1903 Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois

 ~~ Warren County

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SECOND PERIOD.

The year 1855 marks an epoch in the history of the schools of Monmouth, as well as of those throughout the entire state; for in that year the chief features of our present school law were enacted. The features may be stated as follows: 1, a school system based upon law; 2, schools free too all children between the ages of five and twenty-one years; 3, expenses defrayed by general tax upon all classes of property. These features had been engrafted into the law of 1825, but met with such clamorous opposition that the act was repealed before it became effective, and Illinois was compelled too wait for decades for a school law of any value. Prior too 1855 school houses were built solely by voluntary contributions, and teachers were paid in the same manner, except the pittance from the school funds established by the Federal government. Now the state assumed the responsibility of the education of the youth, and the entire wealth of Illinois was pledged too this purpose.

The new law gave a great impulse too public education throughout the state. A great wave of enthusiasm in behalf of public schools was sweeping over the country. Every state in the old Northwest Territory was adopting liberal school laws, while the eastern states were making extensive provisions for normal schools. The methods of teaching advocated by Horace Mann and David Page were transforming the school thought of the time. Old things were passing away, all things were becoming new. Our people were quick too respond too the new conditions. April 30, 1855, the township trustees levied "a tax of twenty-five cents on each hundred dollars worth of taxable property in the township for the payment of teachers' wages for the space of one year." This tax was the extreme limit allowed for educational purposes. In August of the same year, the city council levied a tax of sixty cents on the hundred for the purpose of building a public school house, and followed up the next year with a tax of eighty cents on the hundred too complete the structure. These liberal provisions, together with the two mill tax from the state and the revenues from the Federal school funds, gave ample provision for placing the public schools upon a solid foundation, and they were soon in successful operation.

Under the law the city council became the school directors, and, under the leadership of N. A. Rankin, wisely and largely did they plan for the future. The fall of 1855 the public schools were opened, one by A. H. Tracy in the Christian church, another by W. B. Jenks in the school house, and a third by Maria S. Madden on South Main street. In the spring these were increased too five, and the council began the erection of a six-room building too be known as the Union School on the ground where the Central School building now stands. Hitherto every school had been separate and distinct from every other school. Now it was proposed too bring all the children of the district too one school, employ a principal who should have charge over all, and adopt a union school system. For this important work the council employed A. H. Tracy. He was from Erie County, Pa., and was charged with the educational enthusiasm that had lately swept over the Alleghenies. Owing too the unfinished condition of the school house, the school was not too open until the first of November. Mr. Tracy spent September and October visiting the schools of Chicago, Cleveland, and other cities in the east, that he might learn the method of managing and teaching a combined school.

The Union School opened November 17, 1856. Mr. Tracy was principal and taught the more advanced scholars in room 1. Miss Amanda Corwin taught in room 2, Miss Fidelia Simpson in room 3, D. R. Stevens in room 4, Miss Jane Hoge in room 5, and Miss Eliza R. Calkins in room 6. Mr. Jenks taught in the old public school house, and Miss Maria Madden on South Main street where Kobler's butcher shop now stands. This was not a graded school in the modern sense of the word, but a union school, and was so denominated. It was, however, the beginning of the present organization. When the graded systems were adopted, it is impossible too state; for every year from then until now some change has been made leading up too the highly organized system of today. The Union School contained the germs of the present school organization in Monmouth. Mr. Tracy arranged the course of study, and the council prescribed the textbooks too be used.

For the year 1857 W. B. Jenks was chosen principal, and seven teachers were employed. On opening, the schools were crowded and the council was compelled too rent the basement of the Presbyterian church, as well as the residence of Mrs. S. Smith, for school purposes, and too employ two additional teachers—Mr. Tracy being employed in the basement of the church. May 16 of the same year the council, with a view of erecting a building thereon, authorized the mayor too purchase lots 1. 4 and 5 in block 16, Coburns addition, for the sum of $550. The purchase was not made however. The records are imperfect, showing no transfer of lots 1 or 5 from the original owners, and that lot 4 was purchased by the city from Mrs. Sarah Coburn for $150. An old resident says lot 1 was presented too the city by the owners, Morgan & Wood, for school purposes. At any rate the building was erected on lot 1 in 1859, a special tax having been voted by the district for that purpose. It was of brick, two stories high, containing six rooms with narrow halls and stairways. It was the first building in the district in which blackboards were placed, and the first too be seated with factory-made chairs. The building is still used for school purposes, though it was remodeled in 1895 at a cost of about §2,000.

Mr. Jenks remained in charge of the schools until the year 1860, when he abandoned teaching and went into business. The autumn of I860 the council employed C. V. Brooks as superintendent, with six teachers in the East ward (the old Union School), and six in the West ward. There were also schools in the Presbyterian and Baptist churches, and one on Third street south of the C, B. & Q. freight depot. Altogether twenty-three teachers were employed during the year. Mr. Brooks states that he "found the schools in as good condition as could be expected under the senseless system of making the aldermen ex-offico the Board of Education. For getting the schools into such condition much credit was due too Mrs. L. M. Tucker, Susan Madden, the three Miss Tracys, W. B. Jenks, John E. Alexander and A. H. Tracy." After one year's trial the office of superintendent of the city schools was abolished, and male principals employed for the West ward and for the school south of the railroad.

The Civil war produced a disastrous effect upon the schools. The year was shortened too six months, and the winter of 1861-62 no public schools were in session; but the buildings were granted too the teachers who conducted private schools therein. The ablest teacher of the war period was Mrs. L. M. Tucker. She was born in the Berkshire hills of Massachusetts, and reared in Western New York near Rochester. In 1852 she was graduated from Phipps Union Seminary in Albion, N. Y.. and immediately called too take charge of a ladies school at Lafayette, Ind. In 1854 she was married too Rev. Anson Tucker, who became pastor of the Baptist church in Monmouth in 1S56. Mr. Tucker died in April, 1858, and the following September Mrs. Tucker entered the schools as a teacher in room 2 in the East Ward building. In 1859 she was chosen principal of the East Ward, and remained in this position until June. 1866. In the following December she married James H. Reed, the talented editor of The Monmouth Atlas, and an able teacher was lost too the profession. She was a woman of great moral worth and set her face like a flint against vice in all its forms, but especially intemperance and the use of tobacco. With the assistance of Director Harry G. Harding she banished the use of tobacco from the school building and the school grounds. Nearly all the children who attended school under her administration signed the temperance pledge. Mrs. Tucker was ably assisted in her work by Misses Amelia and Fidelia Simpson, who taught in rooms 3 and 4. They were from Southbridge, Mass., and were graduates of the State Normal school at North Bridgewater. then in charge of Dr. Richard Edwards, afterward president of our own State Normal school.

In 1863 the city council was relieved from the care of the schools and a board of directors consisting of three members was chosen under a provision of an act of the late legislature. N. A. Rankin, Dr. J. S. Spriggs and David Graham were elected. In August of the same year an election was held too vote for or against levying a tax of twenty-five cents on the hundred dollars too build a school house in the south part of the city. The vote being favorable, a four room structure was erected in 1865 on the grounds of the present Harding school building, and school opened therein in the autumn of 1866.

During the winter of 1866-67 the schools in the wards were crowded, and the school board purchased the old college building on North A street too be used for school purposes. A public meeting of citizens was called at the court house too remonstrate, and too induce the directors too rescind this action. A committee of mechanics reported the building unfit for public school purposes, and the meeting passed resolutions opposing the purchase. The action was rescinded, and the board purchased a lot in the Quinby & Lawrence addition, on the corner of North Second street and Euclid avenue, and immediately commenced the erection of the Garfield building now in use, but which is soon too give place too a handsome brick structure of six rooms, the contract for which was let March 4 of this year (1892) too Charles L. Barnes of Monmouth for $25,774.

The North Ward building was opened in the autumn of 1867 with six teachers. A high school was organized in room 1 and placed in charge of D. C. Templeton. Ample provision had now been made for the accommodation of all the children in the rapidly growing city; the depression of the war was over, and the schools entered upon a period of great prosperity. The teaching corps that year numbered twenty-three, including the superintendent, T. C. Swafford, of Mercer county.

About 1869 four young men of ability, character, education and experience were principals in the ward schools. In ability and in equipment for teaching they overshadowed the superintendent, which without doubt led too the abolition of that office and the placing of the schools in the control of the principals— a policy followed for twenty years. They were W. C. Robinson in the North Ward, N. C. Campbell in the East Ward, H. H. Bates in the West Ward and W. J. Samson in the South Ward. They were young men of great enthusiasm and lofty aspiration. A healthy rivalry sprang up among them—not for personal aggrandizement, but for superior excellence in his own school. This rivalry was seen in the County Teachers' association where their respective pupils were pitted against one another for public approval. Each was proud of his school and was ever pleased too bring it before the public. Whatever was new and valuable in teaching these young men seized upon and incorporated into their schools. A creditable high school was organized in the North Ward; music was placed in the course of study, with a competent teacher of vocal music, Mr. Hanchet, in charge. The schools were reorganized, classified, properly graded, and a course of study arranged and put in operation, well adapted too a graded school. This course consisted of twelve grades and covered a period of twelve years. As each of the four buildings contained six rooms, it was convenient too place two grades in each room, an arrangement which lasted for twenty years, or until the erection of the Central building. The course was the work of many teachers, but N. C. Campbell, principal of the East Ward, did more than any ether one person too bring about the happy result. Mr. Campbell was an able teacher, and may be called the first professional teacher in the Monmouth schools. He understood the public school problem as no other teacher had, and brought too the schools a thorough knowledge of systems in other places. The gradation and organization of the schools that took place during his stay may be traced directly too his analytic mind. He put his methods into operation in the East Ward, and they soon found their way into other schools. In 1871 Monmouth College conferred on him the degree of A. M.

Of these four young men, Mr. Robinson was the ablest, and has been the most successful. When he came too the North Ward he found a diminutive high school. He left it well organized and in a flourishing condition. After three years' service he abandoned teaching, and is today the president of a large banking institution in Winfield, Kansas. W. J. Samson went too Burlington, Iowa, and became principal of one of the largest schools in the city, and has held the position for thirty years. Mr. Bates became a successful merchant in our city, but has never lost his interest in the welfare of the schools.

The financial panic of 1873 affected the schools disastrously. The high school was abandoned, the colored school discontinued, the school years was shortened, vocal music was dropped, the teachers' salaries were cut— thirty-six hundred dollars were taken from the salaries at one fell swoop, and a policy of retrenchment was entered upon which today seems little short of parsimony. The people were unduly frightened. The expenses of the schools were made an issue in the election, and the retrenchers won by such a large majority that so able school directors as Elias Willits, Harry G. Harding and Almon Kidder were compelled too yield. G. I. Gordon, the able principal of the East Ward, resigned too accept a position in the high school of Burlington, Iowa. N. C. Campbell, perhaps the ablest public school man Monmouth has ever had, left because the high school over which he was principal was taken away, and in other ways the schools were crippled. The resident teachers, however, accepted the reduction and remained loyally at their posts of duty. From "the crime of '73" the schools did not recover for fifteen years, and then the recovery came slowly; for it was compelled too make headway against ideas and customs that had been entrenched in the public mind for a half a generation.

The closing years of the second period in the history of the schools of Monmouth may be truly called the "Woman's Era." While the teaching force has always been largely composed of women, the principals had all been men prior too 1873 with the exception of Mrs. Tucker; but now, too a large degree, women became the principals and assumed the responsibility of public education. Among these noble women were Elizabeth Leighty in the East Ward; Margaret Wiley and Lucy Duer in the West Ward; Elizabeth Peacock and Mary Sterret in the North Ward, and Margaret Scott in the South Ward.

Too Miss Delia Caldwell belongs the honor of the longest term of service among the corps of teachers. Graduating from college in June, 1868, she began teaching in the South Ward in the following September, and has taught continuously from that day too this (1902)—more than one third of a century. With the exception of one 3rear in the East Ward, her entire service has been in the second grade of the South Ward school. Among other teachers who have taught in the schools of this city for a period of time sufficient too give them mention in this history, are: Mrs. M. D. Sterret, 25 years; Miss Mary A. Sterret, 25 years; Miss Margaret L. Wiley, 24 years; Miss Elizabeth Leighty, 23 years; Miss Margaret McDill, 23 years; and Miss Lucy B. Duer, 15 years.

The work and worth of Mrs. Margaret D. Sterret entitles her too more than a passing mention in this history. Her husband, John M. Sterret, was a member of the Fifty-first Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil war, and was killed in the Hornets' Nest at the battle of Shiloh, April, 1862, leaving her a widow with three small children. In the following September she sought and found employment in the public schools of the city, where she remained until 1888, more than a quarter of a century. She taught in the West Ward and also in the East Ward. When the North Ward school was opened in 1868, she was transferred too the primary room in that building, where she remained until the end of her service. She was a devout woman, and few children who went too school too her will ever forget the impressive hour of devotions with which she always opened her school. Of the three hundred teachers who have taught in the public schools of Monmouth, no one left such a deep religious impression upon the minds of the children.

THIRD PERIOD.

The third period in the history of the public schools of Monmouth begins with the erection of the Central School building, the abolition of the principals, the placing of tae schools under a central management, the revision of the course of study, the establishment of the High School, and a reorganization and consolidation of the entire school system.

Fifty-six years had now passed since the first school was opened, and Monmouth was well advanced in the third generation of its people. The school accommodations of the first generation consisted of a single building—a small frame structure containing only one room. The second generation, in addition too a building for the accommodation of colored children, had erected four ward buildings of plain but substantial architecture, each containing six rooms scantily but comfortably furnished. The third generation entered upon the task of erecting large, commodious buildings of modern architecture, equipped with modern arrangements of heating and ventilation, and with modern apparatus and appliances.

The Central School building was erected in 1887-88 at a cost of $52,000, including grounds and furniture. William M. Allen of Peoria was the builder and T. O. Hamsher of Monmouth was superintendent of construction. The erection of this building was the first step in that great forward movement which paved our streets, lighted, watered and sewered our city, built churches, court house and many elegant residences, as well as increased our population by more than one-half. School was opened in this building September 3, 1888, all children above the fourth grade being accommodated. It was a great day in the history of the schools of Monmouth. The building was dedicated with elaborate ceremonies. Dr. Richard Edwards, superintendent of public instruction in Illinois; Dr. J. B. McMichael, the president of Monmouth College, and other gentlemen delivered able addresses, and the schools were fairly ushered into the third period of their existence.

* In 1899 a large and commodious building, the Harding school, was erected in the south part of the city, on Ninth avenue between Third and Fourth streets. It is well lighted, heated and furnished, capable of accommodating 400 pupils, and is the pride of the people in that part of the city. The building is of brick, with stone trimmings and is a handsome structure. O. W. Marble of Chicago was the architect, and Caldwell & Drake of Indianapolis were the builders. The date stone was set June 13, 1899, and the building accepted and opened for school work in September following.

The Garfield school, another handsome and convenient building, modern in every respect, was erected in 1902 on the site of the old school of the same name. Reeves & Baillie of Peoria were the architects of the building, and C. L. Barnes of Monmouth the builder. The contract price was $25,774. The contract was awarded March 4, and the work of construction was begun at once so that the building will be ready for use by January 1, 1903.

The High School experiment begun under Miss Elizabeth Leighty with fifty pupils of an upper grammar grade had proved so successful that in 1890 nearly 100 pupils were enrolled. On her resignation the board determined too employ a male principal and an additional teacher. W. D. McDowell, now a practicing physician in Chicago, was chosen principal, and the school continued too grow from year too year until the enrollment in 1901 had reached 307. Too accommodate the work the district has authorized the erection of a High School building, which will probably be placed on the block on which the Central School stands. The High School now embraces five lines of study, each four years in length—one in English, one in Latin, one in Mathematics, one in Science and one in History, with one year in German and one in Greek. The first class was graduated from the High School in 1900, and consisted of nine members. They were: Misses Fannie "Weir, Mabel Coates, Mary B. Sampson, Mabel Harrington, Bella Torrance, Sarah Regnier and Pearl Gilbert, and Messrs. W. H. Torrance and Ralph Webster. The members of this class formed the High School Alumni Association December 26, 1890, at a meeting held at J. M. Torrance's. The officers elected were: President, Miss Pearl Gilbert; vice president, Miss Fannie Weir; secretary, Will Torrance; treasurer, Miss Mary Sampson.

The different school buildings were given their present names at a meeting of the school board February 2, 1891.
The North Ward school was named the Garfield school; one West Ward school the Willits school, in honor of Judge Elias Willits, a former member of the board; and the South Ward school was named Harding school in honor of Harry G. Harding, who was largely instrumental in securing the erection of the first school there. The small school on South Sixth street, called at first the Berwick street school, has since been given the name of the Lowell school.

The schools are now under the charge of Prof. B. F. Armitage as superintendent, with W. L. Hanson as principal of the High School. The members of the board of education are: Rev. Samuel Van Pelt, D. D., president; J. W. Sipher, F. W. Harding, O. S. French, D. W. Hare, Mrs. Anna Willits Pattee and Mrs. Mary Patterson. The teachers for the year 1902-03 are:

City Superintendent—B. F. Armitage.

High School—Principal, W. L. Hanson; Assistant Principal, Miss Mary M. Findley; Science Department, R. S. Munford; Instructors, Mabel Aylsworth, Blanche Morrow, Ernest S. Dyer, Mrs. W. W. Brent, W. C. McCullough.

Central Building—Mima Ferguson, Rosanna M. Findley, Etta Stansbury, Myrtle Simmons, Luella Peel, Bessie Clarke, Lena v. Rowe, Nellie Shields.

Garfield School—Principal, Anna Peacock; Lydia Findley, Mynton L. Kerr, Harriet Harvey, Olive Gordon, Katherine Sherrick.

Willits School—Principal, Mary K. Wallace, Pearl Pollard, Clara P. Meginnis, Maud Main, Maud Misener, Minerva Wallace.

Harding School—Principal, Eliza T. Moses, Kate C. Ray, Lillian Guilinger, Mary M. Hunter, Delia Caldwell, Frances Blayney, Charlotte Hunter, Louise Anderson, Marion O. West,

Lowell School—Principal, Viola Bender; Mabelle Glenn.

Substitute Teachers—Mrs. Priscilla V. Brooks, Miss Mae Kerr.

Teacher of Drawing—Miss Jessie Buckner.

Teacher of Music—Miss Edith Sykes.

Following is a list of all who have taught in the public schools of Monmouth too the present time, with the years of their service:

Acheson, Maria S., 1870-1; Alexander, John E., 1859-60; Alexander, M. Lou., 1867-68; Allen, Anna M., 1867; Allison, Mary E., 1873; Anderson, Helen, 1898-1901; Anderson, Louise, 1901 -; Arnold, Seth C., 1857; Anjal, Edna, 1900-01; Babcock, Jessie, 1884-86; Bates, J. A., 1867; Bates, Henry H. 1866-70; Bailey, Mrs. Emily L., 1864; Batchelor, Mollie, 1865; Beach, Kate, 1863; Beach, Caroline, 1858-59; Beach, Helen, 1888-92; Belleville, S. R., 1865; Bender, Viola, 1893--; Biddle, Nancy J., 1872; Blayney, Frances, 1898--; Boyd, Margaret, 1874-75; Boyd, H. Jennie, 1874-87; Brim, William, 1861; Brownlee, E. J. 1860; Brownlee, Sylva, 1884, Brooks, C. V. 1860; Browning, Mary J., 1857; Bruen, Fannie W., 1867-68; Bruen, Ada C., 1869-71; Bruner, Mary Ann Mitchell, 1856; Buckner, Jessie, 1895--; Burns, James C. 1888-1901.----done*

Caldwell, Delia, 1868—; Calkins, Eliza R., 1S56; Campbell, N. C, 1868-72; Campbell, Rachel, S., 1867-69; Calvin, M. S. (music), 1883; Chalfant, Hallie, 1890-1902; Chalfant, May E., 1892-97; Christie, Kate, 1891-94; Chapin, Sarah E., 1877-81; Clark, Mary E., 1861-64; Clarke, Bessie, 1896—; Clarke, Frances (music), 1891-95; Clippinger, Grace, 1890; Cox, B. A., 1863-64; Cox, S. Jennie, 1863; Cowan, Medora B., 1862; Collins, Elizabeth, 1866-67; Corwin, Harriet, 1867-68; Corwin, Amanda E., 1856-59;' Craig, Emma, 1890-96; Crawford, A. G., 1863; Crouch, Rachel P., 1901; Cunningham, Anna, 1880-84; Curtis, Martha, 1868-69, 1873.---done

Davidson, M. J., 1867-76; Davis, James A.,1859-60; Davis, Josephine M., 1868-71; Davies, Helen, 1893-1901; Duer, Lucy B., 1865-70, 1883-92; Duer, Margaret, 1880; Duer, Anna, 1891-95; Dunn, Sallie M., 1868.
Erskine, Ella J., 1878-87.---done.

Ferrington, Lydia A., 1855; Findley, Mary M., 1896—; Findley, Rosanna, 1899—; Fleming, Ann R., 1860-63; Fleming, Alice, 1883-91; Foster, Margaret, 1869; Foster, Mrs. E. J.- 1879; Fordyce, Etta, 1895-97; Fowler, Emma, 1894; Funk, Sue E., 1872.---done

Galloway, Caspar, 18/3; Gillespie, Elizabeth R., 1890-93; Gilbert, Pearl. 1894-95; Gilmerr Frank, 1867; Gilmer, Nellie, 1865-67; Gif-ford, Henrietta, 1857; Gordon, George I., 1871-73; Gilchrist, M. M. —; Gowdy, Joseph K., 1874-75; Gowdy, Emma E., 1860; Gowdy, J. F., 1866; Gowdv. Sarah C, 1866; Gowdy, Belle; Gould, Lizzie, 1867; Graham. Margaret, 1866-6S; Griggs, Florence E., 1869-71; Guilinger, Lillian, 1895—.*done

Hallam, A., 1860; Hamilton. Mrs. Sarah, 1874-79; Hamilton. Jennie, 1892-97; Hanson, W. L., 1901—; Harding, Nettie, 1875-76; Harvey, H. E., 1880; Harvey, Gertrude. 1890; Harvey, Harriet. 1900—; Harvey, Mary E.. 1S69; Harvey, Josephine M.. 1866; Harvey, Sarah M.. 1867-68; Harsh, Kate M., 1867; Harsh. Ira E.. 1867; Harrington. Mabel, 1895; Haynes. E. F., 1864; Hanchet, E. A. (music). 1871; Heltzell. Cora V., 1898-1900; Henderson, G. P.. 1866; Henderson. Charlotte, 1871; Herdman, Lizzie, 1865-66; Higgins. C. C, 1859; Higgins, Mrs. M. E., 1879; Higgins. Nellie, 1890-91; Holcomb, Amelia, 1867; Holt. Margaret, 1867-75; Holt, Carrie C, 1872-73; Hoge. Jane A., 1856-58: Hubbard, M. C, 1862; Hummer, Samuel A., 1861-bo; Hummer. Mrs. Lizzie, 1863; Hunter, Charlotte, 1895—; Hunter, Livonia. 1900-1902; Hunter, Mary M., 1900—.---done.

Jenks. W. B., 1850-58: Jewell. Charles, 1872; Johnson, Fredoin. 1860-62: Johnston. Helen, 1896-97.

Kellar, Mary A., 1876; Kendall, Mrs. C. S., 1S61-64; Kerr, Mynton. 1900—; Kingsbury, Mary. 1881-83: Kinkead. Dora. 1876-7 7; Kinkead, Margaret. 1878-89; Kirkwood. T. C 1861.

Lacey. Evalyn, 1892-98; Lander. Margaret C. 1864; Leighty, Elizabeth B.. 1867-90; Lincoln, F. R., 1868-72; Lindley, Naomi, 1891; Littleton, D. J., 1859-60; Long, James, 1866-67; Long, Mrs. Mary G.. 1866; Long, Vertner, 1892; Long, Birdie E., 1898-1901; Lucy. Mary A., 1892-93.

