1919 Farm Journal Illustrated Rural Directory Of
Genesee County, Michigan
Spraying & Storing

 

By Holice, Clayton, and Debbie

 

SPRAYING CALENDAR

Plant

1st Application

2nd Application

3rd Application

4th Application

Remarks

APPLE - (Scab, rot, rust, codling moth, bud moth, tent caterpillar, canker worm, curculio, etc.

When buds are swelling, but before they open, Bordeaux

If canker worms are abundant, just before blossoms open, Bordeaux-arsenate mixture

When blossoms have fallen. Bordeaux-arsenate mixture

8-12 days later. Bordeaux-arsenate mixture.

For aphis (lice) use one of the lice remedies mentioned elsewhere. Dig ut borers from tree trunks with knife and wire. For oyster-shell scale, use whale-oil soap spray in June.

ASPARAGUS (Rust, beetles)

Cut off all shoots below surface regularly until about July 1st.

After cutting ceases, let the shoots grow and spray them with Bordeaux-arsenate mixture

2-3 weeks later, Bordeaux-arsenate mixture

Repeat in 2-3 weeks.

Mow vines close to ground when they are killed by frost, burn them, and apply a mulch of stable manure.

BEAN - (Anthracnose, leaf blight, weevil, etc.)

Treat the seed before planting with bisuphide of carbon. (See remarks.) When third lead expands--Bordeaux.

10 days later. Bordeaux.

14 days later, Bordeaux

14 days later, Bordeaux.

For weevils: Put seed in tight box, put a cloth over seed, pour bisulpide of carbon on it, put lid on and keep closed for 48 hours. Use 1 oz. to 4 bushels of seed.

CABBAGE - (Worms, lice, maggots, etc.)

Pyrethrum or insect powder.

7-10 days later, repeat.

7-10 days later, repeat.

Repeat every 10-14 days until crop is gathered.

Root maggots; Pour carbolic acid emulsion around stem of plants. Club root: Rotate crops-apply lime to soil; burn refuse; treat seed with formalin before planting.

CELERY - (Blight, rot, leaf spot, rust, caterpillars.)

Half strength Bordeaux on young plants in hotbed or seedbed.

Bordeaux, after plants are transplanted to field. (Pyrethrum for caterpillars if necessary.)

14 days later, repeat.

14 days later, repeat.

Rot or rust is often caused by hilling up with earth in hot weather. Use boards for summer crop. Pithy stalks are due to poor seed; or lack of moisture.

CHERRY - (Rot, aphis, slug, curculio, black knot, leaf blight, or spot, etc.)

As buds are breaking, Bordeaux; when aphis appear, tobacco solution or kerosene emulsion.

When blossoms drop, Bordeaux-arsenate mixture.

10-14 days, Bordeaux.

Hellebore, if a second brood of slugs appear.

Black know: Dark fungous-looking bunches or knots on limbs. Cut off and burn whenever seen.

CURRANT - GOOSEBERRY - (Worms, leaf blight).

At first appearance of worms, hellebore.

10 days later, hellebore. Bordeaux if leaf blight is feared.

10-14 days. Repeat, if necessary.

2 to 4 weeks later, repeat.

Cane-borers may be kept in check by cutting out and burning infested canes.

GRAPE - (Fungous diseases, Rose bugs, lice, flea, beetle, leaf hopper, etc.)

In spring, when buds swell, Bordeaux.

Just before flowers unfold, Bordeaux-arsenate mixture.

When fruit has set, Bordeaux, arsenate mixture.

2 to 4 weeks later, Bordeaux.

For lice, use any of the live remedies. For Rose bugs, use 10 pounds of arsenate of lead and one gallon of molasses in 50 gallons o water, as a spray. Or knock the bugs into pans of kerosene every day.

MELONS &  CUCUMBERS - 
(Mildew, rot, blight, striped bugs, live, flea beetle, etc.)

Bordeaux, when vines begin to run.

10-14 days repeat. (Note: Always use half strength Bordeaux on watermelon vines.)

10-14 days, repeat.

10-14 days, repeat.

Use lice remedies for lice. For striped bugs, protect young plants with a cover of mosquito netting over each hill. Or keep vines well dusted with a mixture of air-slaked lime, tobacco dust and a little Paris green.

PEACH - (Rot, mildew, leaf curl, curculio, etc.)

As the buds swell, Bordeaux.

When fruit has set, repeat. Jar fruits for curculio.

When fruit is one-half grown. Bordeaux.

Note: It is safer always to use half-strength Bordeaux.

Dig out borers. Cut down and burn trees affected with "yellows."

PEAR AND QUINCE - (Leaf blight, scab, psylia, codling moth, blister mite, slugs, etc.)

AS buds are swelling, Bordeaux.

Just before blossoms open, Bordeaux./ Kerosene emulsions when leaves open for psylia, if needed.

After blossoms have fallen. Bordeaux-arsenical mixture

8-12 days later, repeat.

