One of the oldest settlers of Holt county, Nebraska, is the venerable George Raymer, now living retired from active life at Atkinson. He was born in Roulette, Potter county, Pennsylvania, March 30, 1833, his father, George Raymer, Sr., being a native of Strassburg, province of Alsace, Germany, then a part of France. The father came to America as a young man and settled in the Keystone state. There he married Catherine Adams, a native of the same province as himself, and they remained in Pennsylvania until about 1839. The father of Catherine Adams moved to Russia, where he became very wealthy, and on a voyage from that country disappeared from the ship with all his money, the supposition being that he was murdered for his fortune, then thrown overboard, as neither he nor his money was ever seen again.
   The Raymer family came west about 1839 aud located on a farm about four miles from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, this land now being a part of the city, which at that time was a small village at the mouth of the river, extending but a few blocks from the lake. The father owned a fine piece of timberland, from which he chopped the piles used in building the city's first docks. He sold this land about 1843 and moved to Stephenson county, Illinois, settling on a farm near Rock City, where George Raymer, junior, grew to manhood.
   Upon reaching manhood Mr. Raymer rented a farm near Rock Grove, Illiiiois, and was living on that farm when he decided to take his savings and go west where land was so much cheaper and he would be able to secure a farm of his own. In October, 1873, he reached Seward county, Nebraska, and purchased three hundred and twenty acres of land of the Burlington and Missouri railroad company, sixteen miles west of Lincoln. He endured the losses common to all settlers of that period, from the grasshopper plague, by which he lost his crops for several years, and had to keep his courage through many losses and discouragements before finally reaching a season of prosperity. He has lived in Holt county since March, 1883, and first filed on a homestead seven and one-half miles northeast of Atkinson, securing a timber and pre-emption claim. He resided on this farm until the fall of 1902, moving to Atkinson October 8, and has since resided in the city.
   Mr. Raymer's first marriage occurred in 1857, when he was united with Catherine Koller, a native of Germany, who came to America about 1854 or 1855. Six children were born to this union, namely: Israel J., went back to Pennsylvania and there married and engaged in business; Mary, married Frank Boulls and lives near Jennings, Decatur county, Kansas; George W.. residing in Atkinson; Henry, died in his fortieth year; Charles and Daniel, twins, the youngest, the former working at Lincoln, Nebraska, and the latter residing at Houston, Texas.
   Mr. Raymer's second marriage occurred October 27, 1878, near Milford, Nebraska, when he was united with Sarah Brox, a native of Woolwich, Canada born October 13, 1860 a daughter of Phillip and Elizabeth (Neidig) Brox, both from the province of Baden, Germany. The Brox family emigrated to Canada about 1854 or 1855, making the voyage on a sailing vessel that took about forty days to make the crossing. In 1863 they moved to Freeport, Illinois, where they lived until coming west in the seventies. Three children were born to George and Sarah (Brox) Raymer, as follows: Gertrude, married Roy Smith, who is employed in a bank at Atkinson; Earl is a carpenter by trade, and Carroll is a clerk employed at Atkinson. Mr. Raymer is a republican in political belief and a member of the United Evangelical church.
   At the time of the blizzard of January 12, 1888, so well remembered by the early settlers, he happened to be in the barn when the storm struck and had difficulty in finding his way to the house. When having occasion to go to the barn again he stretched a rope from the house to that building. When he came to Holt county there were but few antelope left, though he saw three there soon after coming. Although he never saw any of the large grey timber wolves there, they were occasionally seen aloug the edge of the dense timber in Stephenson county, Illinois, which near his home was twelve miles wide. He many times found it necessary to fight prairie fires, and in March, 1909, he helped fight a large one. On several occasions after coming west he burned corn as fuel, when coal was very high and corn brought but eight or ten cents a bushel after it was hauled about twenty miles to Lincoln. During the blizzard of 1888, when their fuel was exhausted, they burned tallow. Although Mr. Raymer had many most unpleasant and trying experiences after he came west, he now looks back upon his pioneer days as happy ones, and can think of no part of his life with more pleasure. He has spent a long and useful life and is now enjoying the rest he has so well earned, in the ease and comfort afforded in his city home. He is held in high esteem by all who known him and is known as a public-spirited, reliable citizen. Portraits of Mr. Raymer and his family will be found on another page of this volume.


George Raymer and Family.