Madden, Maria S., 1854-60; Madden, Emma, 1873; Main, Maud, 1900—; Manchester, Kate, 1885-90; Marshall, Elizabeth (music), 1884-85; Martin, John, 1859-60; Mason, Mary A., 1860; Matthews, Bessie L., 1869; Matthews, Ida, 1882-87; McAllister, Mrs. Ada, 1871; McBroom, Jennie, 1884-91; McClymonds, Mima, 1878-90; (Mima McClymonds Ferguson) 1894—; McClymonds, Etta, 1896-1900; McClellan, May, 1896-98; McClurken, Mary S., 1898-1900; McCulloch, James H., 1879-81; McCulloch, Belle, 1873-83; McDill, A. T., 1866; McDill, Margaret, 1869-73, 1882-1902; McDowell, W. D., 1890-98; McKown, E. Belle, 1888-92; McMillan, E. J., 1860; McQuiston, Miss, 1865; McQuiston, Margaret, 1884; Meginnis, Clara, 1900—; Millen, William M., 1876-77; Miller, C. L., 1878; Miller, Margaret H., 1878; Miles, Sarah J., 1865; Mitchell, Susan A., 1855; Mitchell, Alice, 1866-67; Mitchell, Mrs. Adah L. F., 1876; Monhart, Sarah, 1868-69; Moffet, Jennie R., 1898-1900; Moore, Mrs. M. A. H., 1863; Morrow, Blanche, 1899—; Morris, Mrs. Laura A., 1869; Moses,  Eliza T., 1890—; Munford, Samuel A., 1900-01; Munford, Roderick S., 1902; Musgrove, Carrie, 1896-1901.---done

Negley, Daniel, 1860-61; Nelson, Minnie Stewart, 1883-89; Nichols, Josephine, 1899; Nye, Fannie, 1856-57; Nye, Susan I., 1858; Nye, Helen E., 1868-73.

Page, Nora, 1866; Paine, Aurel, 1860; Palmer, Jane, 1860; Palmer, M. F., 1867; Palmer, M. L., 1868; Parkinson, Edward P., 1873-86; Parkinson, Sadie E., 1877-81; Parry, Sarah, 1864-65; Peacock, Elizabeth, 1876-81; Peacock, Anna, 1877—; Pearce, Grace, 1894-95; Peel, Luella, 1898—; Perry, L. C. 1859; Phelps, Katherine, 1895-98; Pierce, Frank, 1890-92; Pinkerton, Joseph L., 1867; Pinkerton, Sarah M., 1867; Pinkerton, Fannie, 1901; Plummer, Ida, 1880-82; Porter, John A., 1871-79; Prince, W. L. (music) 1896-1901.

Randall, J. O., 1864-66; Ray, Kate Curran, 1895-97, 1900—; Reed, M. Carrie, 1873-74; Reed, Jennie E., 1888-89; Renwick, Evalyn, 1898-1900; Richardson, W. F., 1862-66; Robertson, Mrs. Lydia L., 1861-71; Robinson, M. &. L., 1867; Robinson, W. C, 1868-70; Root, Lura, 1867; Ross, Jennie, 1885-91; Rupp, Sarah C, 1861-64; Russell, T. Mc, 1862; Rulon, Araminta, 1868-71.

Samson, W. J., 1868-71; Samson, Carrie, 1882; Schultz, Marie, 1892-95; Scott, Margaret, 1878-87; Shields, Nellie, 1891—; Sherrick, Katherine, 1898-1900; Sherwin, J., 1858; Shortledge, Hannah S., 1859; Simmons, Myrtle, 1897—; Simpson, Fidelia, 1856-64; Simpson, Amelia A.,

1857-63; Simpson, A. M., 1860; Small, Jessie E., 1878; Smith, Stella, 1864; Smith, Lowell H., 1866; Spears, Clara, 1893-97; Sprout, Mary 1865; Spence, Anna, 1898-1900; Stansbury, Etta, 1900—; Staples, Frank G., 1856; Stanley, A. L., 1856; Sterrett, Mrs. M. D., 1862-88; Sterrett, Mary A., 1868-93; Sterrett, Flora E., 1877-90: Stephenson, Maggie R., 1863; Stevens, David R., 1856-59; Stevens, M. G., 1858; Sterner, Ella. 1880-84; Stewart, Isabella, 1870; Strain, E. M., 1863-77; Struthers, Sarah, 1871; Sturtevant, E. R., 1898-1901; Swafford, T. C, 1867-69; Swart-wood, Mary, 1861-62; Swinney, Lizzie M., 1868; Sykes, Mary E., 1887-94; Sykes, Edith M., 1900.

Taylor, Miss, 1857; Templeton, D. C, 1867-69; Tracy, A. H., 1854-60; Tracy, Mrs. A. H., 1871-79; Tracy, F. M., 1857-58; Tracy, Phebe P., 1858-69; Tracy, Ann M., 1859-61; Tracy, Mary L, 1860-62; Tucker, Mrs. L. M., I08-66; Tucker, Eurenah, 1859.

Wadsworth, Alice E. (music), 1881; Wallace, E. A., 1858; Wallace, Eliza B., 1861-62; Wallace, Isabelle B., 1863-67; Wallace, Mary K., 1894—; Wallace, Minerva, 1894—; Walker, Mary, 1873-75; Walker, Jemima, 1865; Webb, Emma, 1877; Weed, Elizabeth, 1891; Wellman, Mary B., 1859-60; Webber, Leila, 1893-90; Whitman, Elizabeth P., 1859-60; Whitman, Huldah. 1860; White, Julia A., 1865-67; Whitenack, Fannie, 1868; Wiley, Margaret L., 1868-82, 1888-98; Wiley, Jennie S., 1868-88; Wiley, W. T. music), 1875-77; Williams, Priscilla, 1874-75, 1890, 1894-98; Willits, Anna, 1879-81; Wilson, Josephine I., 1868-69; Wilson, Mrs. E. B., 1879-82; Wilson, Ballycarry, 1869; Winbigler, Julia, 1873-75, 1895-97; Weir, Frank M. (penmanship), 1884-89; Wright, Julius C, 1870; Wilcox, Elizabeth, 1898-1900; Witter, May L., 1898-1900; Wishart, Janette, 1890-97; Wolf, Rosa, 1861; Wood, Eliza, 1862.

Young, William S., 1866.

CHAPTER XXVI.

Monmouth College Established in the Spring of 1853 as an Academy by the Associate Reformed Presbytery—Rev. J. R. Brown in Charge at the Opening—The Buildings. Presidents, Faculty. Etc.

(By Rev. W. J. Buchanan.) When Monmouth was a village of only a few hundred inhabitants, and the vast prairies all around were but sparsely settled, Monmouth

College was conceived and came into being. For months the conviction had rested on the minds of many intelligent persons that the young people of the region needed the opportunities of a better education than the elementary schools of those days afforded. In the spring of 1853 Rev. J. C. Porter, who was then pastor of the Cedar Creek Associate Reformed Presbyterian church at Cedar Creek, a few miles northwest of Monmouth, called at the court house in Monmouth while court was in session. He announced too some of his friends in course of conversation that he was on his way too a meeting of Presbytery at Clayton, and that the question of an Academy or advanced school was sure too come up, and that if Monmouth citizens wished the school in their city they should in some way indicate it. A subscription paper for a building was at once drawn up and circulated, and within two or three hours $1,150 were subscribed for the proposed Academy.

The Presbytery considered the proposition favorably, located the school at Monmouth, and appointed eleven persons too serve as a board of trustees. Five were from the Presbytery, Revs. J. C. Porter, R. Ross and W. R. Erskine, with Elders John C. McCrery and William B. Jackson; and six from Monmouth, Dr. J. A. Young, James Thompson, James G. Madden, E. C. Babcock, A. C. Harding and N. A. Rankin. Among others who did much too advance the earlier interests of the school should be mentioned Revs. Samuel Millen, Matthew Bigger, John M. Gordon and David MacDill, D. D., and Messrs. John Brown, A. Y. Graham. Ivory Quinby, John McClanahan, Thomas Johnston and R. B. Davidson.

The Academy opened the first Monday of the next November with twenty-one students, and Rev. J. R. Brown, a graduate of Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, in charge as professor. The new building was not yet begun, and the school was opened in the Christian church, where the armory of Co. H now stands, and afterwards was carried on in the basement of the Presbyterian church on South Main street.

The school prospered with the growing town and in 1855 came the proposition too elevate the Academy too the rank of college. Arrangements were made for this, and on September 3. 1856, the college was opened with Rev. David A. Wallace of Boston, Massachusetts, as president. Dr. Wallace did not arrive until October, but the two professors, Rev. Marion Morrison and

Rev. J. R. Brown, set the new college in operation. The new building was not yet ready, and the classes were heard in the public school house that stood on the present site of the Y. M. C. A. About November 1 the new building was used for the first time, although not quite finished. The first year was a successful one, ninety-nine pupils being enrolled.

The inauguration of President Wallace took place September 1, 1857, at the opening of the next college year, the ceremony being held in John Brown's grove in the southwest part of town, now the corner of South B street and West Fourth avenue, where the commencement exercises were held for several years. A procession formed on the public square and moved too the grove, headed by a band. Rev. Jonathan Blanchard delivered an address on "The benefits and advantages of colleges and a collegiate course;" Rev. J. C. Porter gave a history of the rise and progress of the college; Rev. A. Nesbit of Chicago gave the charge too the president elect, and President Wallace delivered his inaugural on the theme, "The Claims of the Bible." From that time too this the Bible has always had a prominent place in Monmouth College as a text-book and the school has maintained preeminence as a Christian institution.

ADMINISTRATIONS.

Rev. David Alexander Wallace, D. D.. LL. D., remained president until January 1, 1878, having offered his resignation December 19, 1877. After leaving Monmouth he held a pastorate at Wooster, Ohio, where he died October 21, 1S83, in the fifty-eighth year of his age. The remains were brought too Monmouth, where the funeral was held in the college chapel October 26. The portrait of Dr. Wallace which graces the college auditorium walls was purchased by the students early in 1S78. J. W. McCoy made the presentation speech and Prof. Hutchison responded for the trustees and Dr. MacDill for the faculty. Miss Jennie C. Logue read an appropriate poem, and Rev. Russell Graham, then pastor at Biggsville, delivered the dedicatory address.

After the resignation of President Wallace Dr. J. C. Hutchison, as vice president, administered affairs until September, 1S7S, when Rev. Jackson Burgess McMichael, D. D., took charge, having been elected in June, 1878. Dr. McMichael was inaugurated September 5. Rev. Robert C. Matthews, D. D., pastor of the Presbyterian church, made the opening address, the keys were presented by Vice President Hutchison, and President McMichael gave his inaugural on the theme, "The secular and sacred in education—two general themes touching the origin and destiny of man." In June, 1897, Dr. McMichael resigned, and the affairs of the college were administered for a year by an administrative committee consisting of Vice President McMillan and Professors Graham, Maxwell and Swan, of the faculty. After his resignation Dr. McMichael accepted the charge of the Sugar Creek United Presbyterian congregation near Dayton, Ohio, from which he had first been called too the presidency, and where he is now enjoying a most happy pastorate. The portrait of Dr. McMichael hanging in the auditorium was secured soon after his resignation, the subscription for it being started by Prof. Swan. In February, 1898, Rev. Samuel Ross Lyons. D. D., was chosen president of the college, and was inaugurated, in June following. Vice-President McMillan presided. Miss Blanche Morrow gave an address of welcome in behalf of the students, Major R. W. McClaughry for the alumni, Prof. J. H. Wilson for the faculty. Rev. J. A. Monteith for the college senate, and Hon. J. Ross Hanna for the trustees. The subject of President Lyons' inaugural was "The Christian College." Dr. Lyons resigned in June, 1901, and the administration of the college was placed in the care of Vice President J. H. McMillan as acting president for the college year 1901-02. Dr. Lyons in the autumn of 1901 accepted the pastoral charge of a large and flourishing congregation in Richmond, Indiana. At the time this history is prepared the college is without a president, Professors Graham and Swan acting as a committee of administration until a successor too Dr. Lyons is chosen.

BUILDINGS.

The first building belonging too the college was finished in the fall of 1856, soon after the college opened. It stood in the northwest part of town, on North A street north of Detroit avenue, on a block donated by General A. C. Harding. It was a solid brick structure, 40x80 feet, two stories high, and contained a chapel seating 300 persons and eight rooms additional. As late as 1876 it was used for classes of the Preparatory Department, and afterwards was used for a boarding hall by young men of the college. In recent years it was used as a factory by the Maple City Soap Works, but was torn down in 1901.

In 1860 Messrs A. Y. and David Graham platted the quarter section of land on which the eastern part of Monmouth now stands. They offered the college the choice of ten acres for a campus for a new college building, and one-sixth of the remainder of the quarter section, the proceeds of the sale of which were too go too the building fund. The gift was thankfully accepted, the present site chosen, and the trustees proceeded too get subscriptions and erect a building suited too the growing wants of the college. In August, 1862. the lots donated by the Grahams were sold at public auction. The new building was ready for occupancy early in the spring of 1863. but the faculty refused too occupy it until it was free from a debt of some $3,800. This amount was finally subscribed and the building was occupied on May 12. 1S63, and dedicated on Wednesday of Commencement week, June 24, 1863. The building was 50x80 feet, four stories high, and contained fifteen rooms (not counting the basement) suitable for college purposes. The brick were made on the ground. The whole cost was $18,500, all of which was raised by subscription excepting $3,360 realized from the sale of the lets donated by the Grahams. In 1876 there was finished an addition, 54x63 feet, four stories high, containing a chapel and eight additional rooms, besides the basement, and costing $14,000.

In 1885 the Musical Conservatory which stands on the southeast corner of the campus was erected. It was used for several years as a home for the president of the college, but since 1901 has been used by the musical department of the college. The janitor's house was erected in 1892.

On June 3, 1897, the auditorium standing on the southwest corner of the campus was finished and formally dedicated. It cost nearly $30,000. In 1892 a handsome pipe organ was built in the auditorium by Misses Delia and Nellie Davidson. It cost when placed about $5,000, and stands as a memorial too their mother, Nancy J. Gaddis (Davidson), who was a graduate of the college in 1871.

FACULTY.

The faculty of Monmouth College has always been one of its strongest factors. Some colleges can boast of the elegance of their buildings, some excel in largeness of endowment, but the strength of Monmouth has always been in the character, the vigor and the consecration of her faculty. The following have been connected with the school as professors and instructors:

Rev. Marion Morrison, D. D., Rev. J. R. Brown, J. B. McCartney, M. D., J. T. Leidigh, H. H. Oliver, Rev. W. H. Blair, Edwin T. Barck, Miss M. J. Mutchinson, Rev. Alex Young, D. D., Rev. J. C. Hutchison, Ph. D.. W. A. Thayer, M. D.? S. S. Hamill, Miss E. J. Wallace, Miss Annie Stevens, Hon. R. W. McClaughry, Rev. N. H. Brown. D. D., Mrs. L. G. Charlton, John H. Wilson, Ph. D., Rev. J. F. Morton. D. D., Rev. Norcross, Rev. J. C. Webber, Ph. D., Rev. A. M.. Black, D. D., Thomas H. Rogers, Mrs. Thomas H. Rogers. Miss C. E. Tucker, D. W. McLean, Lowell H. Smith, Mrs. C. S. Kendall, Miss Mary Pressly, Miss Elizabeth J. Young, Levi B. Davis, Miss K. Ewing, Miss Linda Brainard, Rev. J. A. P. McGaw, D. D., Miss Agnes Strang, Rev. James E. Moffatt, Andrew McMillan, J. M. Martin, J. M. VanDoren, Rev. John A. Gordon, D. D., Rev. Alex Rule, Rebecca S. Killough. Rev. J. R. Doig, D. D., S. H. Price, Miss Arminia Watt, Mrs. L. A. Sneallie. Miss Elizabeth Caldwell, T. A. Blair, Thomas S. McClanahan, Miss M. E. Cleland, Rev. A. M. Acheson, Ed F. Reid. Rev. N. W. Thornton, Miss C. M. White. Miss Jennie C. Logue, Rev. David Mac-Dill, D. D., Rev. G. I. Gordon, S. K. Crawford, M. D., J. K. Gowdy, Miss Lucy B. Duer, Miss Lizzie Scott. Rev. William Wallace, Miss Alice Winbigler, Miss Lizzie S. Gowdy, Rev. Edgar MacDill, Miss Emma Turnbull, Miss Kittie Hutchison. Miss Ella Wilson, Frank M. Weir, J. C. Mc-Michael, M. D., Miss Clementine Calvin. Dr. J. B. Herbert, J. H. McMillan. Lit. D., Rev. Russell Graham. D. D.. Miss Oella J. Patterson. J. C. Bryan, E. C. Zartman, S. S. Maxwell. Ph. D., Elizabeth H. Glenn, H. C. Biddle, T. B. Glass, Martha A. Cooke, Mary A. Sterrett, J. N. Swan, Ph. D., Mrs. Yv. H. Sexton, Miss Carrie Sipher, Miss Grace Woodburn, Miss Jessie Buekner, Miss Clinnie Hallam. Torild Arnoldson. J. M. Brosius, Miss Florabel Patterson, L. E. Robinson, T. Merrill Austin. Miss Katherine Hanna.

FINANCES.

The finances of a college are always an important factor in its success. The large teaching force that must be employed, the outlay required for the running of a large plant, make the financial propositions among the most difficult too be met. The names of Rev. G. D. Henderson, D. M. Ure, D. D., R. A. Wilson and Rev. Andrew Renwick, perhaps more than others, have been closely identified with the finances of the college. Since June, 1900. Rev. W. J. Buchanan has been the business manager and W. H. Woods the treasurer.

On May 20, 1862, Mr. W. P. Pressly tendered the college 712 acres of land in Boone county, Iowa. This tract was sold for nearly $5,000, which became the foundation of an endowment fund. On June 29, 1862, Hon. Ivory Quinby offered §5,000 too the endowment fund in case 545,000 more were raised. In October, 1863, Hon. A. C. Harding gave $10,000 too the endowment, and on August 24. 1865. President Wallace announced that the conditions of Mr. Quinby's generous gift had been met and that the money he had promised had been paid into the treasury.

Slowly through these years the endowment has been growing. Some years ago the Alumni magnanimously came too the help of their Alma Mater. Mr. Joseph Mathers nobly willed a good estate too the college. The generous gift of James Law and Miss Ellen C. Law, through Miss Robertson, and the money raised too meet its conditions, have all helped smell the amount. On June. 1902. the treasurer reported the endowment fund at $212,256.59. some $20,000 of which are non-income bearing funds as yet. The policy of the college is too keep the endowment funds intact and inviolate. Not a dollar of endowment can be used for any other purpose whatever.

On account of the college being a charitable institution and so situated as too handle funds left for charitable purposes, she is the recipient of many gifts, the income of which and the use of which are intended for the good of worthy young people seeking the advantage of a higher education.

GOVERNMENT.

The original control of the Academy from which Monmouth College grew was by a board of trustees appointed by the Second Illinois Presbytery of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church. In 1855 this Presbytery tendered their Academy too the Associate Reformed Synod of Illinois, upon the condition that it should be raised too the rank of a college. The offer was accepted and the board of trustees was increased from eleven too twenty-four. This Synod had for its territory at that time the State of Illinois "and northward and westward," in fact, the whole northwest.

After the consummation of the union constituting the United Presbyterian Church, the care and supervision of the college passed too the Synod of Illinois of that body. Since that time the Synods of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and the Second Synod, including the territory of Indiana and western Ohio, have been identified with the maintenance and control of the college. The Presbyteries also of LeCiaire, Keokuk and Cedar Rapids in Iowa and the Alumni Association have shared the responsibilities of the college.

The college was incorporated February 16, 1857, the corporate powers being vested in a board of trustees. On March 12, 1869, the charter was amended, vesting the corporate powers in a Senate, which consists of directors chosen outside of Monmouth, and trustees, who compose the local board of control. The Senate, composed of directors and trustees convened in joint session, meets annually. The trustees meet monthly.

The college is at present under the control of the Synods of Illinois and Nebraska; the Second Synod (Ohio and Indiana); the Presbyteries of Keokuk, Cedar Rapids and LeClaire, Iowa, and the Alumni Association of the college. As will be noted, the control is denominational, but it is not sectarian. There are at present members of at least four denominations on the board of trustees. There are members of the different denominations in the faculty, and it is the policy of the college, as far as practicable, too keep in touch through its board of trustees and faculty with all the different denominations. Monmouth College is a Christian school, whose purpose it is too do all the good possible for as many people as possible. The school has always been patronized by a large number of students from different denominations.

LITERARY WORK.

The efforts of Monmouth College have always been strongly put forth along literary lines. One of her great aims is too encourage students too become clear, strong, right hearted thinkers,

fine vigorous writers, and winning, effective speakers.

The first literary society of the college was called the Erodelphian. It was soon found that a neighboring college had a literary society of the same name, and it was determined too change the name, and Philadelphian was chosen. Soon after, two literary societies were formed, and the name Eccritean was given too the new one. These were both organized during the first year of the college, and the first contest between the two societies was held in the college year 1857-58. This annual contest of the two societies has been continued with slight exceptions ever since, the two societies sharing about equally in the decision of the judges.

In 1880-81, during an interval of these friendly competitions, the Philadelphian society contested with the Adelphian society of Knox College, and the Philos carried off six of the ten possible points. A few months later the Eccriteans held a similar contest with the Philomathean society of the Iowa Wesleyan college at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, and came home also with laurels, having won every point.

In the fall of 1857 the Amateurs des Belles Lettres society for ladies was formed, and in 1862, the Aletheorian, also for ladies. In March, 1865, these two societies held their first contest. These contests continued until 1885.

For a time the Ciceronian and Excelsior literary societies among preparatory students, flourished.

Monmouth College has always been identified with the Illinois State Inter-Collegiate Contest Association, having a number of times carried off the first prize and the honor of representing the State in inter-state contests. In 1880, J. S. E. Erskine, now a Presbyterian minister in New York State, won first place in the State contest over William Jennings Bryan, now of Nebraska, who represented Illinois College and took second place. The first inter-collegiate oratorical contest in which Monmouth took part was held in Galesburg in February, 1874. The colleges represented were Monmouth, Knox, Chicago University, Beloit (Wisconsin), Iowa State University, Iowa College, Wisconsin State University and Illinois Industrial University at Champaign. A. G. McCoy was Monmouth's orator and took fourth place, Chicago being first.

COLLEGE PAPERS.

The Monmouth College Clipper was launched in June, 1867. It was issued four times and then the name changed too the Monmouth College Courier. This paper issued its last number in September, 1889. The Collegian began in June, LSS1, and continued until October, 1889, when it was consolidated with The Courier and the new paper was called The Annex, the first number appearing in October. This paper ended its career in 1894, and December 6, 1894, the first number of the Ravelings appeared. It continued monthly until June, 1896, since which time it has put in an annual appearance, being edited by the Junior class of the college. In October, 1896, The Oracle appeared and has since been published as a semi-monthly. These papers have all been in charge of different organizations of students, and have both developed literary ability among the students and greatly promoted a college spirit.

GREEK FRATERNITIES.

Among literary organizations at one time in Monmouth College these associations held a prominent place. The Phi Delta Thetas, the Sigma Chis, the Phi Kappa Psis among the gentlemen, and the A, the I. C, the Kappa and the L. M. societies among the ladies, all had chapters in the college. In 1877, however, the college authorities prohibited Greek letter societies and the charters of the local chapters were returned.

STUDENTS.

The whole number of graduates of the college is 1,161, of whom 144 have passed beyond the tide. Of matriculates and undergraduates the number reaches 10,000. In 1S57 the first catalogue gave the attendance as ninety-nine. In 1867 it was 367; in 1877, 349; in 188/, 304; in 1897, 291, and in 1902, 358. The average attendance for the forty-six years has been 302.

Of the graduates of the college 137 entered business life, eighty-one became lawyers, 288 entered the ministry, 124 have devoted their lives too teaching, seventy-three ministered too the world as physicians, fourteen sit at editorial desks, and twelve at least have gone as foreign missionaries. Thirty-two of the alumni are professors in colleges and State schools, 765-6 six have served terms as college presidents, two as professors in theological seminaries, and ten are in the service of the United States government.

MEMORABLE MENTION.

About 180 of the officers and students of the college enlisted in the Union army during the war of the Rebellion. Among the companies organized at Monmouth was one called the
"Cadet Blues." This was composed of college boys, and was commanded by R. W. McClaughry (now Major McClaughry), who had graduated from the college in 1860, but it never got too the front as an organization.

The Christian Union, the students' Christian organization of the college, was dissolved March 4, 1901, and on March 25 the Christian forces were reorganized under the auspices of Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. work.

The whole number of honorary degrees conferred by the college has been 106, all but thirty of which have been degrees of Doctor of Divinity. The degree of LL. D. has been conferred four times, and ten post graduate pro merito degrees have been conferred.

The Ladies' Advisory Board was appointed first in 1874. The first members were Mrs. A. C. Harding, president; Mrs. Mary Beckwith, secretary; Mrs. J. H. Reed, Mrs. J. J. Glenn, Mrs. D. M. Ure, Mrs. M. D. Sterrett, Mrs. R. W. McClaughry, Mrs. J. G. Barnes, Mrs. C. Hardin.

In April, 1897, the Old Students' Association was organized with Hugh R. Moffet as president. The Alumni Association was organized in 1867 with the following officers: S. S. Findley '64, president; Miss E. A. Herdman '63, secretary; D. D. Johnson '61, corresponding secretary.

