1919 Farm Journal Illustrated Rural Directory Of
Genesee County, Michigan
Handy Tips

 

By Holice, Clayton, and Debbie

 

HANDY THINGS TO KNOW

A rod is 16-1/2 feet, or 5-1/2 yards.
A mile is 320 rods.
A mile is 5,280 yards.
A square foot is 144 square inches.
A square yard contains 9 square feet.
A square rod is 272-1/4 square feet.
An acre contains 43,560 square feet.
An acre contains 4,840 square yards.
An acre contains 160 square rods.
A quarter section contains 160 rods.
An acre is 8 rods wide by 20 rods long.
An acre is 10 rods wide by 16 rods long.
An acre is about 208-3/4 feet square.
A solid foot contains 1,729 solid inches.
A pint (of water) weights 1 pound.
A solid foot of water weights 62-1/2 pounds.
A gallon (of water) holds 231 solid inches.
A gallon of milk weighs 8 pounds and 10 ounces.
A barrel of flour weights 196 pounds.
A barrel of salt weighs 280 pounds.
A barrel of beef weighs 200 pounds.
A barrel of pork weighs 200 pounds.
A barrel of fish weighs 200 pounds.
A keg of powder weighs 25 pounds.
A tone of lead or iron equals 14 pounds.
A pig of lead ore iron equals 21-1/2 stone.
Anthracite coal broken--cubic foot--averages 54 pounds.
A ton loose occupies 40-43 cubic feet.
Bituminous coal broken--cubic foot--averages 49 pounds.
Cement (hydraulic) Rosendale, weight per bushel, 70 pounds.
A ton loose occupies 40-48 cubic feet.
Cement (hydraulic) Louisville, weight per bushel, 62 pounds.
Cement (hydraulic) Portland, weight per bushel, 96 pounds.
Gypsum ground, weight per bushel, 70 pounds.
Lime, loose, weight per bushel, 70 pounds.
Lime, well shaken, weight per bushel, 80 pounds.
Sand at 98 pounds per cubic foot, per bushel, 122-1.2 pounds.
18,29 bushels equal a tone, 1,181 tons cubic yard.

MEASURING HAY AND CORN

Hay is often sold in the mow or stack where the weight has to be estimated. For this purpose 400 cubic feet of hay is considered a ton. The actual weight of 400 cubic feet of hay will vary according to the quality of the hay, time of cutting, position in mow , etc. For making an estimate in a given case multiply together the length, breadth and height of the mow or stack in feet and divide the produce by 400. The quotient will be the number of tons.

Corn is measured by the following rule: A heaped Bushel contains 2,748 cubic inches. To find the number of bushels of corn ina crib it is therefore necessary merely to multiply together the length, width and height in inches and divide the product by 2,748. The number of bushels of shelled corn will be two-thirds of the quotient. If the sides of the crib are slanting, it will be necessary to multiply together one-half the sum of the top and bottom widths with the height and length.

The legal weight of a bushel of shelled corn in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia is 56 pounds.

In Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland 32 pounds constitutes a bushel of oats; in New Jersey, 30 pounds.

A bushel of wheat is placed at 60 pounds by most of the states of the Union.

Pennsylvania recognizes 56 pounds as a bushel of white potatoes. In Maryland, new jersey and Virginia the legal weight is 60 pounds.

A bushel of clover seed in Pennsylvania must weigh 60 pounds; in Maryland, 60 pounds, in New Jersey, 64 pounds; in Virginia, 60 pounds.

A bushel of timothy seed in Pennsylvania must weigh 45 pounds, and the same weight inmost adjacent states.

 

To estimate the amount of land in different fields under cultivation use the following table:

5 yards wide by

968 yards long

1 acre

10 yards wide by

484 yards long

1 acre

20 yards wide by

242 yards long

1 acre

40 yards wide by

121 yards long

1 acre

70 yards wide by

69-1/7 yards long

1 acre

80 yards wide by

60-1.2 yards long

1 acre

60 feet wide by

726 feet long

1 acre

110 feet wide by

396 feet long

1 acre

120 feet wide by

363 feet long

1 acre

220 feet wide by

198 feet long

1 acre

240 feet wide by

181-1/2 feet long

1 acre

440 feet wide by

99 feet long

1 acre

 

SEEDS PER ACRE

It requires less seed per acre to sow in hills or rows than to show broadcast. The hill or row system permits of after cultivation, which is not possible with a broadcasted crop. In all calculations for hill and rills, it must be remembered that an acre of land contains 43,560 square feet. A square piece of land, 209 feet on a side, contains about an acre. The following figures are merely suggestive, as practice varies with locality:

