1919 Farm Journal Illustrated Rural Directory Of
Genesee County, Michigan
Diseases of Sheep


By Holice, Clayton, and Debbie



If sheep are given proper care and feed, and are not exposed to sudden changes, the liability of disease is materially reduced. For the average sheep that becomes sick, and you do not know how to doctor, the best way is to let nature take its course. Unless the symptoms are very evident and the remedies well known, doctoring sheep is expensive and often unsatisfactory.

In handling and treating sick animals, use common sense. Do not try to make them eat, but let them be quiet. Do not begin to pour medicine down them the first time you see there is something wrong, but look to the cause and remove it, if it is in the feed or care. If the animal does not then return to feed, study closely the symptoms, and give such treatment as the latter seem to warrant. The common ailments of sheep are comparatively few, but severe cases of many of them are very fatal.

In giving medicine to sheep, the easiest way to hold sheep is to set it on its rump, placing the sheep between your legs, and holding the head by placing the first two fingers of the left hand in the roof of the animal's mouth, thus leaving the right hand to hold the spoon or bottle. Except where the medicine is given clear, in one or two tablespoonfuls, the best method is to have a long, small-necked bottle in which to put the medicine, and put in the mouth, taking care to have the opening well to the back of the mouth so that the sheep can not hold the tongue over the opening. Give large doses with great care, pouring slowly to avoid choking. Be careful not to choke by pouring into the windpipe. In giving castor oil with a spoon, dip the spoon in water just before using.


Choking.--Generally caused by too fast eating of oats or roots, which lodge in the gullet. Set the animal on its rump, stretch the neck and throw the head back, and pour a cupful of water down the throat. In more severe cases, use three or four tablespoonfuls of melted lard. If neither of these furnish relief, take a piece of small rubber hose, or a very small pliable and smooth stick, push it carefully down the gullet, and dislodge the obstacle. Keep close to the lower side of the neck, so as not to disturb the windpipe.

In passing hose to relieve choke, keep neck perfectly straight. Have animal held firmly by good assistants. Use great care to avoid wounding throat.

BLOATING.--Caused by overeating of soft, green feed, such as young clover, alfalfa, rape, and the like. For slight cases, put all the pine tar possible on the nose and mouth; also fasten a small stick in the mouth, like a bridle bit, to keep it open to allow the gas to escape. In more sever cases, give two teaspoonfuls of bicarbonate of soda, dissolved in warm water. If relief does not follow, repeat in about ten minutes. Holding salt pork in the mouth will often relieve. In all of these cases, keep the animal in motion, so as to facilitate the escape of gas. If none of these remedies act and the animal becomes worse, tapping by making a small insertion with a sharp knife, at a point on the left side equidistant from the end of the last short rib and the backbone, on the paunch., Better than a knife is a trocar with shield. This is a sharp blade in a tube, and when the puncture is made the shield is left in the opening allowing gas to escape. This shield should be removed as soon as the animal is out of danger. Sheep trocar and canula can be secured from any veterinary instrument maker.

FOUNDERING.--Generally caused by overeating; for instance, securing access to grain bin accidentally, or being kept from feed twenty-four hours or longer, then allowed to eat as much as they please. As soon as found, give one-half teacupful of castor oil and keep well exercised. If bloating sets in, relieve by ordinary methods. Foundering is very dangerous, and death often results, in spite of any remedy.

CONSTIPATION.--In lambs, often occurs when one is seven years old. Relieve by an injection, with a small syringe, of lukewarm soapsuds into the rectum. Another good injection is glycerine one ounce to warm water one pint. In older sheep, sometimes due to heavy feeding, especially of corn or dry feed without any laxative foods; also due to lack of exercise. Two to four tablespoonfuls of castor oil will relieve; if no passage of bowels in twenty-four hours, repeat and increase the dose by one-half.

SCOURING.--Induced by a sudden change from dry to green feed; by overeating of green feed, such as rape. Clover, alfalfa, and the like; also of grain. In mild cases, a change to dry feed will cause scouring to s top ina a day or two without the use of any drug. In very severe cases, there the sheep refuses to eat, and passage of dung is slimy and attending with straining, give two tablespoonfuls of castor oil to carry off the cause of the irritation; if this does not check the passage give a tablespoonful of castor oil with thirty drops of laudanum, twice daily, in a little gruel. When checked, continue to give flaxseed gruel, until the sheep returns to its regular ration.