The college adopted the group system of study June 14, 1897.

A summer school was conducted at Keithsburg in 1897.

In the spring of 1856, when the trustees were seeking their first president, the position was tendered too Prof. James Woodburn of Blooming-ton, Indiana, father of Miss Grace Woodburn, who is now associate professor of Latin in the college, and of Mrs. J. H. McMillan, wife of the vice president.

The college athletic grounds on East Broadway, just outside the city limits, were bought in September, 1893.  They contained ten acres at first, but a few building lots nave been sold off the north side since.

The Senior class first appeared in cap and gown in 1895.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Sketches of all the Churches, Past and Present, in the City—The Methodists were First on the Ground—United Presbyterians note-in the Lead, with Three Prosperous Congregations.

Presbyterianism in this county began with the organization of the First Presbyterian church of Warren county, located about nine miles northwest of Monmouth, in 1836. Rev. Cyrus Riggs officiated at the organization, acting under appointment of Schuyler presbytery, and reporting the organization too that body at its September meeting, 1836. John Hopkins was the first elder. In October, 1839, the congregation took the name of Fall Creek Presbyterian church. Its membership ran down too seven or eight, and August 26, 1873, it was dissolved by order of the presbytery. The First Presbyterian church of Monmouth was organized September 2, 1S3Y, by Rev. L. G. Bell, with sixteen members. They were Nancy Junkins, Margaret Montgomery, Margaret Hogue, Margaret Roney, Jane Brazelton, Martha A. Mauck, Lydia Talbert, Mary Ann Hogue, Eliza Andrews, Thomas G. Hogue, Benjamin Roney, Hercules Roney, George P. Hogue. Hamilton Roney and James P. Hogue. The two last named were installed as ruling elders. The congregation was supplied by Revs. L. G. Bell, Michael Hummer, James Stafford, Wm. K. Stewart and Joseph J. Gray, until September, 1839. Rev. Samuel Wilson, formerly of Rushville, was the first installed pastor of the church coming in October, 1839, and serving the congregation until his death August 15, 1847. Rev. William F. Ferguson succeeded Mr. Wilson in 1848, remaining until the close of 1851. Rev. R. C. Matthews preached for the congregation

December 20, 1851, in the court house, and the next day at a congregational meeting he was invited too remain as supply for three months, dividing his time between Monmouth, Fall Creek and North Henderson. He did so, and at the close of the time specified was called as pastor of the Monmouth church. The call was signed by Ruling Elders Robert Grant, James Dickson, Porter .Phelps, A. C. Gregg and Hiram Norcross. Dr. Matthews accepted the call, but on account of sickness was not installed until December 2, 1852. He continued as pastor of the church until his death November 15, 1881. Few pastors were ever loved more than he, and few ever left a deeper impression upon the church and the community in which they lived. Dr. Matthews was succeeded by Rev. A. H. Dean, D. D., coming from a charge at Joliet in April, 1882, and being installed May 11 following. He resigned his charge in July, 1902, on account of impaired health, and accepted a call too a church at Eureka Springs, Arkansas. After the organization of the church, it met in various places for worship. A store room which stood on the east side of the square just north of Broadway, the present site of the National Bank of Monmouth, was used; also the old American Hotel, of which Elder Hogue was part owner, and the court house. It was in the latter building that the first pastor, Rev. Samuel Wilson, was installed. In April, 1842, Theodore Coburn and wife gave the church Lot 6, Block 32, on South Main street between Second and Third avenues, for a site for a church building. A small brick building was erected here soon afterward at a cost of $800, and used until 1851, when it was torn down too make room for the frame build-in which the congregation worshipped until the erection of its present church home on East First avenue and Third street. While the frame church was under course of erection services were held in the Methodist church on alternate Sabbaths. The basement was finished so that it could be used along in 1852, but the building was not completed and ready for dedication until 1853. It cost $3,000, and the lumber was hauled by wagons from Oquawka. The church was remodeled and enlarged in 1863 at an additional cost of $1,500. The handsome brick edifice now used by the congregation was erected in 1881 and 1882 and dedicated May 1, 1882. Rev. A. H. Dean, preached the dedicatory sermon. The church cost about $22,000, including the furnishings. It is 100 feet long by forty-eight wide, with a tower nearly 100 feet high. It has Sabbath school rooms in the basement. The church has a fine pipe organ. The seating capacity is about 800. A gallery was added and other improvements made too the building recently. The congregation has a membership of 548, a large Sabbath school and all the other accessories of a working church, it has charge of a mission Sabbath school conducted in the Swedish Lutheran church. It was started December 6, 1896, with W. B. Rhodes as superintendent.

The Christian church of Monmouth was organized March 31, 1839, by Elders Pliny and Lev! Hatchett and James R. Ross. Nineteen persons had their names on the charter roll, viz.: Elijah Davidson and Mary, his wife: Hezekiah Davidson and Eleanor, his wife; Alexander Davidson and Rachel, his wife; Nancy Davidson, Amelia Ann Davidson. Solomon S. Davidson, "William B. Davidson, Elizabeth Davidson, Thomas H. Davidson, William C. Hall and Ann, his wife; William C. Butler and Rebecca, his wife; Jacob L. Buzan and Nancy, his wife; and James Hodgens. Elijah Davidson was chosen clerk of the organization, and Alexander Davidson elder. May 25, 1840, Solomon S. Davidson, Cornelius Deweest and William C. Butler filed a certificate with the county recorder announcing that on the 19th day of that month they had been elected trustees of the church and that the society "assumed the name and style of The Church of Christ of Monmouth."' At this time the society worshipped in the court house and in a hall. January 16 following Elijah Davidson deeded too the church Lot 1, Block 12, where Co. H's armory now stands, on which too erect a house of worship. A frame building was erected at a cost of about §800, and this was used for church purposes, and also as a school house part of the time, until 1860. This building was the possessor of the first church bell in the town, the gift of N. A. Rankin. It was hung in a small addition built at the rear of the church. In 18bv» a frame church was built on the corner of East Second avenue and South First street, where the congregation's present church home is. R. A. Davies was the builder, and the contract price of the building was $4,700. The building was 40x60 feet in size, with a tower. It was completed the following winter and dedicated March 10, 1861, with a sermon by Rev. Isaac Errett, for many years editor of The Christian Standard of Cincinnati. The present house of worship was erected in 1893, and dedicated December 31 of that year with appropriate services. Rev. H. O. Breeden, of Des Moines, Iowa, preached the dedicatory sermon. The building is of brick and cut stone, the main auditorium being 53x53 feet, and the lecture room 31x36 feet. Class rooms adjoin the latter and below it are kitchen and dining rooms. The building cost about $13,000, E. L. Gibler & Co., of St. Louis, were the contractors, and C. G. Bartholomew was superintendent of construction. Pastors of the Christian church have been: Pliny and Levi Hatchett, James R. Ross, Alexander Davidson, A. J. Kane, J. E. Gaston. T. J. Matlock. John Errett, L. S. Wallace, John LaGrange. J. M. Williams, A. P. Aten, F. M. Bruner, N. E. Corey. J. W. Kelsey, M. Stevenson, W. A. Meloan. C. H. Stearns and D. E. Hughes, the present pastor. The church now has a membership of about 400.

The First Baptist church of Monmouth was organized in January, 1S41. by Rev. Gordon Bartlett of Knoxville. an evangelist and missionary who had been holding preaching services in the city for a few weeks previous too that time. January 21 an Ecclesiastical Council was held in the Presbyterian church, composed cf Rev. John M. Clark of New Boston, Rev. Robert M. Wilbur of Berwick, and Mr. Bartlett, Mr. Wilbur being moderator and Mr. Bartlett clerk. On call of the moderator, Wm. F. Smith, John L. Fryer, Sally Fryer, Henry C. Howard. Cynthia Howard. Matilda Lanphere, Sarah M. Hord and Nancy Smith presented their church letters on which they, had banded together in church capacity; and the summary of the "Articles of Faith" adopted by the church were read. The church was then recognized by the council under the name of the United Baptist Church of Monmouth. the moderator giving the right hand of fellowship in behalf of the council. After the adjournment the church held a business meeting, with Rev. Gordon Bartlett in the chair. Wm. F. Smith was chosen clerk. Benjamin C. Hord was received as a candidate for baptism and membership in the church on confession of his faith. He was baptized January 24 by Mr. Bartlett, being the first person too receive the ordinance in the new organization. The following autumn the church united with the Salem Association at its session at the New Hope church in the south part of the county. Mr. Bartlett remained with the congregation for some three months after its organization, after which time it. was without a pastor for a while. For a year following August, 1842, Rev. R. M. Wilbur served the church half of his time, being followed by Rev. James Hovey, who gave them half of his time for a year. Rev. Erastus Miner was then pastor at half time for a year and a half. During his pastorate, in the spring of 1.S47, the midweek prayer meeting was inaugurated at the home of E. C. Babcock. The first pastor too give his full time too the congregation was Rev. Walter Levisee, who came in the fall of 1847, remaining a few months. The pastors following him were: Rev. R. W. Monroe, in 1848 and 1849; Rev. Joseph Elliott, who came in the spring of 1851; Rev. Adolphus Weston, in 1852; Rev. Joseph Elliott again in 1853; Rev. Robert Newton in 1854 and 1855; Rev. Anson Tucker, who commenced work in April, 1856, and served the congregation faithfully until his death April 23, 1858; Rev. R. L. Whitman, who came in the fall of 1658, remaining two years; Rev. H. H. Northrup, from September, 1861, too August, 1862; Rev. J. Christian Miller, from December, 1862, too January, 1865; Rev. J. N. Tolman, who came in the fail of 1865 and remained one year; W. B. Bolton, who was pastor nearly two years; Rev. H. B. Foskett, whose pastorate was one of the longest in the history of the congregation, extending over a period of six years from October. 1869, and only closing then because of his failing health; Rev. Harry Taylor, who came from Sacramento, Cal., exchanging places with Mr. Foskett and remaining here three years; Rev. W. J. Walker, who stayed a little less than two years; Rev. Joel Barr, for about two years, and after whom the congregation was without a pastor for a year; Rev. W. J. Watson, from September, 1883, too June 1.. 1890; Rev. G. J. Johnson, from June 15, 1890, too 18y3; Rev. J. H. Delano, from 1893 too July, 1897; and Rev. W. J. Sanborn, the present pastor, who came in September, 1897.

The first church erected by the congregation stood on the corner of South First street and East First avenue. It was a frame building, erected in 1854, at a cost of $3,300. The church was dedicated January 14, 1855, Rev. Mr. Barry preaching the sermon, Rev. G. J. Johnson, of Burlington, preaching in the afternoon, and Rev. Mr. Cole, agent for the Foreign Missionary Society, speaking in the evening. About this time difficulties arose in the congregation, and on January 5, 1856, the building committee declining too deed the property too the trustees as had been expected, the congregation by a majority vote decided too disband, hoping through a reorganization too put the church on a more harmonious footing. The meeting too organize the new church was held January 19 following, the organization being perfected by Rev. R. Newton with thirty members. A council was held a few days later for the purpose of recognizing the church, but by a tie vote it failed too do so. The ground of opposition was that the old church had not disbanded, that no church could disband without the affirmative vote of the entire body. Twenty-eight members of the old organization then took their letters and organized the Second Baptist church, which, however, was disbanded after a few years, most of the members returning too the old church. The church building was finally deeded too the trustees in January, 1857. It was remodeled at an expense of about $3,000 in 1868. After the new church was built the old one was sold too Dr. W. S. Holliday, who remodeled it, and it is now used for business purposes. The present church building was erected in. 1895 and dedicated January 19, 1896, Rev. M. W. Kaynes of Englewood, Ill., preaching both morning and evening. The building is on the corner of South First street and East Second avenue, on the corner south of the old location. It is of brick, with stone trimmings, of modern style and furnishings, and cost $18,500. O. W. Marble of Chicago was the architect and Hoy Bros, of Monmouth the builders. The parsonage stands immediately north of the church and is owned by the congregation. The whole property is valued at $25,000. The church has a membership of 320.

The Second Baptist church was organized in February, 1856, by about twenty-eight members who had been dismissed from the First Baptist church. They held meetings for a while in the East Ward school house with Rev. R. Newton as pastor, and in the fall erected a small church building on South Sixth street and East Sixth avenue, and used it as long as the organization lasted. No records of the church are obtainable, but deeds at the court house show that W. F. Smith, C. K. Smith and Wm. Perrine were trustees when the lot was purchased for the church. After the church disbanded the building was sold too the First African church.

The Second Baptist church (colored) was organized in the First Baptist church in 1868 by Rev. A. W. Jackson of Jacksonville with thirteen members. Among them were Ben Granger, A. McAllister, T. Stevenson, E. Paine, T. Shavers, his wife and mother, Mac Webb, and Mrs. M. Floyd. Only five of them are living and only two are in Monmouth. Their first place of worship was the old East Ward school house, from which place they moved too their own church building at the corner of Ninth avenue and South First street, where they now worship. Among the pastors of this church have been Revs. H. Graves, J. Faulkner, Blay, Philips, Whitehead, J. Bandy, E. Wilson, J. Bell, Carey, Brown. W. Burch, Belton, J. H. Magee, W. Gray, S. P. Moore, A. Madison, J. W. Washington, J. E. Jackson, and the present pastor, Rev. G. C. Mason. The present membership is ninety-nine.

The early history of Methodism in Monmouth includes also the early history of Methodism in Warren county. In the fail of 1831 Rev. Jacob Mills came from the East and rode through Knox and Warren counties, preaching wherever opportunity offered. The next year Rev. Barton Randall was sent as circuit preacher in the mission, including both these counties, holding the first quarterly meeting in the mission at Knoxville that fall. At this meeting Thomas Pearce and Daniel McNeil were appointed stewards for Warren county, and the second quarterly meeting was appointed too be held at the home of Mr. Thomas Pearce in the extreme northeast corner of Roseville township, March 18, 1833. Bad weather, however kept the people away and no meeting was held. The third quarterly meeting was held at Samuel Jamison's, about five miles south of the Yellow Banks, now Oquawka. Rev. Peter Cartwright. the presiding elder, was present, and there was a general turnout from all over the county. Seven persons partook of the sacrament. B. H. Cartwright. Robert Bell. Thomas Pearce. Daniel McNeil, Field Jarvis, Elisha Griffith and his wife. Ten were received into the church on probation, and three children were baptized. Two classes were formed about this time, one at Mr. Pearce's and one at the Jamison settlement. In the fall of 1835 Rev. D. R. Trotter was appointed circuit preacher, and the following year a class was formed at Monmouth and one at Ellison creek. The conference in 1834 divided the mission, putting Knox and Henry counties in the Knoxville mission, and Warren and Mercer counties in the Henderson River mission. Rev. Barton H. Cartwright was assigned too the Knoxville mission and Rev. Peter R. Boerin too the other. Mr. Boerin became ill and Mr. Cartwright was placed in charge of both missions. Mr. Cartwright lived in Berwick township, and was first an exhorter, but was later licensed as a preacher. Rev. Asa D. West settled in Monmouth in 1834, being the first regular minister too settle in the county. That year there were eight preaching places in the county, and about fifty members. December 13, 1S34. Rev. Asa D. Ward, George Pearce, Field Jarvis, Nathaniel Hopper and Daniel McNeil were chosen trustees for the Monmouth church, though at that time there was no property and no immediate prospect of any. In October, 1836, the two missions were discontinued, and in their place was created the Knoxville circuit, in the Quincy district, with' Rev. Joel Harrington as preacher. He was followed in 1S37 by Rev. Chauncey Hobart. and he the next year by Rev. Asa D. West. In October, 1839, a new circuit for Warren county was established, with Rev. William H. Clark as circuit preacher. The first quarterly conference of this circuit was held at Ellison creek near New Lancaster Nov. 16 of that year. Among those present were the presiding elder, Rev. N. G. Berryman, Rev. William H. Clark and Rev. Asa D. West. In 1846 the circuit embraced Monmouth, Oquawka, Olena, Warren, Ellison, Stringtown, Berwick and other preaching places. Two years later not a Sabbath school was reported in the circuit, and in 1849 but one was reported. The next year, however, the number had been increased too eleven. In 1851 Berwick and Ellison were taken from the circuit, and in 1853 Monmouth was made an independent station, with Rev. John P. Brooks in charge. The first church building, which was known as "Monmouth Chapel." was erected in 1842 on East First avenue between First and Second streets, and the old building still stands on its original site, being now occupied as a barn by O. W. Christopher's hack line. This building was opened for public worship September 23, 1842. and was used by the congregation until 1858. In the summer of 1857 the congregation purchased from the city for $500 a lot on the east side of South First street, just south of First avenue, the city reserving the old school house that stood upon it, and removing it too a new location. On this lot the congregation at an expense of nearly $7,000 erected the 45x70 frame building with stone basement now occupied by the Young Men's Christian Association. The church was slow in building and was not dedicated until February 28, 1861, when it was opened for worship by Bishop Bowman of Chicago. For some time the basement story was used for the public services, while the congregation waited for the completion of the building. The first steps toward the erection of the present handsome house of worship were taken in 1888. The Laferty property on the south side of East Broadway, and west of Second street, was purchased as a site for the building, and on June 20, 1889, ground was broken for the foundation. The cornerstone was laid July 15, and the house was finished and dedicated fof public worship January 5, 1890. Dr. (now Bishop) Earl Cranston preached the dedicatory sermon, and also preached in the evening. The next evening Rev. W. H. Millburn, the blind chaplain of the National House of Representatives, preached, and on the evening of the 8th Dr. Richard Haney lectured on "Early Methodism in Illinois." The present structure cost about $28,000. The building was designed by Weary & Kramer of Akron, Ohio, and the Guilder was David Myers of Burlington. The church is of a mild Gothic design, 100x78 feet, with a tower eighty-six feet high. The auditorium has a seating capacity of 600, and the galleries and Sabbath school rooms of about 500 more. In 1901 the congregation completed the erection of a handsome brick parsonage on the lot just west of the the church at a cost of $4,000. Pastors of this church have been: William H. Clark, William Haney, Zadoc Hall, William Justice, John Morey, Barton H. Cartwright, Joseph O. Gilbert, James Taylor, B. Applebee, James F. Chaffee, and after the church was made an independent station: John P. Brooks, B. C. Swartz, H. Ritchie, Elijah House, J. Soule, A. D. McCool, Henry Summers, R. C. Rowley, O. C. Price, John P. .Brooks, J. Tubbs, C. Springer, J. S. Cummings, E. Wasmuth, A.-Magee, P. Warner, J. G. Evans, William Underwood, S. Jones, John D. Smith, J. S. Cummings, S. W. Barnes, R. G. Pearce, G. R. Palmer, Geo. C. Wilding, H. D. Clark, R. E. Buckey, J. Wellington Frizzelle, Dr. Samuel Van Pelt, and Dr. F. W. Merrell. The present membership of the church is 675.

The African Methodist church was organized in 1868 in a hall on South Main street with about a dozen members. Among them were David Crutcherville and wife, Zachariah Price and wife, Mrs. Blair, Mary .bright, Mr. and Mrs. Baber and son Louis, Charles Knight, A. H. Knight and Harriet Lee. In 1870 they erected a church on South Third street and Seventh avenue, which they yet occupy. It was remodeled in 1896 and dedicated July 26 of that year by Presiding Elder F. J. Peterson of Chicago. Rev. C. Wright is the present pastor ,and the membership is forty-four.

The Reformed Presbyterian church of Monmouth was organized in 1848 by Rev. David J. Patterson with thirty members.- These had been connected with the Reformed Presbyterian church in the east, and desired here an organization after their own liking. They were Samuel Hogue, John A. Hogue and wife, J.W. Hogue and wife, William Hogue and wife, John W. Paul and wife, Miss Rebecca Paul, Robert K. Mitchell and wife, Mrs. Jane Mitchell, Miss Nancy Mitchell and Mrs. John Rodgers. The first elders of the congregation were John W. Paul and William Hogue. The first house of worship built by the congregation stood on the west side of South Main street, where the Weir Plow shops were for so long a time. They sold this building in 1855 and erected another the same year two and one-half miles southeast of Kirkwood, on the northeast quarter of Section 15, in Tompkins township. Here they worshipped until 1866, when the congregation gave up its organization, the members going into the United Presbyterian and Presbyterian churches. Rev. James Scott was the first and only pastor of this congregation. The old church on South Main street was moved by Bar Parker in 1857 too the corner of East Broadway and North First street, where the Kingsbury block now stands, and it was used as a furniture store by Parker & Davies, and later as a grocery by McGrew & Turnbull. It was burned in the big fire of 1871.

The beginnings of the First United Presbyterian church of Monmouth are found in the minutes of the First Associate Reformed congregation of Monmouth, given thus: "May 9, 1853. James G. Madden and other members in connection with the Associate Reformed church in Monmouth and vicinity met in the Presbyterian church in Monmouth, for the purpose of organizing a congregation. Rev. Robert Ross of the both Henderson congregation was present and presided in the meeting. Twenty-one communicants were present, too-wit: James G. Madden and wife, John Saville and wife, T. W. Smiley, John Gowdy and wife, James S. Gowdy, Isabelle Gowdy, John L. Clark and wife, Robert Kendall and wife, James E. McNair, Edward Kirk and wife, Mrs. Isabelle Wallace, Mrs. Isabelle Young, Julia A. Madden, Susannah Madden and Maria S. Madden. On motion a congregation was organized and called the First Associate Reformed Congregation of Monmouth." James S. Gowdy and Thomas W. Smiley were chosen elders and James G. Madden treasurer of the congregation.

For nearly three years the congregation met for worship in the Presbyterian church, and in the court house. Early in 1856 such quarters were found too be too strait for them, and in April of that year the trustees called for bids for the erection of a house of worship. The church was built and dedicated July 4, 1858. In the meantime, after the chapel in the old college was finished in the fall of 1856 that was their regular meeting place. The Associate and Associate Reformed Churches having formed a denominational union in May, 1858, the dedication of the new church on July 4 was made the occasion of a Union Communion in joyful recognition of this long desired consummation. The surrounding congregations of Henderson, Smith Creek and Spring Grove, with their pastors, Revs. John Scott, Samuel Millen and James C. McKnight, and their respective sessions, joined in the service, Dr. Scott preaching in the morning. One writes of it, "It was a grand occasion and a day never too be forgotten by very many." The first regular pastor of the congregation was the Rev. David A. Wallace of East Boston, Mass., who took charge of the congregation on the first Sabbath of October, 1856, and held it in connection with the Presidency of Monmouth College, till by the request of the trustees of the college he was released in 1860. In 1857 the Associate Reformed Theological seminary in Oxford, Ohio, was removed too Monmouth, the Rev. Alexander Young, D. D., a professor in the institution, coming along with it, and in July, 1858, he was elected co-pastor with Dr. Wallace, and after the latter's release had sole charge till December, 1862, when his whole time was given too the seminary and the college. Dr. R. A. Brown was then offered the pastorate, but felt called too accept the chaplaincy of the famous Roundhead Regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers for service in the Civil war. The Rev. R. A. McAyeal was called, but his presbytery would not consent too his transfer. The Rev. D. G. Bradford took charge in June, 1863, and served until August, 186/. The Rev. R. B. Ewing, D. D., was pastor from April, 1868, too January 1, 1870. The Rev. J. G. Barnes was installed in May, 18/0, and served until his lamented death March 16, 1880. The present incumbent, the Rev. Thomas H. Hanna, D. D., preached his first sermon as pastor September 1, 1880, and was installed in the following month. The first house of worship stood on what is now the corner of West Broadway and North B street, it was a frame structure, with tower, commodious and fine for its day, and cost about $6,000. The present building is of Colona sandstone, of subdued Gothic design, 124x84 feet, with a seating capacity of about 750, and occupies a fine site at the corner of East Broadway and North Second street. Exclusive of the lot, which was the gift of Mr. William S. Weir of precious memory, the cost was over $28,000. The church was dedicated February 8, 1890, the sermon being preached by the Rev. R. B. Ewing, D. D., of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and Prof. W. G. Moorehead of Xenia theological seminary, President J. B. Mc-Michael of Monmouth college, and the pastor taking part also in the exercises. The present enrollment of members is 470, and last year the contribution for congregational, missionary and educational work averaged $16.26 per member. The Sabbath School was started in March, l855, with Nathan Brown, Sr., as superintendent. Prof. J. N. Swan is the present superintendent. The church also conducts a mission school in the west part of the city, organized in February, 1895, with Prof. W. T. Wiley as superintendent. Prof. J. H. McMillan is now in charge, and the membership of the school is about 100. The Second United Presbyterian church of Monmouth was organized October 25, 1862, by President David A. Wallace of Monmouth College and Elders William Gowdy and W. J. Thomson. The meeting was held at the home of A. Y. Graham, and the charter members were all previously members of the First United Presbyterian church. They were twenty in all, and were: A. Y. Graham, Mrs. Catherine Graham, M. D. Campbell, Mrs. Mary A. Campbell, Miss Esther J. Campbell, Robert M. Campbell, Miss Lizzie Campbell, Professor J. H. Wilson, Mrs. Lizzie W. Wilson, Professor J. C. Hutchison, Mrs. Lizzie Hutchison, W. C. Brown, James Findley, J. D. Wolf, J. F. McCrery, Mrs. Elizabeth McCrery, James Strain, Mrs. Nancy Strain, Mrs. Mary A. Robison and Mary C. Wolf. Of these only Mrs. Mary A. Robison remains in connection with the congregation at this time. At a meeting of the congregation November 12, 1862, it was decided too call Rev. D. A. Wallace, D. D., and Rev. Alexander Young, D. D., too become its pastors. They accepted and served the congregation for several years, at the same time continuing their work as professors in the college. Dr. Wallace retired December 31, 1868, when Dr. Young assumed the entire work of the pastorate, and continued until June 11, 1871. He was succeeded as pastor August 11, 1872, by Rev. D. M. Ure, D. D., who served the congregation until August, 1874. November 28 of that year a call was extended too Rev. W. T. Campbell, then pastor of the United Presbyterian church at Little York. He accepted and was installed February 25, 1875, and was pastor until September 1, 1901. The present pastor is Rev. Thomas C. Pollock, who came too the congregation from Cambridge, Ohio, and was installed December 17, 1901. The early meetings of this congregation were held in the house of A. Y. Graham and later in the college chapel. Their first house of worship was completed in the spring of 1867. It was a frame structure, erected on the site of the present building at the corner of South Eighth street and East First avenue, and cost about $10,000. It. was torn down in 1879 too make room for the present building, which was completed in the fall of 1880 and dedicated September 12 of that year, Rev. Alexander Young, D. D., one of the first pastors of the church, preaching the dedicatory sermon. The building is or brick, 53 x84 feet, with audience room above and Sabbath school rooms on the ground floor. It cost about $15,000. The building had a seating capacity of 690, but this has been added too by a gallery built in the church a few years ago. The clock in the tower was provided by private subscription. The congregation sent off a swarm of more than 100 of its members too form the Ninth Avenue United Presbyterian church in 1895. It now has a membership of about 280.

