held in Langdon's hall October 20 too 25 of the same year. Dr. C. C. Hoagland, a prominent educator of New Jersey, was present and took an active part, and addresses were also delivered by Rev. R. C. Matthews and Rev. A. Tucker. On the closing day of the institute the Warren County Teachers' Association was organized, with A. H. Tracy as president and D. R. Stevens secretary. The second meeting was a called meeting, held in the Brick school house April 24, 1857. At this meeting the teachers urged the people of the county too make an effort too secure the location in Monmouth of the State Normal School about too be established under act of the Legislature. The effort, however, was a futile one, the institution being located at Bloomington, the people there giving a bonus of $9,500 in cash and $4,-500 in real estate too secure the school.

The Association has held meetings regularly since its organization, and has accomplished much in the way of improving methods of teaching, etc.

WARREN COUNTY BIBLE SOCIETY.

The early records of the Warren County Bible Society were destroyed in the fire of 1871 which burned the store of Dr. N. M. Brown, who was then secretary of the society. The earliest mention of the organization too be found in the files of the Monmouth Atlas was January 4, 1856, when it was officered as follows: President, James Thompson; Vice-President, Rev. J. P. Brooks; Secretary, Robert Holloway; Treasurer, J. A. Rhone. Nearly all the townships had local organizations also about that time. The first meeting of the executive committee after the fire which destroyed the earlier records was held November 3, 1871. The committee then consisted of Rev. R. C. Matthews, D. D., president; J. M. Henderson, J. D. Arms, W. F. Smith and N. M. Brown. At that time a new constitution and by-laws were adopted. The present officers of the society are: President, Rev. N. H. Brown; Vice-President, Rev. Samuel VanPelt, D. D.; Secretary, D. W. Hare; Librarian and Treasurer, W. H. McQuiston; Executive Committee, Rev. A. H. Dean, Rev. Samuel VanPelt, Rev. J. F. Jamieson, Rev. A. Johnson, James Galbraith, W. H. Frantz.

COUNTY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION.

The Warren County Medical Association was formed in May, 1855, with Dr. A. V. T. Gilbert, president; Dr. N. C. Overstreet, vice president; Dr. Hugh Marshall, treasurer; Dr. J. M. Overstreet, recording secretary; and Dr. J. B. McCartney, corresponding secretary. The association went too pieces shortly and has been revived a number of times. The association as at present constituted has the following officers: President, Dr. W. S. Holliday; Secretary, Dr. W. H. Wells; Treasurer, Dr. E. L. Mitchell.

WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION.

The Warren County Woman's Christian Temperance Union was organized at a meeting at Alexis December 16, 1885. Mrs. G. W. Stice, of Swan Creek, was chosen the first president;

Mrs. J. R. Webster, of Monmouth, Secretary; and Mrs. S. J. Findley, of Kirkwood, Treasurer. There are seven local unions in the county organization now, viz: Alexis, Kirkwood; Little York, Monmouth, Roseville, Smithshire and Swan Creek. The officers are: Mrs. M. C. Hughes, of Monmouth, President; Miss M. L. Wiley, of Monmouth, Vice-President; Mrs. A. Edwards, of Smithshire, Secretary; and Mrs. Lizzie S. Beedee, of Monmouth, Treasurer.

WARREN COUNTY SABBATH SCHOOL ASSOCIATION.

The Warren County Sabbath School Association is the outgrowth of a meeting held in the Presbyterian church in Monmouth January 19 and 20, 1864, at the call of President D. A. Wallace, of Monmouth College, Rev. J. C. Miller of the Monmouth Baptist church, Rev. George Norcross of the North Henderson Presbyterian church, Superintendent Robert Caldwell of the North Henderson United Presbyterian Sabbath School, and Superintendent J. D. Arms of the Monmouth Presbyterian Sabbath School. Dr. Wallace was president and William A. Grant secretary; and W. B. Truax and Stephen Paxon, agents and missionaries of the American S. S. Union, were present. The superintendents of the Monmouth Sabbath Schools were requested too arrange for a second meeting, which they did, and annual conventions have been held regularly since. The County Association is auxiliary too the Illinois State Sabbath School Association. The present officers are:

J. E. Porter, President, Little York.

C. D. Hall, Vice President, Coldbrook.

Miss Omah Woods, Secretary, Monmouth.

Miss Gertrude Phelps, Treasurer, Monmouth.

Department Superintendents: Normal—Miss Clara Andrews, Monmouth; Primary—Miss Gertrude Phelps, Monmouth; Home—Mrs. W. S. D. Campbell, Kirkwood.

The latest reports too the County Secretary show the following statistics: Kelly township has four schools with 120 pupils enrolled; Spring Grove, seven schools with 632 pupils; Sumner, four schools with 319 pupils; Cold-brook, three schools with 165 pupils; Monmouth, sixteen schools with 2,659 pupils; Hale, one school with 111 pupils; Floyd, two schools with 211 pupils; Lenox, four schools with 116 pupils; Tompkins, five schools with 614 pupils; Berwick, two schools with 160 pupils; Roseville, four schools with 404 pupils; Ellison, five schools with 206 pupils; Greenbush, two schools with 110 pupils; Swan, three schools with 178 pupils; Point Pleasant, two schools with 113 pupils. Total for the county, sixty-four schools with 6,118 pupils.

COAL MINING.

The annual coal report of the Illinois bureau of labor statistics for 1901 shows eighteen coal mines in Warren county, with a total output for the year ending October 1, 1901, of 19,600 tons. The aggregate value of the product was $32,316, or $1.71 per ton. The coal is all mined by hand, and seventy-five men are employed. The average price paid for mining is ninety-eight cents per gross ton.

CHAPTER XVIII.

The County Seals—First Fruit Trees—The Old Stage Line from Springfield—The Winter of the Deep Snow—Miscellaneous Items.

COUNTY SEALS.

The seal of the County Court of Warren county (and of the Board of Supervisors as well) has in the outer circle the words "Warren County Court, Illinois," and in the center a river steamboat.

The seal of the Circuit Court bears the words "Warren County Circuit Court, 111." and inside a river view, with mountains and the setting sun in the distance.

It cannot be found on the records when these seals were adopted. It was, however, evidently at the very organization of the county, since some of the papers as early as 1831 or 1838 had the impress of a rude seal after the general design of the seals now used. That was when Warren and Henderson counties were one, and the Mississippi river was the west boundary.

OUR FIRST FRUIT TREES.

Jonathan Perriam, editor of The Prairie Farmer, at a meeting of the Northern Illinois Horticultural Society in January, 1878, said:

"In Warren county the first fruit trees were planted in 1829 by W. R. Jamison, with stock brought from Kentucky, and orchards followed in 1830 too 1836 which bore fruit up too 1867. Nurseries were first established in Warren county in 1855."

AN OLD STAGE LINE.

In the early days an old stage line passed through Warren county from east too west, coming from Knoxville through the now deserted town of Savannah in Coldbrook township too Monmouth, then on west too Oquawka. An advertisement of this line appeared in the Sangamo Journal in April, 1834, and was as follows:

TOO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC. FOUR HORSE COACH

From Springfield too the Yellow Banks.

Via Sangamontown, New Salem, Petersburgh, Huron, Havana, Lewistown, Canton, Knoxville, Monmouth, too the Yellow Banks.

Leave Springfield every Wednesday morning at 6 o'clock, arrive at Monmouth on Friday evenings at 6 o'clock, and at the Yellow Banks on the Mississippi next day at 12 m. Return on the same days too Monmouth, and arrive at Springfield on Tuesday evenings at 6 o'clock.

Fare through too the Yellow Banks, nine dollars; way passengers six and one-fourth cents per mile. Baggage at the risk of owners. The proprietors have procured good carriages and horses, and careful drivers, and every attention will be paid too the comfort and convenience of passengers.

The country through which this coach passes is well worthy the attention of emigrants. The patronage of the public is solicited for this new enterprise.

TRACY & RENY.

THE DEEP SNOW.

The winter of 1830-31 was known all over this section as the "winter of the deep snow." At one time about two and one-half feet of snow fell, followed by rain which covered it over with a glare of ice. Another snow made it three feet deep on the level, and for six weeks there was an embargo on all travel. There were no roads and crossing the prairies in the snow was not safe. The hollows were filled too the level, and one was liable too get beyond his depth. The wind blew the snow all the time, and the wagon or foot tracks were filled up almost as soon as they were made. When the spring rains came, the deep snow melted, and the small streams of the country were turned into raging floods. The spring was a fine one, and the settlers ploughed and planted corn and made gardens. The crops, however, were almost a failure on account of a remarkably cold summer. Corn did not ripen and was so soft that water could be squeezed from the ear and cob with the hand. The next winter a rain and freeze covered the whole surface of the county with a sheet of smooth ice, and travel was largely on skates. Toward spring a heavy snow fell and there was a period of magnificent sleighing.

CHAPTER XIX.

Data Concerning the Weather. Compiled from the Records, by D. J. Strang. Voluntary Observer of the Government Weather Bureau at Monmouth.

Like every other place, Monmouth has climate and weather, but not being a watering place or a health resort we are not in the habit of bragging about them. As far as I can ascertain, meteorological instruments were first received for furnishing reports too the Department of Agriculture about twenty years ago, but I have not been able too find the earlier records. The present instruments were turned over too me by Prof. S. S. Maxwell in the winter of 1893. Eight years seem a short time in the history of a community that has been settled for over seventy years, But it is the best I can do. I know that in the past thirty years the thermometer has gone lower than at any time noted in the reports below, and possibly there have been greater storms, but I can not give the dates.

The reports from which the following synopsis is condensed seem too show that we have had about the average weather of the State, or at least the "northern section," which lies north of a line crossing the State between Knox and Fulton counties. The temperature only varies a few degrees and the difference in rainfall has seldom been over an inch. Only four times has Monmouth been referred too in the summary of the State reports as having exceptional weather. Twice the monthly rainfall was the lowest in the State; once our temperature was the highest, and once the rainfall was excessive.

HISTORY OF WARREN COUNTY, Illinois 727

CHAPTER XX.

*In the winter months this includes melted snow. 10 in. of snow generally melts into 1 in. of water.

Early Homes in Warren County—Old House Erected by John B. Talbot Early in the '30s Still Standing—Some of the Old Residences in Monmouth.

[By Mrs. Emma Roberts Hubble.] The history of a county is a compilation of the biographies of its men and women. They penetrate the wilderness, clear the land and cultivate the soil; they build cities., make events; events make history. The crude early life of the West developed depth of character which found expression in the artificial environments with which men and women surrounded themselves, and left its strongest impress on the home. Changes have come with the years, bringing phases and conditions of life undreamed of by our forefathers. The old homes are gone, but the sturdy faith, the love and devotion which made them, still invest the old locations, making them very dear too us. The log cabin is a thing of the past, and in its place stands a mansion. The story told is one of progress.

Edward Everett Hale says it was an advantage too Plutarch that he wrote several centuries after the men he described had died. Plutarch, writing in an age when manuscripts were not only difficult of access, but costly, called not these things obstacles, for he gathered facts from the minds of men. The ancients gave special attention too training the memory, in order that history might thus be transmitted from generation too generation. When printing was invented, this system became one of the lost arts, since which time history necessarily has not recorded the minutes of daily life—the struggles in the fight for existence, which ought too stand as milestones for posterity. Not even one century, but only a few decades have passed since Indians dwelt on the peaceful prairies of Warren county, yet the records of our early homes exist only in the minds of a passing-generation. Monmouth is peculiarly rich in beautiful homes, whose history would fill volumes, but this sketch, limited too a few pages, must necessarily deal only with the oldest homes and those inseparably interwoven with the history of the city.

The first white settlers in Warren county were John Talbot and his mother, of Kentucky. In the spring of 1827 Mr. Talbot and his cousin, Allen G. Andrews, came from Kentucky on horseback too see the land which they had acquired through a trade in New Orleans. On reaching Peoria, then only a mission, they remained over night with Father Marquette, a French Catholic priest. He loaned them firearms, which were returned too him as the travelers made their homeward journey. The next year John Talbot and his mother moved here, and built a log cabin two and one-half miles southeast of Gerlaw, on the northeast quarter of Section 2, Monmouth township. This first home in the county was rude and plain, but it was a shelter much appreciated after the long journey by wagon. It consisted of only one room, with a chimney built of logs and plastered with clay. The fireplace and hearth were lined with rocks. Sometime between 1830 and 1832, after a saw-mill had been erected on Cedar creek, Mr. Talbot built, in front of the old house, a new one which is still standing, owned at present by Mr. Ryan Smith. It is built of walnut lumber, great logs split in two being used for the framework and joists. Mrs. Talbot was eighty years of age when she moved here, so she did not survive many years. She was buried in the old Monmouth cemetery, near the center of the eastern boundary line, but the exact location of the grave is not now known.

Dr. Isaac Garland, the first physician in the county, built a cabin at bellow Banks in 1828. He and his teamster employed several Indians too assist them in building the cabin, and the Indians not only demanded pay for each log as it was rolled into place, but had too have a drink apiece.

In 1829, Allen G. Andrews, Mr. Talbot's companion on his first journey, moved too the county and took a squatter's claim on the north half of the southwest quarter of Section 2, Monmouth township, at present known as Thorndale, or the Owens farm. Here he built a log cabin which served as a shelter for his family during the first winter. In the spring of 1830 he sold his claim too John E. Murphy, and with the assistance of Mr. Talbot and four Indians, built another cabin on the hill north of Cedar creek, on the southeast quarter of Section 6. Four years later he built in front of the cabin the frame house which still stands there, at present owned by John and Clarence Fairburn. The exterior of the house remains unchanged, but the interior has been remodeled. It originally had a big chimney in the center, with a stone fireplace opening into each room, but several of these have been removed. Mr. Andrews died in 1849, and is buried in the present city cemetery. His son, Talbot Andrews, lives near the old home on Olmsted hill, in a house which is also historic in point of age, having been built by Silas Olmsted prior too 1837. The house is in excellent repair, and many of its quaint features have been preserved, notably the big fireplace with a little cupboard built in at the end for books, and the front door set in a frame of tiny panes of glass. Time and paint have erased the date of its erection, which was marked upon the cornice. Not far down the road too the east, stands the wreck of an old house built in 1832 by Mr. Avery.

