The Ark and the Dove
by USGenNet Patrons
Rhoda Fone & Carole Hammett (2001)
On 20 Jun 1632, Charles I of England granted to Caecilius (Cecil) Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, the charter for the Province of Maryland. Calvert (and his father, George Calvert before him) had long been recruiting "gentlemen investors" and, once certain that the King's charter would not be withdrawn (due to complaints by both Virginians and anti-Catholics on the Privy Council), he began notifying them of departure dates:
Oldham, September 1st, 1633
Dr. John Briscoe,
Brikshough, New Biggin, Cumberland Co., England.
Dr. John Briscoe, Greeting:
As the privy council have decided that I shall not be disturbed of the charter granted by his Majesty, "The Ark" and pinnace "Dove" will sail from Gravesend about the 1st of October and if you are of the same mind as when I conversed with you I would be glad to have you join the colony.
With high esteem your most ob't servant,
(Signed) Cecilius Baltimore.
Lord Baltimore, who, like his father before him, had converted to the Roman Catholic religion, was well aware that he and his fellow Catholics would forever be facing problems respecting their religion. It was for this and fiscal reasons that he was intent that religious tolerance be practiced in the Province of Maryland. Before setting sail, he provided the following instructions to his younger brother, Leonard Calvert, whom he had appointed governor:
"To Mr. Leonard Calvert Esq. and to the Colonists, and to the CommissionersSir Thomas Cornwalleys and Mr. Jerome Hawley:
With Lord Baltimore's Governor of his Province of Maryland, and Avalon, and unto my well beloved brother, Leonard Calvert Esq., as the Deputy Governor of my Province of Maryland, with the Commissioners of his Lordship, provides the Government of said Province
His Lordship requires that they be very careful to preserve peace and unity throughout their voyage to Maryland. Amongst all the passengers on ship board and that they suffer no scandal nor offense to the Protestants, whereby any just complaint may hereafter be made to them in Va. or in Eng. and for that end to cause all acts of Roman Catholique Religion to be done as privately as may be and that they instruct all the Roman Catholiques to be silent, upon all occasions of discourse concerning matters of religion and that the said Governor and Commissioners treat the Protestants with as much mildness and favor as Justice will permit. And this is to be ordered at land and sea
Lord Baron of Baltimore and Avalon.
Source: Calvert papers, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, as published in the Register of Maryland's Heraldic Families, Series II, by Alice Norris Parran, 1938.
In mid-October of 1633, the two ships, The Ark and The Dove left Gravesend with an unknown number of passengers, all of whom had presumably taken the oath of fidelity to Charles. Their next stop was Cowes on the Isle of Wight, where at least three Catholic priests, Fathers Andrew White, John Altham and Thomas Gervais, came on board. Father White kept a journal of the voyage, in which he wrote (translated from the Latin):
On St Cecilias day, the 22 of November 1633 with a gentle Northerne gale we set saile from the Cowes about 10 in the morninge, toward the needles, being rockes at the south end of Ile of Wight, till by default of winde we were forced to ankour at Yarmouth, weh very kindly saluted us, how beit we were not out of feare, for the seamen secretly reported that they expected the post with letters from the Counsell at London: but God would tende the matter, and sent tht night soe strong a faire winde as forced a ffrench barke from her ankor hold driveing her foule upon our pinnace forced her to set saile with losse of an ankour, and take to Sea, that being a dangerous place to floate in, whereby we were necessarily to follow, least we should part companie, and thus God frustrated the plot of our Seamen. This was the 23 of of Novemb: on St Clements day who wonne his Crowne by being cast into the Sea fastned to an ankor. That morneing by 10 a clocke we came to Hurste Castle, and thence were saluted with a shot, and soe passed by the dangerous needles, being certaine sharpe rockes at the end of the Iland, much feared by Seamen for a double tyde which she carried to Shipwrecke, tone upon the rockes, t- other upon the sand. I omitt our danger passed Yarmouth, where by dragging anchour in a strong winde and tide we almost runne of our shipp a ground.