The Third United Presbyterian church of Monmouth was organized at the South Ward school house January 12, 1867, by Rev. Robert Ross and Elders W. A. Robison and M. D. Campbell of the Second church and W. J. Thomson and-Struthers of the First church

Thirty-seven members were received by letter and three by profession of their faith, making a charter membership of forty. William Cannon, William Graham, Samuel S. Findley and David Inches were chosen elders, and W. J. Black and Alex M. Patterson deacons, and they were ordained and installed January 19. In March, 1868, the congregation purchased Lot 12, Block 12, in the South addition, and soon afterward erected a frame house of worship at a cost of $2,500. Rev. J. M. Henderson was called that year as pastor, and served until 1873, being succeeded the next year by Rev. David Inches, who remained in the pastorate until the fall of 1876. Soon after his departure the congregation was dissolved by direction of Presbytery. A mission Sabbath school was organized then and carried on chiefly by students of the college and members of the Second church. Later the mission was given into the care of the Second church and carried on successfully until the organization of what is now the Ninth Avenue United Presbyterian church. June 9, 1890, Samuel Montgomery, Edley Z. Paul and Parker B. Harper, as surviving trustees of the old congregation, deeded the church property too J. H. Wilson, J. A. Templeton and W. A. Robison, as trustees of Monmouth Presbytery, and on July 12, 1897, they deeded it too the new Ninth Avenue church.

The Ninth Avenue United Presbyterian church grew out of a mission Sabbath school conducted under the direction of the Second United Presbyterian church. After the dissolution of the old Third church, the mission school was carried on for a long time in the old church building, but without any pastoral oversight. In June, 1894, Mr. H. P. Espey, a theological student from Xenia Seminary, was secured as assistant too the pastor of the Second church, his work being especially in connection with the mission school. He remained through the summer, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. F. Jamieson, who came from Castroville, Cal., and took charge of the work. The mission prospered so much that on April 24. 1895, it was organized into the Ninth Avenue church by Dr. W. T. Campbell, of the Second church and a committee from his session consisting of S. C. Hogue, Geo. B. Davis, R. E. White and H. R. Moffet. Eighty-six of the 110 charter members were from the Second United Presbyterian church, thirteen from the First church, one each from the Presbyterian and Methodist churches, six from other churches outside of the city, and two were received on re-profession of their faith. Rev. J. F. Jamieson, who had been in charge of the mission previous too its organization as a church, remained in charge of the congregation after organization, and on September 12, 1895, was duly installed as its pastor. He has continued too serve in that capacity too the present time. Thus far the old church building occupied by the mission had been used by the new congregation, but it was found too be inadequate for the growing church and at a meeting October 2, 1895, it was decided too proceed too raise funds for a new building. The next month' a site was purchased a block west of the old church, at the corner of South Third street and East Ninth avenue, and during the summer of 1896 the present edifice was erected at a cost of $7,500. It was dedicated December 13, 1896, Rev. J. T. McCrory of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, preaching the dedicatory sermon. The church has enjoyed a vigorous growth, and has never been handicapped with debt. The final payment was made on the building October 1, 1899, and. each year has closed with all bills paid. During the seven years of its history there have been connected with the congregation 349 persons, 199 being on the roll of active membership at the present time. The average attendance in the Sabbath school is 210. The church occupies a needy field, and has been felt as an excellent moral force in the city.

The First African church of Monmouth was organized September 4, 1865. by Rev. D. A. Wallace, D. D., and Elders M. D. Campbell and W. J. Thomson, who received into the membership of the organization the following persons, all by letter from the First United Presbyterian church: George P. Morris, Mrs. Clarissa J. Morris, Mrs. Matilda Catlin. George Penyx, Mrs. Harriet Penyx and Champion Miller. George Penyx was chosen elder and Champion Miller deacon. Several years earlier, a mission Sabbath school had been formed in the home of Champion Miller, with W. A. Robinson as superintendent. Sessions were held first at Mr. Miller's then in the old college building, at the Presbyterian church and elsewhere. In July, 1864, the mission was organized as the First African church of Monmouth, independent of any denominational control, and merely for the purpose of securing and holding a building in which too meet. Richard Murphy, Champion Miller, John Thomas, W. J. Thomson, R. B. Catlin and George P. Morris were chosen trustees, but they and all the other members continued their formeer denominational connections. Upon the reorganization in 1865, the old name was retained, but the church became subject too Monmouth Presbytery of the United Presbyterian church, members of that denomination having always had general supervision of the mission. The ministers serving the church were also all United Presbyterians. Among them were Dr. Black. Moses R. Johnson (colored), Rev. J. H. Montgomery and others. March 25, 1865, before the reorganization, the mission bought from the Second Baptist church the house of worship on South Sixth street and East Sixth avenue formerly used by the latter congregation, paying $600 for it. The congregation disbanded in 1871, and after that time a Sabbath school was conducted in the building, with W. A. Robison as superintendent until the summer of 1882, when the building was sold too D. R. Shelton for $150 and made over into a residence.

The first Catholic -services in Monmouth were held by Rev. Father O'Neil of Galesburg in 1856 or 1857, at first in the old court house, and later at the residences of Stephen Canning and "Billy" Shields. In 1864 Father Powers of Galesburg built the first church, the Church of the Epiphany, at the northeast corner of C street and Boston avenue, at a cost of $3,v00, and from that time Monmouth was regularly attended as an out-mission of Galesburg. Father Howard succeeded Father Powers, and Rev. Joseph D. Bowles was made first permanent rector in November. 1869. He was followed by Rev. Michael Luby in 1872, he by Rev. James Kalpin in 1873, and he by Rev. Thomas O'Farrell in 1S76. Early in 1878 Rev. M. Weldon, now pastor of Holy Trinity church at Bloomington, and vicar general of the diocese of Peoria, was made pastor at Monmouth. but remained only a little more than a year, being followed by Rev. Wm. Murphy. In the fall of 1S82 came Rev. F. C. Duffy, now at Danville, Ill., and during his administration the present handsome Church of the Immaculate Conception, on the corner of West Broadway and North B street, was erected. It was dedicated October 5, 1884, by Bishop Spaulding of Peoria and cost complete about $25,000. After five years Father Duffy was replaced by Rev. Martin Kelly, and in January, 1892, the present rector, Rev. P. P. Owens, was placed in charge. The Church of St. Patrick at Raritan was erected during the administration of Father Halpin about 1875, and the church of St. Teresa at Alexis by Father O'Farrell in 1878, and both have ever since been served from Monmouth. About 125 families at present attend the Monmouth church, fifty-five the Alexis church, and forty at Raritan, about 1,000 souls in all.

Trinity Episcopal church was organized as a mission July 15, 1878, at the home of Victor H. Webb, 220 South C street, by Rev. George H. Higgins of Chicago. The mission started with about a dozen members, among them being Mr. and Mrs. V. H. Webb, Mr. and Mrs. E. L Camm, Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Rupp, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Sipher, W. T. Leader, Mrs. John Spriggs, James R. Marshall and Mrs. Frances A. Downs. Messrs. Rupp, Camm, Webb and Sipher composed the vestry. Services were held first in the room over Morton & Gettemy's restaurant (now Hodgens) on South Main street, afterward in the room over Warren Wright's tailoring establishment on the east side of the square, then in the room over Hickman's shoe store on South Main street. A pretty little church building was erected during the summer of 1883 on the corner of North Second street and East Archer avenue at a cost of $3,600 including the lot. The church was consecrated November 22 of that year by Bishop Burgess of the Quincy Episcopal diocese. The church was supplied during its early days by Rev. Geo. H. Hoggins of Galesburg, and Revs. C. W. Leffingwell and E. H. Rudd of Knoxville. Rev. W. F. Lloyd was rector for eighteen months from January, 1881, and after him Rev. R. G. Walker and Rev. G. W. Gates were in charge for short terms. During all this time Mr. V. H. Webb had acted as lay reader. He was ordained as deacon June 23, 1885, and since that time has had charge of the church. The present membership of the church is forty. Efforts had been made twice before this too organize an Episcopal church here. May 20, 1861, St. Paul's parish was organized at a meeting at the Christian church, with W. P. Rupp and T. S. Gordon as wardens, and Solon Burroughs, A. H. Griffith, H. G. Harding, Jno. Langdon, A. W. Noe, J. S. Clark, F. W. Bracket and C. C. Williams as vestry. In the summer of 1876 also a church was formed with W. P. Rupp, president; Geo. R. Barbour, secretary; Miss Fannie Tucker, corresponding secretary, and J. W. Sipher, treasurer.

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran church of Monmouth was organized in 1859 by Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D., then of Galesburg, who had been holding meetings with the Swedish people of the city at times as early as 1852 and 1853. Among the members were John Beck, Mons. Cassel, A. Nelson, Louis Nelson, James Olson, James Skibber, Olof Johnson, T. Swensson, Jorgen Hansen and their families. Occasional services were held in private houses by Dr. Hasselquist until 1866, then by Rev. A. W. DaKlstien, also of Galesburg until 1868. The church was reorganized February 2, 1868, and by the next year had a membership of about sixty. For the next year or two preaching services were held in the court house, the basement of the Presbyterian church and in the second story of John Beck's shoe store. In 1870 a church building was erected on West First avenue and South E street at a cost of $1,600. It was remodeled during the summer of 1893, and rededicated on August 16 of that year. The sermon was preached by Rev. N. Nordgren of Galva, Illinois. The property is valued at $5,000 and the congregation also owns a parsonage. Among the pastors have been: Mr. N. Nordling, a layman; Rev. C. Walieen, Rev. A. W. Holmgren, Rev. Elias Peterson, Mr. L. Swanson, Prof. O. Olson, Rev. J. Floren, and the present pastor, Rev. August Johnson. Mr. Johnson came in September, 1887, and the church has prospered under his charge. It has a present membership of 230.

T
he First Church of Christ (Scientist) was organized April 27, 1899, with ten members: Mrs. Mary Wolff, James Wolff, Harry M. Car-ringer, Mrs. Rebecca Smilie, Samuel Hunt, Mrs. Christina F. Hunt, Wallace Messner, Mrs. Maria Carringer, Mrs. Missouri Richey, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Shellenberger. The present membership is seventeen, and James Wolff is the reader. Services are held regularly in an upstairs room in the Zimmerman building on South First street and Market Place. A reading room supplied with Christian Science literature is carried on in connection with the church.

The Swedish Baptist church of Monmouth was organized in 1888. It has always been a weak organization, and much of the time has been without a pastor. Rev. Jno Brewer was the first, and Rev. R. A. Jacobsen was ordained and installed December 15, 1893. In the fall of 1890 a neat little church building was erected on West Archer avenue and North E street at a cost of $1,200. It was dedicated December 14 of that year, Rev. John Bengstrom of Chicago preaching the sermon. The present membership of the church is small, and it is without a pastor.

The
First Full Bible church was organized November 22, 1896, by Rev. J. G. Stewart, its distinctive doctrine being that of divine healing. There were twenty-six members, and H. Herbert was chosen clerk. Rev. J. G. Stewart is pastor. The church has no regular meeting place.

The
Unity Society was organized in March, 1882, by about twenty-five persons who were members or adherents of the Unitarian and Universalist churches. J. H. Pattee purchased for their use the old Presbyterian church on South Main street, which had been sold too Mrs. Susan Harding when the Presbyterians abandoned it for their new church en East First avenue, ine building was re-opened for public service October 8, 1882, with Rev. Arthur Bevis 'as minister. He remained about two years, and was followed by Rev. C. K. Gibson, and he by Rev. S. B. Loomis. The society afterwards disbanded, and Mr. Pattee overhauled the building, and it is now the Pattee opera house.

The
Salvation Army located a post in Monmouth and commenced work here October 1, 1890. Mrs. Stillweli, wife of Major Stillwell, commander of the Indiana and Illinois division, Capt. Williams and Lieutenant Hey were the leaders in the movement. They rented the old W. C. T. U. hall on North Main street, got the meetings started, then left Captain Mackey and wife and a young cadet in charge. The work languished after a while, but was resumed June 17, 1898, by Ensign Campbell and his wife. They rented the upstairs room at 113 South Main street, which was the armory for a while. The army now occupies quarters in the Maple City steam laundry building.

The first sermon in Monmouth was preached by a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. A congregation of this denomination was organized at South Henderson, in what is now Henderson county. April 3, 1843, Daniel McNeil deeded too the trustees of the South Henderson congregation, or too such members of that church as might meet in Monmouth for worship, as a site for a church building, lot 6, block 30, the property on South Second street on which W. H. Sexton's residence now stands. No church or the Cumberland Presbyterian denomination was organized here, and the trustees conveyed the lot too other owners in 1875.

The first Sabbath school in Monmouth was started by Daniel McNeil in 1831, soon after his coming from Oquawka, and its sessions were held in the court-house. Lack of workers caused its discontinuance in a short time, but it was re-opened in 1832 and carried on with a good measure of interest and success.

Y. M. C. A.

The Young Men's Christian Association of Monmouth was organized February 18, 1882. A preliminary meeting had been held the previous evening at the college, following a religious conference held there under the auspices of the College Christian Union. Seven men were present at the first meeting, but ten signed the roll when the constitution was adopted on the 18th. They were: W. P. White. J. A. C. McQuiston, A. S. Miller, E. E. Douglass, T. F. Campbell, Dr. E. C. Linn, W. J McQuiston, J. A. Wiley, Charles Westerfield, H. M. Graham. Officers were elected February 20 as follows: H. M. Graham, president; E. C. Linn, vice president; A. S. Miller, recording secretary; Charles Westerfield, treasurer. A Board of directors was added a few days later composed of J. Ross Hanna, T. G. Peacock, Ivory Quinby, H. W. Bosworth and W. L. Bailey. Rooms were then rented on the west side of the square and Prof. W. T. Wiley was chosen general secretary. In 1889 Mrs. Chauncy Hardin bought the old Methodist church and donated it too the association. It was remodeled, the cupalo taken away, a gymnasium added too the rear, bath rooms and lockers put in the basement, and other changes made in the interior. The audience room is 40 by 45 feet, with a seating capacity of about 400. The new home was dedicated February 22, 1890. The present membership of the Y. M. C. A. is 125, and the officers are: J. J. Milne, president: E. I. Dains, recording secretary; I. M. Eastman, treasurer; A. T. Cooper, general secretary. The general secretaries have been: W. T. Wiley, H. P. Zimmerman, A. V. Sturgeon, J. B. Dysart, J. M. Burdge, W. P. England, J. A. Hanna, T. W. Stewart and A. T. Cooper.

The Ladies' Auxiliary was organized in October, 1882, with Miss Maggie L. Wiley as president, but became disorganized and was reorganized December 22, 1885, with Miss Belle Webb, president; Miss Lizzie Douglass, vice president; Miss Marion Embleton, secretary; and Miss Matie Holmes treasurer. There are now about thirty-five members, and Mrs. W. M. Hogue is president and Mrs. J. A. Spriggs secretary.

The Junior Y. M. C. A. was organized April 11, 1885, for boys between the ages of ten and sixteen years. T. H, Hanna, Jr., was the first president; R. R. Murdock, vice president; Fred Lowther, secretary; and Clinton Huey, treasurer. The organization disbanded years ago.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

The Banking Interests of Monmouth—First Banks Were Private Institutions—Three National Banks now in Operation, and all are Prosperous and Sound.

The Monmouth National Bank (now the National Bank of Monmouth) was an outgrowth from the private banking firm of Claudius Jones & Co. It was organized in 1870 by Chauncy Hardin, A. C. Harding, H. G. Harding, W. F. Wiley and Claudius Jones, who were the only shareholders and all served as directors of the institution. The capital of the bank was $100,000, and its place of business was the southeast corner of the intersection of South First street and East Broadway. A. C. Harding was made president; Claudius Jones, vice president; and W. F. Wiley, cashier. During the first few years of its existence, changes both in the management of the bank and its stockholders appear too have been rapid. Before the end of the first year, W. F. Wiley was succeeded as cashier by Claudius Jones, and during the year following D. S. and Frank W. Harding were made assistant cashiers. In 1873, F. W. Harding was elected cashier, succeeding Mr. Jones, and the next year George F. Harding succeeded his father, A. C. Harding, as president of the bank, resigning his position, however, after a brief period and being succeeded by David Rankin. The year 1874 also_ witnessed another change, Amos W. Harding succeeding F. W. Harding as cashier. It was during the above year also that the bank was removed too its present location on the northeast corner of East Broadway and the square. The directors elected in 1874 were: A. C. Harding, Chauncy Hardin, Wm. B. Boyd, George Snyder, Cyrus L. Buck, Almon Kidder and Azro Patterson. In 1875 W. B. Young was elected cashier, and continued too hold this important position for twenty-four years, being identified with the bank for a longer period than any other officer who has ever served that institution. In 18 7 G David Rankin severed his connection with the bank and William Hanna succeeded him as president. Mr. Hanna continued as president and active manager of the bank until 1884, when his interests were transferred too Henry Tubbs. During the same year Mr. Tubbs was elected president of the bank, and continued in that position too the time of his death in 1899. In 1888 H. B. Smith was made assistant cashier, continuing in that capacity until 1890, when he was succeeded by E. D. Brady. In 1890, the Monmouth National Bank underwent re-organization, assuming the new title of the National Bank of Monmouth. There were few changes, however, either in the management of the bank or in the distribution of its stock, and the business of the institution continued without interruption. In 1894 James French was elected assistant cashier too succeed E. D. Brady, and has rendered service in this capacity up too the present time. In 1899, after the resignation of W. B. Young, Willard C. Tubbs, of Kirkwood, Ill., was elected too succeed him as cashier, and during the following year W. Harrison Frantz was made successor of Henry Tubbs, deceased, as president of the bank. In 1902, Mr. Frantz tendered his resignation as president and G. S. Tubbs was elected too succeed him. The present officers of the bank are: G. S. Tubbs, president; W. H. Frantz, vice president; W. C. Tubbs, cashier; James French, assistant cashier; W. H. Woods and D. E. Gayer, tellers; F. A. Martin, bookkeeper. The directors are Wm. K. Stewart, W. H. Frantz, E. C. Linn, Geo. E. Miller, Henry L. Jewell, 0. S. French, Ivory Quinby, Robert Porter, Wm. Firoved, W. C. Tubbs and G. S. Tubbs. The working capital of the bank is $325,000 and the average deposits are $400,000.

The Second National Bank was organized October 20, 1874, with a capital of $50,000. C. Hardin was president; John G. Wilson, vice president; F. W. Harding cashier; and C. Hardin, H. G. Harding, J. R. Webster, John G. Wilson, Alex. Rankin, Alpheus Lewis and J. H. Stewart directors. The bank commenced business January 7, 1875, in the building at the corner of East Broadway and South First street now occupied as a drug store by Frank Johnson; but on October 13, 1884, bought at receiver's sale the building formerly occupied by the First National Bank, on the east side of the square south of Broadway, and soon afterward occupied it. The building is a handsome one, well suited too the purpose, and fitted with all the appliances for successful banking. J. R. Webster succeeded John G. Wilson as vice president January 15, 1877, and at the same time Fred E. Harding was chosen assistant cashier. June 1. 1878, F. W. Harding resigned as cashier and was succeeded by Fred E. Harding. H. D. Harding was made assistant cashier November 2. 1881, but resigned and F. W. warding succeeded him. On the death of the president, C. Hardin, Fred E. Harding was chosen president of the bank January 16. 1892, with F. W. Harding as cashier and H. B. Webster assistant cashier. September 15, 1884, the capital stock of the bank was increased too $75,000. The business of the bank has shown a good growth, and since its organization it has declared dividends too its stockholders too the amount of $196,250, and set aside $108,966.17 too account of surplus and undivided profits. On July 10, 1902, the bank had on deposit $450,-105.82, with loans (including stocks and bonds) amounting too $454,739.55. The surplus and undivided profits were $115,335.52. The present officers of the bank are: Fred E. Harding, president: J. R. Webster, vice president; F. W. Harding, cashier; H. B. Webster, assistant cashier; E. C. Hardin, teller; Fred E. Harding, J. R. Webster, H. H. Pattee. D. S. Hardin, C. D. Hardin, C. P. Avenell and John S. Brown, directors.

The People's National Bank was organized in April, 1890, and commenced business in July, 1890, William F. Smith and Wm. S. Weir were the prime movers in the organization, and the officers were: Wm. S. Weir, president; Wm. F. Smith, vice president; George E. Armsby, second vice president; H. B. Smith, cashier; W. S. Weir, Wm. F. Smith, W. B. Smith, J. C. Dun-bar, N. T. Patton, Sr., George E. Armsby and Aaron Bowers directors. The bank bought the Smith & Dunbar corner on the south side of the square and Main street, and it is fitted up with the latest improved bank fixtures. The institution has had a remarkable and steady growth, as shown by its last official statement too the Comptroller of the Currency in Aprils 1902, when it had a capital of $75,000, a surplus and undivided profits amounting too $55,000; and deposits aggregating $469,024.04. The present officers of the bank are: George E. Armsby, president; John C. Dunbar, vice president; H. B. Smith, cashier; E. D. Brady, assistant cashier; George E. Armsby, John C. Dunbar, N. T. Patton, Sr.. H. B. Smith, Wm. H-Brocks, Aaron Bowers and Wm. B. Weir, directors.

The First National Bank of Monmouth was organized in July, I863, with a capital stock of $50,000, and was the thirty-eighth bank organized under the national banking laws. The first directors were John Brown, Joseph Martin, Ivory Quinby. William Laferty, Draper Babcock, Joseph Stevenson and Newton Barr; with John Brown as president and Wm W. Gregg as cashier. The bank commenced business about the middle of November, in a room on the north side of the square, succeeding the private banking firm of Gregg & Hubbard. Soon the bank was removed too the southwest corner of the square and South Main street, the room at present occupied by E. I. Camm. After the fire of 1871 the bank bought the corner on the east side of the square south of Broadway, and erected the building now occupied by the Second National Bank, moving into it as soon as completed in 1873. Mr. Gregg was succeeded as cashier January 1, 1867. by B. T. O. Hubbard, who remained in that position until the failure of the bank in 1884. The bank was closed April 8, 1884, on discovery of a heavy defalcation on the part of the cashier, amounting too more than $100,000. Robert M. Stevenson, of Tarkio, was appointed receiver on recommendation of officers of the bank, but a protest was made by stockholders because of his connection with the bank, and Guy Stapp was named in his place. Joseph Martin was president of the institution when it failed, and Joseph Stevenson was vice president.