Look out for "fire blight." Cut out and burn blighted branches whenever seen.

PLUM - (Curculio, black knot, leaf blight, brown rot, etc.)

When buds are swelling, Bordeaux.

When blossoms have fallen, Bordeaux-arsenical mixture. Begin to jar trees for curculio.

10-14 days later, repeat.

10-20 days later, repeat.

Cut out black know whenever seen.

POTATO - (Flea beetle, Colorado beetle, blight rot, etc.)

Spray with Paris green and Bordeaux when about 4 in. high.

Repeat before insects become numerous.

Repeat for blight, rot and insects.

Repeat

To prevent scabby tubers, treat the seed with formalin before planting.

TOMATO - (Rot, blight, etc.)

When plants are 6 in. high, Bordeaux.

Repeat in 10-14 days. (Fruit can be wiped if disfigured by Bordeaux.)

Repeat in 10-14 days.

 

Hand-pick tomato worms.

NOTE--For Sam Jose scale on trees and shrubs, spray with the lime-sulphur mixture in autumn after leaves fall, or (preferably) in early spring, before buds start. The lime-sulphur mixture is a fungicide as well as a scale cure, and if it is used the first early Bordeaux spray can be omitted.

 

THE ICELESS REFRIGERATOR

An inexpensive refrigerator, or milk-cooler, consists of a wooden frame covered with Canton flannel. Wicks made of the same material as the covering rest in a pan of water on top of the refrigerator, allowing the water to seep down the sides. When evaporation takes place the heat is taken from the inside, consequently lowering the temperature. On dry, hot days a temperature of 50 degrees can e obtained in this refrigerator. The following description will aid in the construction of this device.

Make a screened case three and a half feet high, with the other dimensions twelve by fifteen inches. Place two movable shelves in the frame, twelve to fifteen inches apart. Use a pan twelve inches square on the top to hold the water, and where the refrigerator is to be used indoors have the whole thing standing in a large pan to catch and drips. The pans and case may be painted white, allowed to dry, and then enameled.

A covering of white Canton flannel should be made to fit the frame. Have the smooth side out and fasten the covering on the frame with buttons or hooks, arranged so that the door may be opened without unfastening them. This can be done by putting one row of hooks on the edge of the door near the latch and the other just opposite the opening, with the hem on each side extending far enough to cover the crack at the edge of the door, keeping out the warm, outside air and retaining the cooled air. The covering will have to be hooked around the top edge also.

Two double strips, one-half the width of each side, should be sewed on the top of each side and allowed to extend over about three inches in the pan of water. The bottom of the covering should extend to the lower edge of the case. Place the refrigerator in a shady place where air will circulate around it freely. If buttons and buttonholes are used, the cost should not exceed eight-five cents.

TESTING SEED CORN

Every ear of corn, whether old or new, should be tested. Now is the time to make the tests before the rush of spring work comes on. The "rag doll" method is the cheapest, simplest way of testing.

Take strips of heavy, unbleached muslin, 12 X 54 inches. Mark down the middle lengthwise with a lead-pencil, and then cross-wise every three inches, beginning twelve inches from one end and making eleven lines. Number the twenty divisions, and at the same time number twenty ears of corn to be tested. Take six grains from ear No. 1 (two fro neat the top, two from middle and two from the butt), no two kernels from same row, and place them in division No. 1 on the cloth, with tips of all kernels pointing the same way, crosswise of the cloth. Place kernels from No. 2 on space No. 2, and so on for all the ears.

Next place a handful of moist sawdust on a piece of blotting paper on one end of the cloth and roll the rag around it carefully so the kernels will not be displaced; roll fairly compact but not too tight. Tie the "rag doll" at both ends. Soak it in lukewarm water over night, drain for half an hour, and stand it on end in a pail lined with a wet cloth--tips of kernels pointing down. A few [pieces of brick in the bottom of the pail will afford air circulation and drainage. Fold the pail cloth-lining over the top, put a fairly heavy dry cloth over the pail, set it in a warm place, and moisten the cloths with warm water every day. In seven days, when the sprouts will be about two inches long, take the doll out and unroll carefully. Any ear whose kernels have not grown vigorously should be thrown out. Be careful to throw away the right ear.

Make six or eight "dolls"--a pailful--at the same time. To prevent mold, scald all the cloths used.

GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
PART 1--THE ART OF GRAFTING

When in the spring the sap begins to move in the stock, be ready; this occurs early in the plum and cherry, and later in the pear and apple. Do the grafting, if possible, on a mild day during showery weather. The necessary tools are a chisel, or a tick-bladed knife or a grafting iron (with which to split open the stock after it is sawed off smoothly with a fine-tooth saw), a hammer or mallet to aid the splitting process, a very sharp knife to trim the scions, and a supply of good grafting wax. Saw off a branch at the desired point, split the stock a little way down, and insert a scion at each outer edge--taking care that the inner bark of the scion fits snugly and exactly against the inner bark of the stock. This--together with the exclusion of air and moisture until a union results--constitutes the secret of success.