Neither the number who boarded at Gravesend (where all were required to take an oath declaring Charles I their true religious leader), nor those who boarded at Cowes (presumably to avoid taking the oath) is known. Lord Baltimore spoke of 300 passengers, but no ships lists are extant, and most evidence as to passengers is secondary. On 22 Nov 1633, the two ships left Cowes, but only three days out, they encountered severe storms, and were separated:
Soe all Sunday and Munday the 24th and 25th of Novemb: we sailed afore the winde, till night, when the winde changed to Northwest so violent, and tempestuous, as the Dragon was forced backe to ffalmouth, not able to keep the sea, being yet not to goe southwest, but right south to Angola, and our pinnace mistrusting her strength came up to us to tell that if shee were in distresse shee would shew two lights in her shroodes. Our master was a very sufficient seaman, and shipp as strong as could be made of oake and iron, 400 tunne, kingbuilt: makeinge faire weather in great stormes. Now the master had his choise, whether he would returne England as the Draggon did, or saile so close up to the winde, as if he should not hold it he must necessarily fall upon the irish shoare, so infamous for rockes of greatest danger: of these two, out of a certaine hardinesse and desire to trie the goodnesse of his shipp, in which he had never beene at Sea afore, he resolved to keep the sea, with great danger, wanting Sea-roome. The winde grew still lowder and lowder, makeing a boysterous sea, and about midnight we espied our pinnace [The Dove] with her two lights, as she had forewarned us, in the shroodes, from wch time till six weekes, we never see her more, thinkeing shee had assuredly beene foundred and lost in those huge seas, but it happened otherwise, for before shee came to the Irish Channell, where we were now tossinge, shee returned for England, and entered into the Scilley Iles, whence afterward in the Dragons Company shee came to the long reach and Canarie Iles, God provideing a convenient guard for that small vessell.
The two ships remained separated for most of the remainder of the voyage. The Ark arrived at Barbadoes in the West Indies on 3 Jan 1633/4, and were joined by the smaller Dove three weeks later. They disembarked shortly thereafter and arrived at Point Comfort in Virginia Colony on 27 Feb 1633/4:
At length, sailing from this, we reached what they call Point Comfort, in Virginia, on the 27th of February, full of fear lest the English inhabitants, to whom our plantation is very objectionable, should plot evil against us. Letters, however, which we brought from the King and Chancellor of the Exchequer to the Governor of these regions, served to conciliate their minds, and to obtain those things which were useful to us. For the Governor of Virginia hoped, by this kindness to us, to the more easily from the royal treasury a great amount money due to him. They announced only a vague rumor, that six ships were approaching, which would reduce all things under the power of the Spanish. For this reason all the inhabitants were under arms. The thing afterwards proved to be in a measure true.
Here they resupplied the ships, took on more passengers and again set sailthis time north up the Chesapeake Bay, arriving at the mouth of the Potomac River by 3 Mar 1633/4. As they approached Maryland's southern shores, Father White reports they were met by Indians:
At the very mouth of the river we beheld the natives armed. That night fires were kindled through the whole region, and since so large a ship had never been seen by them, messengers were sent everywhere to announce "that a canoe as large as an island had brought as many men as there were trees in the woods." We proceeded, however, to Heron islands, so called from the immense flocks of birds of this kind..."
To allay their fears, Leonard Calvert sailed on the Dove to Piscataway, where he and Henry Fleet (more about whom see below) met with their chief. Fleete was, among other things, conversant in a number of Indian languages, and aided Calvert in calming the fears of the Indians. Father White reported in his journal:
The Governor had taken as companion in his visit to the chieftain, Captain Henry Fleet, a resident of Virginia, a man very much beloved by the savages, and acquainted with their language and settlements. At the first he was very friendly to us -- afterwards, seduced by the evil counsels of a certain Claiborne, who entertained the most hostile disposition, he stirred up the minds of the natives against us with all the art of which he was master. In the meantime, however, while he remained as a friend among us, he pointed out to the Governor a place for a settlement, such that Erurope cannot show a better for agreeableness of situation.
Following the return of Governor Calvert and Henry Fleet, on 25 Mar, 1634, the ships landed at St. Clement's Island in present-day St. Mary's County, Maryland, where they became the second* group of settlers within the boundaries of the province.
* The Isle of Kent was the earliest white settlement within what became the bounds of the Province of Maryland.
No passenger or crew lists are extant for either the Ark or the Dove (although the latter, designated a supply ship, probably carried very few other than crew members). A number of versions have been published over the years, each a compilation based on other records. One of the earliest was researched and compiled by Mrs. G. W. Hodges and published as the Ark and Dove Record, Passengers, Crew and Indentured Servants, in the Register of Maryland's Heraldic Families, Series II, by Alice Norris Parran, 1938. In 1968, another version published was that of Harry Wright Newman in The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate, self-published, Washington, D.C.