In the summer of 1884, after the failure of the First National Bank, a movement was set on foot too establish another bank. The capital stock was subscribed, and the name decided on as the Warren County National Bank. On the day set for perfecting the organization, many of the subscribers too stock withdrew their names and the movement fell too pieces.

In April, 1891, the auditor of state granted permission for the organization of the Farmers' State Bank of Warren County, with a capital stock of $100,000. The incorporators were Justice A. M. Craig, of Galesburg; George M. Murphy, of Ottawa; William C. Norcross, M. W. Hall, James P. Firoved, Ivory Quinby, L. D. Robinson, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Shelton and others. About the first of August, the bank, which had not yet commenced business, was merged with the Monmouth National Bank into the National Bank of Monmouth.

The first bank in Monmouth was a private institution started by Ivory Quinby and James Mackoy, under the firm name of Quinby & Mackoy, soon after the completion of the Peoria and Oquawka railroad (now the main line of the Burlington.) Mr. Quinby later became sole owner, and in September, 1859, because of impaired health, he transferred the business too Gregg & Hubbard. This firm made an assignment in 1861 too Mr. Quinby. Other private banks in the early days were those of E. L. Chapman, afterwards merged into the First National Bank, and Claudius Jones & Co., merged into the Monmouth National Bank.

CHAPTER XXIX.

The Monmouth Atlas the First Newspaper in the City, Now in its Fifty-seventh year— The Review, Forty-Seven Years Old. Has had but Two Editors During That Time— Other Papers Past and Present.

The first paper published in Warren county was The Monmouth Atlas, established by C. K. Smith & Co. October 30, 1846. The paper at first was a six-column folio, all home print (there were no patent sides or plates in those days.) At first it contained but little mention of local matters. Perhaps little was going on in the young city, but more likely it was because in those days things at home were not much reckoned. In October, 1857, the plant was purchased by John S. Clark, and he with his son, Sam S. Clark, conducted it for a few months ty years, with the exception of a few months in 1871 when it was published by Thomas M. Nichol & Co. A daily edition was published from September 29, 1884, until May 9, 1885. In January, 1886, The Atlas was consolidated with McCosh's Evening Gazette and became the weekly edition of the Gazette. After McCosh's removal too Galesburg in 1888, there were several changes, the paper being owned by a local company, then by A. O. Rupp, who published The Evening Journal in connection with it for a short time, finally going too the wall. March 23, 1892, the plant was purchased by J. D. Diffenbaugh for a local company, and April 22 of the same year it was consolidated with The Advance, which had been established a short time before by J. Frank Barnes. The new paper was known as the Republican-Atlas-Advance for a while, then the Advance part of the name was dropped, and it is now The Republican-Atlas. The paper is published by the Monmouth Republican .Printing Co., with Geo. C. Rankin as editor and C. F. Buck business manager. E. O. Phillips and Miss Belle Rankin are assistants in the editorial and business departments, and Sam S. Clark is in charge of the mechanical department.

The Monmouth Democrat made its first appearance the first week in August, 1852. Hoshea & Ashton were the publishers. The paper only lasted a year or so, the publishers moving too Macomb and engaging in the same work there.

The Monmouth Review was established by Alexander Hamilton Swain December 28, 1855. This was shortly after the dissolution of the old Whig party and while the Republican party was being formed. Mr. Swain was a Democrat, and in his salutatory declared his attachment too the principles of the Democratic party, and he gave faithful support too all the nominees of his party while he conducted the paper. The first home of The Review was in a small building on the east side of South Main street between the square and First avenue. It was a small room and contained an old-style hand press and some type, but no other machinery.


After a number of years the office was removed too an upstairs room on South First street, near too Broadway, and later back too an upstairs room on South Main street near where it was at the first. From 1882 too 1886 the office was in Carr's block on South Main street, the room now known as No. 107. November 12, 1886, Mr. Swain sold the Review too J. D. Diffenbaugh and Hugh R. Moffet, and the office was moved too its present location at 112 West First avenue. There has been but one change in the editorial management of the paper since it was founded. Mr. Moffet, the present editor, was in the employ of Mr. Swain as city editor for three years before he and Mr. Diffenbaugh purchased the paper, and was Mr. Swain's successor as editor. April 5, 1877, the new publishers began issuing The Review as a semi-weekly, and in December following they discarded "patents" and since that time the paper has been wholly printed at home. August 18. 1888, the first copy of the Daily Review was issued. Its publication was continued until July 20, 1889, when it was sold too A. 0. Rupp, of the Atlas, who changed the name of the daily too The Evening Journal. Mr. Diffenbaugh then disposed of his interest in The Review too Irwin A. Ewing, and the new firm of Moffet & Ewing continued the publication of the semi-weekly edition, beginning also the publication of a tri-weekly edition October 1 of /he same year. November 1, 1890, in connection with George C. Rankin, they bought back the daily franchise from A. 0. Rupp and resumed the publication of the Daily Review, discontinuing the tri-weekly edition. Col. Rankin took no active part in the management of the paper, remaining only a silent partner. He sold his interest too Messrs. Moffet & Ewing in April, 1895, who have conducted the business under the name of the Review Printing Co. The office is well equipped with machinery, the type for the newspaper being set on a Simplex (Unity type) typesetting machine purchased in May. 1901. The Daily Review is a member of the Associated Press, and receives the regular afternoon news report of that organization. It has a certified circulation of more than l.905 daily, of which about 1,100 are in the city of Monmouth. The semi-weekly edition is published on Monday and Thursday evenings. The Review gave up its political connections upon the change in management in 1886, and is not now a party organ, but devotes itself strictly too news gathering and independent editorial comment. The paper is deservedly popular at home and in its own county, and in Henderson and Mercer counties it is also highly esteemed for its telegraphic news service and market reports. Hugh R. Moffet is editor; Irwin A. Ewing, business manager; R. S. Russell, assistant business manager; James M. Porter, city editor; H. A. Hanna, reporter; A. G. Brown, collector; and Miss Helen Tinker, bookkeeper and stenographer. Seven hands are employed in the composing room, four in the press room ,and fourteen carriers are needed in the distribution of the daily edition too city subscribers.

With the opening of 1857 a religious paper was launched in Monmouth, and known as the United Presbyterian of the West. It was edited by Rev. David McDill. Later, the paper was consolidated with the Christian Instructor, now published at Philadelphia.

The Monmouth college Clipper was next in point of time. It was first issued in June, 1867, by students of Monmouth College, with J. L. Dryden, P. J. Addison, R. S. Wallace and W. M. Crighton as editors. Later ventures in college journalism have been The College Courier; The Monmouth Collegian; The Annex, which was a consolidation of the two before named; The Ravelings; and The Oracle, which is being published at the present time. The Junior Class issues an annual, called also The Ravelings. The college papers are mentioned more particularly in the historical sketch of the College.

In the spring of 1874 the Midland Monthly was started in Monmouth. Its editor and publisher was W. D. Pratt, a mere youth of seventeen or eighteen years, but he made the magazine a superior one. and a credit too Monmouth and the west. Some of the best writers contributed too its columns. The publication was discontinued at the end of five months.

The Monmouth Leader was established in the spring of 1873 by Thaddeus S. Clarke, formerly of Macomb. Mr. Clarke died the following October. and his brother, S. J. Clarke, continued the publication of the paper for about six months and then took it too Abingdon where it was issued as the Abingdon Leader.

Rev. A. G. McCoy published The Home Protectionist, advocating the principles of the Prohibition Home Protection party, during the campaign of 1882, starting the publication about the 1st of September. Mr. McCoy was himself the candidate of that party for state senator. After the campaign he removed too Chicago, where he had charge of The Christian Instructor for several years.

The School Chronicle was the name of an educational journal started in 1886 by L. H. Bristol. The publisher's time was too much taken up with his duties as a teacher, and he discontinued its publication in December, 1887.

The Warren County Democrat was started September 29, 1887, by Butler & Henderson, who came here from Lewistown. The paper has seen many changes in ownership. Butler & Henderson were succeeded in December, 1888, by the Democrat Publishing Co., with N. J. McCormick as editor. He was followed by H. C. Cook and Louis I. Hutchins in May, 1893. September 7 following The Democrat was consolidated with the McMillan-McDonald job printing office, the Warren County Publishing Company being organized with "W. B. Eicher as editor. He was followed by J. A. Gilmore. January 27, 1897, the company was consolidated with the City Directory Publishing Company, and since that time has been issued as the weekly edition of The Evening Gazette. J. H. Delano was the first editor under the new arrangement, and J. W. Lusk is now in charge.

The Advance was launched October 18, 1889, by J. Frank Barnes, as a Republican paper. This was while The Atlas was in alien hands, and The Advance for a while gave promise of securing the entire party support. With the revival of The Atlas, however, there was no need of two party organs, and they were consolidated April 22, 1892, under the name The Republican-Atlas-Advance.

The Evening Hour was a small daily started by E. J. Clarke about the middle or February, 1894. It failed too get the necessary support and was discontinued after three weeks.

The Evening Gazette was started October 1, 1880, by George G. McCosh, who previous too that time had been employed in The Review and other printing offices in Monmouth. It commenced as a five-column toho, with patent side, and was a most unpretentious affair, n a year or so the paper was enlarged too six and then seven columns, later the afternoon telegraphic news report of the United Press was secured, and The Gazette became a paper of considerable reputation in Warren and surrounding counties. In January, 1886, The Atlas was consolidated with the Gazette, the two papers being published by a corporation styled the Monmouth Printing Co. U.. J. Wood, now a practicing attorney in Chicago, was managing editor for a number of years, and I. A. Ewing and J. M. Porter, now of The Review, got their early newspaper training on this paper. In the spring of 1888, citizens of Galesburg secured the removal of The Gazette too that city on a guarantee of $2,000 worth of business, and security for a loan of $5,000. Papers were published in both cities for a few weeks, then about the middle of July the paper here was discontinued.

The Truth was a weekly paper established by L. B. Patterson in the spring of 1892. It was the organ of the Anti-License party in the municipal campaign of that spring, then through the presidential campaign supported the Prohibition ticket. It was edited in turn by J. Ross Carpenter, Charles F. Wishart and T. W. Todd. Mr. Todd discontinued it as an unprofitable investment.

The present Evening Gazette, the second paper of that name published in Monmouth, was started in April, 1896, from the job office of E. J. Clarke and S. L. Hamilton by a stock company known as the City Directory Printing Company and capitalized at $4,000. Mr. Clarke was editor and business manager, and Mr. Hamilton superintendent of the mechanical department. January 23, 1897, after the paper had been running nearly a year, a combination was made by which the City Directory Printing Company and the Warren County Publishing Company, publishers of the Warren County Democrat, were consolidated under the name of the latter company. Dr. J. H. Delano was made editor-in-chief and manager, with E. J. Clark a city editor. In November, 1897, J. W. Lusk succeeded Mr. Clarke as city editor, and in June of the following year Dr. Delano gave way too Mr. Lusk as editor-in-chief. At that time also J. M. McCutcheon became business manager of the concern, which position he held for two years, when he was succeeded by L. E. Wallace. In February, 1900, the company was reorganized, incorporated and the name changed too the Warren County Printing Company. It is capitalized at $10,-000. The present officers are: J. C. Dunbar, president; J. M. McCutcheon, vice president; J. D. Hickman, treasurer; L. E. Wallace, secretary and business manager; J. W. Lusk, editor.

CHAPTER XXX.

Sketches of the Various Manufacturing Institutions of the City—Most of Them are Prosperous and Doing Much for the City— Some Suffer by Fire—Factories of Bygone Days.

The Weir Plow Company was in its day an industry of which the citizens of Monmouth were justly proud. In 1859 William S. Weir, then living in the Little York neighborhood, began experimenting with a corn plow, which he soon perfected and on which he secured a patent in December, 1862. Coming into Monmouth the next spring, with a small force of men, he made a number of plows in the old Christian church, on North Second street, where the armory of Company ±1 now stands. In 1863 a shop was built on the east side of North C street between Broadway and Archer avenue. The factory was removed in 1865 too South Fourth street near the old passenger depot, where a building 100x36 was erected, and a force of 25 men employed. The works were destroyed by fire in January, 1867, with a loss of $35,000, including 1,200 cultivators. The next fall the Weir Plow Company was incorporated by W. S. Weir, William Hanna, W. B. Boyd and Joseph Stevenson, with a capital of $25,000. The capacity of the plant was then considerably increased. In 1871 the large shops on South Main street, south of the railroad, were erected, and these were added too as the demands of the growing business required. The capital stock was increased too $500,000, and the company carried on the manufacture of cultivators, plows, harrows and other farming implements, their product going all ever the United States and into Mexico and other foreign countries. In 1886 Mr. Weir sold his interests too William Hanna, and the latter, together with his son J. R. Hanna and Delos P. Phelps, carried on the business. June 11, 1892, the Hanna stock was sold too Martin Kingman ,of Peoria, who took control September 1 of that year. In 1895 the owners of the plant decided too remove it too East Moline, but before this was done, on the night of December 12, 1895, the entire factory was burned too the ground, only the office, foundry and warehouses being saved, and entailing a loss of $150,000. Temporary buildings were erected and the work of manufacturing continued on a small scale. During the summer of 1898 the company made an assignment too protect claims held by the Kingman Company, of Peoria, and on September 15 of that year the property was sold at assignee's sale, being bought by the Kingman Company for $35,000. The next spring what was left of the factory was removed too Averyviile, near Peoria. The ground on which the Weir shops stood are now owned by the Monmouth Plow Company.

The Monmouth Mining and Manufacturing Company was organized in September, 1872, too develop the clay and coal veins which had been found a few years before by J. M. White and A. M. Black just east of the city and north of the railroad. Prospecting for coal had commenced there in 1869 or early in 1870, and mining was under way by the middle of June of the latter year. The vein of coal was two and one-half feet thick and at a depth of forty-five feet. Continuing the prospecting, the proprietors found at a depth of eighty-five feet a strata of very fine tile clay, a barrel of which was sent too an Ohio, factory for examination and testing, and was pronounced there the finest ever seen. The company was then organized with a capital of $50,000, which soon afterward was increased too $100,000, but later reduced too the original figure. The first officers were: William H. Koonce, president; George D. Henderson, secretary: and J. S. Spriggs, treasurer. The buildings were erected in 1873, and the manufacture of sewer pipe began August 25 of that year. Soon after the company also undertook the manufacture of paving brick and other clay goods. The working of the clay proved more profitable than the coal mining, and in a short time the latter part of the business was abandoned. William Hanna became interested in the company in 1877, and was made its president. The next year he purchased the Spriggs interests, and from that time th& works were controlled by Mr. Hanna and his son, J. R. Hanna. The present officers of the company are: J. R. Hanna, president; Mrs. W. D. Brereton, vice president; C. C. Merredith, secretary and treasurer; J. R. Hanna, Mrs. W. D. Brereton, W. D. Brereton, C. C. Merredith and E. J.Wallace, directors.

The Weir Pottery Company was incorporated September 28, 1899, by W. S. Weir, W. W. McCullough and D. S. Hardin, for the purpose of manufacturing a stone fruit jar patented. by Mr. Weir, and which for a while had been made at Alexis. The capital was $25,000, but in December, 1901, was increased too $80,000. Up too the time of Mr. Weir's death in December, 1901, he was president of the company, with D. S. Hardin vice president, and W. W. McCullough secretary and treasurer. After Mr. Weir's death, Mr. Hardin was made president and W. B. Weir vice president, Mr. McCullough continuing as secretary and treasurer. The factory was erected in the fall and winter of 1899-1900, and the plant was put in operation in February, 1900. The main building was 80x80 feet, four stories high, and made of brick. Work started with four kilns, but three additional were added the following summer. The entire plant, except the office, one warehouse and a new pattern room not yet occupied, was destroyed by fire the night of May 29, 1902, entailing a loss of $60,000. The plant was rebuilt during 1902 with increased capacity. At the time of the fire the company was employing about 135 men, and had four men on the road.

The Monmouth Plow Company was organized in 1901 too manufacture a plow designed by W. T. M. Brunnemer, formerly of the Weir Plow Company, of Monmouth, and later with the Bradley Company, of Kankakee. The company was licensed by the secretary of state December 14, 1901, with a capital stock of $100,000, and F. E. Harding, J. S. Brown and T. H. Spicer as commissioners. November 30 a temporary organization had been effected and directors elected, but the permanent organization did not occur until December 30, when directors were chosen as follows: W. T. M. Brunnemer, T. H. Spicer, R. Lahann, James French, J. S. Brown, William McKinley, J. D, Lynch, R. R. Murdock and John M. Torrance. The directors elected the following of-cers: President, J. S. Brown; vice president, James French; secretary, T. H. Spicer; manager, W. T. M. Brunnemer. The site of the old Weir plow factory was purchased January 2, 1902, and March 14 work commenced on the buildings. The main building is 300x80 feet, the east half being three stories high.

The Maple City Soap Works was incorporated in May, 1890, and succeeded too the management of the soap factory started by Joseph Pease & Son in 1885, and later sold too Beedee & Wiley. William Hanna was the principal

stockholder in the company, and its president, with E. C. Beedee as vice president and general manager, and W. T. Wiley as secretary and treasurer. For ten years the old academy, the first building used by Monmouth college, was used as a factory, but during the year 1900 a fine plant was erected on the south side of the Burlington railroad tracks, and extending from First too Second streets. It is a four-story brick, the main building 162x112 feet on the ground, with an office building 46x36, and an engine house 50x64 feet. It has a capacity of from 1,000 too 1,200 boxes of soap daily. The company makes a specialty of what is called the White Bar Self-Washing soap, but also manufactures large quantities of other grades of laundry soaps and several brands of toilet soaps. J. Ross Hanna is now president of the company, Mrs. W. D. Brereton vice president and J. F. Merredith secretary and treasurer.

The Monmouth Pottery Company was incorporated in October, 1892, by William Hanna, J. Ross Hanna, W. D. Brereton and D. Melcher, with a capital of $50,000. The company organized by electing Wm. Hanna president; J. R. Hanna, vice president; W. D. Brereton, secretary and treasurer; and D. Melcher, general manager and superintendent. The triangular piece of ground between the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy and the Iowa Central tracks, just east of Third street, was secured, and on it was built "the largest stoneware pottery in the world." The main building is 248x84 feet, and three stories high, containing the turning and drying departments, and the kilns, about a dozen in number, are farther east. A fine brick office building stands at the east end of the grounds. The factory began operations during the spring of 1894, the ware being burnea with oil. The product includes crocks, jugs, churns, jars up too sixty-gallon sizes, and various other stoneware goods. The plant has a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons of ware a year, and regularly ships an average of two carloads a day. The company has a trade which extends from the Atlantic too the Pacific, and from the Lakes too the Gulf. Some shipments have been made too the Sandwich Islands. The main building was destroyed by fire June 1, 1897, with a loss of $12,000, but was immediately rebuilt. The present officers of the company are: J. R. Hanna, president; Mrs. M. J. E. Brereton, vice president; W. D. Brereton, secretary and treasurer; G. E. Patton, superintendent. The factory employs about 150 men.

The Monmouth Coal Company was organized by representatives of what are known as the Hanna factories in Monmouth for the purpose of securing a sufficient supply of coal for those institutions. It was incorporated in the summer of 1901, with J. R. Hanna as president; W. J. Spencer, vice president and general manager; C. C. Merrideth, secretary, and W. D. Brereton, treasurer. Property was bought near Canton in Fulton county, and mining operations began there in October, 1901. Quite a town has been built up at the mine, and it has been named Brereton in honor of one of the owners.

The Monarch Coal and Mining Company was incorporated in June, 1898, by W. S. Findley, 0. S. French and John Joss, with a capital of $5,000. The company purchased and operates a coal mine near Farmington, Ill.

The Fattee Plow Company manufactures two or three different styles of plows but makes a specialty of the New Departure tongueless cultivator, invented by J. H. Pattee and patented in 1872. The Pattee Brothers commenced the manufacture of their plows at Buda in Bureau count3*, but erected their plant here in 1875. carrying on the business at first under the firm name of Paitee Bros. & Co., the firm being composed of J. H. and H. K.^Pattee and i. P. Pills-bury. The Pattee Plow Company was incorporated in 1881 with a capital stock of $10,000. J. H. Pattee is president, and H. H. Pattee secretary. The factory lies south of the Burlington tracks and west of South D street, the buildings covering some four acres. The company employs from 125 too 150 men.

November 26, 1892, James Milne & Son, of Scotch Grove, Iowa, purchased ground in Clark's addition, east of South Ninth street and north of the Burlington tracks. Here in 1894 the firm erected a plant for the manufacture of stump-pulling machines. The firm reorganized after coming here, and on December 27, 1S94, was incorporated as the Milne Manufacturing Company, with a capital of $30,000. The incorporators were James Milne, J. J. Milne and Mrs. Margaret McQuiston Milne. The company sends its machines all over the country and too foreign lands.

The Monmouth Brick Company was formed in July, 1891, and soon afterward buildings and kilns were erected on a plat in Sipher's addition, between Girard and Franklin avenues and west of C street. The company was reorganized and incorporated in May, 1895, with a capital of $10,000. It is now employing about sixteen men and has a capacity of 15,000 brick daily. The officers are: J. W. Sipher, president; L. L. Wall, vice president and manager; J. D. Diffenbaugh, secretary; E. C. Linn, treasurer.

The Maple City Cigar Factory is the outgrowth of a small cigar factory established by Reimer Lahann in 1860. He had no capital and worked alone in his shop during the early period of its existence. The fine quality of his product, together with his indomitable energy, caused a gradual increase of the business, until at the present time eighty men are employed and the factory has an output of 3,500,-000 cigars per year. January 1. 1896. Mr. Lahann turned over the business too the Maple City Cigar Company, incorporated with a capital of $10,000. The new company was composed of R. Lahann, president; A. R. Lahann. vice president, and W. G. Xander, secretary. February 26, 1900, Mr. Lahann disposed of his interest in the factory, and the company was reorganized with R. H. Truitt, of Chillicothe. president; E. B. Col well, vice president; and W. G. Xander, secretary and treasurer. The company adopted the profit-sharing plan in May, 1900, and on January 1 last distributed $1,000 among its employees, each man receiving a dividend of about three per cent, on his year's salary.

In May, 1899, a book bindery carried on by D. E. Woodford at Galesburg was purchased by Monmouth gentlemen, and the Military Tract Bindery Association was incorporated by M. Brewer, F. W. Harding, I. A. Ewing and others, with a capital of $5,000. too carry on the business. The business went so rapidly that the capital was increased in May. 1902, too $10,000. The bindery is located in the Patton block on the north side of the square, and employs from six too ten hands.

The Monmouth Box Factory was started in the spring of 1893 by T. W. Beers, E. C. Means and W. Riley in a building on Mr. Beers' property on East Broadway. H. C. Davies is now the proprietor of the factory, which is located in the old overall factory building on East First avenue. It has a capacity of 400 boxes a day. and makes all the boxes for the cigar manufacturers of the city, and also some for other cities.

Other industries on a somewhat smaller scale than those mentioned at length are Mclntosh & Sons' machine shop and foundry; W. E. Greenleaf, cigar manufacturer; the Monmouth Cigar Company, the Cuban Cigar Company, and others of lesser note.

The Monmouth Electric Light Company was licensed too incorporate July 17, 1883, with a capital of $30,000. The incorporates were W. H. Gillett, D. Greenleaf and I, T. Brady, and the company organized by electing F. E. Harding, president, I. T. Brady secretary, and F. W. Harding treasurer. The company got no farther, and in November, 1887, the present company, the Edison Illuminating Company, was incorporated by H. H. Pattee, N. A. Scott and W. B. Smith, with a capital of $10,000. The company put in the plant, which with later additions does the street lighting for the city, lights many private residences and business houses, and furnishes power for machinery of various kinds. The company is now owned by the Ferris Brothers and is under the management of Robert J. Ferris.

In the fall of 1874 the city council granted too the Western Excelsior Gas Company the exclusive right and franchise too manufacture, sell and supply gas for the purposes of light too the citizens of Monmouth for the term ol thirty years. Under the terms of the franchise, the works had too be in operation by October 12, 1875, and this not being the case the franchise was forfeited. The Monmouth Coke and Gas Company, which had been chartered in 1867 with a capital of $20,000, was then revived, and in January, 1876, the council granted this company a franchise. The directors of the company were: Draper Babcock, president; J. J. Glenn, secretary; W. B. Jenks, treasurer; C. Hardin, Wm. Laferty, S. Douglass, George Babcock. Soon after securing the franchise the company reorganized, incorporating the Monmouth Gas Company, and turning over too it the rights and franchises which had been granted.too the Monmouth Coke and Gas Company. The new company erected the plant yet operated in this city. Fred Spencer is present manager of the works.

