1919 Farm Journal Illustrated Rural Directory Of
Genesee County, Michigan
Roads & Farmer's Bulletins


By Holice, Clayton, and Debbie



The construction and maintenance of earth roads is a vital topic in every rural community. The most practical and successful system is that which originated with Mr. D. Ward King, and which is now in general use all over the country.

The keynote, or basis, of Mr. King's system is a simply-made road drag, fashioned from a split log about eight feet long, with the two parts about two and one-half feet apart. Any farmer can make on of these drags for himself, at the cost of a dollar or so--or less.

Speaking of this system, the Iowa Highway commission says in a bulletin issued by the engineering department of Iowa State College:

"Water is the foe of good earth roads, and the whole object of earth road construction and maintenance is to get rid of the water and its bad effects. Three systems of drainage are needed:

"First, Tile or Sub-drainage. Wherever the soil is naturally wet from ground water, a line of four-inch tile should b e laid to a regular grade longitudinally along the uphill side of the road, under the side ditch, at a depth of three or four feet.

"Second, Side Ditches. A good, big, side ditch, built to a continuous grade as determined by a road level, so that the water will not stand in it at any point, should be provided on each side of the road. the road level should be used to make sure that the ditch is built to a grade which will not leave ponds of water in the ditches after rains.

"Third, Surface Drainage. Proper surface drainage, to shed the water promptly into the side ditches, should be provided by properly crowning the road, and by then keeping it hard and smooth with a King road drag. This drag is the cheapest instrument we have found for this purpose. The annual cost per mile of road treated with the King road drag, where all the time has been paid for by the hour, has not been found to exceed $2.50 to $3.00.

"We advise farmers to start using the drag without waiting for the road officials to take it up. They will be well repaid for their trouble by the saving of time and expense in using the roads, and the increase in value of their land, due to a good road in front of it.

"We also advise road officers to adopt the road drag, and to provide farmers with free materials to make them, and to hire the roads dragged where the farmers to not themselves undertake the work. There is no possible use of the road funds known to us which will yield such great returns for so small an outlay. In fact, the outlay will be more than saved by the lessened need for the big road grader, with its great cost of operation.

"Gravel roads, when cut up an inch or two deep in continued wet weather, should be gone over at such times with a King drag, the same as an earth road."

The correct method of using the King drag is about as follows:

Begin operations at once, and do not entirely abandon the work except when ground is solidly frozen. A few minutes' or hours' work, now and then, is better than a week's work all at once.

After each rain or wet spell drive up one wheel track and back on the other at least once, with the drag in position to throw the earth to the center. Ride on the drag. Hal at an angle, of 45 degrees. Lay boards on the dray to stand on. Gradually widen the strip dragged as the road improves. To round up the road better, plow a shallow furrow occasionally, each side of the dragged strip, and spread the loose dirt toward the center.

Thus the road gradually becomes smooth, hard, and almost impervious to water. Rains runoff the rounded roadbed, like water from a duck's back. By using the drag when the road is muddy (as advised) the earth packs and cements itself into a hard and nearly waterproof surface. And that is the idea, in a nutshell. 'Tis plain to see that if water can find no place to stand, no chuck-holes or ruts can develop.


Sent Free to Residents of the United States, by Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., on Application.

NOTE.--Some numbers omitted are no longer published. Bulletins in this list will be send free, so long as the supply lasts, to any resident of the United States, on application to his Senator, Representative, or Delegate to congress, or, to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Because of the limited supply, applicants are urged to select only a few numbers, choosing those which are of special interest to them. Residents of foreign countries should apply to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., who has these bulletins for sale. Price, 5 cents each to Canada, Cuba, and Mexico; 6 cents to other foreign countries.