In most cases, this secondary documentation has been based on land patent records in which applicants demanded rights based on their year(s) of immigration and transport, with the presumption made that, even if the ship was not named, that arrivals in 1633/4 were on either the Ark or the Dove.
Ms. Hodge's List is slightly smaller and slightly different than that of Mr. Newman, but given the number of passengers and crew that the ships could hold, it is clear that many names are probably still missing (even if one takes into consideration that some of the voyagers surely died during the voyage).
Ms. Hodges' List
Source: Ark and Dove Record, Passengers, Crew and Indentured Servants,, Mrs. G. W. Hodges, Register of Maryland's Heraldic Families, Series II, by Alice Norris Parran, 1938.
-- "ARK" AND "DOVE" RECORD --
Nov. 22nd, 1633, ARK and DOVE--Record--Mar. 25th, 1634
PASSENGERS, CREW, INDENTURED
THE ARK AND DOVE, MARYLAND COLONISTS
The TWENTY GENTLEMEN--with Governor LEONARD CALVERT--and his brother, GEORGE CALVERT,
COMMISSIONERS--Sir Thomas Cornwalleys, Jerome Hawley Esq.
Richard Gerrard--Knight Baronet, son of Sir Thomas Gerrard, Lord Baron of Byrne.
Lady Wintour's two sons--Edward and Frederick Wintour.
Sir Thomas Wiseman's son--Henry Wiseman Esq.
Nicholas Fairfax--(d--en route).
Thomas Beckwith, Esq.
Dr. John Briscoe--Surgeon, and Henry Briscoe.
Father Andrew White--a priest whose Journal of the Voyage and Colonization is very remarkable.
Mrs. Ann Cox--(widow--evidently sister of Richard Gerrard, K. B. She later m--Thomas Green. Had issue).
Mr. John Saunders, partner of Sir Thomas Cornwalleys, to supervise his twelve servants. But he died en route (his wife and ch, are found in Maryland, 1644).
Mr. Henry Green--Gent.
Priest--Antham or Alton.
Mr. John Baxter--Gent.
Mr. Wm. Andrews--wife, Anne.
Mr. Richard Cole.
Mr. Richard Duke.
Many of the passengers were sons or relations who were indentured for their passage.
They are found in lists following--
Ark and Dove lists:
The list below were the passengers--
Thos. Allen--shot on sands at Point Lookout)
John Ashmore (St. Michael's Manor, Md.)
James Barefoot (who died en route)
John Bowlter (Purser of Ark)
John Bryant (killed by felling of tree at Mattapient)
John Carle (sailor)
Mrs. Ann Cox (widow nee--Ann Gerrard sister to K. B. Richard Gerrard. This is believed to be a fact later discovered and she as widow Cox m--Thomas Green one of his three wives. He became Gov. of Md. upon the death bed of Leonard Calvert 1647)
Peter Draper (attorney for Leonard Calvert)
Richard Edwards (Chirurgeon of Ark)
Cuthbert Fenwick (m--Jane Eltonhead she was widow of Robt. Moryson)
Thomas Gervais (priest)
Thomas Grinston (Grigson)
John Halfhead (m--Jane Maddox)
Nicholas Harvey (whose wife Jane as widow m--Thomas Green)
John Hollis or Hollowes
Rich. Lowe (master of Ark)
Richard Lusthead (m--sister of Luke Gardiner)
John Nevill (m--Bridget Thornbay)
Richard Nevill (m--Ann--?)
Mr. Rogers (?)
Wm. Saire m--E. Lorell.
Thomas Smith had wife Jane; daus--Jane and Gertrude.
Mr. Robert Smithson
Rich. Thompson attorney m--Urusula Bisle--license 1641.
Matthais Tousa (mulatto)
John Ward (wife Dameris)
Father Andrew White
Capt. Robert Wintour
Capt. Robt. Wintour Master of Ark with Capt. Rich. Lowe both Gentlemen.
Henry Wiseman son of Sir Thomas Wiseman.
Mr. Newman's List
Documented List Of The Adventurers On The Ark And The Dove
And Those Who Were Early Identified With The Settlement
||No Proof of Entry|
||No Proof of Entry|
|Ralph||Beane, Bayne, Gent.
|(sometimes transcribed as Briscoe)
|John||Bolles, Bowles, Gent
|(sometimes listed as Hollis or Hallis)
|Capt. John||Hill, Gent.
|Madam Ann||Smith, Gentlewoman
John Boulter, Purser and steward of the Ark.