SNUFFLES.--similar to a cold in persons; catarrh; discharge at the nose. Put fresh pine tar in the mouth and on the nose. In severe cases steam the sheep with tar, by putting some live coals in a pan, pouring tar on them, and holding his head over the pan, placing a blanket over his head to keep the fumes from escaping, and forcing the sheep to inhale them.

URINARY TROUBLES.--Rams are sometimes troubled to make water; generally due to heavy feeding and close confinement; it is also claimed that heavy feeding of roots will cause this trouble. Rams stand apart from the flock, do not eat, draw up their hind parts, and strain in an attempt to make water. To relieve, give on-half teaspoonful sweet spirits of niter, ina little water, every two hours until relieved.

WORMS.--the deadly stomach worm (strongylus contortus) is the worst foe of the eastern sheep grower. It is a small worm about three-quarters of an inch long, found in the fourth stomach. They are taken ina by lambs running on old pasture, especially blue-grass, and are induced by wet weather and wet soil; are generally noticeable during July and August. Symptoms: lambs lag behind when driving the flock, look thin and poor, ack weak, skin is very pale and bloodless; eyes pale, sunken and lifeless; sometimes scouring occurs a day or so before death; death usually in four to ten days. Preventives: keep the lambs from old pastures; a fresh cut or newly seeded clover meadow makes the best pasture; rape is also good. Feed them some grain and dry feed, and keep some of the following mixture in the salt box all the time, viz.: one bushel sale, one pound gentian, one pound powered copperas, one pint turpentine, mixed thoroughly. Some of the prepared medicated salts are just as cheap and effective as this mixture. Tobacco dust and tobacco leaves fed with the salt are also much used in some sections and prove very effective as a preventive. Cure: If not too bad when noticed, they can often be cured, but they are seldom as growthy as if not affected. Shut the lambs from all feed for twelve to eighteen hours; catch the lamb, set him on his rump, holding so that he can not struggle and give a drench of gasoline, one tablespoonful in four ounces (one-third to one half teacupful) of milk; repeat the two succeeding mornings, and if no improvement, repeat the series in seven to ten days. Follow directions carefully.

Diseases External

MAGGOTS.--Caused by green flies, induced by hot, damp weather, and dirty wool; found on the hind part of sheep, and on rams around the horns, where wool is damp and dirty. Also around castration and docking wounds, which require watching for this trouble. Trim off the wool on place affected, and throw off the maggots; put on gasoline to kill the maggots. Air-clacked line will dry up the wet wool, and drive the maggots and flies away. Turpentine and kerosene are also used, but both take off the wool, if used in considerable amounts. Apply the above remedies for maggots with brush or small oil can.

FOULS, OR SORE FEET.--Sheep are often lame, especially when the ground is wet; earth or manure lodges between the toes, continual rubbing induces soreness, the foot begins to suppurate, and your sheep is lane; the foot looks sore between the toes and is warm. Pare away all shell of hoof around the sore part, being sure to expose to the air all affected parts; after thoroughly paring, put on with a small swab a solution of blue vitriol and strong vinegar, mixed to the consistency of a thin paste. Keep sheep with fouls away from wet pastures or stagnant water, and keep feet dry and clean as possible. If lame sheep are not doctored, the fouls soon spread to all parts of the foot, and foot-rot results. This becomes contagious, and all sheep remaining where are those with foot-rot will be come lame. There is no need of foot-rot is the shepherd takes care of his sheep. Treat this the same as the fouls, being sure to pare away all shell and exposing the diseased parts. For a stronger solution than blue vitriol, butyr of antimony, and muriatic acid, equal parts by weight. Paring is the principal thing; be careful not to cut the toe vein. Another excellent remedy for foul feet is one ounce chloride of zinc to one pint of water. Apply enough to wet foul parts once daily after cleaning foot with dry cloth.

TICKS.--Ticks to sheep are as lice to hens; they take the life and blood from the sheep. To kill them, dip your sheep in some proprietory dip, carbolic preferred, being careful to follow directions.