22. the Feeding of Farm Animals

331. Forage Crops for Hogs in Kansas

27. Flax for Seed and Fiber

332. Nuts and their Uses as Food

28. Weeds: And How to Kill Them

333. Cotton Wilt

30. Grape Diseases on the Pacific Coast

337. New England Dairy Farms

34. Meats: Composition and Cooking

338. Macadam Roads

35. Potato Culture

339. Alfalfa

36. Cotton Seed and Its Products

341. The Basket Willow

44. Commercial Fertilizers

344. The Boll Weevil Problem

48. The Manuring of Cotton

345. Some Common Disinfectants

51. Standard Varieties of Chickens

346. The Computation of Rations

52. The Sugar Beet

347. The Repair of Farm Equipment

54. Some Common Birds

348. Bacteria in Milk

55. The Dairy Herd

349. The Dairy Industry in the South

61. Asparagus Culture

350. The Dehorning of Cattle

62. Marketing Farm Produce

351. The Tuberculin Test of Cattle

64. Ducks and Geese

354. Onion Culture

77. The Liming of Soils

355. A Successful Poultry and Dairy Farm

81. Corn Culture in the South

357. Methods of Poultry Management

85. Fish as Food

358. Primer of Forestry, Part II

86. Thirty Poisonous Plants

359. Canning Vegetables in the Home

88. Alkali Lands

361. meadow Fescue: Its Culture and Uses

91. Potato Diseases and Treatment

362. Conditions Affecting the Value of Hay

99. Insect Enemies of Shade Trees

363. The Use of Milk as Food

101. Millets

364. A Profitable Cotton Farm

104. Notes on Frost

365. Northern Potato-Growing Sections

106. Breeds of Dairy Cattle

367. Lightning and Lightning Conductors

113. The Apple and How to Grow It.

368. Bindweed or Wild Morning-Glory

118. Grape Growing in the South

369. How to Destroy Rats

121. Beans, Peas, and Other Legumes as Food

370. Replanning a Farm for Profit

126. Suggestions for Farm Buildings

371. Drainage of Irrigated Lands

127. Important Insecticides

372. Soy Beans

128. Eggs and Their Uses as Food

373. Irrigation of Alfalfa

131. Tests for Detection of Oleomargarine

375. Care of Food in the Home

134. Tree Planting in Rural School Grounds

377. Harmfulness of Headache Mixtures

137. The Angora Goat

378. Methods of Exterminating Texas-Fever Tick

138. Irrigation in Field and Garden

379. Hog Cholera

139. Emmer: a Grain for the Semi-Arid Regions

380. The Loco-Weed Disease

140. Pineapple Growing

382. The Adulteration of Forage-plant Seeds

150. Clearing New Land

383. How to Destroy English Sparrows

152. Scabies in Cattle

385. Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Clubs

154. The Home Fruit Garden

386. Potato Culture on Farms of the West

156. The Home Vineyard

387. Preservative Treatment of Timbers

157. The Propagation of Plants

389. Bread and Bread Making

158. How to Build Irrigation Ditches

390. Pheasant Raising in the United States

164. Rape as a Forage Crop

391. Economical Use of Meat in the Home

166. Cheese Making on the Farm

392. Irrigation of Sugar Beets

167. Cassava

393. Habit-forming Agents

170. Principles of Horse Feeding

394. Windmills in Irrigation

172. Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus Trees

395. Sixty-day and Kherson Oats

173. Primer of Forestry

396. The Muskrat

174. Broom Corn

398. Use of Commercial Fertilizers in the South

175. Home Manufacture of Grape Juice

399. Irrigation of Grain

176. Cranberry Culture

400. Profitable Corn-planting Method

177. Squab Raising

401. Protection of Orchards from Frosts

178. Insects Injurious in Cranberry Culture

402. Canada Bluegrass: Its Culture and Uses

179. Horseshoeing

403. Construction of Concrete Fence Posts

181. Pruning

404. Irrigation of Orchards

182. Poultry as Food

406. Soil Conservation

183. Meat on the Farm

407. The Potato as a Truck Crop

185. Beautifying the Home Grounds

408. School Exercises in Plant Production

187. Drainage of Farm Lands

409. School Lessons on Corn

188. Weeds Used in Medicine

410. Potato Culls as a Source of Alcohol

192. Barnyard Manure

411. Feeding Hogs in the South

194. Alfalfa Seed

413. The Care of Milk and Its Use

195. Annual Flowering Plants

414. Corn Cultivation

198. Strawberries

415. Seed Corn

200. Turkeys

417. Rice Culture

201. The Cream Separator on Western Farms

420. Oats: Distribution and Uses

203. Canned Fruits, Preserves and Jellies

421. Control of Blowing Soils

204. The Cultivation of Mushrooms

422. Demonstration Work in Southern Farms

205. Pig Management

423. Forest Nurseries for Schools