John Curke, Helper on the Dove.
John Games, On the Dove.
Richard Kenton, Boatswain on the Dove.
Samuel Lawson, Mate on the Dove.
Richard Orchard, Master of the Dove.
Nicholas Perrie, Helper on the Dove.
???? Warreloe, Mate on the Dove.
Source: The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate, Harry Wright Newman, self-published, Washington, D.C., 1968, pp. 339-343
Of those named above, a few additional notes:
Not included in the above lists is possible passenger Samuel Richloe, who was transported in 1633 (Patents AB&H:383, Gibb)
"Wm. Browne" (Hodges and Newman), as "William Brown, transported in 1633," has reference Patents AB&H:383 (Gibb)
"John Bryant" (Hodges and Newman) has reference of Patent 1:166 and was transported in 1634 (Gibb)
"Thomas Cornwalleys, Esq., "Cuthbert Fenwick (Esq.) and "John Saunders:" See will and notes of Mr. Cuthbert Fenwick, Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol. I, p. 219
"Mr. Nicholas Fairfax" (Hodges) has reference of Patents 2:346 of "Nicholas Fairefax immigrated 1633," and "Nicholas Ferfax immigrated 1633" (Patents 1:17, 42), and "Nicholas Firfax immigrated 1633" (Patents 1:41) (Skordas)
"Henry Fleete, Gent." appears in the records of the 1637/8 Freeman Assembly. See also Combs &c.'s Fleet Families.
"Richard Lusthead (m--sister of Luke Gardiner)" (Hodges) was also described as Richard Lushead, Lustwick and Lustick in various patents. He married Julian Gardner, daughter of Richard, and was deceased by 1650. See Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol. I, pp. 82-95, will of her brother, Luke Gardner
"Fra Malchet" (Hodges) is probably the same as "Fra. Molcto" in Gibb's Supplement to Skordas (Patents 1:66, "transported in 1633"), and possibly the same as "Francisco, mulatto" (Newman)
"Mr. Rogers" and "Francis Rogers" (Hodges) and "Francis Rogers, Gentleman" (Neman) are probably "Mr. Francis Rogers" of Gibb's Supplement (Patents 1:166)
"Stephen Samnan" (Hodges) and "Stephen Sammion" (Newman) are undoubtedly the same, and probably the same as "Stephen Tammion, transported 1633" (Patents 1:110, Gibb)
"Robert Shirley" (Hodges) and "Robert Sherley or Sherby" are undoubtedly "Robert Sherleys, transported in 1633" (Patents AB&H:65, Gibb)
"Mathias Tousa," "Mathias Tousa, mulatto" and "Mathias Sousa" (Hodges), and "Mathias Sousa, mulatto" are probably all "Mathias Tousa, transported in 1633" (Patents 1:19, Gibb) and the Ark and Dove Society lists as "Matthias Zause"
"Christopher Martin" (Newman), not included on Hodges' list was transported in 1634, and has reference of Patents AB&H:244 (Gibb)
"Mr. Richard Gerrard, immigrated 1633" has reference of Patents AB&H:66 (Gibb)
Sources: The Early Settlers of Maryland, an Index to Names of Immigrants Compiled from Records of Land Patents, 1633-1680, in the Hall of Records, Annapolis, Maryland, edited, with an introduction, by Gust Skordas, then-Assistant Archivist, Maryland State Archives, and published by Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1968, hereinafter Skordas; and its companion volume, A Supplement to Early Colonial Settlers of Maryland by Carson Gibb, published 1997 by the Maryland State Archives (this latter source is a database containing about 8,600 entries consisting of corrections and additions to Skordas).
Narratives of Early Maryland, 1633-1684 by Father Andrew White, Maryland State Archives, edited by Clayton C. Hall, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910, republished by the Maryland State Archives..
Rev. Father Andrew White, A Relation of the Colony of the Lord Baron of Baltimore in Maryland, translated by N.C. Brooks, Baltimore, 1847, pp. 18 -24, and reprinted in American History Told by Contemporaries, edited by Albert Bushnell Hart, New York, 1898, volume 1, "A Briefe Relation of the Voyage unto Maryland."