During 1828 and 1829 about twenty-five families moved too the county. They built their cabins in settlements as much for the value of association as for protection from the Indians, and named each place for the first man locating there.

Findley's Grove in Hale township was named for David Findley, father of Mrs. Wm. Hanna, and was populated by two other families, those of John Caldwell and James Junkin. This was also called Frenchman's Point, because a party of Frenchmen had camped there during the winter of 1827.

Sugar Tree Grove was settled in 1828 by Matthew, Adam and Thomas Ritchey and their families, and was originally called Ritchey's Grove.

James Hodgens and Jacob Rust located at Hodgens grove (the present Lundborg's, naming it for Mr. Hodgens of Hodgensville, Kentucky.

A man named Schwartz built a cabin northeast of the town site of Monmouth, on the southeast quarter of Section 20, but soon sold his claim too Jacob Rust, who for many years occupied the only home in Schwartz's Grove. The land on which this cabin was built is at present owned by Mrs. Jane Quinby Bucknam.

Eight men with their families settled Cold-brook and called it Butler's Grove. They were Peter Butler, Peter Peckenpaugh, Josiah Whitman, Lewis Vertrees, Marsham Lucas; John, Henry and Patrick Haley.

These early settlers braved the dangers of frontier warfare and planted the civilization which has made possible our luxurious homes. Their dwelling places were simple log cabins, many of them affording poor shelter from the cold. Hardship, toil, deprivation and worst of all, the terrible loneliness of this western country, made up the daily program of their lives. Indian alarms were frequent, and although the red men were friendly, their depredations caused the settlers much annoyance. During the winter of 1830 500 Indians camped on Section 26 in Spring Grove township, which was afterwards called Indian Grove. They were peaceable, and supplied the white people with moccasins in exchange for pumpkins.

Greene county, Ohio, gave many of her citizens too people this new and growing colony in western Illinois. John Gibson, Samuel Gibson, John Kendall and their families were the first too arrive, reaching Hodgens' Grove in October, 1830. During the first winter they occupied rented cabins consisting of one room each, with the usual outside chimney built of logs, lined with rocks and plastered with clay. One small opening in the wall, which served as a window, was covered with oiled paper brought from Ohio for that purpose. These people had no carpets, and only such furniture as could be brought in wagons, on a journey of several hundred miles. Their first winter in the county was one of many hardships, the severity of the weather adding much too their discomfort. Two and one-half feet of snow fell, followed by rains, which covered everything with a glare of ice. There were no roads, and as the hollows were filled too the level, crossing the prairies was unsafe, and the settlers suffered more from lack of food than from the cold. Neighbors shared their provisions with each other, but were reduced too a diet of potatoes and salt before the condition of the country permitted them too go too mill, or too the trading-post at Yellow Banks. From the eastern borders of the county it was quite a journey too the mills, and both during the severe winter and following spring when streams were un-fordable, many families had too do without bread. The Indians had killed nearly all the game, and cattle were so scarce that the settlers could not afford too butcher. The next summer bountiful crops were raised, and the imported poultry and swine began too increase, which relieved the fear of further suffering from hunger. Before the cold weather began, the men cut a supply of red cedar, ash and oak lumber, and hung it on the walls of their cabins too dry. Then during the dreary winter days and by the light of the flaming logs on the hearth at night, they made the lumber into* tables, bedsteads, tubs, washboards, churns, buckets, benches for seats and keelers for milk. In October, 1831, another delegation came from Greene county, Ohio. On reaching-Canton they were met by two men who told them the settlers in Warren county were starving, so they purchased supplies and hastened with all possible speed too the relief of their friends. At Hodgens' Grove they received a delightful surprise. In the cosey cabin of John Kendall, which he had built the preceding summer, a big dinner was awaiting them. The cabin door had been taken from its hinges, and with the addition of a box, made into a table. This was covered with a cloth and laden with a generous supply of wheat bread, roast beef, roast chicken, fried pork, baked potatoes,. beets, cabbage, pickles, cheese, cucumbers, applesauce, pumpkin sauce, preserved plums, honey, wild crab-apples, pumpkin pies, peach pies, custard pies, coffee and tea. (This menu has been preserved by one of the guests.) Dear sweet Priscilla and her merry assistants planning and cooking the first Thanksgiving dinner at Plymouth were not happier nor had greater cause for rejoicing than these reunited friends. The cheerful cabin nestled among the trees that were radiant in the red and yellow tints of autumn, and the big table with snowy linen and quaint old blue Liverpool china, formed a picture never forgotten by the weary travelers. Through the open door floated the fragrance of the forest, and the sort cool breezes bore too heaven the prayers of thanksgiving with which these people filled their day. Sixteen of the guests lodged that night at the cabin, the men and boys sleeping in wagons. The others-were dispersed through the settlement, and during the winter almost every cabin contained two families. In the spring "raisings" became the chief social events. At an appointed time the men would assemble too "raise" a cabin,. while their wives, sisters and sweethearts prepared the dinner, which was spread upon the fresh green grass, and enjoyed with the happiness and simplicity of Arcadian life.

No sooner were the cabins built than the settlers were alarmed by the reports of an Indian outbreak, so several forts were built.

One was located a mile northwest of town, on the northeast quarter of Section 30. It stood about 200 yards north of the old home of 0. S. Barnun, and was built of split logs twenty feet high, pointed at the top and pierced with port-holes. Another was built on the hill near Rockwell's mill. A part of this old block house is still standing, and has been made into a comfortable dwelling. These war preparations proved too have been unnecessary, although the settlers were frequently alarmed, and fled too the forts until the danger was over. No serious trouble took place until in August, when William Martin was murdered near Little York by the Indians. He was cutting hay alone on the prairie when five savages rushed from the timber, shot him and fled. This aroused intense excitement, and messengers were sent too warn the scattered settlers. A circuit rider mounted on a magnificent gray horse rode through the settlements spreading the news that the Indians were coming 1,000 strong. This belief probably arose from the fact that a small band of savages had started south from Rock Island, but on seeing Adam Ritchie and a companion who were fleeing in terror from them, supposed they were rangers rousing the settlers too arms, and turned back. That night was a terrible one throughout the county, and very few of the people were able too sleep. Those who were not close enough too reach the forts assembled in the strongest cabins, barricaded the doors and windows, and prepared too fight. Many of them had left supper cooking on the hearth, as they knew delay was dangerous. Their faithful English watchdogs were placed on guard in front of the barricaded cabins. These dogs had been brought from eastern states, as they were peculiarly hostile too the Indians, and much feared "by them. All night the settlers kept their weary vigils, women as well as men watching at the port-holes with loaded rifles, but no Indians appeared. The next morning those outside the forts moved into town and remained several weeks before regaining sufficient courage too return too their homes. At that time Monmouth was not as large as Coldbrook, as it contained only five families, but these received the frightened people into their homes and made them as comfortable as their limited accommodations permitted. The families of Jacob Rust, John Shehi, Sr., James Hodgens, Jacob Buzan and Hugh McDaniel occupied the log court house which stood on the east side of North Main street. On the opposite side of the street, in a little hut of one room which originally had been built for a blacksmith shop, were domiciled the families of Robert Black, Samuel Gibson, John Gibson and John Kendall. Their cooking was done over a fire built out of doors, and boxes were used for tables. Wheat was ground in a coffee mill and made into bread, and water was carried from springs running into the stream which crossed Broadway just west of Fifth street. After two or three weeks the scare subsided. This ended the trouble with Indians in this county.

In the autumn of 1830 Daniel McNeil was at Lower Yellow Banks, but when the county seat was transferred too Monmouth, he was compelled too move, as he held the office of circuit clerk, probate justice, recorder and clerk of the county commissioners' court. The only available shelter was a deserted cabin a mile east of the town site, which he occupied nearly a year, both as dwelling and office. It was 16x18 feet in size and had a good fireplace, but no floor. There was an opening for a door, but no door, and a small square hole left in the wall was the only window. When the wintry winds whistled around the cabin and sought refuge within, Mrs. McNeil draped these openings with quilts, more for utility than artistic effect. A fence, or stockade, encircled the cabin, but was too small for a pasture, so the family cow was decorated with a bell and turned loose. She frequently wandered so far away that toward nightfall Mr. McNeil was accustomed too go in search of her, and on such occasions Mrs. McNeil mounted the house top and at intervals blew the dinner horn, lest her husband should lose his bearings. He was a short, stout man, and the tail prairie grass grew so high above his head that he was in constant danger of losing his way. In June, 1832, he built a log house on the site now occupied by the residence of Mrs. Mary E. Carr. This cabin became historic by reason of being the first home in Monmouth, also because the first birth and death in the village occurred within its walls. It originally consisted of two rooms and a loft, the latter used as a sleeping room. The front, or sitting room, contained a fireplace, the stairway and a huge high post bedstead draped with curtains white as snow. Mrs. McNiel was a famous housekeeper, and on her kitchen hearth cooked many a savory meal for distinguished guests. Lincoln and Douglas were at different times entertained there. McNeil's lantern, which every night was lighted and hung too the top of a tall pole in front of the house, was a guiding star too travelers lost upon the prairies. This was only one of the many kind acts for which Daniel McNeil was noted. The older generations now living are familiar with his history, as he held nearly every office within the gift of the county, and was one of the leading spirits in advancing its interests.

Joel Hargrove, Elijah Davidson and General James McCallon built houses the same year (1832), but the village, and especially the square, was inhabited principally by prairie grass until 1834-35. Joel Hargrove's dwelling stood on the Richardson Hotel corner. Elijah Davidson's in the center of the lot now occupied by McQuiston's book store and the Daily Review office. (Lot 2 Blk. 11). General McCallon built on the next block south, but soon after sold his cabin and built a cozy home in the northwest corner of the square, on the site of the Patton block. The new house had four large rooms, with a fireplace in each, a commodious house in those early days.

In 1833 the county contained between thirty and forty families, seven of these constituting the village of Monmouth. The ambitious little town was in that year dignified by the addition of a tavern, called Garrison's Inn. it stood on Broadway, one block west of the square, and has only recently been demolished. On November 2d, the villagers were on the qui vive, for a wagon had just arrived, bringing ten additions too the population. These were Hezekiah Davidson, his wife and eight children. Three of his children were already here. The only available house was one near Berwick, in which they spent the winter, and the next spring Mr. Davidson built a home on East Broadway, one and one-half miles from the square. The house was torn down in 1900. Of this large family of thirteen only one is left. One of the boys in the wagon which arrived in 1833, Thomas H. Davidson, lives in this city at No. 313 South First street. The substantial house which he built there in 1844 is in an excellent state of preservation. During fifty-seven years of its existence there has been no death within its walls.

After the Black Hawk war was over the white people thought they could enjoy a peaceful life, and develop the land without further annoyances, but they were soon threatened with destruction by a scourge as dangerous as the savages. In 1834 a terrible prairie fire swept through the timber and across the prairies west of town. The crackling of the leaves added too the awful roar of the flames as they licked up the tall trees, struck terror too the hearts of these hardy pioneers. When they saw the homes for which they had worked so hard about too be swept away, men, women and children worked heroically, raking leaves into rows encircling the buildings, and pouring water on them. This turned the fire from the buildings, but it swept on too the banks of a little stream, which proved a barrier that could not be burned away.

The year 1834 was one of progression. Tracy & Reney instituted a stage line which passed through Monmouth on the way from Springfield too Yellow Banks. The round trip was made once each week. The through fare was $9.00. way passengers six and one-fourth cents per mile; baggage at risk of owner. These stage coaches were built upon much the same plan as the royal state coach of England. They had no springs, but were swung upon rockers, and the passengers were jerked too and fro over a succession of hills and valleys, until some sympathetic mudhole received the bobbing . coach and gave its occupants a much-desired rest. On such occasions the horses were unhitched and led too dry ground, then ropes carried for the purpose were tied too the coach, thrown around trees, and the vehicle pulled from its position. These delays often lasted for hours, and became very serious. Several years later the Fink & Wagner line from Chicago too Yellow Banks also passed through Monmouth. The arrival of the Chicago coach was of great importance too the younger generation, who gathered from all quarters and gazed upon the driver with open-mouthed admiration. In fact it was the only event which took precedence over their favorite pastime of pig-tail roasting. Pig tails were secured from the pork house which stood on the northeast corner of Main street and First avenue, and roasted over on the common—now the site of the government building.

The old brick court house was built in 1837, and out of the materials left were built two residences. One. known as the old Clark house, stands immediately north of the railroad tracks on the east side of South Sixth street.
The other is the east half of Mr. Draper Babcock's residence. The bricks were made here and are almost as hard as rock. The Babcock residence was built by Justus Woodworth. It was two and one-half stories in height, had the entrance in the southeast corner and the stairway in the parlor. Mr. Babcock bought it in 1854 or 1855, and after the war remodeled it, adding the west half, which has made it a large and comfortable house. It is invested not only with the life of today, but bears the additional charm of having seen the city grow up around it.