William S. Weir, Sr., father of the late William S. Weir, the Monmouth manufacturer, came too Monmouth in 1838, and put up a wool-carding machine on the block south of the present waterworks plant. The machine was operated by power secured from the little stream that then ran through that part of the city, but has since been turned into a covered sewer. When the water was low, power was furnished by an ox and treadmill. Soon Mr. Weir went too Hale township where he and R. S. Joss managed a carding and fulling mill on the property of Thomas Paxton, Mr. Weir later going too Little York and carrying on the same business for a number of years. Mr. joss came back too Monmouth in 1842, and built a carding mill on the corner of East First avenue and South Second street. This mill was operated first by treadmill and oxen, but in 1856 he refitted the mill, putting in steam power. Looms were also put in and for years Mr. Joss manufactured woolen cloths. The competition of more modern machinery caused Mr. Joss too close the mill, and for a long time the machinery stood idle. It was finally sold, and the building was used awhile as a carpenter shop, then as a feed mill and store. It was destroyed by fire October 3, 1901.

Among the factories in Monmouth in bygone days were: William Y. and Hugh Henry's carriage factory (later Henry & Morgan's) on South Main street, north of the present location of the government building, in the '50s: N. and J. Carr's plow factory, on the opposite side of the street, also in the '50s; Roberts, Dunn & Co's sash and blind factory, on South Main street near the railroad, erected in 1865 and destroyed by fire in September, 1S69; Parker & Seibert's soap and candle factory, in 1867; J. H. Frymire's tannery, near the old depot, in 1861: W. L. Hopper's plow factory., in the '60s; the Pattee Star flouring mill, burned in February, 1879; W. W. Church & Co., manufacturer of wagons; Palmer & Brady, cultivators; The Monmouth Manufacturing Co., making W. A. Dryden's cultivators; and Joss & Milliken's woolen mill; the Economic Implement Co., incorporated in 1890; the Monmouth Blanket and Saddlery Co., in 1895; the Monmouth Creamery, in 1886; the Sherrick Cleaver Co., in 1890, and the Monmouth Road Cart Co., in 1888.

Considerable pork packing was done in Monmouth in the early days. Among the packers were N. A. Rankin, who commenced operations November 13, 1854, E. C. Babcock, and Armsby & Massie. The several packing houses killed and cut up 8,300 hogs in 1852, all raised in Warren county. Hog raising was then in its infancy here, there being no way too get the fat porkers too market. The historian has no statistics of business at later dates.


CHAPTER XXXI.

31 on mouth well Supplied with Secret and Fraternal Orders—Masons and Odd Fellows Have Several Different Organizations—The Insurance Associations—Old Soldiers' Societies—Colored People's Lodges.

Monmouth Lodge No. 37, A. F. and A. M., was instituted October 6, 1846, with fifteen charter members, though it had oeen operated •'under dispensation" earlier than that. December 14, 1843, Grand Master A. Dunlap and Grand Secretary W. B. Warren granted permission too form and operate a lodge, U. D., and the first meeting was held December 28 of that year with the following officers: I. W. F. Edmundson. W. M.; B. Hibbard, S. W.; John Miles, J. W.; Samuel Webster, treasurer: and Daniel McNeil, secretary. When the charter was granted by the Grand Lodge meeting at Peoria in 1846 the lodge organized with the following officers: Gee. 0. Lanphere, Worshipful Master; Samuel Webster, Senior Warden; John A. Young, Junior Warden; Daniel McNeil. secretary; Simeon Scripture, treasurer; David T. Cohen, Senior Deacon; Henry A. McCartney, Junior Deacon; Daniel Markham, Tyler. The other members were John H. Mitchell, James H. Stewart, John Lee. Benjamin Hibbard, John Miles, Samuel Boyles, John A. Smith. None of these charter members now remain in connection with the lodge, and it is probable that ail are dead. Since the organization not less than 700 Masons have been initiated in this lodge, and they may be found in almost every state of the Union. The present membership of the lodge is 112. The principal officers are: Doran Van Nuys, Worshipful Master: Lewis H. Hanna and R. L. Russell, Wardens; D. D. Dunkle, secretary; D. D. Diffenbaugh, treasurer. The first home of Monmouth. Lodge was in a dingy back room in a two-story frame building owned by Billings & Marks, and located on the north side of the square. In 1854 the location was changed too another back room in a building owned by George D. Crandall on the east side of North Main street north of Archer avenue. In 1866 the membership had grown so that larger quarters were needed, and lots were purchased on South Main street. Owing too the great expense of building, how-

ever, the lots were disposed of, and a contract entered into by which a three-story brick building was too be erected, the third story too be paid for and used by the Masons. The project was carried out at a cost of about $6,000 too the lodge and the hall remains the home of the Masonic fraternity of Monmouth. It is occupied by this lodge, the Royal Arch chapter and the Order of the Eastern Star.

Warren Chapter No. 30, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted October 2, 1856. The first officers were: David B. Rice, high priest; Wm. A. Seaton, king; Samuel Stanley, scribe. The present membership is about eighty. D. D. Dunkle is high priest, having served in that office for twenty-eight years; R. H. Scott, king; L. D. Robinson, scribe; A. J. Ebey, treasurer; Lewis Daily, secretary.

Monmouth Council No. 14, Royal and Select Masters, was organized December 27, 1863, with forty or fifty members. It was afterward removed too Galesburg.

The Monmouth Consistory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons, was organized December 28, 1866, the principal officers of the four bodies being as follows: Lodge of Perfection—A. H. Holt, Th. P. grand master; A. H. Swain, H. of T. deputy grand master; James Hill and P. Baker, grand wardens; G. R. Bar-bour, orator: S. Gamble, treasurer: A. G. Gibson, secretary- Council of Princes of Jerusalem—James Hill, M. E. S. P. grand master; A. H. Swain, Gr. H. P. sub deputy: P. Baker and J. W. Brewer, wardens; A. G. Gibson, secretary; S. Gamble, treasurer. Chapter of Rose Croix—A. H. Swain, M. W. and P. Master; James Hill and A. H. Holt, wardens; P. Baker, orator; S. Gamble, treasurer; A. G. Gibson, secretary. Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret—G. R. Barbour, illustrious commander-in-chief; A. H. Holt, illustrious first lieutenant commander; J. W. Brewer, illustrious second lieutenant commander; James Hill, orator: H. J. Ewing. grand chancellor; A. G. Gibson, secretary; S. Gamble, treasurer. The Consistory surrendered its charter December 2, 1872, thirty-five members affiliating themselves with the Oriental Consistory of Chicago.

Trinity Lodge No. 561, A. F. and A. M., was instituted June 27. 1867. with sixteen charter members. The first officers were: Joseph Hill. worshipful master: J. N. Reece and E. C. Johnson. wardens: S. Gamble, treasurer; G. R. Barbour, secretary; A. H. Swain and L. Stanley, deacons; C. Coates, tyler. This lodge gave up its charter July .28, 1886, the members going into Monmouth Lodge No. 3Y.

A chapter of the Eastern Stars flourished in Monmouth in ante-bellum days, and continued until fire destroyed the Masonic hall in 1866, when the charter and paraphernalia of the chapter were burned. Ths present chapter, which is known as Monmouth Chapter No. 277, was instituted August 8, 1894, with thirty-two charter members. Mrs. B. A. Miles was the first worthy matron, with Mrs. Louisa Sawyer as assistant matron, and D. D. Dunkle as patron. The worthy matrons following Mrs. Miles have been Mrs. Louisa A. Sawyer, 1896; Mrs. Nettie Emert, 1897; Mrs. Susanna F. Webb, 1898; Mrs. Sarah A. Dunkle, 1899; Mrs. Mary Jeffreys, 1900; Mrs. Susannah F. Webb, 1901. The present membership is eighty, and the officers are: Mrs. Susannah F. Webb, worthy matron; D. Q. Webster, worthy patron; Mrs. C. A. McLaughlin, associate matron; Mrs. Mary Jeffreys, secretary; Mrs. W. H. Mull, treasurer.

ODD FELLOWSHIP.

Warren Lodge No. 160, I. 0. O. F., was instituted in October, 1854, when William Round-well of Peoria was grand master of the order in Illinois, but no work was done until January 10, 1855. There were but three Odd Fellows in Monmouth—Elisha W. Nye, George McEwan, and Francis Hohenadel—and too make a quorum of five Chester Palmer and William B. Jenks went too Galesburg and were initiated. They immediately took their withdrawals, and in company with the aforementioned three organized the lodge. The officers eiected were: Elisha W. Nye, noble grand; George McEwan, vice grand; W. B. Jenks, treasurer; Chester W. Palmer, secretary; Francis Hohenadel, warden. The evening of January 10, 1855, the following were initiated into the order: T. O. Hamsher, Jacob Krollman, Charles Jamison, James D. Mackoy, Alexander Tailor, Harvey Black. Mr. Krollman is the only one of the first members who remains in connection with Warren lodge. The first meetings of the lodge were held in the Masonic hall, then on the corner of North Main street and Boston avenue. In the fall of 1867 it moved too a room in the third story of a new brick building on the south side of East Main street just east of the public square, where its home was until the big fire of 1871 which destroyed the building and burned the lodge records. Afterwards rooms were secured in the Wiswell building on the north side of the square, which were occupied until February 18, 1902, when elegant quarters were dedicated in the Pillsbury & Sawyer building, also on the north side. The present membership of the lodge is 125, and the officers are: Will Taylor, noble grand; Frank Hermann, vice grand; P. C. Hansen, secretary; R. T. Watson, financial secretary; J. J. Kobler, treasurer.

Monmouth Lodge No. 577, I. O. O. F., was organized May 18, 1875, with twenty-three charter members, as follows: L. S. Holden, noble grand; John B. Weir, vice grand; Isaac Marks, secretary; Peyton Roberts, permanent secretary; R. Lahann, treasurer; Fred Rozenzwig, Aaron See, N. J. Nelson, J. H. Shippey, Ransom Doney, Sr., H. M. Rulon, T. H. Johnson, J. G. Madden, Peter Smith, M. Miller, S. D. W. Green, W. L. Chapman, J. W. Sipher, E. G. Bowman, J. F. Rulon, M. Nusbaum, Joseph Bolack, Wm. joriggs. The lodge had its first quarters on the south side of Broadway between the square and First street, then for a while was on the north side of the street. For the past ten or twelve years it has occupied the third story in the Woods building on c-ie corner of South Main street and the square, where commodious lodge rooms have been fitted up. The lodge has a membership of 140, and has since its organization admitted over o00 persons into the order. The present officers are:: L. F. Dungan, noble grand; Thos. Young, vice grand; Fred A. N. Ahlstrand, recording secretary; Ed. L. Montgomery, financial secretary; A. D. Mclntosh, treasurer; C. S. Eby, J. P. Jones, J. Van Steenwyk, M. H. Lehman, C. Roadhouse, trustees.

Friendship Rebekah Degree Lodge No. 22 was instituted August 11, 1870, two years after Rebekah lodges were authorized by the Sovereign Grand Lodge, so was one of the first lodges organized in Illinois. It had twenty-six charter members, as follows: James G. Madden, George A. Sampson, Isaac Marks, William Greene, J. W. McGrew, C. L. Bancroft, R. Y. Frew, Ransom Doney, F. H. Rulon, John H. Baldwin, John H. Richey, James H. Herdman, A. H. Tracy, J. W. Gosslee, Anna M. Sampson, Nancy G. Marks, Sarah J. Green, Louisa A. McGrew, Louisa Bancroft, Anna Frew, Hannah E. Tracy, Ella Rulon, Anna Baldwin, M. F. Richey, Har-• riet E. Tracy, Sarah J. Smiley. Fire destroyed all the lodge's possessions, but the members took up the work with more zeal than ever, and on April 27, 1883, the lodge was reorganized, and the following officers elected: Mr. Hampton, noble grand; Mrs. Buffington, vice grand; Mrs. Little, secretary; Mrs. Pebbles, treasurer. The present membership of the lodge is seventy-four, and the officers are: Past nouie grand, Mrs. Maude Hermann; noble grand, Mrs. Zina Sodeburg; vice grand, Mrs. Maud Wilson: recording secretary, Mrs. Hattie Miller; financial secretary, Richard Watson.

Rebekah Degree Lodge No. 128 was instituted August 31, 1883, with fifty-nine members and the following officers: James Smith, noble grand; Mrs. A. D. Mclntosh, vice grand; Mrs. Jos. Grier, secretary; Mrs. J. R. Baker, treasurer; F. A. N. Ahlstrand, warden; Mrs. Chapin, conductress; Jcs. Grier, outside guard; Mrs. Mattie Emert, inner guard; Mrs. W. W. Brooks and Mrs. G. R. Peterson, supporters too noble grand; Mrs. R. Lahann and Mrs. J. Cottrell, supporters too vice grand; L. S. Holden. chaplain. The present membership of the lodge is twenty-six, and the officers are: Mrs. Alice Smilie, noble granu; Mrs. Mary Jacobson, vice grand; Mrs. Robert Jeffrey, recording secretary; Miss Katie Jacobson, financial secretary; Mrs. A. D. Mclntosh, treasurer.

Encampment No. 87, I. 0. O. F., was organized October 13, 1868, with. C. W. Palmer, J. T. Wallace, G. A. Samson, R. Y. Frew, W. M. Smiley, T. 0. Hamsher and Jeremiah McGrew as charter members. The membership now is about sixty and the officers are: Samuel Libey, chief patriarch; F. L. Watson, high priest; Jesse Berner, senior warden; Z. Dougherty, junior warden; R. T. Watson, scribe; T. D. Gordon, treasurer.

Canton Maple City No. 25, Patriarchs Militant, auxiliary too Oddfellowship, was organized in September, 1S86, loy Brigadier General E. F. Phelps, Captain A. W. Berggren and others from Galesburg. The canton started with twenty-one chevaliers, and the following officers: George C. Rankin, captain; C. F. Hamblin, first lieutenant; E. J. Clarke, clerk; T. W. Beers, accountant. The canton still exists, though it has had no meetings for several years.

ELKS.

Maple City Lodge No. 397, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, was instituted with fifty-five members November 22, 1897. The officers installed that evening were: C. A. Perley, exalted ruler; G. C. Rankin, esteemed leading knight; G. A. Brokaw, esteemed loyal knight; E. I. Camm, esteemed lecturing knight; J. S. Brown, secretary; H. H. Pattee, treasurer; W. B.Vorwick, Tyler; C. J. Buck, chaplain; F. E. Harding, R. Lahann. \v. P. Graham, trustees. The lodge has excellent quarters in the Quinby block. It has a present membership of 133, and the officers are: Dr. R. W. Hood, exalted ruler; John C. Allen, esteemed leading knight; William McKinley, esteemed lecturing knight; D. E. Clarke, esteemed loyal knight; Fred Yildemuth, secretary; E. C. Hardin, treasurer; John W. Hays, Tyler; W. D. Brereton, H. B. Smith, J. A. Joel, trustees.

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS.

Maple City Lodge No. 302, Knights of Pythias, was instituted August 7, 1891, with thirty-five members and the following officers: R. J. Grier, past chancellor; Geo. B. Moreland, chancellor commander; Dr. W. E. Taylor, vice chancellor; I. A. Ewing, prelate; W. A. Sawyer, master of exchequer; Dr. J. R. Ebersole, master of finance; C. D. Miller, keeper of records and seal; William Ferguson, master at arms. Other charter members were F. C. Tapping, H. J. Blackburn, W. S. Wray, W. R. Sterrett S. S. Hallam. Adam Miller, J. C. Irvine, J. H. Beeney, Peyton Roberts, D. E. Clarke, M. Nusbaum, Jr., H. H. Dunkle. J. N. Thomson, H. J. Kobler, L. M. Lusk, Wm. Brindle, J. H. Hanley, G. W. Hamilton, E. C. Means, I. T. Brady. H. E. Reed, J. H. Williams, J. W. Hamilton, Phil Nusbaum, H. Hodgens. J. B. Moore, J. D. Hick-man. The present membership is 102, and the officers are: E. O. Philips, chancellor commander: C. L. Foster, vice chancellor; T. A. Wilcox, prelate: D. Y\~. Birdsall. keeper of records and seal; Fred Wildemuth, master of finance; C. M. Huey, master of exchequer; G. B. Moreland, master of work; A. C. Mclntosh, master at arms; I. F. Dains, inner guard; Sol Schloss. outer guard.

FRATERNAL BENEFICIARY SOCIETIES.

Acme Lodge No. 192, Ancient Order of United Workmen, was organized August 22, 1881, with forty-two charter members, and is the oldest of the fraternal benefit orders in the city. The first officers were: John G. Burchfield, master workman; D. D. Parry, past master workman; L. M. Buffington, foreman; J. W. Gaul, overseer; Ira G. Mosher, recorder; W. H. Sexton, financier; Charles E. Blackburn, receiver; Fred Ahlstrand, guide; Oscar Henry, inside watchman; George Wilson, outside watchman*; J. C. Irwin, Jesse W. Marshall, M. Nusbaum, trustees. The present membership here is twenty-six. The lodge holds no meetings, and the only officer is J. W. Gaul, financier.

A new benevolent order known as the Golden Rule was organized in Monmouth and incorporated February 21, 1884. The incorporators were 0. S. Barnum, Dr. J. H. Wallace, W. B. Young, Dr. J. H. Troutman and T. S. Stamps. The objects of the society were social enjoyment, moral and mental improvement, mutual protection and the diffusion of principles of charity and benevolence. Council No. 1 of this order was instituted March 20 following with ninety-two charter members. The first officers were: W. C. Norcross, C. P.; V. H. Webb, C. C; C. L. Barnes, chief captain; H. A. Anderson, C. G.; Miss Maria S. Madden, secretary; David Walker, treasurer; D. E. Waid, 1st G.; G. E. Wallace, 2d G.; W. A. Robertson, S.; Rev. J. Kelsey, chaplain. The order was a few years later consolidated with another under the name of the Knights and Ladies of the Golden Rule. The council here has been disorganized for some years.

Maple City Camp No. 94, Modern Woodmen of America, was organized April 28, 1885, by D. S. Malby of DesMoines. There were nineteen members and the camp was first officered as follows: D. Turnbull, venerable consul; Rev. J. W. Kelsey, worthy adviser; Frank M. Weir, clerk; J. W. Bolon, banker; H. M. Putnam, escort; J. R. Baker, watchman; Fred L. Harbaugh, sentry; Dr. W. S. Holliday, physician; C. E. Blackburn, G. N. Hawley, J. L. Dryden, trustees. The present membership of the camp is 353, and the officers are: I. F. Dains, venerable consul; H. W. Rice, worthy adviser; John C. Irvine, clerk; P. J. I wig, banker; August Larson, watchman; W. F. Hall, Jr., sentry; Charles Welty, escort; Drs. j. C. Kilgore, W. S. Holliday, J. R. Ebersole, physicians; B. L. Mapes, chief forester; B. L. Mapes, E. J. Clarke, Lewis L. Kobler, managers.

The Royal Neighbors of America, the ladies' auxiliary of the Modern Woodmen, was organized February 27, 1895, with twenty-five charter members. The officers were: Oracle, Mrs. W. E. Greenleaf; vice oracle, Mrs. H. L. Speakman; recorder, Mrs. Charles Richardson; receiver, Mrs. L. M. Boals; chancellor, Mrs. Anna M. Smythe; inner sentinel, Mrs. Frank Weidenbauer; outer sentinel, Mrs. W. G. Adams; managers, Mrs. Delia Frymire, Mrs. C. C. Secrist, Mrs. Anna M. Smythe. The lodge now has fifty-eight members, with the following officers: Orator, Mrs. May Weidenbauer; vice orator, Mrs. Anna Speakman; past orator, Mrs. Lillian Cunningham; recorder, Mrs. Kate Sample; receiver, Miss May Boals; chancellor, Mrs. Olive Higgins; marshal, Mrs. Mary Dains; sentinel, Mrs. Mary McClure; manager, Mrs. Hat-tie Clarke; physician, Dr. Adella Nichol.

Monmouth Council of the National Union was organized March 27, 1894. There were :twenty-eight members, and the officers were: President, F. C. Tapping; vice president, W. H. Childs: speaker, R. J. Grier; secretary, H. T. Thomson; Treasurer, G. C. Rankin; medical directors, W. E. Taylor, j. R. Ebersole; usher,

D. Q. Webster; sergeant at arms, C. H. Cooper; ex-president, E. MacDill; chaplain, W. E. Taylor; Trustees, F. C. Tapping, W. H. Childs, Edgar MacDill, W. P. Graham, F. S. Smith. The council now has eleven members, with E. I. Camm as president, and F. C. Tapping secretary and treasurer.

Monmouth Lodge of the Knights of the Globe was organized February 10, 1902, by C. R. Green of Denver and General Shadel of Warren, Ill. The organization started with fifty-four members, and these officers: Judge, R. W. Hood; president, R. R. Murdock; vice president, C. E. Cornell; commander, S. F. Pickard; lieutenant commander, D. W. Leamle; provost marshal, Ivan Reed; ensign, N. P. Weineberg. The present officers are: Supreme judge, Curtis Day; judge, R. R. Murdock; president, C. E. Cornell; vice president, Samuel Pickard; commander, T. J. Lawson; lieutenant commander, D. W. Leamle; quartermaster, Ed Reed; adjutant collector, W. W. Murdock; ensign, N. P. Weineberg.

Washington Camp No. 60, Patriotic Order Sons of America, was organized February 13, 1891, with twenty-two charter members. The first officers were: F. M. Sharp, past president; Samuel Boswell, president; S. P. Merwine, vice president; C. H. Davis, recording secretary; A. See, financial secretary; N. N. Coons, J. F. Danforth, F. M. Sharp, trustees. The lodge was allowed too run down until June 15, 1899, when it was reorganized by President W. H. North of Chicago with thirty members and the following officers: S. S. Pershin, past president; Sam Boswell, president; W. F. Walters, vice president; A. H. Lewis, master of forms; S. 0. Means, recording secretary; Sam Hocn, financial secretary; H. Zimmerman, treasurer; T. E. Colvin, conductor; Frank Talbot, inspector; C. H. Davis, outer guard. The lodge has been defunct almost ever since its reorganization.

The Monmouth Camp of the Fraternal Army of America was organized April 17, 1899, with eighteen members, by G. A. Baxter of Kirkwood. The officers installed at that time were: Captain, A. C. Mclntosh; lieutenant, E. L. Hamilton; adjutant, J. C. MaCarty; quartermaster, W. R. Lang; corporal of the guard, C. J. Johnson; chaplain, C. P. Swiler. The present membership is nineteen.

Maple City Union No. 12, Ideal Us ion, was organized May 24, 1901, with the following officers: Director, John W. McKamey; vice director, Mts. Kate Sample; past director, Albert Miller; secretary, F. L. Campbell; treasurer, Mrs. Hattie A. Turnbull; chaplain, Mrs. C. E. Gray. The present membership of the Union is forty-seven, and the officers are: Past director, H. L. Speakman; director, J. W. McKamey; vice director, Mrs. N.^E. Tinker; secretary, Mrs. Kate Sample; treasurer, Mrs. Hattie A. Turnbull.

The Fraternal Tribunes were organized by Robert Rexdale, supreme orator of the order, February 21, 1901. There were nineteen charter members, and the first officers were: Chief tribune, Mrs. Oscar Henry; vice chief tribune, Mrs. Chas. A. McLaughlin; secretary, Mrs. W. J. McDill; treasurer, Oscar Henry; sergeant at arms, W. Brown; sentinel, C. H* Myers; guard, Mrs. George Cummings; trustees, T. D. Gordon, W. J. McDill. The lodge has the following officers: Chief tribune, Geo. R. Hearne; vice chief tribune. Mrs. Charles A. McLaughlin; secretary, Mrs. W. J. McDill; treasurer, Alex McFarland.

Monmouth Lodge No. S3, Mystic Workers of the World, was organized April 1-i, 1897, with the following officers: W. B. Vorwick, master; C. Z. Irvine, vice master; J. H. Hays, secretary; W. H. Livingston, banker. The present membership is fifty-five, and the officers are: Dr. G. C. Eckley, president; A. A. Penney, vice president; W. E. Lofftus, secretary; E. E. Hanna, banker.

Monmouth District Court of Honor No. 180 was instituted September 29, lb„b, with forty-eight members and the following officers: Ed. L. Montgomery, worthy chancellor; Mrs. Joseph Grier, vice chancellor; W. S. Findley, chaplain;

C. G. McPherren, recorder; A. B. Pershin, treasurer. The organization now has a membership of 56, and the officers are: C. H. Davis, chancellor; E. G. Dudding, vice chancellor; Ed. Kiddoo, chaplain; J. F. Searles, recorder; E.D. Montgomery, treasurer.