Alfalfa--25 to 20 lbs broadcast.
Asparagus--4 to 5 lbs in drills; 1 oz to 50 feet in rows.
Barley--1-1/2 to 2 bushels, drilled; 2 to 2-1/2 bushels broadcast.
Beans, bush--1-1/2 bushels in drills
Beans, pole--10 to 12 qts in hills.
Beets-- 5 to 6 lbs in drills
Buckwheat--1 bushel broadcast
Cabbage--1.4 lb in seed bed; to be transplanted
Carrot--3 to 4 lbs in drill
Celery--about 1 oz for 2,000 plants; I lb per acre
Clover, red-- 8 to 10 lbs broadcast
Clover, crimson--15 lbs broadcast
Clover, white--6 lbs broadcast
Corn, field and sweet--8 to 10 qts
Corn, ensilage--12 qts in drills
Cow peas--1 bushel in drills; 1-1/2 bushel broadcast
Cucumber--2 lbs in drills
Egg plant-- 1 oz seed for 1,000 plants; 1/4 lb to the acre
Grass, lawn--2 to 4 lbs broadcast
Lettuce--1 oz of seed to 1,000 plants; 1/2 lb to the acre
Melon, musk-- 2 to 3 lbs in hills
Melon, water--4 to 5 lbs in hills
Millet--1 bushel broadcast
Oats--3 bushel broadcast
Onions--5 to 6 lbs in drills; for sets., 30 to 50 lbs in drills
Parsnips-- 4 to 6 lbs in drills
Peas--1 to 2 bushels in drills
Potatoes (cut)-- 8 to 10 bushels
Pumpkins-- 4 to 5 lbs in hills
Radishes-- 8 to 10 lbs in drills
Rye--3/4 to 1-1.2 bushels in drills
Spinach--10 to 12 lbs in drills; running sort, 3 to 4 lbs
Squash, bush--4 to 6 lbs in hills
Timothy--15 to 20 lbs broadcast; if used alone; less if sown with other grasses.
Tomatoes--1/8 lbs in seed bed; to be transplanted
Turnips, 1 to 2 lbs in drills; 2 to 3 lbs broadcast
Wheat--1-1/2 bushels, broadcast

 

SUITABLE DISTANCE FOR PLANTING TREES

Apples-Standard

25 to 35 ft apart

Each way

Apples-Dwarf (Bushes)

10 feet apart

Each way

Pears-Standard

10 to 20 feet apart

Each way

Pears-Dwarf

10 ft apart

Each way

Cherries-Standard

18 to 20 ft apart

Each way

Cherries--Dukes & Morrellos

16 to 18 ft apart

Each way

Plums--Standard

16 to 20 ft apart

Each way

Peaches

16 to 18 ft apart

Each way

Apricots

16 to 18 ft apart

Each way

Nectarines

16 to 18 ft apart

Each way

Quinces

10 to 12 ft apart

Each way

Currants

3 to 4 ft apart

Each way

Gooseberries

3 to 4 feet apart

Each way

Raspberries

3 to 5 ft apart

Each way

Blackberries

6 to 7 ft apart

Each way

Grapes

8 to 12 ft apart

Each way

 

SHINGLES REQUIRED IN A ROOF

Double the rafters and multiply by length of building. Multiply this by 9 if exposed 4 inches, by 8 if exposed 4-1/2 inch, and by 7-1/5 if exposed by 5 inches to the weather.
One thousand shingles, laid 4 inches to the weather, will cover 100 square feet of surface.
Eight hundred shingles, 5 inches to the weather, will cover 100 square feet.
One thousand shingles require 5 pounds of four-penny nails.
Five to ten percent should be allowed to these figures to cover waste and shortage.
One thousand laths will cover 70 yards of surface, and take 11 pounds of mails.
Two hundred and fifty pickets will make 100 lineal feet of fence.

NAILS REQUIRED.

For 1,000 shingles, 3-1/2 to 5 pounds 4d., or 3 to 3-1/2 pounds 3d.
For 1,000 laths, about 7 pounds 3d., fine, or 8 pounds 2d. fine.
For 1,000 feet clapboards, (siding) about 18 pounds 6d. box.
For 1,000 feet covering boards, about 20 pounds 8d. common, or 25 pounds 10d

 

NAILS COMMON

Size

3d

4d

6d

8d

10d

12d

Length

1-1/4

1-1/2

2

2-1/2

3

3-1/4

No. to Lb

500

300

165

90

62

45

Size

16d

20d

30d

40d

50d

60d

Length

3-1/4

4

4-1/2

5

5-1/4

6

No. to lb

35

24

18

13

10

8

Eighteen to twenty-five pounds of nails are required per 1,000 feet of lumber.
Grease a nail and it won't split wood.

 

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Published By Wilmer Atkinson Company, Philadelphia, 1919

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