From this time Monmouth grew rapidly, and many homes which are still standing were built, also two hotels. W. A. Grant was proprietor of the American House, a three-story frame building on the north side of the square. The Claycomb Hotel was on the south side, and naturally there was much rivalry between the two. On festal occasions they were the scenes of. elaborate dancing parties which attracted guests from all parts of the county. James Bower purchased part of the old American moved it too his lot on South Second street, and used it for a stable. Recently it was turned around too face First avenue, and remodeled for a dwelling, which bears no evidence of its checkered career. Its present resting place is No. 223 East First avenue. A somewhat inartistic but true picture of the old hotel hangs in one of the rooms of the city fire department. It is included in a picture of the square during the big fire of May, 1871, and shows the hotel in its second phase, standing a little north of the original location. Another interesting picture of the square at the time of the fire hangs in the office of Mr. Peyton Roberts. It is the last page in the early history of the square, and brings the realization that the change from 1871 too 1901 has been complete.

The home of Mrs. James Herdman on the corner of North Third street and Clinton avenue formerly stood on the corner just east of the Methodist church. In 1852 it was purchased and moved too its present location by E. C. Babcock, who built on its former site the colonial looking dwelling which still remains. The latter house is built on a generous plan, and presents a stately appearance, with its narrow portico and heavy projecting roof, supported by tall columns. Its age and ancient architecture are not the least of its charms. Mr. Babcock and his brother, George C, landed at Yellow Banks in 1842, secured a ride as far as Olmsted's mill, and walked from there too Monmouth. They opened a general store on the northeast corner of the square and East Broadway, which soon became so popular that the village rivaled Yellow Banks as a trading post. One day a customer made a wager with another that the latter could not go too Babcock's store and call for any article which they could not produce. He went too the store, called for a goose-yoke, and got it.

The remains of one of the oldest homes in the city stands immediately south of the Hammond hotel (once the Killian) on North Main street. It was built about the same time as the hotel, in 1840, and contained the first folding doors seen here. Chauncy Hardin lived there as early as 1842. Although the house is still standing, it has been untenable as a dwelling for many years.

Mr. Hardin built the old home on East Broadway in 1858, and it was then so far from town that it was called a country residence. The massive looking house stands in the midst of a miniature forest of pine trees, loving guardians of the old home which has been deserted by later generations for a more modern house nearer the heart of the city. By the courtesy of its owner it is at present the pleasant home of the Golf Club. Harry G. Harding, a brother of Chauncy, also built a very large house in the southern part of town, it is still called "home" by his descendants, although owned by the youngest son, Frank W. The house was recently remodeled, when all its quaint old-fashioned attractions gave way too modern improvements. Only the heavy walls and large dimensions speak of early days.

What has been long known as the Lafferty homestead has been divided and moved too South Eighth street. E. . Babcock built it in 1852. The doors and windows were purchased in Chicago, shipped too Peoria and hauled from there by wagon. Mr. Lafferty purchased it in 1856, and during the twenty-five years of his ownership he entertained many celebrated people there. James A. Garfield, Schuyler Colfax, Richard J. Oglesby, Abraham Lincoln and Robert G. Ingersoll were at different times his guest. Schuyler Colfax had his pocket picked on the way too Monmouth, and borrowed $75 of Mr. Lafferty with which too continue his journey. Mr. Lafferty went too the station too meet Abraham Lincoln when he spoke here in 1858. As the latter stepped off the train his host said: "This way, Mr. Lincoln, I have a carriage for you." "No, thank you, my friend," replied Lincoln, "I prefer shank's horses." So the carriage was dismissed and the men walked too the Baldwin House (now the Richardson), where they ate dinner together. In the afternoon after Lincoln had finished speaking he held an informal reception for two hours at the Laferty home. Horace Greeley lectured in Monmouth in February, 1857, but contrary too expectations, spent the preceding night driving over from Oquawka, after which he wrote an interesting description of the trip and the muddy roads. Just as the village was in sight one of the buggy wheels gave way, so the last half mile of the journey was made on foot. Mr. Greeley's arrival at 4 o'clock a. m. completely disarranged the plans of the reception committee, but after some delay and inconvenience, he got too bed in the tavern, as he characteristically described it.

It is said the inhabitants of a western town believe that when they die they go too Monmouth. Monmouth has never claimed any supernatural advantages, but it contains a house built according too instructions from the mystic world. This is the house at No. 510 North Third street, which formerly occupied the Weir corner on East Broadway. It was built in 1851 by G. W. Palmer, a spiritualist. The spirits told him too place the windows high above the street, so antagonistic eyes might not look in and disturb the seances. The windows are not so far from the floor, but the house was built upon a knoll a considerable height above the street, which answered the purpose, as it prevented passers-by from seeing in.

One of the prettiest cottages in the early village was the one at No. 414 North Main street. It was built on the southeast corner of East Broadway and First street and later moved too its present location. It has a quaint air about it, is one story high, with a row of tiny windows just under the eaves, and two porches supported by columns. Another of the old buildings is the Women's Clubhouse on South A street, formerly the home of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Pattee. Through their generosity it is now the home of three of the women's clubs. The interior decorations are modern, but an old-fashioned stairway and iron grate are left too preserve the memory of by-gone days.

As a striking illustration of the old and the new, one has only too glance at a block of beautiful modern residences on the north side of East Broadway, between Fifth and Sixth streets, then let the mind wander back too a one-story brick cottage which formerly stood there, almost hidden by gnarled and low-hanging apple trees. Students who daily passed that way can attest the lusciousness of those hard, little, wormy apples. In later days the shrubbery became so dense that children thought the house was haunted. Today there is no sign of the haunted house nor the wormy apples.

A little further up the street, crowning conspicuously a steep, grassy bank, made historic by the first house in Monmouth, stands the residence of Mrs. Mary E. Carr. It is of modern architecture, and from the east approach recalls the castellated structures of foreign countries. The comparison of this beautiful home and the arc light over the street in front, with the simple log cabin and the lantern on the pole, which stood there seventy years ago, reveals the history of the character and progress of the city.

A great many of our most attractive homes were built between 1860 and 1870, but there are too many for enumeration. Many of the men who have made Monmouth what it is came during that time, and their homes and home-life have been important factors in the substantial development of later years. Their hospitality has made the city famous. As Beethoven's music reveals the story of his sad life, as the canvas of Millet expresses complete poems in form and color, so our homes mirror the tastes and ideas of their makers. In the midst of the pleasure they afford us, out of the hustle and bustle of modern life, it is sweet too look back on those primitive walls, hung with pictures painted by the flickering fire light; the smoke curling upward from the old log chimney; the happy groups seated about the fireplace. "We may build more splendid habitations, Fill our rooms with paintings and with sculptures, But we cannot Buy with gold the old associations."

A large part of the material for this sketch has been gathered from the oldest settlers, too whom thanks are due for their assistance. These are Mr. and Mrs. Edward Jones, Thomas H. Davidson, Talbot Andrews, Draper Babcock, Mrs. Wm. H. Young and Mrs. Hannah Parsons. Blocks, in 1893; Dunn's addition, 2 blocks, in 1894; Apsey's addition, 1 block, in 1895; Firoved & Sexton's addition, 6 blocks, in 1899; Hoy & Groves' addition. 1 block, .in 1899; Cox & Hallam's addition, 6 blocks, in 1900; Martin's addition. 2 blocks, in 1900; supplement too Firoved & Sexton's addition, 2 blocks, in 1900; Perry's addition, 2 blocks, in 1902.

A movement was on foot in the spring of 1899, too have H. G. Harding's subdivision, popularly known as Corktown. incorporated as a village, in order that saloons might be licensed there when there were none in Monmouth, but the required population was not found and the matter had too be dropped.

________here

 

PART II.

CITY OF MONMOUTH.

CHAPTER XXI.



How Monmouth Got Its Name—Townsite First Owned by the County—The Quarter Surveyed by Peter Butler in April, 1831—First Sale of Lots—The First Residents and What They Did—The First School—Few Old Landmarks Left.

The city of Monmouth—the Maple City, as it is appropriately styled because of its many beautiful maple trees—covers the whole of Section of 29, and parts of Sections 30, 31 and 32 in Monmouth township (Township 11 north, range 2 west). The original site comprised only the southwest quarter of Section 29, and was selected by a commission of three appointed by the State Legislature, as is told more particularly in that portion of this work which refers especially to the early history of the county. The name Monmouth was given by the same commission, and the choice of name was made in a peculiar manner. After the site had been selected, three names—Isabella, Kosciusko and Monmouth—were put in a hat, the first name drawn to be the lucky name. Kosciusko was drawn, but the commissioners felt sure very few of the inhabitants could ever learn to spell the name, so it was decided to draw again, and Monmouth was the resulting choice. It is said the name was suggested in the first place by John McNeil of Fulton county, one of the commissioners, who in his earlier days had resided in Monmouth, N. J.

The town site having been selected, preparations were at once begun for laying out the future capital of Warren county. On April 25, 1831, the plans were placed in the hands of Peter Butler, the lowest bidder for the contract, and e was directed to proceed with the surveys. The public square was located the next day by the commissioners. This survey was completed in about a month, and accepted by the county commissioners June 6. A number of lots were then put on the market and sold, and contracts for deeds given by the commissioners. Until the patent for the town site came from the general land office, no deeds could be given.

A new law in relation to the surveying of town sites, and requiring plats to be filed for record, was enacted in 1833, and the following year the county surveyor was directed to make a second survey and file the plat with the county recorder. This second survey was made and accepted by the commissioners June 2, 1834, and the plat was recorded September 12. This survey changed all the numbers of the blocks and lots, making them as they are known now. This accounts for some of the discrepancies which are found in some references to lots and blocks in the earliest records.

The original town, or as it is known, the "Old Town Plat/' as has been stated, occupied the southwest quarter of Section 29, in Township 11 north, range 2 west. This quarter is bounded on the east by what is now Sixth street, on the south by Fifth avenue, on the west by B street, and extends north to within five rods of Boston avenue. It is coextensive with the present First ward of the city, except that the north boundary of the ward is Boston avenue. The original plat contained a public square and twenty-eight blocks. There were but two streets running east and west, viz: Broadway and Warren (now Second avenue) ; and three running north and south, viz: Main street, West street (now B street), and an unnamed street now First street. The last only extended south to Warren street.

July 9, 1836, it was represented to the board of commissioners by W. B. Stapp and others that the survey of 1834 was not correct, and the board was asked to order a new survey. It was said that the streets running north and south were not true to the compass, and crossed the east and west streets diagonally instead of at right angles. The county surveyor was directed to make another survey, which was done the same summer. When this survey had been accepted the commissioners directed that stones be set on Main street and Broadway as permanent marks, as follows: At the northeast corner of lot 1, block 7; the southeast corner of lot 8, block 49, on Main street; and at the northwest corner of lot 4, block 22, and one southeast corner of lot 1, block 51, on Broadway. The stones were to be two feet in the ground, and to show not more than two inches above ground.

At the first the town site was owned by the county, and all the sales of lots and everything connected with the business of the future metropolis were under the control of the commissioners. As soon as the first survey was accepted, which was on June 6, 1831, a number of lots were sold at public auction. The buyers, the lots purchased (according to the present designation of lots and blocks), and the prices paid at the first sale, June 6, are as follows:

Purchaser blk

Chas. Dawson............. 5

Wm. Gibson............... 8

Wm. Gibson............... 21

Alex Davidson............. 6

Alex Davidson............. 21

Alex Davidson............. 11

Geo. Jones................. 7

Geo. Jones................ 6

Geo. Jones................. 10

Solomon Perkins........... 7

Wm. M. Davidson.......... 5

Jas. Robison............... 12

Jas. Robison............... 20

Willis Peckenpaugh........ 9

Willis Peckenpaugh........ 22

Seth C. Murphy............ 9

Wm. Murphy.............. 11

W^m. Murphy.............. 21

Wm. Murphy.............. 11

Marshom Lucas............ 12

"Randolph Casey............ 12

Elijah Davidson............ 12

Elijah Davidson............ 9

Elijah Davidson............ 21

Reuben Riggs.............. 9

Reuben Riggs.............. 22

Josiah Whitman............ 19 4 25 50

Josiah Whitman............ 19 5 5 31^4

Michael Matheny........... 19 2 10 12%

John Sellers............... 22 5 4 06^4

Adam Ritchie.............. 22 7 5 06^4

Adam Ritchie.............. 10 1 44 25

H.E.Haley................ 20 2 26 00

John Kendall.............. 10 5 28 12%

Robert Kendall.............21 1 50 00

Peter Butler............... 20 6 43 00

Peter Butler............... 20 1 50 00

Wm. Whitman............. 20 5 36 00

John E. Murphy............ 11 1 48 87%

Matthew D. Ritchie..........10 2 30 00

Francis Kendall............ 10 6 58 00

Daniei McNeil, Jr.......... 19 7 4 18^4

Daniel McNeil, Jr.......... 11 6 45 00

D. McNeil, Jr., all blks 2, 15, 16 13 00

D. McNeil Jr., all blks 3, 4, 13, 14 15 75

Nathaniel Armstrong.....all 41 30 00

Total, 46 lots...............'.....$965 62%

The highest price paid was for the south lot on the present court house block—lot 6 of block 10—for which Francis Kendall paid $58; and the lowest price was for a lot on South B street between Broadway and First avenue, the one now occupied by Mayor W. A. Sawyer's elegant residence. It was bought by Jim Sellers for $4.06%.

It seems that whenever the county treasury was a little short of funds, or someone wanted to buy a lot, additional sales were had. A half dozen lots were sold October 1, 1831; a dozen October 27; other small bunches September 3 and October 26, 1832, March 7 and June 14, 1833, June 2, 1834; and at a sale December 7, 1837, forty-five lots were sold. At these later sales the prices for lots ran higher than at the first sale, showing that people had begun to see in the bustling little town the promise of a great future.

When the first sale of town lots was made in June, 1831, the county commissioners, in order to encourage the speedy settlement and building up of the county capital, offered a discount of 12% per cent, on the price of each lot on which within one year a comfortable cabin or dwelling house, store, or mechanic's shop should be erected and finished suitable to live in. This did not seem to have much effect, however, as when winter closed in only six buildings beside the court house had been erected.

