"Underground Coal and Clay Mines in the City of St. Louis"

Webpage by Scott K. Williams


A "yellow" brick probably from the Laclede-Christy mine that occupies a vast area, 60 feet deep, straddling Chippewa and west of Kingshighway . Mined from 1916 to1923. Photo thanks to John L. Maurath.


A 33 ton hydraulic dry press machine for brick production was first operated in 1860 in East St. Louis by E. C. Sterling. Then in 1865 Sterling put in operation another machine at No. 1 yard at Mississippi and Chouteau Aves (yard 1 later moved to Grand-Chouteau, then later to a Kingshighway location) .  In 1866 yard 1 produced 8,000,000 bricks for the year.  Eventually by the 1904 Worlds Fair the company operated eleven brick plants ( "yards")  In 1904 all combined these yards had an average daily St. Louis production of 642,000 bricks, or 192,000,000 bricks per year and employed 1,050 men.  Each yard specialized in different bricks--either by color shade or by quality ("common brick", paving vs. ornamental.). While much of the clay was mined in St. Louis, the company also brought in clay from other mines in rural Missouri.  Photo thanks to John L. Maurath.


A yellow brick from the Oak Hill Fire Clay No. 1 Mine (1922-1928) located in area north from Walsh, southeast of Gravois. 30 to 70 ft shafts. Brick thanks of Terry Harmon of Granite City, Ill. (Terry was kind enough to give me this brick, plus two variations of  the Hydraulic Press Co. bricks)


A red brick from one of the Christy mines (Delor and Alfred or the Morganford and Gravois location.) Dates from 1857 to about 1896. This came from my grandparents old home, now owned by Gary Fink, Ferguson, Mo.


Compiled from Map by Mimi Garstang

Published 1987, Missouri Dept. of Natural Resources Division of Geology and Land Survey, Rolla, Mo. Survey funded through the Missouri Land Reclamation Program, through the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

Some of the mines listed are located in St. Louis County. These were added when found but they were not the focus of this study, and should be noted as incomplete.

Note: (-) A dash symbol before or after a date indicates mining activity preceded or continued before/after date. 