SCAB.-- Is a strictly contagious disease of the skin, caused by a small mite which bites the skin. It generally appears on the back, rump, or sides of the sheep, and is first indicated by rubbing and pulling of the wool. The disease is very contagious, common to large flocks and bands, especially on the western range. Cure: use some good proprietary dip, follow directions to the letter, dip your sheep thoroughly twice, the second dipping from six to ten days after the first, not sooner nor later then these limits. Disinfect all pens thoroughly and keep sheep from the old pastures at lest two months. Scab is not very common to eastern sheep owners. Inspect all new animals at once for scab, as it is often introduced by purchasing stock ewes or rams.

SORE EYES.--Caused by too much wool over the eyes, and the eyelid rolling into the eye; also by getting something into the eye. Shear the wool away from the eye, and tie the cap of wool up off from the eyes, if necessary; if there is a film over the eye, better apply a few drops of a solution of ten grains of boric acid to the ounce of water, put ina pinch of powered burnt alum.

SORE TEATS.--the teats on ewes with lambs sometimes become sore and tender, so that the lambs can not suck. Rub twice a day with salted butter.

CAKED UDDER.--sometimes caused by weaning and not milking after the lab is taken away. Generally occurs in heavy milkers; also occurs when lamb is still sucking, in one side of the bag at first. It is accompanied by stiffness in the hind quarters, the bag is hard, and in the first stages a thin, watery-like fluid can be drawn from the teat. Rub well and carefully using camphorated sweet oil; the principal thing is the rubbing; try to soften the bag and keep the teat open. Many times the ewe will loss the use of that side of her bag entirely. If she does, send her to market. Where gait is stiff and udder caked, give the ewe one dram salicylate of soda three times daily for three or four days.

CASTING WITHERS.--Thrusting out o the womb. It should be washed ina pint of warm water, in which has been dissolved a teaspoonful of powdered alum, and the womb replaced, and a stitch taken in the upper part of the opening of the vagina. The best way to cure such ewes is to market them or kill at once if they continue to give trouble in this respect. After replacing the womb, keep hind parts of animal quite high by standing in narrow stall made for the purpose, with floor made high behind.

GOITER.--Lumps in the throat. Common to lambs when born; also in young sheep during the first winter. Some think the latter is caused by high feeding. Apply tincture of iodine with a swab, rubbing on enough to color well the affected portion. Two or three applications, two to four days apart, should remove the worst vase of goiter.

CASTRATING.--Hold as for docking. Cut off a good sixed portion of the end of the sac with a sharp knife, push back the sack from the testicles, grasp the latter singly, with right hand, and grasp narrow or upper portion of sac firmly with left hand, and draw out until the cord breaks. Do not cut the cord, break it. when docking and castrating at the same time, castrate first, then dock, and release the lamb. The whole operation should not take over one or two minutes.


The carpet beetle (often called the "Buffalo Moth") has proved to be a very annoying and destructive pest throughout the northern part of the United States. It was imported into this country from Europe, about the year 1874, and has spread from the East to the West.

All the year, but more often in summer, and fall, an active brown larva about a quarter of an inch in length feeds upon carpets and woolen goods. This larva is decorated with stiff brown hairs, which are longer around the sides and still longer at the ends than on the back. It works in a hidden manner from the under surface of a carpet; sometimes making irregular holes, but more frequently following the line of a floor crack and thus cutting long slits in the carpet.

The adult insect is a minute, broad-oval beetle, about three-sixteenth of an inch long, back in color, but is covered with exceedingly minute scales, which give it a marbled black-and-white appearance. It also has a red stripe down the middle of the back, widening into projections at three intervals. When disturbed it 'plays 'possum," folding up its legs and antennae and feigning death.

Prof. J. B. Smith says: "The Buffalo Moth lives, during the winter, under scales of bark, in crevices, and wherever else it can find shelter. It is the beetle that lives over, of course, and in the spring it congregates sometimes in great numbers on blossoms, favoring those in gardens, and from them it finds a way into houses nearby. I do not thing that I have ever found larvae in houses under ordinary circumstances in winter; but I am quite ready to believe that in places kept uniformly warm at all times, breeding may go on in winter as well as in summer."

We believe that only where carpets are extensively used are the conditions favorable for the great increase of the insect. Carpets when once, put down are seldom taken up for a year, and in the meantime, the insect develop uninterruptedly. When polished floors and rugs are used, the pest ceases to be a serious one.