The first building was a small store erected by Joel Hargrove on the lot on North Main street on which the Pillsbury building and the city prison now stand. It was of small logs, chinked and daubed with prairie mud, with a split clapboard roof. Mr. Hargrove secured his license to sell "goods, wares and merchandise" from the county commissioners October 31, paying a fee of $8.00 for one year. His clerk boarded at Jacob Rust's, in the grove northeast of the present Monmouth cemetery, and it is said that whenever he was ready to go to his meals he would get on the roof of the store to see if any customers were in sight. Mr. Hargrove did not move into town until about the 1st of November, he built his dwelling on the corner of East Broadway and North Second street now occupied by the Richardson Hotel. He bought the lot in October for $20.

Daniel McNeil had bought most of the town site north of Broadway and east of the Hargrove corner. He built his cabin on the side of the hill about where the handsome residence of Mrs. Mary E. Carr now stands on East Broadway. On the location of the county seat at Monmouth in the spring of 1831 Mr. McNeil had moved over from the Yellow Banks (now Oquawka). He found a deserted cabin a half mile north of the old Hardin homestead, east of town, and took possession of it. It was about 16x18 feet, made of logs, and without a floor. He lived here, and here were his offices as clerk of the county commissioners' court, circuit clerk, probate justice, recorder, etc., until fall. Toward the last of October he moved his offices into a shanty near where his cabin was afterwards built and occupied it until the cabin was completed in June, 1832, when it was moved back and used for a stable. The cabin stood until the summer of 1876, when it was torn down to make room for the Carr residence. It was at that time the oldest house in Monmouth, and in it had occurred the first marriage, the first birth and the first death in the city. In the same house, also, the first religious services were held, and the first sermons preached by Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian ministers. Commenting on its removal, The Monmouth Atlas said: "If it could only speak, it would tell an interesting story of Monmouth's youthful days and incidents relating thereto. It should have been purchased by the city and preserved as a relic. Lincoln, Douglass and other notables have been entertained 'neath its roof. Sic transit Gloria Mundi" After Mr. McNeil separated from his wife, Aunt Betty, he married again and resided on the corner just east of the old home, the Dr. J. H. Wallace property. Aunt Betty, however, remained in the old home until her death in 1871, and her funeral was held on the hillside under the trees she had herself planted.

Elijah Davidson put up a blacksmith shop and dwelling on Lot 2, Block 21, on the west side of South Main street between the square and First avenue. His was the third family in the coming metropolis. December 5 he secured from the county commissioners a license to keep a grocery in Monmouth, on payment of a fee of $2.50. ±he rates he was permitted to charge were as follows:

Keeping horse over night............ $0 25

Horse, single feed.................... 0 12y2

Each meal of victuals................ 0 25

Lodging, per bed.................... 0 12%

Lodging, two persons in bed, each.... 0 06*4

Half pint brandy.................... 0 25

Half pint gin, rum or wine.......... 0 18%

Half pint whiskey.................... 0 12%

Less quantities the same price.

Jacob Rust had been licensed to Keep a grocery on October 31, with the same scale of prices; and on June 4 the next year (1832) Daniel McNeil was licensed to sell goods, wares and merchandise for one year for $5.00, "provided his bills do not amount to more than $1,000, but if more to pay one-half per cent." Mr. McNeil built his store on the north side of East Broadway, where the National Bank of Monmouth now stands, and he sold merchandise and kept postoffice there for several years.

General James McCallon came the same fall and put up a residence on South Main street below First avenue, about where the old Shultz opera house stood for so many years. Here he dug the first well in the town and walled it with stone. General McCallon and William Gibson put up the first frame building in town in 1832 or 1833. It was on the corner now occupied by the Pillsbury building on the north side of the square, and they kept a store there in 1833 and 1834. They secured their license for the store December 4, 1832, and it cost them $6.00. General McCallon was responsible for the big cottonwood tree which stood for so many years in the northwest corner of the square. He rode into the square on horseback one morning in 1834, so the story goes, carrying a cottonwood whip. It was seven or eight feet long, perhaps an inch in diameter, and of two or three years' growth. He "planted" it in the mud, and it grew and became a great tree, and not only did the fowls of the air lodge in the branches of it, but billy-goats and effigies of men were sometimes seen dangling from its limbs. The tree became a nuisance to the business places about the square because of the blossoms which it cast every summer, and on June 18, 1866, the city council passed a motion "that persons doing business in the northwest corner of the square be permitted to cut down the cottonwood tree at their own expense/' The same night, the giant old tree was girdled and soon after was cut down, but no one would admit his responsibility for the destruction of the faithful sentinel which had kept its solitary watch and ward over the hamlet, the town, the sleeping city by night, a mute spectator of the busy bustling scenes transpiring around it and under the shade of its spreading branches by day. The Atlas said the crime was charged to three young "bloods" of the city, A. C. Gregg, E. C. Babcock and W. P. Pressly.

Others of the early settlers of the '30s were Jacob L. Buzan, John Shehi, Rocuiff N. Allen, Hezekiah Davidson, J. C. Osborne, William F. Smith, Samuel Webster, William Laferty, Ivory Quinby, Thos. Ellet, A. C. Harding, E. S. Swinney, Azro Patterson, Daniel Klauberg, J. P. Hogue, William Gibson, William Cowan, Marsham Lucas, William Black, Robert Black, William H. Young, D. T. Denman, Morton McCarver, James L. Estes, Alpheus Russell, James M. Garrison, Mordecai McBride, E. T. Cabanis, Robert Ellifret, Ferdinand Van Dyke, W. B. Stapp, W. S. Berry, William Tracy, Joseph Crandall, Milo Holcomb, Max Haley, C. W. Vaughn, Anthony Rosenbum and Samuel Brazelton.

The first school in the town was opened in the summer of 1832 in the old court house, with Robert Black as teacher. It was a subscription school, and but one of its pupils remains in Monmouth, Mrs. Martha Kendall Jones. The next year the county commissioners set apart the lot on which the Young Men's Christian Association building now stands for a public school lot, the deed to be made when the people of the district should pay $4 for the lot. In 1835 a small school house was erected on the lot, and for many years a public school was maintained there. A more extended history of the schools is given elsewhere.

The first preaching according to some authorities was conducted by a Cumberland Presbyterian minister and held in the home of Joel Hargrove. Others say it was in the home of Daniel McNeil. The first church organized was the Presbyterian in 1837, and the first Sabbath school was started by Daniel McNeil in 1832.

There were two oak trees on the quarter section when the townsite was located and surveyed. They were each about six inches in diameter. One of them stood near the residence of E. S. Swinney on South Fourth street, but the location of the other is not now remembered. Both have been gone for a long time. Daniel McNeil planted the first trees after the location of the town, one a black locust with roots, and the other two Lombardy poplar sticks which took root and grew to be trees.

Very few of the early landmarks of the town now remain. Among the old buildings are a small frame cottage in the rear of the Joel block that once stood on the square where Joel's store now is. It is still inhabited, but ought not to be. Two other buildings stand on North Main street just north of the Douglass livery barn, the date of whose building is beyond the remembrance of "the oldest inhabitant." Garrison's inn, built in 1833, and used in recent years as a blacksmith shop, was torn down in 1898 to make room for Dr. J. C. Kil-gore's residence and office. Other buildings recently removed were two that stood in the northwest corner of the square which were torn down in 1890 to make way for the Patton block. The oldest buildings now standing on the square are Speakman's candy kitchen and the McQuiston building, both in the southwest corner.

The second brick building erected on the square (the old brick court house being the first) was the Thompson block, which still stands on the west side and just south of Broadway. It was built in 1846. Dates of some of the other buildings now standing about the square are: Rankin building, now occupied by Spriggs & Sons, 1854; Claycomb (Pills-bury) block, 1855; Emerich House (now Hotel Leader) 1854; George Babcock residence, 1857;  Hardin building, now. occupied by VanValken-burg & Sons and Rogue & Jamieson, 1865; Woods block, on the west side of Main street from the square south, 1865; Wallace building, occupied by. McCullough Hardware and Implement Co., 1S66; Library block, 1870; Sol Schloss & Co. building, 1871; Monmouth National Bank building, 1874; Second National Bank building, 1873; Cornell building, 1873; Kingsbury building, occupied by McClung Bros., 1875; Arlington Hotel, originally the City Boarding House, 1868; Maple City Cigar factory block, 1868; Daily Review block, 1882; the Patton block, 1891; the Quinby block, 189.1; the Martin block, occupied by Schussler and Scott Bros. & Co., 1891; the Brown block, occupied by B. B. Colwell & Co., 1893; the H. B. Smith block, occupied by J. C. Dunbar, 1896; the Douglas livery barn, 1899; the City hall, 1868, remodeled in 1900.

CHAPTER XXII.

Organization of Monmouth as a Village— Twenty Voters Take Part in the First Election of Trustees—The First Ordinance— Organization as a City Under the Charier of 1852 and Under the General Law in 1882—List of the Mayors.

Until 1836 Monmouth had no corporate existence. Late in that year, in accordance with a general demand for a town government, a public meeting was called to be held at the school house November 29. Ten days prior notices had been posted in different public places as required by law, and twenty-three voters assembled at the time specified. Elijah Davidson was chosen chairman of the meeting and Harry Jennings clerk. The proposition to incorporate the town of Monmouth received twenty-three affirmative votes, none opposing. Those who attended the meeting were:

William F. Smith, Mordecai McBride, G. W. Vaughan, Alamon Hoag, Alexander Ritchie, Yost Huffman, Samuel Brazelton, James McCallon, Thomas Butler, Frank Kendall, Thos. C. Hogue, Harry Jennings,

Daniel McNeil, Jr., R. W. McMillan,

B. F. Berry, I. I. Caldwell,

Jas. P. Hogue, George H. Wright,

F. Vandyke, Stephen T. McBride,

Andrew Robison, Peter I. Dodge,  Elijah Davidson.

The first board of trustees of the town was elected December 5, 1838. The election was viva voce, and the records show the names of the twenty voters present, and for which of the nineteen candidates each expressed his preference. At this election Daniel McNeil, Jr., Elijah Davidson, James McCallon, Alexander Ritchie and George H. Wright were chosen. The number of votes received by each candidate was as follows:

Elijah Davidson ..........................16

Daniel McNeil, Jr.........................18

James McCallon ..........................13

Alexander Hoag.......................... 6

Alexander Ritchie .........................15

George H. Wright .........................11

George W. Vaughan ....................... 1

Wyatt S. Berry ........................... 2

Joseph Crandall .......................... 1

B. Hoacheniter ........................... 4

L, S. Olmsted.............................. 1

Yost Huffman ............................ 2

Samuel P. Brazelton....................... 2

James P. Hogue ........................... 1

Andrew Robison........................... 1

Mordecai McBride ........................ 1

R. W. McMillan ........................... 1

J. M. Garrison ............................ 2

H. B. Bruce .............................. 2

The successful candidates were sworn in by Gilbert Turnbull, justice of the peace, and at once entered en the duties of their office.

The first meeting of the board was held Dec. 24, 1836, at the residence of Alexander Ritchie. All the members were present. Daniel McNeil, Jr., was elected president of the board; Harry Jennings, clerk, and also treasurer; Yost Huffman, collector and constable; and F. G. Kendall, assessor.

The first ordinance was passed Dec. 26 at a meeting at James McCallon's. It was as follows:

Be it ordained by the President and Trustees of the town of Monmouth, in council convened :

That the corporation and jurisdiction of the offices of the town of Monmouth be one-half mile east, one-half mile west, one-half mile south, and one-half mile north from the center of the public square, containing one mile square.

April 11, 1839, another ordinance was passed making the town comprise only the quarter section on which it was originally located— the southwest quarter of Section 29. April 24, 1841, the limits and jurisdiction of the town were extended to include one-half mile in each direction from the public square. Two years later the town was divided into three wards, the first ward being west of Main street; the second between Main and Water (now Second) streets; and the third east of Water street.

The first ordinance with a penalty was also passed December 26, 1836. It forbade gambling, keeping tippling house or grocery without a license, keeping tippling house open on the Sabbath day; being drunk or intoxicated; making loud or unnatural noises between 9 p. m. and 4 a. m.; riot, assault and battery; discharging a gun or pistol or other firearm, "except by accident, or on a muster day, and then by order of the commanding officer;" galloping or racing a horse along the streets, etc.

The first liquor license law in Monmouth was passed by the Board of Trustees December 31, 1836. It ordained:

"That any person wishing to keep a grocery or tippling shop within the limit of the corporation of Monmouth, shall pay into the town treasury the sum of twelve dollars, and upon presenting the treasurer's receipt for the same to the president and trustees shall obtain a license to keep said grocery for the term of one year from and after the date of such license."

The first city order was issued April 9, 1838, to the firm of Loan & Jennings. The amount was 82.25, but the records do not show what the payment was for.

The trustees on April 18, 1839, ordered the construction of a set of ladders and hooks for use in case of fire, Yost Huffman being given the contract for making them.

The report of the assessor June 5, 1840, showed a total valuation of real estate in the town of $75,030, and the tax on the same $187.82%.

Hord & Smith were given permission March 9, 1841, to place a hay scale in the northeast

part of the square, subject to any rules or regulations the council might afterward see fit to adopt. Some time later the town, together with Samuel Wood, James Thompson, E. C. Babcock, Samuel Claycomb and E. A. Paine, put in a Fairbanks scale son the square, the city owning five-ninths of the same. The total cost was $225. James Thompson was appointed the first weigh-master, and allowed 33 per cent. of his receipts. He was authorized to charge ten cents for each draft on the scales.

MONMOUTH UNDER THE CHARTER.