Mine Name Location Depth/Entry Commodity Date of Mining (Approximate) Comments Reference Map
Chouteau Along Berthold near KingsHwy, 4 miles west of courthouse. 30 ft/ shaft Coal -1853-  None 4, p.180; 9 None
Hydraulic Press Brick Mine No. 3 New Manchester and River Des Peres; .5 miles North of Hydraulic Press Mine No. 2 75 ft/ shaft Clay -1896- None 1, p. 256 None
A.C. Steuver Mackland and Berthold; south of Forest Park 80 ft/ shaft Clay -1909-1911- None 3, p. 49; 7, p. 344 None
Highlands Co. Mine Mackland, Cairns, Oakland, and Berthold 26-28 ft / shaft Coal and possibly Clay Unknown None 6 None
Unknown Mine Mackland to Arena and south to near Manchester 40 ft / shaft Coal 1860's to late 1800's None 8, Fall 1986 None
David Jones Mine Forest Park beneath portion of St. Louis Zoo 25 ft / shaft Coal Early 1900's Voids at 500-507 ft. elevation 9 None
Unknown Mine Beneath Deaconess Hospital Slope Coal 1920's none 5 None
Gittens Mine Between Clayton Ave and Berthold; just west of Tamm Ave. 100 ft / 3 shafts Clay 1914-1917 Controlled 26 acres, 1916 5, 6 Yes, 1917
Highlands No. 4 Louisville, West Park, Kraft, and Villa  Slope and Shaft Clay -1937- Once owned by Pittsburg Plate Glass -Clay Division, 7 ft wide by 6 ft high entry tunnels 6 Yes, 1937
Missouri Fire Brick Kraft and Dale 44 ft / shaft Coal? and Clay Unknown None 6 None
Grandview Fire Clay-Van Cleave Mine Dale near Louisville Slope Clay -1909-1911- None 3, p. 49; 7, p. 343 None
Missouri Fire Clay Mine Louisville: north of Dale Avenue shaft Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
"Diggings" "Dogtown" Area 10-20 ft / shafts Coal Late 1800's Numerous small shafts to reach coal for domestic use; many in residential basements 5; 8 None
Roberts (Hiram) Mine Victoria; west of Hampton 75 ft / shaft Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
Henry & Hiram Roberts Mine Sulphur and Hampton 75 ft / shaft Clay -1909- None 7, p. 343 None
Berresheim's Mine Pierce and West Park Slope Clay Unknown None 6 None
Mitchell's Mine Pierce and Victoria Shaft Clay Unknown None 6 None
Jones Mine North of New Manchester; Pierce, West Park, and Sublette; West of Wrisburg 75 ft/ shaft Clay -1883- Possibly owned by Berresheim later 1, p. 258; 2, p. 23 None
Evans and Howard Mine Howard Station on Missouri Pacific and Frisco RR 50 ft /shaft Clay -1855- Adjacent to Evans and Howard Factory 2, p. 21-22 None
Hydraulic Press Brick No. 2 Mine Southwest corner Kingshighway and St. Louis/San Francisco RR 65 ft / shaft Coal, Clay -1896- Entries 8-9 ft wide; 20 ft pillars 1, p. 256; 2, p. 30 None
Hydraulic Press Brick Mine No. 4 Kingshighway and McRee 65 ft /shaft Clay -1909- None 3. p. 49; 7, p. 344 None
Sublette and Thomas Mine Corner of Shaw and Hereford Shaft Coal 1842-1856 None 5 None
Sublette Mines (3 mines) Sublette to Marconi; south to Columbia (Sulphur Springs Farm) Shaft, 3 or more Coal 1835-1842 None 5 None
Laclede-Christy No. 7 Mine Wilson, Pattison, Lilly, Mackland Shaft and drift Clay 1915-1921 Adjoins Evans and Howard property on the north; entries 9 1/2 ft wide. 6 Yes, 1921
Tiepelman Pit Mine South River Des Peres and Sublette Drift Clay -1890- None 1, p. 258-259 None
Evans and Howard No. 6 Mine, South Pit West St. Louis; South of River Des Peres 65 ft / shaft Coal, Clay -1896- None 1, p. 256-258 None
Legarce Pit Mine Base of hill; south River Des Peres Drift Clay -1890- None 1, p. 258 None
Laclede Mine South bank River Des Peres Drift Coal, Clay 1855-1869- Laclede bought mine from Hamilton and Greene in 1869 1, p. 259-260; 2, p. 23-24 None
Evans and Howard No. 11 Mine Northwest corner of Manchester and Hampton 47 ft / shaft Coal?, Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
Cheltenham Clay Co. Mine Forrest and Mitchell Shaft Clay -1916- 5 acres controlled (1916) 6 None
Gilker Fire Clay Mine Immediately west of Matthieson and Hegeler Drift Clay -1896- Pillars robbed; 10-15 ft Pillars; entries 7 ft wide and 100-140 ft long 1, p. 259 None
Matthieson and Hegeler Mine 1 mile west of Cheltenham; north of New Manchester Drift Clay 1863-1896- 11 acres mined out by 1896 1, p. 259 None
Arrow No. 1 Mine Van Cleave 6500 Southwest Blvd. 45 ft / shaft Clay -1909- Joins Laclede-Christy No. 17 no. 7, p. 343 None
Laclede-Christy Grandview No. 17 Mine St. Louis and San Francisco RR, Southwest Ave, north of Columbia and Southwest. Drifts (3) Clay 1923-1945 Pillars removed; older mine to south of No. 17 at Tamm Ave. 6 Yes, 1945
Laclede-Christy No. 11 Mine Columbia, Hampton, Elizabeth and Sulphur Shafts Clay 1918-1923 Entries 11 ft wide; drilled into Krummel and Buchner Mine to south 6 Yes, 1922
Laclede-Christy No. 1 and No. 2 Mines Hampton, January, Columbia, and Wilson 20-30 ft / Drifts and Shafts Clay 1900-1947 Pillars removed 6 Yes, 1947
Krummel and Buchner Mine Columbia Ave and 59th Street 44 ft and 92 ft. Coal and Clay -1911- Intercepted by Laclede-Christy No. 1 and No. 2 Mines 3, p. 26 None
Guelker No. 4 Mine Stephen, Sublette, Elizabeth, and Bischoff Shaft Clay 1911-1919 Joins Laclede-Christy No. 7 6; 3, p. 49 Yes, 1919
Laclede-Christy No. 4 Mine Columbia, Sublette, Wilson, and Edwards Shafts Clay 1914-1948 Joins Guelker No. 4 Mine 6 Yes, 1948
Edwards and Hereford Mine Marconi, Southwest, and Kingshighway 3 Shafts Coal Unknown None 5 None
Blackmer Post Mine (1) Arsenal, Railroad, Columbia, Kingshighway 90 ft / shaft Clay 1878- Owned 60 acres 5 None
Van Cleave Mine Southwest and Watson Rd. 110 ft / shaft Clay -1903- None 3, p. 49 None
Blackmer Post Mine (2) Watson Rd. 80 ft /shaft Clay -1909-1913- None 7, p. 342 None
Jamieson Pit Mine North of Scanian; opposite Coffin Mine Shaft Clay -1896- None 1, p. 263 None
Coffin Mine Watson and Scanion near Gratiot 60 ft / shaft Clay 1878-1895- 1878--owned by Jamieson; 1882 owned by Coffin; 1895 sold to American Clay 1, p. 260-263; 2, p. 21 None
Prime Western Spelter Co. Mine Watson and Fyler Slope; air shaft; workings 50 ft deep Clay 1909- None 7, p. 342 None
Humes Mine Sublette and Fyler Shaft Coal ?, Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
Mississippi Glass Mine Sublette Ave 97 ft/ Shaft Clay -1909- None 7, p. 343 None
Tole and Thorp Fire Clay Mine 2 miles west of Parker-Russell. Mines on spur of Oak Hill railroad, near insane asylum. 32 ft / shaft and 93 ft. shaft Coal, Clay 1880- 43 acres mined 1, p. 255-256; 2, p. 25 None
Parker-Russell Mine Fairview; west of Kingshighway Shaft Coal?, Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
Russell Coal Mine Morganford and Bent 5 shafts; 35-45 ft. Coal 1840's-1880's One of the first coal mines in City of St. Louis 4, p. 179; 5; 10; 11 None
Hallock Clay Mine; Wade Brothers Mine Arsenal Street at entrance to Tower Grove Park Slope, 2 air shafts Clay 1908- Mined clay beneath extensive Russell Coal Mine 7, p. 343 None
Parker-Russell Mine Gustine at McDonald 20-30 ft / shaft Coal -1917- Abandoned and reopened in 1917 for local use. 5 None
Hunt and McDonald Mine Arsenal, Grand, Gravois, Gustine 22-38 ft / shafts Coal -1853- None 4, p. 179-180; 5 None
Morrow and McGreggor Mine South and west of Grand and Gravois; north of Chippewa; south of Hunt and McDonald Shafts (4) Coal -1853- None 4, p. 180; 5 None
Peter Delore's Mine South of Morrow and McGrreggor; east of Gravois Shaft Coal -1853- None 4, p. 180 None
Hydraulic Press Brick No. 6 Mine Chippewa, Meramec, Alexander, Bamberger 16 ft. / shaft Coal, Clay -1925- Most entries under alleys; entries under streets bricked (6 ft x 71/2 ft) and others timbered (8 ft x 7 ft) 6 Yes 1925
Bingham Mines Osceola at Gravois Shaft Coal Late 1800's Intercepted this mine in 1930 when Gravois was widened. 11 None
Parker-Russell Fire Clay Mine Tholozan and Morganford 80 ft and 117 ft shafts Coal