The beetles are day-fliers, and when not engaged in egg-laying are attracted to the light. They fly to the windows, and may often be found upon the sills or panes. Where they can fly out through an open window they do so, and are strongly attracted to the flowers, of certain plants, particularly the spiraea.

Remedies: there is no easy way to keep the carpet beetle in check. When it has once taken possession of a house nothing but the most through and long-continued measures will eradicate it. the practice of annual carpet-cleaning, so often carelessly and hurriedly performed, is, as we have shown above, peculiarly favorable to the development of the insect. Two carpet-cleanings would be better than one, and if but one, it would be better to undertake it in mid-summer than at any other time of the year.

Where convenience or conservatism demands, an adherence to the old house-cleaning custom, however, insist upon extreme thoroughness and a slight variation in the customary methods. The rooms should be attended to one or two at a time. The carpets should be taken up, thoroughly beaten, and sprayed out-of-doors with benzine, and allowed to air for several hours. The rooms themselves shield be thoroughly swept and dusted, the floors washed down with hot water, the cracks carefully cleaned out, and gasoline or benzine poured into the cracks and sprayed under the baseboards. The extreme inflammability of gasoline, of its vapor when confined, should be remembered and fire carefully guarded against.

Where the floors are poorly constructed and the cracks are wide, it will be a good idea to fill the cracks with plaster of Paris in a liquid state; this will afterwards set and lessen the number o f harboring placed for the insect. Before relaying the carpet, tarred roofing paper should be paid upon the floor, at least around the edges, but preferably over the entire surface; and when the carpet is relaid it will be well to take it down rather lightly, so that it can be occasionally lifted at the edges and examined for the presence of the insect. Later in the season, if such an examination shows the insect to have made its appearance, a good though somewhat laborious remedy consists inlaying a damp cloth smoothly over the suspected spot of the carpet and ironing it with a hot iron. The steam thus generated will pass through the carpet and kill the insects immediately beneath it.


Grain infected with weevils loses in weight, is undesirable for seed, and is unfit for human consumption. Nor is such grain good feed for livestock. Millions of dollars are lost each year, simply because many farmers do not understand how to deal with the weevils.

The mature Granary Weevil is only about one-sixth of an inch in length, and the color is a shining, chestnut brown. This species is unable to fly; but it doesn’t worry on that account. No, indeed! For it easily makes up, in grain-puncturing and egg-laying power, all that it lacks in wing power.

The female Granary Weevil attacks all kinds of grain, but prefers that which is husked. After puncturing the grain she inserts an egg; this hatches into a larva that devours the mealy interior. This egg-laying process is continued for an extended period, and ina single season one pair of weevils will, it is estimated, produce 6,000 descendants.

The Angoumois Grain Moth came to this country from France, nearly two hundred years ago. The color is light grayish brown, lined and spotted with black. This insect is very apt to deposit its eggs in unthreshed grain in stack or mow. Where the moths appear in force it is wise to thresh the grain quickly and hurry it to the mill, rather than attempt to store it.

Now for general remedies. Careful attention to the following preventive measures may bring partial relief:

First: Never store fresh grain in bins or granaries (or even under the same roof) where ther eis, or has been, weeviled grain. Before using such storage places remove all old grain and thoroughly scrub, clean and fumigate the bins, using bisulphide of carbon.

Second: Remember that damp, warm bins foster the rapid increase of insect life. Endeavor to have the granary cool and dry.

Third: Build the granary as nearly vermin-proof as possible. Cover windows with fine wire gauze. See that doors, floors, walls, and ceilings are tight.

As regards aggressive remedies, there is one which is a grand success--carbon bisulphide. This is a colorless liquid which rapidly vaporizes into a heavy gas which works downward. Rightly applied to infested grain or seed, the cost is slight, and no injury results to edible or germinative qualities.

How to use bisulphide: See that the grain receptacle can be tightly closed. Figure out the cubical contents of the receptacle or bin, and apply the bidulphide at the rate of about one pound for each 1,000 cubic feet of interior space. Place the liquid on top of the grain in shallow pans; about a teacup in each. Then quickly close the bin for twenty-four hours.

Cautions: the vapor is highly inflammable and poisonous. Do not breathe it, nor allow any light near. Thoroughly air the bin or building after fumigation.


This pest is the larva or caterpillar of a white butterfly which appears in the season and which can be seen flying about cabbage fields until late in the fall.