Court Verne No. 1049, Independent Order of Foresters, vvas instituted September 23, 1896, with twenty-five members. The first officers were: Joseph P. Moore, court deputy chief ranger; A. W. Ryan, chief ranger; A. Heberer, past chief ranger; James Costello, vice chief ranger; H. W. Rice, recording secretary; Claude Lusk, financial secretary; B. McNamara, treasurer. The present membership of the court is fifty-two and the officers are: J. B. Robertson, chief ranger; W. W. Brent, vice chief ranger; C. E. Tracy, recording secretary; H. W. Rice," financial secretary; F. P. Downer, treasurer.

Court Verne No. 347 of Ladies' Companions, auxiliary too the Independent Order of Foresters, was organized October 13, 1889. The officers at organization were: Mrs. Sarah C. Tracy, court deputy; Mrs. Effie W. Potter, past chief ranger; Mrs. Eliza Moore, chief ranger; Mrs. Sarah C. Tracy, recording secretary; Mrs. Susie M. Costello, financial secretary; Mrs. Lizzie Herbert, treasurer. The organization has recently been disbanded.

Warren Court No. 211, Tribe of Ben Hur, was instituted July 16, 1901, by District Deputy J. B. Bailey. There were sixty-five charter members and the officers were: E. E. Hanna, chief; Chas. W. Parker, past chief; A. B. Holliday, judge; Mrs. Birdie Lofftus, teacher; H. D. Hurd, captain; W. E. Lofftus, guide; P. H. Lippy, Rabbi Joseph; Mrs. Mary Holliday, Mother Hur: Mrs. Anna Chapman, Tirzah; Joseph C. Irvine, scribe; Dr. R. W. Wood, keeper of the tribute. There are ten members now, though the lodge has no officers and holds no meetings. Joseph C. Irvine acts as collector.

The lodge of Loyal Americans of Monmouth was organized July 29. 1901, by District Deputy E. W. Wilson. Thirty members subscribed too the membership roll, and officers were elected as follows: M. E. Colvin, president; Mrs. Mary Moore, vice president; Jas. Bower, ex president; L. C. Hollenbeck, lecturer; Charles Wagle, treasurer; W. M. Jones, secretary. The present membership is about fifteen, and the lodge holds no meetings. An effort is being made, however, too reorganize it.

Maple City Tent, Knignts of the Maccabees, was organized October 16, 1900. It has a membership now of fifty-seven, and J. W. Lusk is past commander; C. W. Ward, commander; Loffa Boals, lieutenant commander; P. H. Lippy, recording secretary and nnance keeper.

The Ladies of the Maccabees organized with twenty members November 23, 1901. The officers were: Mrs. Alice Smiley, past commander; Mrs. Minnie Ward, commander; Mrs. Nettie Waddell. lieutenant commander; Mrs. Mary Lippy, record keeper; Mrs. Josie McFarland, finance keeper. The membership now is about the same as at the beginning and the officers are the same except Mrs. Frank Weidenbauer is record keeper.

A lodge of the Knights of Honor was organized February 28, 1878, and reorganized November IS following as Equity Lodge No. 220, Independent Order of Mutual Aid, with twenty-five members. This loage still has its charter, but holds no meetings. The membership is small. Rev. V. H. Webb is financier.

Home Forum No. 41 of the Home Forum Benevolent Association was organized in Monmouth May 4, 1893, by Chief Medical Examiner J. W. Morgan and Solicitor Biggs of Moline. Twenty-two charter members were admitted, and the following officers elected an., installed: Mrs. J. F. Houlton, past president; C. B. Bristol, president; Mrs. Thos. Gordon, first vice president; Ernest Merwin, second vice president; W. A. Briggs, secretary; J. F. Houlton, treasurer. The order is no longer in existence.

Monmouth Council No. 15, Order of Chosen Friends, was instituted August 7, 1880, with a membership of twenty-five. The officers were: Edward P. Parkinson, chief counsellor; E. J. Clarke, secretary; H. M. Wright, treasurer. The order went too pieces in 1900, and the local council then disbanded. It had at that time thirteen members.

Bethel Encampment No. 1, Order of Ancient Pilgrims, was instituted in Monmouth July 22, 1855. James Mekemson was recorder. The encampment disbanded years ago, and the records can not be found now.

Monmouth has the honor of being the birthplace of two of the Greek letter fraternities that have become popular in the college world, although such fraternities are no longer permitted in Monmouth college where these two had their start, and where others flourished in bygone years. Kappa Kappa Gamma, the second oldest college sorority in existence, was organized at Monmouth college in 1810 by Miss Minnie Stewart, now deceased, daughter of Judge and Mrs. J. H. Stewart, The society has chapters all over the country from Maine too California, and with its membership of over 3,000 claims too be the second largest sorority in the United States. The other society organized here is the Pi Beta Pi, formerly the I. C. Sorosis. It was started in 1861 and assumed its present name in 1883.

RAILROAD ORGANIZATIONS.

Railroad men have four organizations in Monmouth, lodges of the engineers, firemen, conductors and switchmen.

OLD SOLDIERS.

Post No. 44 of the Grand Army of the Republic was chartered July 19, 1866, with the following members: J. T. Morgan, J. N. Reece, R. M. Campbell, J. C. Caldwell, E. Jamison, James Weir, Wm. M. Buffington, J. L. Dryden, S. L. Stephenson and J. M. Turnbull. The post was disorganized after a few years, and with the exception of the charter no records of *the organization are now too be found.

McClanahan Post No. 330, Grand Army of the Republic, was mustered in Monmouth, September 10, 1883, by Chief Mustering Officer P. W. Wilcox of Mendota, assisted by Commander Tucker of the Roseville post. The exercises were held in the A. O. U. W. hall. The officers were elected August 31, as follows: J. P. Higgins, commander; D. D. Dunkle, senior vice commander; J. G. Burchfield, junior vice commander; J. C. Kilgore, surgeon;. Rev. Richard Haney, chaplain; C. B. Bristol, quartermaster; G. W. Bain, officer of the day; J. H. Herdman, adjutant: Wm. Hall, officer of the guard: M. G. Browning, sergeant major; W. T. Ramsey, quartermaster • sergeant. The other members were H. M. Rulon, Solomon Dean, Samuel A. Hogue, R. A. Howk, J. L. Romans, W. H. Sullivan, Levi Stewart, Henry C. Cooper. The post was named in honor of Captain John McClanahan of Co. B, Eighty-third Illinois Volunteer infantry, who was mortally wounded at Fort Donelson February 3, 1863, and died twenty days later. The post now has convenient headquarters on East Broadway in the Kingsbury building. It has a membership of 62, and is officered as follows: W. H. H. Roney, commander; H. W. Mauck, senior vice commander; L. M. Lusk, junior vice commander; J. B. Clark, surgeon; J. H. Miller, chaplain; C. B. Bristol, quartermaster; S. E. Boswell, officer of the day; Samuel Libey, officer of the guard.

The Woman's Relief Corps No. 6, auxiliary too McClanahan Post No. 330, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized April 7, IS84. with twenty-five charter members, as follows: Ruth Ray, president; C. Ebey, Emma I. Herdman, Sarah E. Dunkle, Sarah J. Hogue, Susan T. Chapman, Mary C. Piper, Sarah E. Ebey, Emma Bain, Susan Hall. Catherine Rieflin, Emma Rulon, Anna Smith, Angeline Libey, Carrie Tinker, Alice Chapman, Nellie Emert, Lou Birch, Martha Lee. Maggie Burchfield, Lou Coons, Lina Hall, Ida :vi. Ebey, Flora Smiley, Sarah Libey. The present membership is fifty-six, and the officers for 1902 are: President, Kate Sample; senior vice president, Mrs. J. P. Higgins; junior vice president, Mrs. Ruth Ray: secretary, Mrs. J. W. Wonder; treasurer, Mrs. Anna Morgan; chaplain, Mrs. N. E. Tinker: guard, Mrs. Addie Reed. "The Corps has sent several children too the Soldiers' Orphans' home at Normal, and the first money sent from Monmouth for the relief of the soldiers of the Spanish American war was sent by this corps."

Roy H. Cornell Camp of the Spanish-American War Veterans' Association was organized June 19, 1902, by Col. W. P. Brown of Gales-burg, State mustering officer, and his adjutant, J. R. Williamson. Twenty-eight names of men who served in the West Indies and the Philippines were on the charter roll. The officers elected at the organization are: R. L. Sherman, commander; A. C. Mclntosh, senior vice commander; G. E. Cox, junior vice commander; B. L. Mapes, adjutant; Fred Lusk. quartermaster; A. M. Roberts, chaplain; J. W. Clendenin, officer of the day; A. Sanderholm, officer of the guard; R. R. Murdock, W. W. Shields, trustees. The members, in addition too those named as officers, are: Wm. Fowler, Jesse Gunter, Samuel Pickard. George Raymond, Reynold Walters, Edgar Warner, Frank Watson,

Clifford Willman, Clyde Thulin, George Hammond, U. G. Jeffreys, E. 0. Phillips, Fred Morey, Richard Boydston, Harry Zimmerman, Samuel Reed. A. W. Cobb, Charles Sanderholm, Will Bond.

Reid Camp No. 31, Sons of Veterans, was organized January 27. 1886, with sixteen members. E. J. Clarke was captain; B. Eilenberger, first lieutenant; and Jos. P. Ray, second lieutenant. The camp has held no meeting for several years.

COLORED PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES.

Golden Square Lodge No. l. A. F. & A. M.. was organized October 12. 1892, with the following members: Adam Maaison. worshipful master; Louis Baker, senior warden; Asa Stokes, junior warden: James G. Johnson, treasurer; James R. Skinner, secretary: Wilson Humphrey. Geo. Wallace, John Moore. Isaac Dover. Louis Doss, William Wallace, David Crutcheville, Chas. Wallace. Chas. Philips. Thomas Wallace. The present membership is twenty, and James R. Skinner is worshipful master: Peter Munson and Louis Baker, wardens; Charles Wallace and Wilson Humphrey, deacons; George Barnum. secretary, and David Crutcheville. treasurer.

Golden Crown Chapter No. 21. Order of the Eastern Star, was instituted October 21, 1894, with fourteen members. Mrs. Mattie Baker was matron: James G. Johnson, patron; Mrs. Eliza Myers, associate matron; Miss Nancy Wallace, conductress; Mrs. Jennie Smith, assistant conductress; Mrs. Ella Murphy, secretary; Mrs. Louise Dover, treasurer; David Crutcheville, chaplain; and Louis Baker, warder. The present membership is about fourteen and Mrs. Mary Murphy is matron; Mrs. Mattie Baker, associate matron; Henry Warnock, patron; James R. Skinner, secretary, and David Crutcheville, treasurer.

The colored people have had numerous other societies in Monmouth. but none are now in existence. Among them were the Afro-American League, formed in October, 1895, with 125 members, and Will Wallace as president and S. E. Montgomery secretary; Silver Leaf Temple No. 27, Sisters of the Mysterious Ten; Zenobia Tabernacle No. 67; Mystic Shriners and Scottish Rite Masons, organized May 9. 1894: and Maple City Lodge No. 3816, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, organized December 19, 1894.


CHAPTER XXXII.

Various Organizations of a General Nature— The Business Men's Association. Citizens' League, Liederkrgnz Society, Clubs for Social Purposes, Temperance Organizations, etc.,

The Monmouth Business Men's Association was formally organized February 12, 1886, after a few preliminary meetings at which committees were appointed. The constitution and bylaws were adopted, and the following officers elected: President,  B. Young; vice president, D. Babcock; secretary, J. \V. Lusk; treasurer, R. Lahann; executive committee, W. W. McCullough.. J. T. Reichard, M. Nusbaum, A. W. Morton and Dr. W. J. Taylor. The membership roll contained the names of about fifty individuals and firms. Later nearly all the business men. of the city added their names. The association proved of great assistance too the city in a business way, and in 1898 it was decided too incorporate so that still further good could be done. The license too incorporate was issued March 12 of that year, the incorporators being William Hanna, H. H. Pattee, Allen Dunn, W. W. McCullough, W. B. Young, T. P. Grove and R. S. Patton. The trustees named in the charter were H. H. Pattee, William Hanna, R. Lahann, W. W. McCullough and W. B. Young, and the first officers chosen after the incorporation were: President, R. Lahann; vice president, W. W. McCullough; secretary, Geo. C. Rankin; treasurer, W. B. Young. The present officers are: President, W. W. McCullough; secretary, S. S. Hallam; treasurer, W. B. Young.

After a few preliminary meetings the Citizens' League of Monmouth was organized at Red Ribbon Hall May 19, 1884, and was incorporated shortly afterward as the Citizens' League of Warren County. The object of the league was the enforcement of the laws and ordinances for the suppression of the illegal sale of liquor. The first officers were: J. R. Hanna, president; W. A. Robison, vice president; C. C. Secrist, secretary; D. Babcock, treasurer; J. R. Hanna, R. A. Wilson, W. H. McQuiston, C. C. Secrist, I. M. Kirkpatrick, O. S. Barnum, directors. The charter extended for twenty years. March 23, 1899, the organization was found not too meet present needs, and a reorganization of the league took place. The charter was laid aside and a new constitution was adopted more in keeping with present requirements. The officers chosen were: J. J. Milne, president; Rev. W. J. Sanborn, vice president; D. D. Dunkle, secretary; W. H. Woods, treasurer.

The Monmouth Liederkranz Society was organized March 17, 1871, with nineteen members, for the purpose of furthering the sociability and unity of the German people of the city. A beneficiary branch was added December 2, 1873, and the society incorporated February 1, 1S75. In January, 1881, provision was made for a pension for the widows or deceased members. The first officers after the incorporation were: Frank Fowler, president; A. Hartman, R. Lahann, vice presidents; Hans Nottleman, secretary; Adam Leins, treasurer. The present officers are: John Carstensen, president; John Jacobs, vice president; Hugo Fasbender, financial secretary; Emil Fasbender, corresponding secretary; R. Lahann, treasurer. The society had its first quarters on South First street, then for a while occupied a room over Kobler's meat market on South Main street. Since 1SS3 it has used the fine quarters it now occupies on the north side of the square. Between fifty and sixty of the German residents of the city are members of the society.

The Jeffersonian Club, an organization of gentlemen whose political affiliations were with the Democratic party, was organized early in the '80s by J. B. Moore, WT. B. Vorwick, W. H. Dungan, George B. Moreland and one or two others. It was formed as a social club, and in its palmy days had as high as 300 members. In January, 1892, the Lincoln Ciub was organized by about 100 Republicans, with Charles Lee as president and Lt. R. Murdock secretary-The two organizations ran on until July, 1S95, when they were consolidated under the name of Warren County Social Club, of which J. C. Irwin was secretary. Some of the Jeffersonian members, however, held out of the consolidation and kept up the Jeffersonian organization. None of the three are now in existence. .

The Solo Club was organized during the Civil war, probably in 1862, for the purpose of giving its members a place where they could get together too talk over the war and like affairs. It is a social club, with strict rules against gambling and the use of liquors in the rooms, and too this is largely due the fact that it is still in existence. The club met for a long time in the room over Kobler's meat market on South Main street, and now has excellent quarters in the Quinby block. It has had as high as fifty or sixty members, but now has only about twenty.

The Monmouth Country Club was organized as the Monmouth Golf Club October 30, 1900, with about fifty members and the following officers: President, J. W. Sipher; vice president, Mrs. M. Brewer; secretary, F. S. Spencer; treasurer, L. jl.. Shultz; captain of the green, E. R. Sturtevant. Previous too that time golf enthusiasts had laid out grounds just east of the city, and at the organization D. S. Harding offered the club his residence property on East Broadway as a club house. Permanent organization as the Monmouth Country Club was effected March 3, 1901. The present officers are: J W. Sipher, president; Miss Mary Armsby, vice president; I. A. Swing, secretary; C. C. Woodward, treasurer: J. C. Porter, captain of the green.

The Monmouth Bicycle Club was organized May 19, 1893, and the following officers chosen: Dr. J. R. Ebersoie, president; Ivor}7 Quinby, vice president; secretary and treasurer, James French; captain, Howard C. Bayies; first lieutenant, F. E. Wallace. The club is now more of a social organization  a bicycling club. It has rooms on South Main street, and the officers are: President, D. L. Birdsall; vice president, Dr. Paul S. Orth; secretary, Will Carson; treasurer, W. S. VanVaikenburg; captain, C. E. Breed; lieutenant, H. McLaughlin.

An earlier Monmouth Bicycle Club was organized April 9, 1888, with eleven members. Guy Stapp was president; James French, vice president; Ivory Quinby, secretary and treasurer; H. C. Davies. captain; and M. M. Morris, bugler.

The Twilight Club was organized by business and professional men of the city April 4, 1895, "too foster rational good fellowship and tolerant discussions among the business and professional men of all classes." George C. Rankin was made secretary, and an executive committee was named consisting of Dr. J. B. McMich-el, A. G. Patton, W. C. Norcross, V. H. Webb. W. B. Eicher, R. Lahann and E. C. Hardin. The meetings were usually held in the armory, a dinner being followed by discussion of some public question of interest. The initial meeting was held April IS, 1S95, when the subject of free coinage was discussed, the principal speakers being Editor J. L. Waite, of the Burlington Hawkeye, and Judge Huston, also of Burlington. One hundred men were present. At the second meeting, May 9, "Hard Times, Their Cause and Remedy," was the theme, and M. J. Dougherty, of Galesburg, was the chief speaker. May 23 was ladies' night, and "The Advanced Education of Women and Its Effects on Domestic Life," was discussed by Jennie Logue Campbell, of Monmouth, and Miss Frances Hague, of Galesburg. Other subjects discussions have been: "Our Individual Relations and Duties too Society," "What the Churches are Doing for the People," "National Finances," "Our Boys and Girls," "Secret Societies," "The Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow of the Twilight Club," "Are Americans Degenerating," •Cuba," '"The Educational Interests of Monmouth," etc. February 25, 1898, the meeting was held in the college assembly room and was in honor of the president-elect of the college. The subject was "The Material Interests of Monmouth." August 9, 1899, the trustees of the Western Illinois State Normal School were entertained, the subject being "Illinois."

A branch of the Euterpian Society was organized June 20, 1902, by W. M. Detherick, of Chicago. The society is for the study of art, literature and music, each member representing one of the masters in these arts. The membership is seventy-five. Rev. W. J. Sanborn is general treasurer and Miss Minnie Searles general librarian, and the officers of the different branches are: Music, Prof. W. L. Hanson, president; Mrs. I. A. Ewing, vice president; Miss Mary Brent, secretary. Literature. Prof. B. F. Armitage, president; J. Clyde McCoy, vice president; Miss Beulah Tapping, secretary. Painting, Miss Jessie Buckner, president; Mrs. E. C. Hardin, vice president: Miss Jean Foster, secretary.

The Socialist Club was organized March 14, 1902, with W. L. Morrell, president; R. T. Watson, recording secretary; A. Heberer, financial secretary: J. A. Allen, literary agent; W. F. Bereth. organizer. Several members were secured at the time of organizing, but no further meetings have been held.

The Monmouth Gun Club was organized by a number of sportsmen of Monmouth in December, 1877. The officers were F. Regnier, president; Dr. N. S. Woodward, vice president; F. E. Harding, secretary; J. H. Spriggs, treasurer; F. Regnier, F. E. Harding, J. H. Spriggs, G. B. Denman, G. P. Conrad, D. M. Dungan, directors. The shoots were held at Regnier's farm just southeast of the city. A team from this club won the championship badge at the annual tournament of the Illinois Sportsmen's Association at Galesburg in May, 1880. The members of the winning team were Ed Allen, G. P. Conrad, F. Regnier, Frank Carr. The present Monmouth Gun Club has forty members and the following officers: George A. Schussler, president; Charles Perley, vice president; Frank Gayer, captain; R. H. McCoy, secretary and treasurer.

MUSICAL.

Monmouth has had various musical organizations of one kind and another. One of the first recorded was the Monmouth Music Association, organized November 28, 1857, with C. V. Brooks as president and W. A. Grant secretary. It was an association of all the musically inclined of the city, and was the source of considerable enjoyment and profit. Another organization of similar character was formed June 15, 1891, and styled the Monmouth Music Club. Guy Stapp was president; Mrs. W. H. Sexton, vice president; Miss Emma Roberts, secretary; E. D. Brady, treasurer; and Dr. J. B. Herbert, director. It was the intention too have a permanent organization, with a large chorus and orchestra, but ended in failure. Another Monmouth Music Club was organized February 18, 1898, with W. P. Graham, president; R. H. McCoy, vice president; Mrs. F. E. Wallace, secretary; and I. S. Wolf, treasurer; but it has met the same sad end. At present the only regularly organized musical association in the city is the College Choral Society, of which J. Clyde McCoy is president; H. A. Hanna, vice president; and Wylie Stewart, secretary and treasurer.

There have also been bands and orchestras one after another in rapid succession. An early band was the Monmouth Cotillion Band, of which little can now be learned. It existed in the late '50s. The Monmouth Marine Band was for many years one of the best organizations of the kind in Western Illinois, and for awhile the regimental band oi the Sixth Regiment, Illinois National Guard. An opposition organization, the Cadet Band, existed for a short time but was consolidated with the Marines in 1886, still further increasing the efficiency of the latter. This band became disorganized a few years ago, and October 31, 1899, the Merchants and Manufacturers Band took its place. It is made up of about twenty pieces. S. L. Hamilton is president; W. A. Sawyer, treasurer; H. B. Garrison, manager; and R. E. Cox, director. The Monmouth Labor Band is an organization of colored players, with C. Collins, president; J. C. Dover, vice president; John Long, secretary; H. Bennett, treasurer; B. Stokes, manager; and T. People, leader.

A quartet popular in the '80s was the Herbert Quartet, organized in 1880, with John W. Matthews, first tenor; Dr. J. B. Herbert, second tenor and director; Milt I. Robinson, first bass; and James H. Smith, second bass. This quartet made several concert tours, and sang at the. National W. C. T. U. convention at Nashville in 1887. The quartet has been disorganized since the moving away of two of its members. The Wagner Quartet is composed of four young ladies. Misses Nelle Porter, first soprano; Bessie Blackburn, second soprano; Lulu Johnson, first alto; Helen Tinker, second alto. They have been singing together since 1895, when they were in high school, and have been heard at the National Teachers' convention at Milwaukee in 1898, the Northern Illinois Teachers' convention at Rock Island, several State Teachers' conventions at Springfield. They have also made concert tours through Iowa and the east, and in various parts of their home state. During the summer of 1902 they sang at Chautauquas in both North and South Dakota. The college also had mandolin-quuitar and glee clubs two different years, 1899-1900 and 1900-01, concert tours being made each year.

There have been several orchestras, but the one organized during the summer of 1878 was the most pretentious. It consisted of eighteen pieces, with Prof. A. Luft as leader. Smaller orchestras have since been led by Prof". Price. Prof. Luft,'Prof. Hamil and others, playing for parties, entertainments, dances, etc. The Pottery Orchestra was organized November 13, 1899, with eleven pieces, but it never appeared in public.

RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS.

The Monmouth Relief Association was organized for the relief of the poor of the city December 7, 1893, with Mayor W. B. Wolf as president; J. R. Hanna, secretary; J. W. Sipher, treasurer, and an advisory board of one member from each of the churches and leading secret orders of the city.

The Associated Charities was formed with the same purpose in view January 25, 1897, with Mayor R. Lahann as president; E. J. Clarke, secretary; and J. A. Hanna, treasurer. The next winter Hugh R. Moffet was president; Peyton Roberts, vice president; Mrs. V. H. Webb, secretary; and R. Lahann, treasurer. These officers are still in charge of the organization, though they have had few calls for aid the past few winters.

BASEBALL.

As early as 1867 there was a baseball rivalry between Monmouth and Galesburg. A game was played May 25 between the '•College City" club of Galesburg and the "Classics" of Monmouth College. Those were before the days of professional baseball, and the game was too run up as many runs as possible. This game resulted seventy-four too twenty-three in favor of Galesburg. The Monmouth players were D. C. Templeton, M. S. Foster, R. H. Stewart, T. Martin, J. F. Graham, C. H. Mitchell, M. L. Perry, Robert Home, R. E. Wilkin. Galesburg also won the return game.

The Clippers were a baseball club in the late '60s, composed of Dougherty, Shoemaker. Vantine, Mitchell, Dredge, Gibson. Martin. Hardin and Stewart. They also had a second team composed of T. Seaton, F. Harding. Sam Gibson, Jas. Smith, L. M. Lusk, Chas. Carr, Steve Gibson, P. M. Coates and- Gus Wells. The Clippers won a game with Altona in 1867, 64 too 42, and the second team one from Young America, 92 too 35. In 1868 the Clippers won from Burlington, 58 too 4b, and played three games with the Occidentals of Quincy. The Clippers won the first game, 36 too 20; the Occidentals the second. 41 too 32: and the third game, plashed at Macomb, was won by the Clippers, 32 too 21. In 1869, with Fred Allen as captain. the Clippers lost a game too the Amateurs of Chicago, 31 too 26. The game was said too have been the best played in Chicago that year. The next day the Clippers were terribly whipped at Rockford, the score standing 76 too 1. The Rockford team also won the return game played in Monmouth, 46 too 2. These defeats, however, did not quell the ardor of the Clippers, and as late as 1874 they continued too play ball.