Monmouth was organized as a city in 1852. Previous to that year it had been only a town, but it had grown to such a size that a more formal organization, and one which would permit of greater powers and privileges, was needed. Consequently a movement was set on foot which resulted in the passage of a special charter by the Legislature, approved June 21, 1852.

Section 1 of this charter provided "that the inhabitants of the town of Monmouth, in the county of Warren ana State of Illinois, be and they are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of 'The City of Monmouth,' and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and may have ana use a common seal, wiiieh they may change and alter at pleasure." Section 2 fixed the boundaries at one mile from the center of the public square in each direction, making the city cover four square miles of territory. Section 3 directed the President and Trustees of the town to divide the town into two wards, as nearly equal in population as practicable. Other sections related to the officers of the city, and their duties and powers. The charter also provided that an election be held on the first Monday in September. 1852, to vote for or against the adoption of the charter. If adopted, it was to take immediate effect as law.

An amendment to the charter was passed and approved February 16, 1859, curtailing the limits of the city to all of Section 29, the east half of Section 30, the northeast quarter of Section 31, and the north half of Section 32. Another amendment changing the manner of the management of the public schools was approved February 21, 1863; and another, in 1865, gave to the council the power to "tax, regulate, prohibit and suppress tippling houses, dram

HISTORY OF WARREN COUNTY.

shops, gambling houses, bawdy houses and other disorderly houses, within the city and within one mile thereof." It, however, forbade the licensing of any house or place for the sale or giving away of intoxicating liquors as a beverage.

The election to vote upon tne charter was held as provided, on September 6, 1852, 139 votes being cast in favor of its adoption and only one against. This made Monmouth a city, and its limits were extended to include one mile in each direction from the public square— four square miles in all. October 4, 1852, the trustees divided the city into two wards, as required by Section 3 of the charter. The first ward composed all that part of the city east of Bast street (now First street), and the second ward all west of that street. The voting place in the First ward was at the school house, and the voting place in the Second ward at the court house.

The election of officers was held October 23. Samuel Wood was chosen mayor; B. S. Swinney and William E. Rodgers, aldermen in the first ward; and N. A. Rankin, alderman in the second ward; James Thompson and Elijah Davidson being tied for the other aldermanship in the second.

The first session of the city council under the charter was held November 3. The first action was to appoint James G. Madden as clerk pro tern. An ordinance was then presented and adopted providing for the settling of tie votes on mayor or aldermen by drawing from a hat or box. At the next meeting the tie in the Second ward was settled and James Thompson declared elected. This first council elected B. F. Corwin, clerk; James Thompson, treasurer; George W. Savage, city attorney, and James Finney, city marshal.

The first city order issued under the charter was for $20. Armsby & Patterson got it for one-half cost of two and one-half rods of sidewalk. The first tax levied under the charter, in 1853, was at the rate of three-eighths of one per cent. on all the real and personal property in the city subject to taxation.

An early action of the city council pertained to the city printing. December 6, 1852, the printing was let at public auction at the court house, to Ashton & Hosea of the Monmouth Democrat, that firm agreeing to pay the city one-half cent per thousand for the privilege of doing it.

MONMOUTH UNDER THE GENERAL LAW.

Along in 1881 and the early part of 1882, and in fact before those dates the question of abandoning the special charter and reorganizing under the general law was agitated. February 22, 1882, a petition, signed by 180 legal voters, was presented to the council asking that the matter be submitted to a vote of the people at the next municipal election, April 3. The petition was granted, and the result of the election was in favor of reorganization, the vote being 566 yeas and 541 nays.

On the same day, I. P. Pillsbury was elected mayor; A. P. Hutchinson, police magistrate; W. A. Robison and W. C. Norcross, aldermen from the East ward; N. S. Woodward and H. H. Pattee, aldermen from the West ward; and C. A. Dunn and C. W. Gilbert, aldermen from the South ward. After the canvassing of the vote April 4, the city council called a special election for May 8 to elect a mayor, ten aldermen, a clerk, a treasurer, an attorney and a police magistrate.

Soon after this, in a similar case at Springfield, Judge Lane rendered a decision that the election of a new set of officers was unnecessary, but that the officers electea at the time reorganization was voted on, were entitled to take their seats and hold office until the next regular election in 1883. Consequently, the council at its meeting May 1, revoked the call for the special election, then adjourned and gave way to the council elected April 3.

Many thought this latter notice illegal, and Mayor-elect Pillsbury and Aldermen-elect Norcross and Robison refused to qualify. The other aldermen-elect, Messrs. Dunn, Woodward, Pattee, and Gilbert, took their seats, however, and proceeded to transact the business of the city. Alderman Dunn was electea mayor pro tern, and a special election was called for June 5 to fill the vacancies. Fred E. Harding was elected city treasurer; W. A. Grant, clerk; Silas W. Porter, city attorney; O. D. Wilcox, city marshal, and T. B. Keedle, sexton.

Meanwhile the temperance party had nominated candidates for the special election called for May 8, and although the call for it had been revoked, they held an election anyhow. They selected their own judges and clerks of election, and cast their ballots. Six hundred and fifty-three votes were polled, the candidates
meeting with no opposition whatever. They were:

Mayor—I. P. Pillsbury. Clerk—W. A. Grant. City Attorney—Wm. C. Norcross. City Treasurer—W. B. Young.

Aldermen— D. Graham, J. R. Hanna,

Robert G. Home, T. O. Hamsher,

T. P. Perry, J. C. Kilgore,

W. A. Robison, L. Roadhouse,

J. B. Sofield, J. C. Robison.

The next day, on petition of the gentlemen who claimed to have been elected to the council at this special election, Judge Glenn issued an injunction, which was served the same evening, restraining the acting council from further proceedings. The ''council of ten" then took possession under the injunction and were sworn by I. M. Kirkpatrick. Present, David Graham, W. A. Robison, Robert G. Home, J. B. Sofield, J. Ross Hanna, J. C. Kilgore. T. 0. Hamsher and T. r1. Perry. David Graham was chosen mayor pro tern. The returns of the election of May 8 were canvassed and the result declared. I. P. Pillsbury then presented his official bond as mayor, which was approved, and he assumed the duties of the office. J. W. Smith was appointed city marshal. May 16 the injunction was dissolved, and the bill dismissed. It was decided to take the case at once to the Supreme Court of the state for decision on a writ of quo warranto, the "Big Four" being left in charge of the city affairs in the meantime. A pro forma decision was given in the lower court, and in order to gain time the case was taken at once to the Supreme Court, which docketed it and set it for hearing at the September term. The '"Big Four" resumed business at the old stand May 18, and on June 5 the special election was held as ordered, I. P. Pillsbury being again elected mayor, and W. A. Robison and J. B. Sofield aldermen for the East ward. They qualified June 5. In October the Supreme Court dismissed the case before it, on the ground that it had not come through the Appellate Court, as it should have done, and the matter was dropped for good.

The mayors of the city of Monmouth from its incorporation to the present time have been as follows:

Under the old charter—Samuel Wood, 1852; George W. Palmer, 1853; E. S. Swinney, 1854; Robert Grant, 1855; W. H. Young, 1856; I. Quinby, 1857; J. H. Holt, 1858; N. A. Rankin, 1859-1860; H. G. Harding, 1861-1862; Samuel Wood, 1863; William Cowan, 1864-1865; George Babcock, 1866; John M. Turnbull, 1867; Samuel Wood, 1868; J. A. Templeton, 1869; S. Douglas, 1870; W. B. Boyd, 1871; W. M. Buffington, IS72; D. Babcock, 1873; J. H. Holt, 1874-1875; J. L. Dryden, 1876; J. H. Holt, 1877; J. M. McCutcheon, 1878-1879; William Hanna, 1880-1881. Under the general law—Ithamar P. Pillsbury, 1882; Henry Burlingim, 1883-1884; W. B. Young, 1885-1886; Ithamar P. Pillsbury, 1SS7-188S; Henry Burlingim, 1SS9-1890; Warren E. Taylor, 1891-1892; William B. Wolf, 1893-1894; Reimer Lahann, 1895-1896; Frank L. Hall, 1897-1898: William A. Sawyer, 1899-1903.

THE CITY SEAL.

The seal of the City of Monmouth is in circular form, with the words "City of Monmouth" on the outer circle, and the words "Warren County" and a flying eagle in the center. It was adopted by ordinance passed May 2, 1857.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Matters Pertaining to the City—Fire Department. City Waterworks, Parks. City Buildings. Sewerage System. Street Paving. Police Department, Additions to the City, Telephone Exchanges, Electric Railways, Population, Etc.

The Monmouth Fire Department has few superiors among the volunteer fire-fighting organizations of the country. As at present constituted it includes Engine Company No. 1, the Rough and Ready' Hook and Ladder Company, Hose Company No. 1, and Hose Company No. 3. Most of the apparatus is housed on the first floor of the City Hall on First avenue east of Main street, including the chemical engine of which George Claycomb is custodian; a hook and ladder wagon of which T. O. Wilcox is custodian; and a hose wagon of which W. H. Sloan is custodian. Stables in the rear accommodate the three teams belonging to these wagons. At the Hose House No. 3, in the southwest part of the city, in the factory district, is a hose cart manned by Hose Company No. 3. The "William Hanna" fire engine, now little used, is kept at the city scale building on North First street and Archer avenue.

The department had its beginnings in the purchase of a small fire engine by the city in November, 1855. It was made by Cowan & Co., of Seneca Falls, N. Y., and cost $200 at the shop. The purchase of this engine was followed December 26, 1855, by the organization of the Monmouth Fire Company. A constitution and by-laws were adopted, and the following officers elected: Carlos Gamble, captain; Joseph A. Boynton, first foreman; Orrin Gamble, second foreman; Nathan Carr, Jr., treasurer; W. M. Gregg, clerk. The records of this company have been lost and the names of the other original members can not now be learned.

A fire during the night of January 14, 1868, which destroyed a row of business buildings extending along Broadway from First street to the alley east of the present Lahann block, had the effect of waking the city up to the need of a better fire department and more' efficient apparatus. At a meeting a few days later the council appointed Joseph A. Boynton chief fire marshal, Samuel Claycomb first assistant, and W. A. Robison, second assistant. It also authorized the fire marshal to organize a hook and ladder company of thirty men as early as practicable, and ordered the sale of city bonds to the amount of $10,000 for the purpose of purchasing a new fire engine. The mayor was authorized to purchase the engine, and secured one, a combination of a Holly pump and rotary engine, with Clapp circulating boiler, and manufactured by H. C. Silsby & Co., Seneca Falls, N. Y. A public trial of the machine was held May 21, 1868, and was very satisfactory. Less than a week later Richard Perrott lost his life through this engine. The machine was being drawn to a fire in the south part of town, and Mr. Perrott attempted to get hold of the rope by which it was being hauled, but stumbled and fell, and one of the wheels passed over his chest. He died within a couple of hours.

The Rough and Ready Hook and Ladder Company was organized by Fire Marshal Boynton, February 22, 1868, in pursuance of instructions given him by the council. The officers elected were: John E. Alexander, foreman; William A. Grant, assistant; T. H. Lee, secretary; Charles Brown, treasurer. The constitution and by-laws were adopted a week later and the company fully organized. Among the names of the early members of the company were: John E. Alexander, Wm. A. Grant, D. S. Hass, Jacob Krollman, Charles E. Wolfe, Charles Brown, T. H. Lee, D. D. Randall, Wm. Milliken, M. H. Holliday, C. u. Shoemaker, M. L. Standsbury, D. Williams, S. Burns, Jas. Tarbell, E. E. Webb, E. B. Miles, L. D. Robinson, R. H. Randall, J. W. Berger, Hampton Mackey, R. Wagstaff, W. B. Young, Chas. Smilie, J. B. Weir, J. M. Campbell, A. W. Fluke, J. A. Montgomery, G. L, Mitchell, W. C. Shoemaker. The Rough and Ready Company won quite a reputation throughout the state in its early history, and of later years it has been equally well known. In 1876 it won the championship at the first annual meeting of the Illinois State Firemen's Association at Decatur; won it again at Galesburg in 1877, and a third time at Chicago in 1878. By these three victories the company secured a solid silver belt, which it still owns and cherishes. The company also won first prize and belt and second national prize, a lantern, at the National Firemen's tournament at Chicago in 1878. A team from this company and the Alerts, under the name of the "Nip and Tucks," won another championship and belt at the state tournament at Quincy in 1881, and at Monmouth in 1880. They also won a fine lantern and a billiard table at Quincy. In 1894 the Rough and Ready team won the championship at Edwardsville, took it again at Decatur in 1895, but lost the third of the series at Naperville in 1896. The company now consists of sixteen members, with the following officers: E. L. Hamilton, foreman; John McMillan, first assistant; George Dickey, second assistant; T. O. Wilcox, secretary. The hook and ladder wagon to which this company is assigned was purchased from the Wayne Manufacturing Company, of Decatur, in 1899 and cost $1000.