Remedies: the main secret of success is regular, persistent treatment nearly every week. One treatment alone does little good, owing to the fact that new egg supplies are being placed on the cabbages by the butterflies all summer. There are many remedies, and below we give some of the safest and best known:

Pyrethrum (also called California buhach and Persian insect powder). This may be diluted with five or six times its bulk of flour, and dusted on the plants in the evening or early morning when wet with dew: or it may be mixed with water--one ounce to four gallons--and sprayed on at any time.

Hot water: Water at a temperature of 130 degrees will kill every worm it touches without injuring the plants.

Kerosene emulsion: An excellent remedy while the plants are young, but may give the heads a bad taste if used too late in the season.

Air-slaked lime: Some growers say that this (or, in fact, fine dry road dust, or any powdery substance) will kill every worm it covers.

Hand-picking: In small gardens, the worms can easily be controlled by picking them off and killing them at regular intervals.

Preventive measures: The practice of leaving cabbage stalks in the field after the main crop is off is a reprehensible one. All remnants should be gather and destroyed, with the exception of a few left at regular intervals through a field as lures for the females to deposit their eggs. Such stalks, being useless, should be burned later on.

(From Biggle Cow Book)

Let sick or maimed animals lie still. Do not torture them by trying to get them up. Rub their limbs every day and keep a soft bed under them. They will get up when they are able.

If a cow look poor and weak, put a blanket on her, keep her ina warm place, and feed her some corn meal and middlings, and some oats. Give her warm drink, and stir a little flour in it. Do not let her run clear down. Look ahead.

If cows are accidentally left out ina rain and seem cold, put them in the stable as soon as possible and rub them well. If the shiver, put blankets in them until they are dry. If there is inflammation or hardness in the udder, bathe it thoroughly for at lest half an house, and rub gently until thoroughly dry.

If this does not affect a cure put a warm flaxseed poultice on the udder, which can be held in place by means of an eight-tailed bandage. This should be changed twice a day until the hardness and soreness are gone. Of course, the cow should be milked out two or three times each day.

If a cow get a foreign body in the mouth turn her head towards the light and remove it.

When chaff or other dirt get into the eye syringe or sponge the eye frequently with clean cold water containing sulphate of zinc one grain to each ounce of water. Keep table darkened.

FOR CHOKING, examine throat and neck; if offending object is felt, attempt to force upward into the mouth by pressure of hands below the object. Give one pint linseed oil or melted lard. May sometimes reach with hand by holding tongue aside. Do not puck a stiff stick or fork handle down the throat; a piece of rubber hose, well greased, is less likely to ruin the cow.

If a cow has BLOAT OR HOVEN there will be a drum-like swelling on left side in front of hip, caused by green food, wet or frosted clover, overfeeding, choking. Give one-half teacupful table salt in water, as drench. Exercise. If not relieved give aromatic spirits of ammonia, two ounces, well-diluted, every hour.

Where there is great danger of suffocation a puncture of the paunch may be made with a knife at a point, equally distant from the point of hip and last rib, on the left side of cow.

IMPACTION OF PAUNCH is caused by overeating, and the symptoms are failing appetite, solid or doughy swelling on front of left hip. Give one to two pounds Glauber salts dissolved in water; follow every three hours by drench of mixture of equal parts common salt, nux vomica powered and capsicum. Dose, one teaspoon.

In COLIC the symptoms are uneasiness, striking belly with hind legs, lying down and getting up. Cause, change of diet, rapid feeding. Give Glauber salts, one pound in water; warm water enemas. Give every hour one ounce each of laudanum and sulphuric ether, diluted.

CONSTIPATION caused by dry, coarser food and lack of exercise, is treated with green food, linseed meal and exercise; give pint of raw linseed oil. DIARRHEA is treated with starch gruel or flour and water and dry food.

SCOURS in calves is caused by over-feeding, bad food or drink, damp stables, dirty surroundings. Remove cause and withhold good, the best remedy. Give once daily twenty grains potassium permanganate in tincup of water; also use same for enema.

Cows are subject to FOUNDER, showing sudden tenderness in two or more feet; feet hot and may crack around top of hoof. This comes from overfeeding. Give Glauber salts one pound, twenty drops tincture aconite every two hours. Keep feet moist by wet pasture or wet cloths.

