Military Resource Center



The Nonpareil - April 28, 1898

The "Shenandoah" is Safe.

     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
The American ship "Shanandoah" which was reported to have been captured by the Spanish Sunday, was spoken yesterday near Cork.

The "Detroit: Captures a Prize.

     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
The American cruiser "Detroit" has captured and brought into port near Key West the Spanish ship "Bolivia."

Spanish Ships Sighted.

     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
Two Spanish torpedo boats and one Spanish armed ship are reported to have been seen in English Channel

Sale of German Ship to U. S. Denied.
     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
Owners of German steamer "Bismark (sic)" report its sale to the United States. The report is denied by the navy department.

Spanish Fleet Under Way.

     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
The Spanish fleet has left the Phillipine (sic) Islands and is on its way to meet the American squadron in command of Admiral Dewey. Fight will occur within three days. President say if we win it will end war, as powers will compel Spain to cease on account of destruction of commerce.

Is Portugal an Ally?

     Washington, D. C., April 27th. -- [Special to The Nonpareil] --
Portugal will be considered an ally of Spain after today if the Spanish fleet does not move at once from Cape Verde, and if Portugal does not declare neutrality.


Editorial Comment.


     In his sermon at the Methodist Tabernacle last Sunday Rev. Robinson expressed the sentiment of many of us when he said that his personal inclination was to advocate the "isolation" policy for our nation, but that his judgment seemed to insist that the "forward" policy was the proper one for the country to take. The majority of our influential people have ever since the battle of Manila been "halting between two opinions." On the one hand precedent and personal inclination join to urge the retention of the policy, which has distinguished us from the other nations of the world. On the other hand the future greatness and influence of our land seems to demand that we now step into the same position of international responsibility occupied by every other nation of the world. The spread of American civilization, as well as the development of American statesmanship, appears to be dependent upon our increase of territory and authority. Of course it cannot be denied that in entering upon the "forward" or colonial policy we would be stepping into a new and unfamiliar field and assuming vast and grave responsibilities. That we shall do so is evident. The only question is, Is it worth while? To those who look upon peace and quiet as the greatest attainments of national life, there can be but one answer: No. But to those who believe that America has a greater mission than the development of her own resources; to those who regard her as one who must bear to other peoples

the message of democracy and personal liberty, as well as of advanced civilization; to those who believe that increased responsibility will produce increased ability -- in such the thought of a new and advanced policy is not unacceptable. With Rev. Robinson The Nonpareil can say that while personal inclination would build a veritable Chinese wall about our United States, to bar out forever all international influences, our judgment says that our greatest opportunity, our largest power for good, lies in the departure from our policy of "splendid isolation" and our acceptance of international responsibility. The one great objection at present is our declaration that we entered upon this war with no purpose of territorial acquisition. We still mean this, but if we hold our fruits of conquest, we cannot hope to make the world believe we are or were sincere. The question then is: Is our belief in our duty sufficient to enable us to withstand the criticism of the world? We believe that is is, and that America will rise nobly to the duty of the hour and adopt the course, which, while adding responsibility, shall add so greatly to her opportunity and influence in the spread of the new world's civilization.


Editorial Comment.


     The news from Santiago is astounding. Three hundred Spaniards slain, an entire fleet destroyed, 1600 prisoners, including ad (sic) admiral, captured, and but one American killed! Admiral Dewey's victory led us to expect the best from the American navy, but we were bound to regard it as a victory that would in no wise be equaled during the present war. Yet Admiral Sampson's feat comes near challenging its right to first place. The only point in which Admiral Dewey's exploit surpassed the latter one was in the entrance of the mined harbor. Of a truth, the American arms seem to have entered upon a most auspicious career. World-astonishing victories have twice been credited to the navy, in addition to the individual heroism of Hobson, Blue and their little crews. On the land our loss has been heavier, but our glory none the less bright. American daring, coolness and invincibility have added a new dignity to the American nation, revealing to ourselves, as well as to the outside world, our strength and character. So, while we mourn with those whose homes have felt the most cruel blight of war, we can but rejoice that our arm is strong to accomplish the mission which we have set out to perform. May the war soon end, but not until Cuba is free and our promise fulfilled. Until it ends, we may depend upon our soldiers, by land and by sea, to add to the nation's honor and their own renown by further deeds of unequaled valor.

     In another column will be found the call of the Red Cross and Cuban Relief societies for funds. The Nonpareil gives room for this plea because it believes in the work that is being done by these societies, and because it has confidence in the integrity of its promoters. Aside from the sufferers by actual battle, the climate of Cuba will soon begin to make its inroads upon our army, and this will mean the need of nurses and provisions. The Red Cross works on the theory that preparation is best made when made in advance, and so seeks to anticipate the demand for nurses and provisions. The Nonpareil will attempt no canvass of the locality in behalf of the fund, trusting to the patriotism of its readers to contribute toward the fund which shall assist both Cuban and American. Every dollar which comes into our hands will be turned over to the relief fund, as The Nonpareil stands the expense of correspondence and remittance. If you wish to help these societies in their great work, add a dollar to the fund they are raising.