February 27, 1868, five days after the preliminary organization of the Rough and Ready Hook and Ladder Company, the Little Giant Fire Engine Company No. 1 was organized. A committee appointed at a previous meeting presented a constitution which was adopted, and the following officers were elected: Orrin W. Gamble, foreman; L. C. Nott, first assistant; D. C. Brady, second assistant; Hugh Henry, chief engineer; Geo. H. Nye, first assistant; A. R. Cannon, second assistant; Hugh Robison, third assistant; L. S. Stansburg, foreman Hose Company No. 1; B. H. Smith, first assistant; Thos. Shoop, second assistant; W. C. Bake, foreman Hose Company No. 2; F. A. Allen, first assistant; J. A. Gettemy, second assistant; A. H. Swain, secretary; John Porter, treasurer; G. A. Scott, George R. Barbour, representatives. In addition to these the following were charter members of the company: Wy-man Perry, T. H. Alexander, N. A. Scott, H. W. Dredge, W. H. Armsby, Isaac Leeper, J. W. Berger, R. M. Campbell, J. S. Spriggs, R. H. Greenleaf, E. C. Johnson, D. D. Earp, W. A. Cannon, B. H. Neff, Jonathan Mackey, Dennis Streeter, Geo. H. Dennis, A. J. Patterson, S. A. Gibson, Win. Cecil, Steve Gamble, Jas. W. Beard, A. R. Kingsbury, J. Sullivan, Chas. Jamison, George Butler, Lem. M. Lusk, John T. Reichard, I. A. Palmer. At a meeting of the company July 8, 1868, the name was changed by unanimous consent to the Monmouth Engine Co. No. 1, and by this name has since been known. Of the original company only L. M. Lusk and F. A. Allen remain in active connection with the company. No new members have been enrolled since 1890, and the company itself has not taken an active part in fire fighting since the establishment of the present waterworks plant and the relegation of the steam fire engine to the shelf. The present roll bears the names of fifteen active and eleven honorary members. The company was incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois November 16, 1892. L. M. Lusk is foreman; Win Scott first assistant; Sam S. Clark, second assistant; O. D. Wilcox, treasurer; Eugene W. Stevens, secretary; N. S. Woodward, steward.

In the fall of 1874 the city bought the lot on which Engine House No. 2 stands and erected the building shortly afterward. At a meeting of the council April 29, 1875, it was decided to purchase a chemical engine with hose and hook and ladder attachments, and a contract was made with the Champion Fire Extinguisher Co., of Louisville, Kentucky, for a machine of their make. The engine came in June and is yet one of the most efficient parts of the fire apparatus of Monmouth. Its cylinders have a capacity of 160 gallons, possessing an extinguishing power equal to 6,400 gallons of common water. It weighs 3,000 pounds and cost the city $2,500. It is now housed in Engine House No. 1, its old home having been abandoned in 1900.

May 5, 1875, a new fire company was organized to man the chemical engine. It was christened the Major Holt Engine Co. 2, and the first officers were: John M. Campbell, foreman; Geo. W. McAdams, first assistant; Charles Allen, second assistant; Jonathan Mackey, steward; Isaac Marks, secretary; J. W. Sipner, treasurer. The other charter members were J. A. Corry, Jerry Leeper, G. W. Sperry, H. C. Miller,. Jonathan Mackey, Charles W. Gilbert, Fred Rosenzweig, R. L. Russell, Ed Reed, L. S. Holden, W. W. Brooks, Armstrong Crandall, Ross Rush, Wm. Nye, Milt Robinson, Denzel Williams, T. H. Numbers, W. H. Sexton, T. B. Edwards, Jacob Nayler, Geo. W. Samson, J. H. Shipping, T. H. Johnson, Arthur Frymire.

Later a hose company was organized at Engine House No. 2, with twenty-seven members, and F. Mathers, foreman; L. D. Earp, first assistant; C. Coultrap, second assistant; F. Weidenbauer, secretary; G. Starr Cutler, treasurer; and J. Smiley, steward. It was disbanded when the apparatus was moved to Engine House No. 1.

The Alert Hook and Ladder Company was organized early in 1879. It had its quarters at Engine House No. 2, and was officered as follows: Fred Rosenzweig, foreman; Ed Reed, assistant; James Scott, second assistant; H. W. Johnson, secretary; H. C. Robinson, treasurer. This organization has been out 01 business for ten or fifteen years.

Hose Co. No. 1, originally a part of Engine Co. No. 1, was reorganized as an independent company December 11, 1901, with twenty members. They were: W. S. Findley, G. E. Bunker,. Wilson Sloan, John Gayer, G. D. Dunbar, May-nard Hawkins, L. J. Berner, John Donaldson,. John Robertson, F. S. Weir, D. Q. Webster, George Shaw, Marshall Sloats, E. E. Johnson, W. A. SpeigeL C. W. Allen, Fred Barnes, Fred Lusk and Gallard Hollidaj^. The officers are: Wilson Sloan, foreman; C. W. Allen, assistant foreman; G. E. Bunker, secretary and treasurer. The hose wagon which this company mans was purchased by the Fire Department and presented to the city in the fall of 1894. The department also provided a horse for the wagon, but it was afterward sold and a team purchased.

Hose Co. No. 3 was organized at a meeting at the Fourth Ward hose house January 19, 1895, by Chief O. D. Wilcox, acting on instructions from the city council. Thirteen names were on the roll of charter members. The officers chosen were: J. P. Moore, foreman; D. H. Williams, first assistant; John Flaherty, second assistant; D. D. Dunkle, secretary. The present officers of the company are: J. P. Moore, foreman; Charles Lee, first assistant; James Lee, second assistant; E. E. Toal, secretary; Charles Nye, treasurer; S. B. Reed, steward. The hose house occupied by this company was built in the fall of 1894, and it has in its cupola the fire bell formerly on the City Hall. One hose cart comprises the equipment of the company.

The "William Hanna" steam fire engine was purchased by the city in December, 1881, at a cost of $2,500. It is a Silsby—the same make as its predecessor, but a much better machine. It was given its name in honor of Monmouth's late esteemed citizen, William Hanna, who was at that time mayor of the city. The engine is now kept at the city scale house, and it is only used on extraordinary occasions.

THE WATERWORKS.

There was a good deal of talk during the summer of 1886 about the need of waterworks in Monmouth, but the difficulty always was about the water supply. There was no running river near by, shallow wells were uncertain and the water not always the best, and the question of where to get the water was a puzzle. An engineer was brought, who made various preliminary borings at different points, but nothing satisfactory was learned. Along in August it was proposed that an artesian well be sunk, and the Monmouth Artesian Well Company was incorporated with about 100 stockholders, including nearly every business man of the city. They met to organize August 28, and chose nine directors, who elected the officers of the company as follows: President, H. H. Pattee; secretary, Dr. S. M. Hamilton; treasurer, Fred E. Harding; executive committee, H. H. Pattee, N. A. Scott, W. K. Johnson. Soon afterward the company purchased part of Block 17 in Quinby & Lawrence's addition on North Sixth street, and drilling soon commenced. The objective point was the St. Peter's sandstone, and this was reached in due time, an unlimited supply of purest water
being found at a depth of 1,230 feet in March, 1887. Then matters rested until July 12, 1888. when the city council instructed the fire and water committee to purchase the artesian well if the price was satisfactory, and soon afterward the purchase was made for $3,000. The council outlined the route of the first mains to be laid, and let the contract to the Rockford Construction Co. for the construction of the plant complete except the engine house, pumps and boilers. The company laid a total of three and one-half miles of mains, which with the rest of the plant then put in cost the city about $33,000. The first test of the works was made March 11, 1SS9, under the direction of the fire and water committee consisting of W. W. Mc-Cullough, W. B. Wolf and D. C. Gowdy, with Fire Marshal H. A. Webster and Engineer W. A. Child. Streams of water were thrown over three-story buildings, and as high as the cross on the spire of the Catholic church, about 150 feet. Large additions to the mains have since been made, a second deep well was put in in 1893, and still a third in 1900, so that at the present time the city is well covered with mains and there is a supply of water sufficient for all demands for years to come, in 1900-1901 the three wells were connected by tunnels with a ten-foot shaft 175 feet deep. which, with the tunnels, was nearly a year in construction, owing to unforseen difficulties. At the bottom of the shaft was installed a huge pump with a capacity of one million gallons per day, and by this the water is pumped from the three deep wells to the reservoir, or through the mains to the stand tower erected also in 1900 on a lot owned by the city just north of the Burlington Railway tracks and between South Main and South First streets. These improvements were made after plans prepared by Engineer D. W. Mead of Chicago and adopted by the council February 5, 1900, and cost the city $36,000. R. G. Young was the first superintendent of the waterworks, and C. J. Eby is now in charge. The waterworks furnishes about 1,400 consumers, and produces an annual revenue of about $9,000. Eighty-three million gallons of water were pumped and consumed during the year ending April 30, 1902.

The city's first public water supply was furnished by two wells, dug by Joshua Boyle by order of the town board early in 1839, the year after the incorporation of the town, at a cost of $60. One was in the northeast angle of the publie square and the other in the northwest angle. One was in the northeast angle of the public square and the other in the northwest angle. Each was eighteen feet deep and three feet in diameter inside the stone wall, and fitted with a windlass and two buckets. Several years later a windmill was placed at-one of the wells.

PARKS.

Monmouth has three parks. Central Park is a small, circular plot of ground in the center of the public square. For scores of years the square was open and neglected, the crossing of two streets which were parts of State roads. It was subject to the whims of every city council and every street commissioner in turn, and much of the time was a mud hole and a disgrace to the city. In 1S90 a fountain was placed in the center of the square, and when the first street paving was done in 1S92 the square was paved, with the exception of the portion now included in the park. This portion was then surrounded by an iron railing, and the trees and grass were given good care. In 1901 flower beds were added. The park, though small, adds much to the appearance of the square.

West Park is on the south side of West Broadway and between B and C streets. It was originally known as Coburn Square, and later as Union Park. It is thickly set with large shade trees, and is a favorite place for outdoor meetings and public gatherings in warm weather.

North Park is in Quinby & Lawrence's addition in the north part of the city. It is bounded on the north by Franklin avenue, on the east by Fifth street, on the south by Euclid avenue, and on the west by Park Place, a short street running from Euclid avenue to Franklin. The park includes one block, is well shaded, and is used considerably by the residents of that part of the city.

There once was South Park, on the east side of South Main street. It is now occupied by the Iowa Central station and grounds.

THE CITY BUILDING.

The city council on March 2, 1S6S, instructed Mayor Samuel Wrood to purchase of N. and J. Carr the northeast corner of Lot 2, Block 25, in the old town plat, for city purposes. The

purchase was made, and under plans drawn up by Aldermen Dunn and Blackburn the building on East First avenue between Main and First streets was soon erected. It is a substantial brick building 38x45 feet, two stories high, affording room for the fire apparatus on the first floor and the city offices and firemen's headquarters on the second. The building was remodeled in 1900, and an addition built to the rear, with stables for the fire department horses on the ground floor and a room for the city council meetings above.

In the fall of 1874 the city bought the lot on East Fourth avenue on which Engine House No. 2 was erected. The chemical engine and one of the hose outfits were housed here until the city building on First avenue was remodeled in 1900, when all the fire apparatus except one hose cart at Hose House No. 3 in the Fourth Ward was placed in the central building.

THE CITY PRISON.

The city prison on Lot 1, Block 10, on North Main street between the public square and Archer avenue, was built in the summer of 1887. Previous to that time the county jail had been used for city prisoners, but that was not satisfactory to the county authorities and the city building was erected. It was opened for use in October, and the first inmate was a man employed on the Santa Fe construction.

THE FIVE WARDS.

The division of the city into the five wards as they now exist was made by the city council by ordinance passed November 22, 1882. The First ward is in the central part of the city, comprising what was the original town plat. It was bounded on the north by Boston avenue, on the east by Sixth street, on tne south by the C, B. & Q. railroad and Fifth avenue, and on the west by B street. The Second ward is northeast of the First, east of North First street and north of East Second avenue; the Third, northwest of the First, west of North First street and north of West Second avenue; the Fourth, southwest of First, south of West Second avenue and west of South First street; and the Fifth, southeast of the First, east of South First street and south of East Second avenue.

STREET NAMES CHANGED.

The city council at its meeting November 15, 1887, changed the names of several of the streets in order more conveniently to carry out .a scheme for numbering the houses, but the present names of the streets were not adopted until January 5, 1891, when an ordinance was passed changing the names of all the streets but Main street and Broadway. The streets run north and south and the avenues east and west. The streets east of Main street are First, Second, Third, etc., and those west of Main street are A, B, C, D, etc. The avenues south of Broadway are First, Second, Third, etc., and those north of Broadway are Archer, Boston, Clinton, Detroit, Euclid, Franklin, Girard and Harlem. The alley at the southeast corner of the public square is Market Place, and the :short street along the west side of North Park is Park Place.

LEVELS AND GRADES.

Up to 1890 there was no uniform system of levels and grades in Monmouth. That summer -arrangements were made with Engineer John F. Wallace of Chicago to act as consulting engineer in making up such a system, and the survey began under his direction July 16. J. E. Miller and D. M. Grier did the work. The C, B. & Q. railroad company had recorded the track at the crossing as 775.327 feet above the sea level. The center of the public square was found to be seven feet lower, or 768.34, and with this as a basis the streets were surveyed and recorded and permanent benchmarks established. Benchmarks were put up at various street corners, a railroad spike being driven into the root of a tree for a mark wherever practicable. The elevations of Monmouth and the Mississippi valley are computed from the level of the Gulf of Mexico at Biloxi, Miss.

THE CITY FOUNTAIN.

The fountain in Central Park was erected in 1890, the water being first turned on October 16th of that year. It cost about $350, most of the money being raised by private subscriptions. The fountain is eighteen feet three inches high.

MONMOUTH'S SEWER SYSTEM.

The first sewer system in Monmouth was the Broadway and Main street system, established

by ordinance passed by the city council August 17, 1891. It provided for the construction of a sewer around the square; from the square out East Broadway to Sixth street; from the square down on South Main street to Fourth avenue; and down South First street from Broadway to the intersection of the water course between First and Second avenues. The city was to pay 20 per cent, of the cost, the remainder to be raised by special assessment on the adjoining property, one-fifth when the work was completed and the rest in four equal annual installments. The contract was let to Peter Simons of Burlington for $5,012.94. and work began October 12 and was completed in December. This sewer system has been extended and added to each year, and now covers the city pretty thoroughly. This year (1902) a sewage disposal plant after the septic plan is to be erected on land northeast of the city, where all the city's sewage will be emptied and disposed of.

STREET PAVING.