GARGET OR SWOLLEN UDDER, due to cold, injuries, overfeeding, or heating food. Bathe frequently with warm water; dry, and apply warm lard. Milk often. Give internally two-drachm doses salicylate acid and one drachm soda bicarbonate in one pint of milk four times daily.

DISCHARGE OF MUCUS from nostrils indicates catarrh from exposure, dust, or pollen of plants. Allow animal to breathe steam from water containing pine tar.

In SORE THROAT there is difficulty in swallowing, food returns through nostrils. Steam as in catarrh, give tincture of belladonna one-half ounce every six hours. Rub throat with equal parts turpentine and sweet oil.

In BRONCHITIS there is dry cough first, then loose, and discharge from nostrils; rattling sound in windpipe. Steam as in sore throat, and give tincture aconite twenty drops every two hours and two drachms muriate ammonia in one pint of water three times daily. For bronchitis in young stock due to worms in windpipe, which sometimes occur in autumn where they are pastured late, give one ounce turpentine and six ounces sweet oil well mixed three times a week. Take from pasture and feed liberally.

In PNEUMONIA, there is loss of appetite, animal standing, rapid breathing, pulse frequent, extremities cold. Cause, exposure or neglected bronchitis. Place ina warm, dry, well-ventilated stable, apply to chest equal parts turpentine and alcohol and cover with blanket. In beginning give tincture aconite, twenty drops every hour. If not better in two days discontinue aconite and give one ounce tr. Digitalis every eight hours.

In PLUERISY there is is fever with rapid pulse, animal stands, grunts on moving or when check is struck, has a short painful cough. Treat same as for pneumonia; give also one drachm iodide of potash twice daily.

SORE TEATS are caused by scratched from briers, bites of insects, dirt exposure, also from the contagion of cow pox at milking. Remove cause and use milk tube is necessary; apply to sores after milking, small quantity of mixture glycerine four ounces and carbolic acid one drachm. In cow pox milk affected cow last and apply to sores mixture glycerine four ounces, water eight ounces, chloride of zinc twenty ounces.

WARTS on teats or other parts are generally easily removed by sharp scissors; dress wound as advised for sore teats.

MANGE causes great itching and generally starts at root of tail or top of neck; cause, a minute parasite. Wash with soap and water and dry, after which apply lard which destroys the parasite.

For LICE AND TICKS apply daily a tea made by adding one pound quassia chips to three gallons of boiling water. Ordinary sheep dip is also effective. Carbolic acid is one of the most effective agents against parasites. It should have a dilution of about one hundred times its bulk of water. Kerosene emulsion is good for lice on cattle, killing both adults and eggs. To make, dissolve one-half pound had soap in one gallon hot water and while still near the boiling point, add two gallons kerosene oil. Churn or agitate until emulsified. Use one part of this emulsion to eight or ten parts of water and use as a spray, wash or dip.

In RINGWORM there are circular spots of baldness covered by gray or white crust; caused also by a parasite. Wash with strong soap and water and apply pure creolin once daily for a week.

FOUL CLAW OR HOOF DISTEMPER causes lameness in one or more feet, swelling and heat around top of hoof, and bad smelling discharge around edge of hoof and between the claws. Cause, dirty stables, standing in stagnant water or mud. Trim of all loose horn, clean by wiping with dry rags, wet sores twice daily with mixture chloride of zinc one ounce, water one pint.

OVERGROWTH of HOOF from standing in stable should be filed off with rasp.

SPRAINS (generally below knee or hock), causing heat and lameness with tenderness at point of injury, should be bathed with warm water or with laudanum three parts, lead water one part.

WOUNDS, if bleeding much, fill or cover the wound with clean cotton dipped in cold or quite warm water, and secure firmly with bandage; examine for foreign bodies, as splinters, nails, and dirt. Do not fill wound with cobwebs to stop bleeding. Remove the bandage, before swelling takes place; one application of bandage usually enough. Keep animal quiet first day, then allow exercise. Keep wound clear and apply carbolic acid water 5 per cent or creolin and water 1 to 10. Do not apply grease to wounds., if proud flesh forms apply daily enough powdered burnt alum to cover.

For an ABSCESS or cavity containing pus caused by bruises, etc., open freely and syringe with 10 per cent creolin solution.