     "The responsibilities, rather than the privileges, of citizenship." This expression, contained in The Outlook's account of ex-President Cleveland's recent speech at Lawrenceville, N. J., is worthy a second thought. Have we not been rather inclined to boast of our rights and neglect our responsibilities as citizens of the republic? ... (incomplete)


Editorial Comment.


     In common with nearly all other papers of the country, The Nonpareil erred last week in crediting Admiral Sampson with the great victory at Santiago, when the honor really belonged to Commodore Schley. Without doubt Admiral Sampson would have been fully equal to the occasion had he been present at the critical hour, but the fact remains that he was miles away and took practically no part in the battle. It is unfortunate to say the least, that in his report of the engagement Admiral Sampson so worded the message as to leave the impression that he was responsible for the victory. Yet, now that we understand the situation there is scarcely need that any ill-feeling should exist, or that the former wrong understanding should detract from either the glory of the deed or the honor of the victors. "Honor to whom honor is due;" but there is no need of censure for the absent admiral.

     New York World: Just now it is the Spaniards who "Remember the Maine" -- the only American ship they have ever been able to sink.

     The introduction into congress of a bill to place the consular appointments under the civil service law marks still another step in a direction in which decided progress is inevitable. Much as we admit the present necessity of the "spoils" element of politics, and much as we yield to its demands personally, there are few of us but would really prefer a merit system. As soon as we eliminate the personal interest, we acknowledge the justice .... (incomplete)


Editorial Comment.


     Tuesday's State Journal: A state paper that will be historic, marking an epoch in American history, was issued tonight by direction of President McKinley. It provides in general terms for the government of the province of Santiago de Cuba, and is the first document of the kind ever prepared by a president of the United States.

     We have now actually entered upon the "new epoch" of which we have heard so much within the past few months. For the first time in its history the American arm reaches out to govern, even if only temporarily, a foreign territory. What the result of this new step may be we may all conjecture, but no one can definitely foretell. Will it mark the beginning of a real "world-life" of benefit both to ourselves and to others, or will it merely increase the opportunity for evil forces to control our national life and policy? In the final answer to this question will be found the wisdom or unwisdom of the new course which we are taking. Of course political corruption, in the total, will be increased -- it could not be otherwise at present. But if the better element of our national life shall rise to the responsibilities of the hour

and use the opportunity both for our own good and for the advancement of the foreign life with which we are to come in contact, the "new epoch" will be the noblest and best of any in our history. The opportunity is ours to give to a new territory the benefits of the system which we proudly claim is the best the world has known. We are intelligent enough to rid this system, as we apply it to a new field, of many of the faults which experience has taught us exist therein. If we do so, and prove to ourselves that the alterations are really for the better, we shall so much the sooner be able to apply them to our home life and derive benefit from them. If honestly conducted, the experiment which we are now attempting will result in not only great commercial and financial gain, but in a most desirable increase of usefulness abroad and effectiveness at home. Democracy is the actual issue. Whether it is capable of a larger application is for us to attempt to prove, and in the success of our experiment lies the real significance of the much-discussed "new epoch".


Editorial Comment.


     The late advices from Admiral Dewey at Manila are far from reassuring as regards the aspect of the situation between the United States and the insurgent forces. Acquinaldo, the insurgent leader, has assumed an aggressive attitude toward his American allies, who have made it possible for him to carry on the war and enjoy what success he has achieved. The action of the insurgents at Santiago, their inability and lack of conception of real patriotism, has led to the gravest doubts as to the true motives of the majority of the insurgent leaders. Their evident desire for assuming arbitrary power and taking brutal revenge upon their conquered Spanish enemies, as well as the overweening ambition to plunder wherever an opportunity is offered, has shaken the general confidence in their ability to provide a just and stable government. Yet at the beginning of the present war the Cuban patriots enjoyed the popular confidence of the American people as to their ability and patriotic desire for good home government. As is often the case public opinion seems to have been misled, but fortunately for the good of the inhabitants of the Spanish colonies there were wise heads at the head of this government who grasped the situation and formed a correct estimate of the ability of the insurgents. Popular opinion demanded the recognition of the Cuban republic, and abuse was piled high upon the heads of President McKinley and his advisers because they successfully opposed it; and now public opinion is as commendatory as formerly it was abusive. The recognition of the Cuban republic would have been a fatal error. The president's policy in completely vindicated, and in

fact, his every act in this difficulty has been confirmed as wise and statesmanlike by later developments. And one of the refreshing features of the situation is that he is receiving commendation upon every hand, regardless of party politics.