First coal discovery in St. Louis; pillars robbed in 1887 1, p. 254-255 None
Parker-Russell Mine Morganford and Potomac Shaft Coal, Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
"The Alley" Beck, Morganford, Kingshighway, and Chippewa Shafts and Pits Coal Late 1800's-early 1900's Miners worked this area for their own domestic use. 5 None
Laclede-Christy No. 3 Mine Bancroft, Pernod, January, Mackland Shafts Coal, Clay Early 1900's Joins Laclede-Christy No. 8 but older mine 6 Yes, 1922
Goetz Mine Sublette and Pernod Shaft Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
Superior Press Brick Mine Marquette, Pernod, Regal, Tedmar 6 shafts 25-100 ft. deep Coal, Clay -1908- Coal mined first; reopened to mine clay; between Marquette and Potomac; tunnels 25 ft. deep, tunnels partially collapsed 6 Yes, no date
Laclede-Christy No. 8 Mine Bancroft, Pernod, January, Kingshighway Workings 53-60 ft Clay 1916-1923 Joins Laclede-Christy No. 3 to east; no pillars beneath Chippewa 6 Yes, 1922
Mitchell Clay Manufacturing Co. Mine January between Tholozan and Chippewa 27 ft / shaft Clay -1937-1944- 6 ft 7 inch high and 6 ft wide entry tunnels; props pulled after mining 6 Yes, 1944
Unknown Mine Hampton at Devonshire 28 ft. workings Coal?, Clay? Unknown 5 ft. actual void and 5 ft fill material encountered 9 None
Christy Fire Clay Mine 1/2 mile west of Morganford and Gravois Shaft Clay -1896- None 1, p. 252 None
Christy Mine Delor and Alfred Shaft Coal, Clay Late 1800's None 5 None
Christy Fire Clay Mine Morganford and Gravois 65 ft/ shaft Coal, Clay 1857- Room and Pillar mine 1, p. 251-254; 2, p.21; 11 None
Oak Hill Fire Clay No. 1 Mine  Walsh, Neosho, Gerritt, Ray 30-70 ft. shafts Clay 1922-1928 8 ft x 7 ft entries, top down after mining 6 Yes, 1923
Jamieson Mine at Bartolds 1 mile north of Bartolds near Hanley Rd. 3 shafts; 40 ft (2); 48 ft Clay 1882-1886- None 1, p. 263-266; 2, p. 22-23 None
Jamieson-French Mine Hanley Road and Bruno Rd. ~74 ft  Shaft Clay -1911- Sold to Evans and Howard 3, p 25-26, p. 49 None
Bausch Clay Mine Hanley Rd and Eager Rd 60 ft Shaft and 2 air shafts Clay -1909- Controlled 18 acres (1916) 7, p. 342 None
George J. Berrsheim No. 2 Mine Redbud and St. Louis Belt and Terminal RR Shaft Clay 1914- None 9 Yes, 1918
George J. Berrsheim No. 3 Mine Linden at Buck Avenue 60 ft / Shaft Clay 1918-1920's Coal at 18 ft. depth, but not mined; tunnels open 9 Yes, 1918
Unknown Mine Mid-County Industrial Park 35-45 ft/ shafts Clay Unknown Tunnels open 9 None
Evans and Howard No. 5 Mine 840 Midland, Vinita Park Workings 25-75 ft deep Clay 1917-1954 Partially Collapsed 9 Yes, 1954
Unknown Mine St. Charles Rock Road and Lackland Shaft Clay Unknown None 6 None
Unknown Mine I-170 and Venture Store 45-75 ft./ Shafts Clay -1924- Some supports standing and some pulled; deeper props still standing 9 Yes, 1924
Gartsides Mines Near City Farm, 1/3 mile north of Russell Mine 47 ft/ Shafts (5) Coal -1855- None 4, p. 178 None
Buchanan's Mine West River Des Peres (location vaque) 41 ft / Shaft Coal -1853- None 4, p. 178-179 None
Watkins Coal Bank Southeast T. 47 N, R 7 W Drift Coal 1800's None 4, p. 178 None
Hambleton Mine Between Bellfontaine and New Bremen Cemetery Bank Clay -1853- None 4, p.180-181 None
Shreve Mine 1/4 mile west of Hambleton Mine Unknown Coal, Clay -1853- None 4, p. 181 None
Sattler Pits Schantz land on Watkins Creek, near Chain of Rocks 50 ft / shaft Clay 1890- None 1, p. 166-167, 469-471 None
Unknown Mine  Baden Unknown Clay Unknown None 6 None
Malcom Station Mine Southeast of Creve Coeur Lake Unknown Clay Unknown None 6 None
St. Louis Clay Burning Mine Castello near Creve Coeur Lake Unknown Clay -1911- None 3, p. 49 None
St. Louis Vitrified Fire Brick Mine Dorsett and Fee Fee Road Unknown Clay Unknown None 3, p. 49; 6 None
Louis and Harter Mine End of Halls Ferry at Broadway Unknown Coal Unknown None 5 None
Kemper College Mine Along Arsenal between Hampton and Kingshighway Unknown Coal 1838 Operated by Students 12, Dec 1978 None