Street paving talk began in earnest in Monmouth during the winter of 1891-92. and the council held a meeting March 21, 1892, to consider the matter. After a free discussion it was unanimously voted to pave, and to provide the funds by special taxation. April 5 the first ordinances were passed, providing for six districts and covering the public square and parts of Main street, Broadway, Second avenue and First street. The preliminary surveys for the paving began April 7, the contracts were let May 2, and the first brick was laid July 1 by Alderman C. L. Buck, chairman of the street and alley committee. It was at the corner of East Broadway and South First street. The contractors were Wilson & Thatcher, who paved the square, and W. W. McCullough, who had the rest of the work. May 2, 1892, West Fourth avenue and E street were ordered paved from Main street to the C, B. & Q. depot grounds. Soon afterward other districts were added, and now the public square and some eighty blocks are paved with brick, most of it single course on a bed of sand.

CITY LIGHTING.

When the Edison Illuminating Co. put in its plant in 1888, a system of incandescent lights was arranged for the lighting of the streets, which previous to that time had been lighted by gas. In the winter of 1892-93 the company added to the facilities of the plant, and the city changed to the arc system of lighting. The new lights were turned on in January, 1893. There are about 110 arc lights in the street lighting system, costing the city $66 each per year.

POLICE DEPARTMENT.

The Monmouth Police Department consists at the present time of City Marshal A. B. Holli-day, Sergeant Webb Morrison and Officers X T. Graham and George Weidenbauer. All were appointed by the mayor subject to the approval of the Council. The police station was built in 1887, the force appeared for the first time in uniform July 19, 1893, and the patrol wagon and horse were added to the department in July, 1S98.

ADDITIONS TO THE CITY

Monmouth as originally platted occupied the southwest quarter of Section 29, and that is still known as the "old town plat." In 1841 the limits were extended to include one-half mile in each direction from the public square; and the charter adopted by the legislature in 1852 fixed the boundaries at one mile from the center of the public square in each direction, making the city cover four square miles of territory- In June, 1853, Joseph Paddocks made and recorded a survey of the city as included in these boundaries, setting a stone at each corner; and stones on North Main street, South Main street, East Broadway, and West Broadway, each 320 rods from the center of the public square. In 1859 the charter was amended, and the city limits curtailed to all of Section 29, the east half of Section 30, the northeast quarter of Section 31, and the north half of Section 32; and these lands still comprise the city, though there are out-lots on all sides which are built up and really belong to the city.

The additions to the city since the laying out of the town, with the number of blocks, and the date of the surveys, are as follows: Harding's addition of twenty-four blocks, in 1S53; W7ood & Carr's addition of 13 blocks, in 1854; Webster & Holloway's addition, 7 blocks, in 1854; South addition, 22 blocks, in 1855; Thompson's addition, 6 blocks, in 1855; Coburn's addition 16 blocks, in 1S56; Thompson's supplement to Coburn's addition, 2 blocks, 1857: Haley's addition, 12 blocks, in 1S57; College addition, 22 blocks, lo59; Harding's supplement, 7 fractional blocks, in 1861; Gowdy's addition, 2 blocks, in 1861; Hill's addition, a triangular block, in 1861; Quinby & Lawrence's addition, 27 blocks, in 1S64; Wood's addition, 3 irregular blocks, in 1866; Clark's addition, 5 blocks, four of which have since been vacated, in 1S66; Morgan's addition, 4 blocks, in 1S66; Jenks' addition, 1 block (Monmouth Plow works site), in 1867; Clark's block 3, in 1857; H. G. Harding's subdivision (Corktown), in 1866; addition to Morgan's, 17 blocks, in 1875; Morgan's second addition, 16 blocks, in 1S76; Dryden's addition, 5 blocks, in 1885; East addition, 1 block, in 1SSS; Sipher's addition, 16 blocks, in 1891-92; Columbian addition. 3 blocks, in 1891; Broadway addition, 4 blocks, in 1891; supplement to Thompson's addition, 1 block, in 1891; F. W. Harding's addition, 3 blocks, in 1S91; supplement to Broadway addition. 1 block, in 1891; supplement to Sipher's addition, 1 block, in 1891; P. Brodine's addition, 1 block, in 1891; Jas. B. Clark's addition, 14 blocks, in 1892; Foster & Rugh's addition, 11 blocks, in 1892; South Park addition, S blocks, in 1S93; West Park addition, 4 blocks, in 1893: Babcock's addition, 4 blocks, in 1893; West Side addition, 9 blocks, in 1893; supplement to Foster & Rugh's addition, 4 blocks, in 1893; Dunn's addition, 2 blocks, in 1894; Apsey's addition, 1 block, in 1895; Firoved & Sexton's addition, 6 blocks, in 1899; Hoy & Groves' addition. 1 block, .in 1S99; Cox & Hallam's addition, 6 blocks, in 1900; Martin's addition. 2 blocks, in 1900; supplement to Firoved & Sexton's addition, 2 blocks, in 1900; Perry's addition, 2 blocks, in 1902.

A movement was on foot in the spring of 1899, to have H. G. Harding's subdivision, popularly known as Corktown. incorporated as a village, in order that saloons might be licensed there when there were none in Monmouth, but the required population was not found and the matter had to be dropped.

TELEPHONE EXCHANGES.

Monmouth has two telephone exchanges, with in the neighborhood of 1000 'phones in the city, and lines extending out into the country and reaching large numbers of the farmers of the vicinity. Connections are also made with adjoining cities and towns, and by long distance lines with all parts of the Union.

The Central Union Telephone Company put in its exchange here in the winter of 1881-82. The lines were in full operation about the first of February, 1882, and the line too Kirkwood was made a few months later; also the connection with Galesburg. The Marshall-Tobie Telephone lines in Mercer county were connected with the Central Union exchange March 6, 1896, and extended on south too Roseville and Swan Creek the next fall, and the Henderson County Telephone Company's lines were connected with the exchange September 15, 1897. The Central Union rebuilt its plant the summer of 1900, and has also put in several farmers' lines during the past two years.

As a result of agitation in favor of a competing telephone exchange, which began as early as the winter of 1889-1900, a franchise for an independent exchange was given by the city council too W. W. McCullough, president of the Monmouth Business Men's Association, September 18, 1900. Bills & Wortham, of Chicago, as promoters put in the plant and organized the Monmouth Telephone Company with a capital stock of $35,000, which was afterward increased too $50,000. The company was chartered October 22, 1900, and temporarily organized November 17 following, with F. L. Bills as president and C. M. Smith secretary. January 11, 1901, it was permanently organized with the following officers: President, W. P. Graham; vice president, W. J. McQuiston; treasurer, H. B. Smith; secretary and manager, R. Lahann; directors, W. P. Graham, H. B. Smith, W. J. McQuiston, R. Lahann, J. F. Searles, C. C. McClung, James Galbraith, G. A. Schussler, Jesse Lanphere. Work began on the plant about November 1, 1900, and service started with one hundred 'phones in operation May 3, 1901. R. Lahann was made manager May 14, 1901. The Henderson County Farmers' Line, which had previously established a local station at the store of McQuiston & Son, was connected with the Monmouth Telephone Company's exchange June 18, 1901; the line too Gerlaw and Alexis was connected in August of the same year; and lines too Berwick, Little York, Roseville, Galesburg, and a number of farmers' lines later.

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.

The Monmouth Traction Company was licensed by the secretary of state March 13, 1902, with W. W. McCullough, S. S. Hallam, and W. B. Young as incorporators, and a capital stock of $10,000. In July, 1899, these gentlemen had asked for a franchise too construct and operate a street railway in the city, and it had been granted by the city council August 7 following. The franchise now in force includes rights on all the principal streets of the city, and the company is required too have the line in operation on each street by the spring of 1904 or the franchise becomes void. The work of construction is too begin at once, and it is promised that the cars will be running within the specified time. The company expects also too construct several interurban lines running out from Monmouth.

In 1875 Monmouth had a street railway (on paper). Articles of incorporation were filed with the secretary of state in May of that year for the Monmouth Street Railway. The capital of the company was $25,000, and it proposed too build the railway from the C, B. & Q. passenger station, then at the crossing on South Third street, up First street too the square, then west too the Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis station, and possibly out East Broadway too the college. The road never was built.

Another Monmouth Street Railway Company was incorporated March 25, 1882, but neither did it ever get any farther than on paper. The incorporators were Samuel Douglass, J. E. Alexander and Dr. N. S. Woodward, and the capital stock was $25,000.

March 4, 1891, the secretary of state licensed the incorporation of the Monmouth Motor Street Railway Company. The capital stock was $30,000 and the incorporators were J. E. Foster, J. W. Foster and G. W. Foster, all residents of Monmouth. The object stated in the charter was too "construct and maintain a railway in the streets and alleys of Monmouth, Warren county, for the transportation of passengers, baggage, freight, fuel, and the United States mails by electricity or other power and too furnish light and heat." A franchise was secured from the city, and a portion of the route was mapped out, but matters never went any further and the franchise was forfeited.

POPULATION.

The population of Monmouth, according too the federal census reports, has been as follows:

1830 ..........................

1840 ..........................

1850 .......................... 780

I860 .......................... 2,503

1870 .......................... 6,237

1880 .......................... 5,004

1890 .......................... 5,936

1900 .......................... 7,460

This counts only the residents inside the corporate limits. There are in the neighborhood of 500 additional in the immediate vicinity who might properly be counted in the city's population.



CHAPTER XXIV.

History of the Monmouth Postoffice—Established in 1831 as Warren Court House Post-office, Free Delivery and Rural Delivery Service—The Government Building.

When Warren county was organized the nearest postoffice was fifty or sixty miles away, and the county commissioners early took action toward the establishment of one in the county. In the records of that body under date of September 10, 1830, appears the following order:

''The clerk of the Warren county commissioners' court will certify too the postmaster general of the United States at Washington City, that the county of Warren was organized on the third day of July last past, and that the temporary seat of justice is and was located at the lower Yellow Banks on the Mississippi river, in town eleven north of range five west, on the 9th day of July, and about half way between the Des Moines and Rock River rapids, and request the postmaster general too establish a postoffice at said county seat, too be called Warren Court House Post-office; and further request him too forward the mail immediately, too said office, either from Fulton county, Schuyler county, or from Venus, Hancock county. And the clerk will place the foregoing upon the records of this court.

"Given under our hands in vacation of court this 10th day of September, A. D. 1830. John Lawrence, John B. Talbot, County Commissioners.'*

A petition for a postoffice at Cedar Creek was sent too the Department about the same time and that postoffice was ordered first, in the winter of 1830-31. The Warren Court House postoffice was established in the spring, with Daniel McNeil as postmaster, but the establishment of the county seat at Monmouth in April delayed the arrangements and the first mail was not received until in June. Cedar Creek was then supplied from the Warren Court House office at Monmouth, the latter receiving the first mail. Daniel McNeil held the position of postmaster about eleven years, and old • settlers have told the story that the very few letters and papers he received from the stage routes were carried in his hat and given too the parties addressed wherever he might meet them. Soon, however, he built a store building on the corner now occupied by the National Bank of Monmouth, and kept the office there. He was succeeded by Elijah Davidson, probably in 1842 or 1843, though the exact date can not now be found. William F. Smith was the next postmaster, receiving his appointment soon after the election of President Polk, and serving until 1S49. He kept the office in his store on the south side of the square, west of Main street. Robert Grant had the office from July, 1S49, until early in 1853, first on the north side of the square west of Main street, and later on the north side east of Main street. Early in 1853 Azro Patterson was appointed postmaster, keeping the office in his store, but resigning in a few months in favor of Aquillin W. Noe, who served until July 1, 1S56, occupying a small building on the east side of the square about half way between the northeast corner and Broadway. Thomas H. Davidson became postmaster July 1, 1856, and held the position until January, 1S59, when he was removed by President Buchanan and William Clark appointed in his stead. Mr. Davidson kept the office on the north side of East Broadway west of First street until November, 1857, when he removed too the south room in the Langdon block, which stood on the present site of the Second National Bank building. His successor, Mr. Clark, occupied the same room awhile, then moved around the corner too a room where Johnson's jewelry store now stands. William H. Pierce followed Mr. Clark in 1861, having the office first on the west side of South First street between Broadway and Market Place, but afterwards erected a building on the south side of Broadway a little east of First street. In May, 1865, Capt. John M. Turnbull took the office holding it until the fall of 1866 when he was removed by President Andrew Johnson, who appointed Dr. B. A. Griffith, now of Swan Creek, in his place. The Senate refused too confirm the appointment, and after about six months Captain Turnbull was reinstated, and served until April 1, 18S7, when the election of a Democratic President, Grover Cleveland, was the occasion of a change. Captain Turnbull built a small office on South Main street just north of West First avenue, occupying it until January, 1867, when the" office was removed too the east room of the Hardin block on East Broadway, where it remained for nearly thirty years. The office was temporarily in the old Baptist church on the corner of South First street and First avenue, in the spring of 1896, then in June of that year was taken too the Shultz building on South Main street, a half block north of its present site, where it remained until the government building was ready for occupancy in 1902. J. W. Lusk was postmaster from April, 1887, too April, 1891, Col. George Rankin from 1891 too 1895, Samuel S. Hallam from 1895 too 1899, and Clarence F. Buck is now in charge of the office.

Monmouth became a money order office in 1865. During the administration of J. W. Lusk, October 1, 1898. the free delivery service was inaugurated, starting with three carriers, W. B. Vorwick, Charles Bilenberger and George B. Moreland, a fourth. W. H. Dungan, being added a little later. The free "delivery carriers now number six and are Oscar Henry, Will A. Hayes, R. E. Saville, Swan Matson, James H. Wilson and C. M. Patterson, with Roy Reed as substitute. Rural free delivery, with the Monmouth office as the center, was inaugurated August 1, 1901, with five carriers. Each route is approximately 25 miles in length and serves about 500 persons. The carriers are Joseph Miller, Louis A. Kobler, A. D. Filler, Walter Palmer and Joseph A. Eayres.