     Now that negotiations for peace are fairly under way there is something tangible upon which to base the conclusion that the war is nearing an end. The exact peace terms set forth in the president's reply to Spain are not known, but that they will accept anything within reason seems to be the tenor of the Madrid dispatches, although considerable diplomatic maneuvering will no doubt be resorted to before the haughty Dons will concur in the loss of Cuba, Porto Rico and a part if not all of the Philippines, which the president will demand. The Spanish have great confidence in their diplomatic abilities and are no doubt well pleased to shift the conflict to one of verbiage rather than arms. However, Miles is still marching through Porto Rico, the administration policy evidently being to fight while they talk peace.


Editorial Comment.


     Spanish honor (?) is appeased. The Castilian government has notified President McKinley, through the French embassy, of its acceptance of his peace terms. Like the president's communication, the contents of Spain's reply have not been disclosed, further than the information given out at both Madrid and Washington that it concedes to the demands of this government in a general way. But the reply would not be a Spanish one if it did not attempt to quibble over some of the conditions and raise new technicalities, and that it is not a simple acceptance is shown by the extreme length of the note. Such an attempt to throw the matter into a diplomatic wrangle was evidently foreseen by the president when he gave out the statement that the

war woul (sic) be continued until Spain accepted our terms; there would be no armistice pending a discussion of the terms of the peace agreement. If Spain could induce this government to declare an armistice before committing itself to any definite peace terms it could carry on the diplomatic dispute indefinitely, which seems to be the Spanish way of settling troublesome questions -- not to set- (sic) them at all. This, however, seems to have been clearly foreseen, and if Spain wishes to check the lively tattoo now being ministered to the seat of its trousers by Uncle Sam, so to speak, it must toe the mark squarely and accept the conditions as set forth by the president.


Editorial Comment.


     From Madrid comes (sic) reports of intense national grief, following the signing of the peace protocol. Not because peace is assured, but because they now begin to realize the full cost of the war to Spain. To begin with Spain stripped of her colonial possessions is scarcely more than a third rate power, her fleet is gone and she is impoverished financially through the expensive warfare she has been maintaining. Spain lost in destroyed and captured battle ships, 18 in number, valued at about $35,000,000, although they cost much more at the time of construction. Cervera's fleet represented the flower of the Spanish navy and cost that government $20,000,000. The fleet destroyed by Dewey was more numerous, but represented less money value. These figures take no account of the numerous small gun boats and tugs captured and destroyed, nor the twenty odd merchant vessels taken as prizes by the United States. She loses Cuba, Porto Rico, one of the Ladrone islands and a part, if not all of the Philippine islands. and a colonial population of some 10,000,000 people, and has very little left in the way of colonial possessions. The war leaves her with a national debt of $2,000,000,000, upon which $140,000,000 in interest accrues annually, which will necessitate an excessive and over burdensome taxation upon her people. Beside all of which some 10,000 Spanish lives were sacri- (sic) in the struggle. On every hand Spain has met with wholesale disaster and no wonder her people stand agast and fear for the future of their government. The only loss to the United States that we contemplate with regret is the death of about 350 of her brave soldier boys, not many for such a conflict, but they were among America's noblest sons, and Columbia morns and honors her dead. In money the was has cost this country upwards of $100,000,000, but much of this was spent for the better equipment of the navy and army, which was needed in any event and cannot be considered a total loss.

     The war is over. The American protocol was officially signed on last Friday by M. Cambon, the French ambassador, on behalf of Spain, and by Secretary Day for the United States. Below we give a synopsis of the terms

of the protocol, which fixes the basis for the peace treaty:

     First -- That Spain will relinquish the claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba.
     Second -- That Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the West Indies and an Island in the Dadrones, to be selected by the United States, shall be ceded to the latter.
     Third -- That the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philippines.
     Fourth -- That Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the West Indies shall be immediately evacuated, and that commissioners to be appointed with ten days, shall within this 10 days after the signing of the protocol meet in Havana and San Juan, respectively, to arrange and execute the details of the evacuation.
     Fifth -- That the United States and Spain will each appoint not more that five commissioners to negotiate and conclude a treat of peace. The commissioners are to meet at Paris no later than the first of October.

     Under the conditions of the protocol orders have been issued from both Washington and Madrid suspending all hostilities and the Spanish army is preparing to evacuate the West Indian islands and Manila under the terms of the protocol. This nation prosecuted the war vigorously because of a perfect confidence in the justice of the cause, but now that our demands have been granted and Spanish tyranny has been forever stamped out of her down trodden colonies, there should be universal thanksgiving and rejoicing, for this three-months war the cause of human liberty has gained a century's advance and a brilliant part has been written in American history.

     NOTE: Unfortunately - another article at the upper right corner of the front page was chopped off during reproduction. The fragment available reads in part:
     "Hong Kong dispatch, ... Saturday, August 13, ... under Dewey & Merritt ... opened fire on Malate fort and ... two hours , at the end of ... Troops bravely rushed ... thousand prisoners, 12,000 .... were captured. Merrit assum ... cans were killed and fifty wo ... blockade has been raised and ... ple are pleased. No news of ... yet been received at Manila.

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