1) Wheeler, Herbert Allen, 1896, Clay Deposits: Missouri Geological Survey, Vol. XI, 1st Series

2) Ladd, G. E., 1890, The Clay, stone, lime, and sand industries of St. Louis County: Missouri Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 3

3) Fenneman, Nevin M., 1911, Geology and Mineral Resources of the St. Louis Quadrangle, Missouri-Illinois U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 438.

4) Shumard, B.F. 1855, The Geology of St. Louis County, in Swallow, G.C., First and Second Annual Reports of the Geological Survey of Missouri.

5) Personal interviews with St. Louis historians.

6) Saeger, William Edgar, 1975, Geologic and Subsurface investigations of the St. Louis, Missouri Metropolitan Area: unpublished Master's thesis., Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

7) Pirtle, I J, 1909. 23rd Annual Report of the State Mine Inspector.

8) St. Louis Post Dispatch Newspaper

9) Confidential drill records.

10) Compton and Dry, 1875, Pictorial St. Louis

110 Boyer, Mary Joan, 1954, The Old Gravois Coal Diggings.

12) Southside Journal, St. Louis Newspaper.

Note: Many shaft locations have been located. Approximate entry locations are given for others.

A photocopy of the original map can be obtained from Missouri Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, P.O. Box 250, Rolla, Mo 65401.  Use Map reference number: OFM-87-238-MR


Geology of St. Louis, Mo.

History's Time Portal to Old St. Louis


You are the 43583rd Visitor to this USGenNet Safe-Site™ Since May 21, 2005.

This page was last updated Sunday, 17-Jul-2005 15:47:56 CDT.