Trim the scions to a long edge, as sown in the picture; insert them accurately; the wedge should be a trifle thicker on the side which comes in contact with the stock's bark. Lastly, apply grafting wax with a brush. Each scion should be long enough to have two or three buds, with the lower one placed as shown. The "spring" of the cleft holds the scion securely in place, and therefore tying should be unnecessary. If both scions in a cleft grow, one may later be cut away.

When grafting large trees it is best not to cut away too much of the tree at once; therefore, a few secondary branches should be left untouched, and these, after scions are thriftily growing, can gradually be cut away the following years. Or, part of a tree can be thus top-grafted one year and the remainder the next. Many a worthless tree has thus been entirely changed.

You can't graft a pear or an apple on a cherry or plum tree, or vice versa. The stone fruits and the pomaceous fruits are separate families and refuse to intermarry.

Judge Biggle likes to make his grafting wax this way! One pound of resin, one-half pound of beeswax, and one-quarter pound of tallow, melted together. Keep in an iron pot; heat for use when wanted. He says: "It is best to use scions which were cut very early this spring or last fall; they can be kept in moist sawdust or sand."

Common putty may be used for grafting wax, and is much cheaper; put it on good and thick and fill all cavities smoothly. Then take cloth, tear it in strips, wind it around the putty and tie it with string. Many fruit men, say they have better luck with putty than with wax.

PART 2--BRIDGE GRAFTING

Rabbits have seriously injured fruit trees in many orchards by girdling. When the girdle is only three or four inches wide the tree may be saved bt bridge grafting. Trees with large patches of bark removed entirely around the trunk cannot be successfully treated, though those not too badly injured may be saved by special treatment.

Bridge grafting should be done in early spring, scions from healthy trees being selected from twigs produced last season. The torn edges of the wound should be cut off smoothly, and all badly loosened bark removed. The scion should be cut half or three-quarters of an inch longer than the wound, and the ends of the scions pointed.

The scion may then be inserted under the edge of the bark, care being taken to have the cut on the scion made rather slanting, to give considerable space for it to unite with the bark of the tree. Several of these should be put in around the tree at intervals of not more then one and one-half inches. (See illustration.) On small trees, three or four scions will be sufficient.

It is a good practice to paint over the wound areas with white lead, and they may further be protected by binding with cloth. Care should be taken, however, to see that the twine that holds the cloth is not to tight as to girdle the newly-set scions. After the scions have become firmly established, the cloth may be removed.

The scions will continue to increase in size, and as they approach each other the union of one scion to the other may be accomplished by shaving the sides of the scions. In time the entire girdle area may be entirely healed over in this way.

In some cases, bridge grafting will not be necessary, If the inner bark has not been removed by the rabbits, the tree may be saved by immediately protecting the girdled area before it has had time to dry out, by wrapping with cloth which has been treated with grafting wax. The inner bark will then form an outer bark, without serious injury. Where it can be used, this method is better than bridge grafting. Trees on which the bark has been removed along the sides and not entirely around the trunk, will be benefited by painting the wound. Before this is done, however, the rough edges of the bark should be removed so as to facilitate healing.

REMARKS: After all is said, the fact remains that it is much safer and better to prevent injury than to cure it. As we have often stated, mice and rabbits can be kept off by wrapping the tree trunks with strips of wood veneer, laths, building paper, or wire screening. Of course, however, such wrappings do no good after the injury is done.

BUDDING

The art of budding consists in taking a bud from one tree and inserting it under the bark of some other tree. The union of the two, the bud and the stock, takes place at the edges of the bark of the inserted bud. For this reason, the bud should be inserted as soon as cut from its twig and before it has had time to dry out. The bud should also be full, plump and well matured, and cut from wood of the current season's growth. The stock should be in active growth so that the bark will slip easily.

In cutting the bud a sharp knife is required, as a clean, smooth cut is desirable. The knife is inserted a half inch below and brought out the same distance above, shaving out a small wedge of wood under the bud along with the bark. This wedge is no hindrance to the union and should not be removed. The leaf is always clipped off.

To insert bud, make a T-shaped incision just through the back of stock, as show in the illustration. Raise the bark carefully without breaking it and insert the bud. Practice will give ease and dispatch to the operator. The bud must be held firmly to the stock by a bandage wound around the stock, both above and below it, being careful to leave the eye of the bud uncovered. Raffia, Bast, candlewick or waxed cloth may be used for tying. In about ten days, if the bud "takes," the bandage must be removed or the stock will be strangled and its growth hindered. The work of budding is usually performed in July or august in the North, and in June in the South. When the bark peels easily, and the weather is dry and clear, is the ideal time.

 

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Published By Wilmer Atkinson Company, Philadelphia, 1919

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