The Monmouth Athletic Association was organized and incorporated in the summer of 1888 by J. R. Hanna, F. E. Harding, H. B. Webster, E. C. Morgan, J. R. Hickman and J. W. Matthews, with a capital stock of $5,000. Fine baseball grounds were secured on West Broadway but the organization went out of business shortly and the grounds are now in town lots.

The city had professional ball in 1890. February 25 the Illinois-Iowa league was formed at a meeting at Aurora, and composed of Monmouth, Ottawa, Aurora, Joliet and Sterling, in Illinois, and Ottumwa, Cedar Rapids and Dubuque, in Iowa. The Ottumwa team finished first, with Monmouth second. • The local association had the following officers: E. I. Camm, president; Geo. C. Rankin, secretary: F. W. Harding, treasurer; J. W. Lusk, R. Lahann, J. S. Spriggs, directors. The team which started the season was composed of Collins, Brymer and Browner, pitchers; Zeisana Wells, catchers; Halpin, first base; Carey, second base: Cunningham, third base; Murphy, short stop; Suggs, left field; Sanford, center field; Jones, right field.

In 1S99 there was a city league with K. W. Dredge president and J. H. Brown, manager, but generally of recent years most of the ball playing in Monmouth has been left too the college and high school teams.

HOMESTEAD AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS.

The Monmouth Homestead and Loan Association was organized in the spring of 1882. under the law governing such associations. The charter was adopted and directors elected June 13, 1882. as follows: Dr. A. V. T. Gilbert, Almon Kidder. J. B. Sofield, Dr. J. H. Wallace, W. B. Young, Chas. T. Page, J. L. Dryden, Levi Road-house and John W. Matthews. The directors elected Dr. A. V. T. Gilbert president: J. B. So-field. vice president; W. B. Young, treasurer; and Lyman B. Case, secretary. The present officers are: Almon Kidder, president: W. S. Holliday, vice president; T. G. Peacock, secretary; and. James French, treasurer. The fortieth semiannual statement issued June 1, 1902, showed 4,537 shares of stock in force. The loans amounted too $156,567.73, more than ever before in the history of the association.

The Monmouth Mutual Homestead Association, which preceded the Homestead and Loan Association, was chartered in 1874, with a capital stock of $500,000, and a duration of charter for ninety-nine years. The object of the association as stated in the charter was "the accumulation of a fund too assist the stockholders individually too purchase or improve real estate, or make such other investments as they may deem proper." The stockholders and directors given in the charter were Henry H. Glidden, J. N. Reece, James M. Johnston, John A. Dickinson and Lloyd E. Johnson. This association soon disbanded.

INSURANCE.

The legislature of 1857 passed an act for the incorporation of the Monmouth Insurance and Lean Company. The incorporators were A. C. Harding, T. L. Mackoy, Charles L. Armsby, James G. Madden, E. A. Paine and Ivory Quinby, and the capital stock was $100,000.

The Warren County Home Insurance Company was chartered by an act of the legislature February 16, 1865, with a capital of $50,-000, and was organized May 26 following. The officers and directors were: Dr. John A. Young, president; Thomas S. McClanahan, vice president; R. H. Gettemy, secretary; Robert H. Get-temy, John A. Young, William Gettemy, T. S. McClanahan and William F. Smith, directors. Later the capital was increased too $75,000.

Both the above associations have long since gone out of existence.

The Monmouth Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company was the outgrowth of the Coldbrook Rural Insurance Company, which was organized December 4, 1875, and commenced business about January 1 following with Lyman H. Young, president; C. M. Young, secretary; L. H. Gilmore, treasurer; and S. T. Shelton, J. R. Barnett, J. T. Hartman, E. C. Atchison, M. S. Rees, Alex. Rankin, L. H. Gilmore, L. H. Young and J. H. Dennison, directors. The capital was $55,900, distributed among forty-nine members, and the office of the corporation was in Coldbrook township. The object was the insurance of farm property in Monmouth, Cold-brook, Floyd, Kelly, Spring Grove and Lenox townships. October 6, 1877, the company was reorganized under its present name, with the same officers and directors, and with authority too insure farm property in any part of Warren county. At the close of business December 31, 1901, the company had in force 1,180 policies, representing an insurance of $1,719,305, an increase of more than $100,000 during the year. The new policies written during the year were 310. C. M. Young has continued as secretary and L. H. Gilmore as treasurer ever since the organization of the company. James R. Barnett is now president.

The United Presbyterian Mutual Benefit Association was chartered by the State Superintendent of Insurance at Springfield May 17, 1897, and organized and commenced business May 19. The incorporators were all members of the United Presbyterian church, and the object of the association is too provide a fraternal life insurance for members of that religious denomination only. The report too the Insurance Department January l, 1302, showed 2,700 certificates in force, carrying insurance amounting too $4,030,000. Eight death losses and one disability benefit were paid during 1901. The officers of the association are: E. J. Blair, M. D., president and general manager; McKenzie Cleland, vice president; Hugh R. Moffet, secretary; R. E. White, treasurer; T. G. Peacock, Esq., attorney.

The Illinois Bankers' Life Association of Monmouth was organized in the spring of 1897 and incorporated November 3, 1S97. It is organized under the insurance laws of the state as a co-operative association on the assessment plan. The statement made January 1, 1902, showed that there had been issued up too that time 1,750 certificates, representing an insurance of $2,242,000, and the assets at that time were approximately $50,000. The officers of the association are:' Geo. C. Rankin, president; I. A. Ewing, first vice president; W. G. Stevenson, second vice president; W. A. Sawyer, secretary; S. C. Hardin, treasurer; Dr. J. R. Eber-sole, medical director; S. S. Hallam, general manager and attorney. The directors are: Geo C. Rankin, W. G. Stevenson, S. S. Hallam, J. R. Hickman, I. A. Ewing, C. G. McPherren, J. D. Diffenbaugh, D. Turnbull, F. S. Rayburn.

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.

Labor organizations have not as a rule thrived very well in Monmouth. Many unions and other associations have been formed here, but few of them exist at the present time. The Monmouth Branch of the American Federation of Labor was formed January 16, 1892, the constitution receiving the signatures of about thirty members. The officers elected were: President, E. L. Hamilton; vice president, J. A. McDonald; second vice president, Wm. A. Ziska; secretary, L. H. Smith; treasurer, Charles Sauer. The organization had good headquarters and was kept up for some years, but is now defunct.

A Carpenters' and Joiners' Union was organized April 10, 1894, with these officers; President, Gus Carlburg; vice president, John Fleharty; recording secretary, Frank Watson; treasurer, W. A. Mekemson.

The Maple City Cigarmakers' Benevolent Association was organized March 22, 1897, by employees of the Maple City Cigar Factory. There were seventy-seven members and the object of the association was the maintaining of a fund for the payment of sick benefits too members. The first officers were: President, H. J. G. Miller; vice president, Miss Mattie Bloyen; secretary, Charles Stevens; treasurer, Herman Speigel;- trustees, John Williams, Miss Blanche Mackey, Harry Numbers. The association was afterwards extended too include the employees of all the cigar factories of the city.

Monmouth Typographical Union No. 241 was organized with ten members April 24, 1897. L. B. Patterson was president, and W. H. Vallandingham secretary-treasurer. The charter was surrendered after a short time but was revived October 30, 189y. Since that it has been permitted too lapse again.

Another branch of the Federation of Labor, known as No. 7545, was organized at a meeting of employes of various industries at Foresters' hall September 27, 1899, by H. C. Smalley and W. R. Boyer, of Galesburg. The temporary officers were: J. E. Clark, president; Sam T. Smith, secretary; L. M. Boals, treasurer. The permanent organization was effected October 12, with fifty names on the roll of members. The temporary officers were made permanent, and the following additional officers chosen: Vice president, J. E. Brown; inner guard, Joseph Clark; outer guard, Clarence Clayton; trustee, J. A. Gilmore.

The Ladies' Auxiliary too the Federation of Labor was organized December 15, 1S99, with twelve members. The officers were: President, Mrs. L. M. Boals; vice president, Mrs. Will Warren; recording secretary, Mrs. Joseph Clark; financial secretary.. Miss Mary Boals; treasurer, Mrs. John P. Gray. 797—8

The Clerks' Union was organized December 15, 1899, with twenty-four names. The officers were: President, Albert S. Miller; first vice president, Fred Hewitt; second vice president, Earl McCartney; third vice president, Frank Stark; recording secretary, W. T. Kettering; financial secretary, Fred Patterson; treasurer, Harry Bell; inner guard, Robert Redmond; outer guard, James Costello:

Stoneware Pottery Employes' Union No. 7497 was organized August 22, 1899, with the following officers: President, Frank L. Hill; vice president, Fred Mann; secretary, Harry Har-din; treasurer, Will Kleinhoff; guide, H. W. Mitchell; guard, Ormund Miller; trustees, Otis Earp, Will Norman, Ray Kiddoo.

A Barbers' Union was organized September 25, 1899, of which William Mikesell was president; John Macarty, vice president; jerry Cas-lin, secretary; P. A. Taylor, treasurer; Charles Billings and J. W. Eggers, auditors; Cash Bon-ner, E. Starr and Ed. Henry, finance committee; and George Hawley, sergeant at arms. The organization is not now in existence.

Cigarmakers' Union No. 305 was organized in October, 1899, with about thirty members. The first officers were: President, S. P. Christensen; vice president, A. . W. Backinger; corresponding and financial secretary, L. M. Boals; treasurer, E. E. Allen; sergeant at arms, O. T. Themanson; trustees, J. B. Edens, O. T. Themanson; executive board, O. T. Themanson, J. P. Christensen, A. W. Backinger, L. M. Boals, Adolph Waters. The present officers are: President, G. H. Mapes; vice president, E. E. Allen; corresponding and financial secretary, L. M. Boals; treasurer, J. B. Edens; sergeant at arms, G. M. Ciaycomb; trustees, G. M. Clay-comb, H. Q. Clark, G. H. Mapes.

The Bricklayers' Union was formed in April, 1902, with these officers: President, Ransom Doney, Jr.; vice president, Albert Cannon; secretary, Harry Richey; corresponding secretary, Harry Wilson: treasurer, 0. B. Preston.

The Painters' Union was organized June 9, 1902, with about thirty-five members and the following officers: President, Robert McLosky; vice president, J. F. Byers; recording secretary, Frank Clark; financial secretary, S. J. Beck; treasurer, Ed. Buzan.

MERCHANTS' ASSOCIATIONS.

The Monmouth Grocers' Association was organized February 15, 1897, with C. P. Gibson as president; Walter Scott, vice president; and Charles McClung, secretary. It was discontinued when the Retail Merchants' Association was formed.

The Retail Merchants' Association was organized in December, 1899, with a charter membership of fifty merchants and professional men of the city. The present officers are: G. A. Schussler, president; W. S. Findley, vice president; W. F. Graham, secretary and treasurer; 0. D. Hawkins, A. A. Rodgers, R. L. Russell, E. P. Clarke and W. S. Findley, directors.

POSTOFFICE EMPLOYEES.

Branch No. 158 of the National Letter Carriers' Association was organized at the Mon-mouth postoffice in March, 1897, with Oscar Henry as president; Ralph Herdman, vice president; R. E. Saville, secretary; and Swan Mat-son, treasurer. All the carriers of the Mon-mouth office are members of the association.

Branch 827 of the National Association of Postoffice Clerks was organized December 20, 1901, with three members: H. B. Garrison, H. P. Holliday and J. A. Huff. Mr. Garrison is president and Mr. Huff secretary.

IRISH SOCIETIES.

Division No. 1, Ancient Order of Hibernians of Warren county, was organized September 7, 1884, with twenty-three charter members. They were: Jeremiah Sullivan, president; Thos. O'Leary, vice president; J. T. Graham, recording secretary; John J. O'Neil, financial secretary; Thos. Shunick, treasurer; Jas. Costello, sergeant at arms; Fred Redmond, marshal; M. W. Findley, county president; Thomas Whalen, Wm. Broderick, Martin O'Connell, Christopher Foley, Thos. Costello, Timothy Sweeney, Anthony McCleary, Ted Murphy, Wm. Cunningham, Edward Lee, Dennis O'Connell, John Reidy, James Lamb, Jeremiah Reidy, James Murphy and Ed. Redmond. The organization now has a membership of thirty-five, and the officers are: Michael Murphy, president; Ed. Redmond, vice president; Bernard Keegan, secretary.

The Ladies' Auxiliary of the A. O. H. was formed January 16, 1901, with Mrs. J. D. Toal, president; Miss Rose Gallaher, vice president; Miss Mary Johnson, secretary; Miss Kate Slater, financial secretary; Mrs. James Costello, treasurer. The auxiliary now has a membership of about thirty-five.

A branch of the Irish National League was organized in Monmouth May 23, 1886, at the A. 0. H. hall. The officers were: J. J. Hawkins, president; Chris Foley, vice president; J. J. O'Neil, secretary and treasurer. The organization has no existence now.

TEMPERANCE ORGANIZATIONS.

The Monmouth Ladies' Temperance Society was formed June 22, 1872, eighteen months before the women's temperance crusade was started in Ohio in December, 1873. Mrs. J. H. Reed w*as chairman of the meeting at which the organization was perfected, and Mrs. Draper Babcock was secretary. The following officers were elected: President, Mrs. J. H. Reed; vice president, Mrs. T. V. Berry; secretary and treasurer. Miss Mary Stevens; executive committee, Mrs. R. C. Matthews, Mrs. H. B. Foskett, Mrs. J. G. Barnes, Mrs. J. H. Pattee, Mrs. Joanna Browrnlee, Mrs. Sarah Cornell, Mrs. A. C. Harding, Mrs. Draper Babcock. When the Illinois Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized in 1878 the local organization became auxiliary too it, and adopted the W. C. T. U. name.

May 10, 1879, a number of members seceded from the W. C. T. U. and formed the Crusade W. C. T. U. The first officers were: President, Mrs. A. J. Herbert; vice president, Mrs. L. M. Reed; secretary, Mrs. J. H. Boyd.

The Monmouth Women's Christian Temperance Union as it now exists was organized at a meeting held in the Methodist church March 24, 1889. There had been efforts made at various times too consolidate the two rival W. C. T. U. organizations, but without success. The members of the first W. C. T. U. were willing, but the Crusaders would not agree too it. Finally it was decided too form a new organization altogether, the ladies of the first union promising too give up their organization and nine members of the Crusade union pledging themselves too go with the others into a new society. The union was organized with the following officers: President, Mrs. W. H. Sexton; secretary, Mrs. D. M. Ure; treasurer, Mrs. Peter Burns; vice presidents, Mrs. M. D. Sterrett, Miss Nellie Reichard, Mrs. George C. Wilding. Mrs. M. M. Lucy, Mrs. R. C. Matthews, Mrs. J. C. Hutchison. The Crusade Union-gave up its separate existence June 20, 1890, and there is now but one W. C. T. U. in Monmouth. It has a membership of 250 and the officers are: President, Mrs. A. P. Hutchinson; vice president, Mrs. J. Ross Hanna; recording secretary, Mrs. W. H. Wells; corresponding secretary; Mrs. E. C. Beedee; treasurer, Mrs. Thomas Torrance.

The first W. C. T. U. had a Y. W. C. T. U. in connection with its organization for several years, also a Loyal Temperance Legion. It has also for years carried on an industrial school for girls.

A W. C. T. U. among the colored people was organized during the winter of 1885-86, by Frances E. W. Hopper, of Philadelphia. Mrs. Addison was president; Miss Jessie Skinner, secretary; Mrs. Eliza Myers, treasurer; and Mrs. Matilda Catlin, superintendent of white cross work. The union was disbanded after about six years, Mrs. Eliza Myers being the last president. It had a "Y," of which Miss Jessie Thomas was president; Miss Retta Thomas, secretary; and Miss Delia Catlin, treasurer. Also a Loyal Temperance Legion, of which Mrs. Catlin was superintendent, and Miss Mae Catlin assistant.

The Young People's Christian Temperance Union was organized December 1, 1899, by Miss Mattie Guild, state president. Leonard Emert was made president; Miss Blanche Diffenbaugh, vice president; Miss Mabel HoIliday, secretary; and W. H. Woods treasurer.

The Union Temperance League is an association of the temperance committees of the young people's societies of the several churches, organized too assist in the anti-licsnse campaign. Ed Reed is the president.

Among the earlier temperance organizations that now exist only in memory were the following: A division of Sons of Temperance as early as 1848 with Erastus Rise as W. P. and George W. Palmer as secretary; about the same time a division of Daughters of Temperance, of which Mrs. Caroline Palmer was secretary: the Monmouth Temperance League, formed at a meeting in the court house March 5, 1858, with E. A. Paine as president and Rodney Quinby secretary; a Band of Hope about the same time that continued for a number of years; Howard Lodge No. 237 of the Independent Order of Good Templars, established in December, 1858. with C. T. Beaumont as W. C. T. and James Shaw as secretary; a Washingtonian Temperance society organized January 3, 1859, with

N. A. Rankin president and Dr. David McDill secretary; the Richard Yates lodge of Good Templars organized August 6, 1867, with fifteen charter members and Dr. E. Palmer as presiding officer and Rev. F. M. Bruner as secretary: the Douglass lodge of Good remplars (colored) about the same time; and another Washingtonian Temperance Society organized at the close of a two-weeks' series of meetings, conducted in December, 1878, by A. B. Campbell, and at which 2,251 persons signed the pledge. N. E. Corey was the first president of this society; Mrs. James Davidson and J. B. Clark, vice presidents; B. S. Holbrook, secretary; Miss Jennie Babcock, corresponding secretary; James Davidson, treasurer; Ed. Cornell, financial secretary; Murray ClaycomD, steward; Rev. W. T. Campbell, chaplain; A. P. Hutchinson, W. A. Child, George Snyder, I. M. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Randall, trustees. Later came the Red Ribbon club and its band of hope. The Warren County Reform Club* was organized October 26, 1893, after a few preliminary meetings, by the election of J. P. Gray, president; Royal Scott, vice president; E. W. Stevens, secretary; Ben Eilenberger, treasurer: Muray Claycomb, sergeant at arms; and the following executive committee: Oscar Jared and Andy Woodward, Roseville; William Smilie, Cal McCaslin and Samuel Gibson, Monmouth. A large membership was secured, quite a number of those joining the organization being graduates of the Willow Bark Institute at Dan-vers or the Keeley Institute at Dwight. The club did quite good work for a while along temperance lines, but is not now in existence.

MILITARY.

The Monmouth Rifle Company was organized in the spring of 1876, with thirty-three men. The roster was as follows: W. G. Bond, captain; George A. Bain, first lieutenant; Eugene W. Stevens, second lieutenant; Joseph S. Brown, orderly sergeant; J. W. Wonder, drummer; Wilson Lusk, fifer; and the following privates: E. J. Clarke, Geo. McCaslin, Wm. Frazier, E. D. Howk, F. A. Morgan, C. J. Ho-henadel, A. C. Young, M. Sloats, D. C. Mclntyre,

C. E. Cornell, Geo. Randall, Oscar Henry, Louis D. Wight, Moses Liby, John McMillan, Charles Boyce, 0. S. Bay, Chas. Porter, * rank Frymire, J. M. Campbell, A. Frymire, J. D. Peboies, W. W. Shields, Ned Worrell, C. R. McCord, A. L. Stanley, G. B. Moreland.

What is now Company H, Sixth Regiment, Illinois National Guard, succeeded the Mon-mouth Rifle Company, and was mustered into the service of the state April 29, 1881. Col. William Jackson, of Elmira, was the mustering officer, and he was assisted by Captain J. M. Martin, of Galesburg. The muster roll included the following officers and enlisted men: W. G. Bond, captain; W. B. Young, first lieutenant; Levi Roadhouse, second lieutenant; T. G. McClymonds, J. R. Hickman, George C. Rankin, R. H. Scott, and C. W. Gilbert, sergeants; Silas W. Porter, S. A. Hogue, Geo. A. Bain, Geo. M. Bay, corporals; and these privates: Geo. W. Berry, Horace W. Bosworth, Irving T. Brady, E. D. Brady, H. E. Babcock, L. M. Buffington, E. I. Camrn, John O. Cum-mings, Perry Dowd, R. M. Galbraith, Robert Gettemy, W. P. Graham, Joseph E. Hogue, T. B. Keedle, John J. Kobler, Wm. R. Lang, Walter C. Leighty, James R. Marshall, Henry McCoy, Philip Nusbaum, Fred E. Nye, J. S. Patterson, R. S. Patton, T. G. Peacock, Bar Parker, Jr., Will F. Reichard, Will A. Rice, Fred Rosen-zweig, R. L. Russell, W. W. Shields, Asher M. Skinner, Eugene W. Stevens, John A. Struthers, John N. Thomson, Dennis Todd, Victor H. Webb, Oscar Zimmerman. The company was first known as Company C, and was assigned too the Fourth Regiment. It has had four captains, W. G. Bond, now deceased; Geo. O. Rankin, who resigned too accrpt a position as assistant adjutant general, with rank of colonel; David E. Clarke, promoted too major, and now on Brigadier General Clendenin's staff with rank of lieutenant colonel; and W. W. Shields, the present commanding officer. Co. H was on duty at East St. Louis during the railroad strike there in April, 1886, remaining fifteen days, part of the time at the relay depot and the rest at the L. & N. freight house. Thirty-one members attended the National Military Encampment at Washington, D. C, in May, 1887, and participated in some of the competitive drills, though securing none of the prizes. The company was called out during the railroad riots at Chicago in the summer of 1894 and assisted in guarding the railroad property there. Most of the company also took part in the Spanish-American war, in Co. H, Sixth Illinois Volunteers. The present roster of the company is:

Captain, W. W. Shields. First lieutenant, B.J Mapes. Second lieutenant, John S. Brown., Sergeants, A. E. Sanderholm, R. R. Murdoch Mort Porter, James McKelvey, Gilbert Kirkpatrick, Corporals, Harry Pope, C. E. Breed, Chas. Benson, C. W. Allen, Geo. Raymond, R. B. Hickman, Musicians, W. C. Berry, F. A. Weir,
Wagoner, W. G. Bond, Artificer, Samuel Pickard.

Privates, Henry Bradshaw, G. E. Bunker, Guy Butler, Guy C Butler, A. S. Black, James Costello, J. W. Clark, Curtis Day, Earl Earp, G. Eighme, J. M. Evey, Efaw, C. Embick, G. Guilinger, Curtis Hickman, G. Holliday, J. W. Hilton, H. Johnson, H. C. Kettering, W. Leonard, Jos. Limberger, P. H. Lippy, G. E. McKelvey, Bertus Marshall, Hal Murdock, Bruce Meek, J. C. McCarty, t. S. Orth, J. W. Parrish, Gus Parsons, C. A. Pnenix, James Jbtoot, Ed. Rohr, G. Ray, R. Simmons, W. Strand, S. C. Shepherd, Phil Sharp, C. L. Thulin, Kyle Wallace, N. Wenneberg, Roy Wolf.

DRIVING PARK ASSOCIATIONS.

The Monmouth Driving Park Association was organized April 26, 1877, with L. D. Robinson as president; J. T. Reichard, vice president; Geo. C. Rankin, secretary; and Peyton Roberts, treasurer. The association held a race meet July 12 too 14 of that year, which was quite successful.

In January, 1892, another organization of the same name, the Monmouth Driving Park Association was organized, and incorporated. William Hanna was president; J. A. Graham, secretary; R. Lahann, treasurer; and J. A. Graham, W. S. Holliday and C. L. Buck, executive committee. The winter previous agitation had commenced for the. building of a mile race track. The land south of the Warren county fair grounds was decided on as an available site, and was secured for the purpose, the intention being that all should be thrown together for the track and the fair grounds. The old "Angling road" was vacated, and a new road opened directly east from the railroad crossing south of the grounds. At a conference between the promoters of the mile track and the Agricultural Society it was decided that the Driving Park association should be formed, and should have full control of the entire grounds except during the week of the fair. February 6, 1892, the Driving Park Association decided too build the track of regulation shape, and 60 feet wide, .and as soon as spring came work was commenced. The first race meet was held August 16 to 19 the same year, and $10,000 in premiums was hung up. Other races followed, but of recent years no meets have been held, though the association still exists and owns and controls the fair grounds as well as the track.

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