March 12, 1888, Congressman Gest introduced in the National House of Representatives a bill appropriating $100,000 for the erection of a government building in Monmouth. The bill never got farther than the committee. Congressman Ben F. Marson introduced a bill in the Fifty-fifth Congress appropriating $47,000, and secured its passage, the bill being approved by President McKinley March 2, 1899. Proposals of sites were called for March. 21, twelve being offered, and on June 15 the property on South Main street north of West Second avenue was selected for the location of the building. The property was owned by W. H. Sexton and Harrison Miller, and cost the government $3,950. The total cost of the site was $8,000, but the difference was made up by private subscriptions. Bids for the construction of the building were opened July 18, 1900, the contract being let July 21 too Thomas M. Yeager & Son, of Danville, 111., for $26,973. Some changes increased the cost of the building itself, and the total cost with the furniture and fixtures reached $50,000. An additional appropriation of $3,0u0 was made by Congress in the spring of 1902 too meet the increased cost. The lot on which the government building stands is 130 by 132 feet, and the building itself is 49» by 81 feet on the outside. It is of the style of architecture known as the Italian Renaissance, popular in government buildings, and is constructed of gray pressed brick and Bedford limestone, with terra cotta trimmings. The building is but one-story, but a balustrade of brick and terra cotta which surmounts it rises too a height of 36 feet above the walk, giving the appearance of a greater height. The flagstaff is 70 feet high. The building was thrown open for a public reception on the evening of January 11, 1902, Congressman Marsh being the guest of honor, and the office was moved into the new quarters the following day.

The present post-office force is made up as follows:

Clarence F. Buck, postmaster.

James W. Scott, deputy.

H. B. Garrison, mailing clerk.

James Huff, general delivery.

Alex Rodgers, money order clerk.

George McKelvey, stamp clerk.

James Kipper, messenger.

W. P. Speakman, janitor.

Carriers are as given above.

CHAPTER XXV.

History of the Monmouth Public Schools— Robert Black the First Teacher—School Held in the Log Court house—Private Schools. Select Schools and Public Schools —School Buildings—Names of the Teachers.

(By James C. Burns, Superintendent 1888-1911) If necessity compels the historian too divide his narrative into periods, necessity has been kind too the chronicler of these events, in that he finds the divisions already made ere he enters upon his task. These divisions are not arbitrary, but are the result of legislation or the great movements in educational affairs. The first period in the history of the schools of Monmouth begins in 1831 with the sale of the sixteenth section of Congress land, thus creating a township fund for the support of schools, and extends too 1855 when the main features of the present school laws were enacted. The second period begins in 1855 and extends too about 1888, when the schools fen under those great influences known as the New Education; and the third period extends from 1888 too the present time.

FIRST PERIOD, 1831-1855.

Strange as it may seem, it is nevertheless true that for nearly a quarter of a century public schools in Monmouth, as well as throughout the state of Illinois, were supported without taxation. No man living in Illinois prior too 1855 ever paid a dollar of tax for the support of schools, too be expended in the erection of buildings or in the payment of teachers' wages. Through the generosity of the government two funds were created which furnished the cvJ" support of the schools for more than two decades. These funds were respectively known as the Township fund, arising from the sale of the sixteenth section, and the School fund proper, arising from the gift too the State of Illinois, by the Federal government, for school purposes, of three per cent, of all the money accruing from the sale of pub-.c lands within the state. This fund is also known as the Three Per Cent Fund. From the interest of these two funds, and from a tuition, called a "subscription," paid by the parents of scholars, public schools in Illinois were supported during the first period of their existence.

The characteristic feature of this period was the private school. It flourished side by side with the public school, sometimes for healthy rivalry, often too its great detriment. The first school in Monmouth was private, and was taught by Robert Black, a native of Virginia, who came here from Massey's Creek, Ohio. He was an elder in the Seceder church, and taught the children too read the Bible, and too repeat the Shorter Catechism. In addition he gave lessons in the A B C's. reading, writing and arithmetic, and especially spelling, using Webster's old blue-back spelling book and such other books as the pupil happened too have. This school was taught during the summer of 1S32 in the old log court house that stood on the corner of North Main street and Archer avenue. Forty-four scholars attended the school, some of them walking three and four miles, and Rollin Andrews from beyond Cedar Creek. Their names were: Quincy B. McNeil. Daniel McNeil, George McNeil, James A. Mc-.Callon,. David C. McCallon, John Hargrove, Solomon Hargrove, Emiline Hargrove, Solomon R. Perkins, John Black. John Wallace, Joshua Wallace, Milton Wallace. George B. Wallace, James Wallace, Thomas Gibson, Samuel Gibson, Sarah Gibson, James Gibson. John Gibson. John Kendall Gibson, George Ragland, Mary A. Ragland. Sarah J. Ragland. Rollin Andrews, Hugh Rust, Dema Rust, Lottie Rust, Valencoor Kendall, Sarah J. Kendall. Martin J. Kendall, George S. Kendall. Eliza Kendall, Jane Kendall, William B. Kendall. William A. Kendall, William Kendall. Jane Pollock. Robert Hodgens, Azro Dennison. Newton Dennison, Elmer Dennison. Thomas M. Dennison, Nancy J. Dennison. But one of these first pupils yet remains in Monmouth, Mrs. Edward Jones, or Martha Ann Kendall as she was then.

The second school was opened in the fall of 1832 and was taught by Alpheus Russell in the court house, and in 1833 Samuel L. Hogue taught in a log cabin near the present Catholic church. He was a fine man and a good teacher. Later he was sheriff of Warren county. In 1834 a young man named Everret taught in the old court house. He was in delicate health and soon gave up teaching that he might go south.

He was followed in 1835 by a wild Irishman named McElroy, who was equally proficient in penmanship, prayer meeting and whisky drinking. Taking a pen in each hand he would write with both right and left hand with equal facility. He established a prayer meeting in the old court house, where his earnest prayers and groans soon made him the center of attraction; but his intemperate habits soon drove him from the school room. The Seceders would not allow their children too attend the \prayer meeting—not because of the man's habits, but because he was a Methodist. A little later Lydia Webster and her sister, Mrs. Eliza Brown, taught a private school in a house on A street north of Dr. Webster's office.

The private schools were in constant session from 1832 too 1855, and were taught not only in the court house but in the Christian and Presbyterian churches, in unoccupied storerooms and cabins, and in more than one instance the spare room of a dwelling house was used for a school. Robert Gibson taught where the Patton block now is; W. B. Chamberlain and afterwards Amanda Paine taught on A street between First and Second avenues; Miss Watson taught in the Bar Parker house on South First street, and Hutchinson from Kirkwood taught somewhere unknown. In 1848 Richard Hammond taught a public school en the Y. M. C. A. lot, while W. B. Jenks taught near the Commercial house, and Mrs. Mary Byron taught in the Babcock tavern.

A popular form of school in the early '40s and '50s was the select school. It was a private school in which the higher branches were taught. One of the first of these was taught by Robert Armstrong Gibson in the old court house in 1841. Mr. Gibson had been educated for the ministry in the east, and probably gave the boys and girls of Monmouth their first taste of Latin, Greek and Algebra. Mrs. Margaret Montgomery and Sarah L. Boardman taught one of the earliest select schools. Miss Boardman was from Knox county and taught the higher branches. These select schools rapidly grew in importance, and able teachers were employed too conduct them. Miss Maria S. Madden opened a select school in the Christian church in February, 1852, and the next autumn W. B. Jenks opened one in the basement of the Presbyterian church on South Main street. There was connected with Mr. Jenks' school a teachers' institute for the purpose of
examining and qualifying teachers, as Mr. Jenks was at that time school commissioner of Warren county. His was the most notable of all the select schools. Many men and women prominent today in business and social circles both in this city and elsewhere attended.

In May, 1853, a Grammar School or Academy was established under the patronage of the Second Presbytery of the Associate Reformed church, which later developed into Monmouth College. The Academy opened in the following November, and the next summer Mr. Jenks' school was consolidated with it. With the coming of the college, private* schools may be said too have disappeared from Monmouth, for the select school could not compete with the college, nor the subscription school with the rapidly growing public schools.

The census of 1830 showed a population of 308 in Warren county. These people were gathered into two groups, a small group of merchants and traders at Yellow Banks, now Oquawka, and a larger group of farmers about Sugar Tree Grove and in the country north of where Monmouth now is. The people of the eastern group early became restless about the education of their children, and petitioned the county commissioners too sell the sixteenth section, that is, the school lands of the present Monmouth township, that the proceeds might be used for the education of their children. As a result of this petition, in September, 1831, Alexis Phelps of Yellow Banks was appointed commissioner of school lands, and in the following October, having divided the sixteenth section of this township into lots ranging in size from ten acres too eighty, he sold a portion of them at public auction in front of the court house, and the remainder at private sale. The entire section brought $927.50. After defraying the expenses, there was a balance left of $850, which was immediately loaned at 12 y-> per cent, interest, thus creating the first public school fund in Monmouth. This fund has been preserved inviolate and amounts too $850 today.

In 1833, the legislature of Illinois for the first time made provision for the payment of teachers from the proceeds of school funds. Our people promptly responded by establishing, March 6, 1834, the boundaries of a school district containing sixteen square miles, the election of a board of school trustees, the purchase of a lot, the employment of a teacher, and the opening of a school. The spot on which the public schools of Monmouth were opened is the ground now occupied by the Y. M. C. A.

On September 3, 1832, the county commissioners had set apart this lot—Lot 2, Block 26 —for a public school lot, the deed too be made when the district should pay $4.00 for the lot. In 1835 a frame school house was erected on the lot, and for many years a public school was maintained there. It was a small structure, eighteen feet square, with an eight foot ceiling. It served its purpose well until 1S4S, when the growing population demanded a more commodious building. It was then sold for a dwelling, and now stands on South Third street, between First and Second avenues, almost within the shadow of the Central school building, the tiny structure being in marked contrast too its majestic successor, a mute but potent lesson of progress.

December 8, 1836, the school trustees reported too the county commissioner that the school was growing and the building soon would not accommodate all the pupils, so additional lots were set aside for school purposes. They were lot 1, block 38, on the northeast corner of East Third avenue and South Second street; lot 1, block 47, on the west side of South Fourth street south of Fifth avenue; and the northeast corner of block 46, on A street and Fourth avenue. Only one of these sites—lot 1, block 46, was purchased by the district, $10.00 being paid for it December 5, 1838. It was never used for a school, however, but was sold when the city bought part of block 48 for a site for the old East Ward school building, in 1857.

In 1847 there were 308 children of school age in the district, and the small structure was inadequate too accommodate them. A movement was started too raise money too build a larger school house but met with so much opposition that it was abandoned. The next year the movement was again started. The building was too be 26 feet in width by 36 in length, and too be built in the style of a single room rural school house, with the door in one end and two small cloak rooms on each side of the entrance. The building was too cost $800, and like its predecessor, was too be erected solelj7 by voluntary contribution. It was a large amount for these people, but brave hearts undertook the task, the women coming

too the help of the men with a "school house sewing circle," and finally the money was raised and the school house was built. In 1857 it was moved too the West Ward school grounds, where it did service until 1860, and now easily shelters the family of William Cowan on North B street.

These two buildings furnished the public school accommodations during the pioneer period of their existence. In the first rude structure the first public school was taught in the summer of 1834. In October Gilbert Turn- •*-bull and James McCallon, school trustees, made the following report too the County Commissioners: "There are in the district fifty children between the ages of five and twenty-one years. There has been a school kept three months since the organization of the district. There have been twenty-five scholars. The probable expense will be forty-five dollars."

The following persons are known too have taught in these or in rented buildings during this period:

Alpheus Russell, 1834, the first public school in the county; Eliphalet Elifret, 1835; W. L. McElroy, 1836; Gilbert Turnbuli^Elisha A. Smith, 1837; W. R. Webster. 1838; E. M. Well-man, 1838-40; Margaret R. Montgomery, 1838-41; Addison Black, 1839: Cornelia Ann Davidson, 1839; Nelson White, 1839-41; Persia N. Williams, 1839-41: William B. Chamberlain, 1840-41; John A. Smith, 1840; Moses C. Kellum, 1841-42; Mary L. Boardman, 1841; Thomas C. Moore, 1841-42; Ellen P. Phelps, 1842; Noah Randall, 1842-45; E. D. Adams, 1842; Harriet E. Hamlin, 1843; Chauncey Hatch, 1844; Amanda Paine. 1845-46; Eliphalet Elifret, 1846; Richard Hammond. 1848; Amos Harding, 1849-50; William Williams, 1849; Joshua Miner. 1850: William Stewart, 1850; Emily A. Hale. 1850; J. H. Hutchinson, 1850; W. B. Jenks, 1850-59; Maria S. Madden, 1851; W. W. Home, 1S52; Mary A. Ferguson, 1851; A. H. Tracy. 1854.

Mr. Randall was perhaps the most efficient teacher of this period. He was born in Vermont in 1820, and had been well educated in his native state., for in addition too the common school studies of reading, writing and arithmetic, He taught algebra, astronomy and philosophy. He began teaching in 1841, and taught until 1845, first in the little frame school house on the Y. M. C. A. lot, and afterwards in the Christian church on the corner of Second street and Archer avenue.

A characteristic of the early schools was the spelling matches, and these reached their climax in Monmouth in 1849 when Amos Harding was the teacher. He was General Harding's brother, "powerful in spelling and arithmetic," and confined his teaching largely too these two branches of which he was a thourouth master. While no challenge was ever sent it was clearly understood the country round that he and his school were ever ready "too enter the lists." Jonathan French, Dan Shehi and the Weaver girls were the best spellers in Monmouth and before them went down the pride of all surrounding schools.
 

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