LOCKJAW, a constant muscular spasm involving more or less the entire body, is caused by the entrance of tetanus germs through a wound. There is stiffness of whole or part of body, more frequently the jaws, making eating difficult or impossible. If animal can drink give one-half ounce doses bromide potash five times daily; dissolve and place on food or gruel or in water give to drink. Do not drench, and keep quiet.

INVERSION OF VAGINA, most frequent in springers, caused most frequently by stalls too now behind. Treat displaced parts with warm water and replace them. Place cow in stall eight inches higher behind than in front until after calving.

INVERSION OF WOMB occurs after calving, same cause as above and treatment the same; get womb placed well forward.

STERILITY in bull is sometimes caused by high feeding and lack of exercise. Give nux vomica one drachm and capsicum one-half drachm once daily. In cow may be temporary, following abortion; if from other cause, seldom recover. Try same remedy as for bull.

ABORTION is a frequent and troublesome malady, occurring generally at about seventh or eighth month. Cause may be due to injuries or to contagion. Separate at once when suspected; after calf is born syringe the womb with one gallon of warm water containing one ounce creolin. Repeat daily as long as any discharge is seen. Afterbirth should be removed about third day after calving. Disinfect stable thoroughly. Do not let cow take bull for at least two months after calving.

RETAINED AFTERBIRTH is generally due to premature birth; should be removed on third or fourth day. Blanketing, warm stable, warm drinks may help. If necessary to remove by hand, should only be attempted by qualified person, otherwise it is advisable to allow it to remain.

INFLAMMATION OF THE WOMB is indicated by fever, loss of appetite, straining. Caused by injuries in calving or to attempts at removal of afterbirth, and is generally fatal. Give two drachms salicylate of soda every four hours and syringe womb with warm water an two ounces creolin to the gallon.

MILK FEVER OR PARTURIENT APOPLEXY is usually treated by inflation of the udder with air. Doubtless a regular "milk fever outfit," costing about $3 is best to use, as it precludes the possibility of infecting the sensitive interior of the udder. But in emergency, or in case the outfit is not procurable, the udder may be inflated by using a bicycle or automobile pump taking pains to be sure the air used is pure. If in a stable, ventilate it well.

Attach a milking tube to the tubing of the pump, first dipping it in a carbolic solution (carbolic acid three teaspoons, water one pint). Wash each teat carefully with this antiseptic, before inflating it, so as to prevent infection. Insert the milking tube carefully. Work slowly.

Of course the udder must not be inflated unreasonably. After inflation, remove the tube and leave the udder full of air for five to eight hours. Then the air may be worked out gently, and, if necessary, the inflation maybe repeated.

Cows so treated usually show marked signs of improvement with two hours.

ACTINOMYCOSIS (LUMP JAW) is a contagious disease due to a germ known as "Ray Fungus." There are well-defined swellings about the jaw, head and throat. Or may be on the tongue, or in the lungs. These soften and open after a time and discharge matter; appetite good until well advanced. The treatment is, remove by surgical means; late experiments indicate iodide of potash two to three drachms daily to be a cure. Advanced cases should be killed at once. The meat should never to used for food.

MILK SICKNESS (TREMBLES) is a disease of cattle communicable to man and other animals by use of meat or milk; dry cattle most commonly and far more severely affected. Milch cows may transmit this disease through the use of their milk and yet show no trace of the disease themselves. The symptoms are trembling upon least exertion, as walking, great prostration and delirium. Treatment is only prevention; do not use pasture known to produce this disease; unbroken land of certain district unsafe.

RHEUMATISM is shown by hot, painful swelling at the joints, generally the hocks, stiffness in walking or may be unable to rise. Bathe joints with camphor and alcohol and give internally two drachms salicylate of soda every three hours until four ounces have been given; keep warm and dry and give laxative food.

TEXAS FEVER, a disease of Southern cattle which, when transmitted to Northern cattle, is generally fatal in a few days. The spread of the disease is generally due to ticks; those from diseased animals contain the germs of the disease and by their bites transmit it. The indications are a high fever, staggering gait, urine of reddish brown to black, great prostration, unconsciousness, death. Most common in summer months; unknown in the north after heavy frost. Prevention, avoidance of cattle from Southern fever districts; dipping of Southern cattle to destroy the ticks.



Published By Wilmer Atkinson Company, Philadelphia, 1919

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