206. Milk Fever and Its Treatment

424. Oats: Growing the Crop

213. Raspberries

426. Canning peaches on the Farm

218. The School Garden

427. Barley Culture in the Southern States

220. Tomatoes

428. Testing Farm Seeds

221. Fungous Diseases of the Cranberry

429. Industrial Alcohol: Manufacture

224. Canadian Field Peas

431. The Peanut

228. Forest Planting and Farm Management

432. How a City Family Managed a Farm

229. Production of Good Seed Corn

433. Cabbage

231. Cucumber and Melon Diseases

434. Production of Onion Seed and Sets

232. Okra: Its Culture and Uses

436. Winter Oats for the South

234. The Guinea Fowl

437. A System of Tenant Farming

236. Incubation and Incubators

438. Hog Houses

238. Citrus Fruit Growing in the Gulf States

439. Anthrax

239. The Corrosion of Fence Wire

440. Spraying Peaches

241. Butter Making on the Farm

441. Lespedeza, or Japan Clover

242. An Example of Model Farming

442. The Treatment of Bee Diseases

243. Fungicides and Their Uses

443. Barley: Growing the Crop

245. Renovation of Worn-out Silos

444. Remedies Against Mosquitoes

246. Saccharine Sorghums

445. Marketing Eggs Through the Creamery

248. The Lawn

446. The Choice of Crops for Alkali Land

249. Cereal Breakfast Foods

447. Bees

250. Wheat Smut and Loose Smut of Oats

448. Better Grain-Sorghum Crops

252. Maple Sugar and Syrup

449. Rabies or Hydrophobia

253. The Germination of Seed Corn

450. Some Facts About Malaria

254. Cucumbers

452. Capons and Caponizing

255. The Home Vegetable Garden

453. Danger of Spread of Gypsy and Brown-Tail Moths

256. Preparation of Vegetables for the Table

454. A successful New York Farm

257. Soil Fertility

455. Red Clover

260. Seed of Red Clover and Its Impurities

456. Our Grosbeaks and Their Value

263. Information for Beginners in Irrigation

458. The Best Two Sweet Sorghums

264. The Brown-Tail Moth

459. House Flies

266. Management of Soils to Conserve Moisture

460. Frames as a Factor in Truck Growing

269. Industrial Alcohol: Uses and Statistics

461. The Use of Concrete on the Farm

270. Modern Conveniences for the Farm Home

462. The Utilization of Logged-Off Lands

271. Forage Crop Practices in the Northwest

463. The Sanitary Privy

272. A Successful Hay and Seed Corn Farm

464. The Eradication of Quack-Grass

274. Flax Culture

466. Winter Emmer

275. The Gypsy Moth

467. Chestnut Bark Disease

277. Alcohol and Gasoline in Farm Engines

468. Forestry in Nature Study

278. Legumes as Crops for Green Manure

470. Game Laws

280. A Profitable Tenant Dairy Farm

471. Grape Propagation, Pruning, Training

282, Celery

472. Farming in Central New Jersey

284. Enemies of the Grape East of the Rockies

474. Paint on the Farm

286. Cotton Seed and Cotton-Seed Meal

475. Ice Houses

287. Poultry Management

476. Dying Pine in Southern States

288. Non-Saccharine Sorghums

477. Sorghum Sirup Manufacture

289. Beans

478. Typhoid Fever

291. Evaporation of Apples

480. Disinfecting Stables

292. Cost of Filling Silos

481. Concrete on the Live-stock Farm

293. Use of Fruit as Food

482. How to Grow Pears

295. Potatoes and Other Root Crops as Food

483. Thornless Prickly Pears

298. Food Value of Corn and Corn Products

484. Spotted Fever

299. Diversified Farming

485. Sweet Clover

301. Home-Grown Tea

487. Cheese in the Diet

302. Sea Island Cotton

488. Diseases of Cabbage, Etc.

303. Corn Harvesting Machinery

489. Two Important Plant Diseases

304. Growing and Curing Hops

490. Bacteria In Milk

306. Dodder in relation to Farm Seeds

492. Fungous Enemies of the Apple

307. Roselle: Its Culture and Uses

493. English Sparrow Pests

310. A Successful Alabama Diversification Farm

494. Lawn Soils and Lawns

311. Sand-Clay and Burnt-Clay Roads

495. Alfalfa Seed Production

312. A successful Southern Hay Farm

496. Raising hares and Rabbits

313. Harvesting and Storing Corn

498. Texas-Fever Tick

318. Cowpeas

500. Control of the Boll Weevil

321. The use of the Split-Log Drag on Roads

501. Cotton Improvement

322. Milo as a Dry-Land Grain Crop

502. Timothy in the Northwest

324. Sweet Potatoes

503. Comb Honey

325. Small Farms in the Corn Belt


326. Building up a Cotton Plantation


328. Silver Fox Farming


330. Deer Farming in the United States




Published By Wilmer Atkinson Company, Philadelphia, 1919

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