   Edward C. Munn, who resides in seetion twenty-seven, township nineteen, range fourteen, Valley county. Nebraska, is an earnest and reliable citizen, and is widely known as an energetic and hustling farmer and stock man. He is a man who is to be relied upon and trusted in any and every circumstance. It is some twenty-five



years since Mr. Munn landed on Nebraska soil, and since his residence here he has gained many friends.
   Edward Munn was born in Allegan county, Michigan, August 22, 1858, and was youngest in the family of George and Mary (Tarrant) Munn, who had five sons and two daughters; the parents are deceased; has two brothers and two sisters living in Michigan. Our subject was born and raised on a farm, where he received the ordinary School advantages, and up to his twentyeighth year was a resident of Michigan, where he was a farmer and stock raiser.
   In March,1885, Mr. Munn came to Valley county, Nebraska, and shortly after coming here spent some eight or nine mouths in Colorado. In 1886 he returned to Valley county, and this county has been his permanent residing place to this date.
   For some eight or nine years Mr. Munn engaged in the stock business, buying, selling and shipping. In 1895 he engaged in farming, and up to this time farming and stock raising has been his business. He makes a specialty of Jersey Red hogs, having a fine herd; be also has a fine lot of cattle.
   Mr. Munn was united in marriage on February 5, 1888 to Miss Annie Irene Aldridge, in Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Munn have five children whose names are as follows: Ida, Mary, Ernest, Ada and Wilson, all of whom reside under the parental roof. Mrs. Munn's father is deceased, and her mother is living in Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Munn and family are well known, enjoying the respect and esteem of many friends.
   Mr. Munn is one of the progressive citizens of Valley county where he has made all that he posseses, and is fairly prosperous and successful. He has a fine three hundred and sixty acre farm northeast of Ord. In politics he is independent.



   Gulbrand H. Texley, son of Hellick and Ingeborg Texley, was born in Norway, February 27. 1829, and was the eldest in a family of four children. He has two brothers in America, and one sister deceased. The parents are also deceased.
   On June 19, 1856, Mr. Texley was joined in wedlock to Miss Gunnild Hellickson in Loingdal church, Flesberg county, Norway.
   In April, 1868, our subject came with his wife and four children to America, locating in Dane county, Wisconsin for two years, where he followed the occupation of carpentry, and in 1870 came to Nebraska, locating in Wisner, Cuming county. Wisconsin for two years. In 1872 came to Madison county and pre-empted eighty acres of land in section nineteen, township twenty-one, range four, west, and also timber claimed eighty acres near the pre-emption which was his home place until 1903, when he retired from farm life and moved to Newman Grove, where he has built a fine house in which he now resides.
   Mr. and Mrs. Texley have had eight children born to them, all of whom are living: Hellick G., who is married and has five children, lives four miles northwest of Newman Grove; Emma G., who resides at home; Ole G., is married, has three children, and lives three miles northwest of Newman Grove; Gullick, married and has three children, lives in Newman Grove, Nebraska Bessie and Christian are twins, Bessie being married to C. L. Thompson, and has four children, lives in Albion, Nebraska, and Christian resides under the parental roof; Andrew, who is married and has two children, lives in Carroll, Nebraska; and Nellie A., who resides at home.
   Mr. and Mrs. Texley are among the very first settlers of the county and have passed through all the trying experiences and discouragements of pioneer life. Mr. Texley in the early days hauled all his produce forty miles to Columbus, using an ox team. Mr. and Mrs. Texley have readied the advanced age of eighty and seventy seven years, respectively. They have raised a fine family, and are widely and favorably known.



   Judge Walter Moon, one of the early settlers of Nebraska and now a resident of Sherman county in earlier days experienced the usual hardships and privations of the pioneer. He is honored as a veteran of the civil war and is highly esteemed as an upright, public-spirited citizen, who has served in various offices of public honor and trust. He was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, January 25, 1835, son of Orange B. and Margaret (Wing) Moon, being the third of their ten children in order of birth. The father who was of French-English extraction, was born in Vermont, and his death occurred at LaPorte, Iowa, in the spring of 1890. The mother, also a native of Vermont, was of English and Welsh dcscent and her death occurred in LaPorte in 1897.
   When about ten years old, Walter Moon accompanied his parents to Illinois, where he received a liberal education and reached manhood, after which he engaged in farming. He was married December 20, 1855, in Kane county, Illinois, to Mary C. Harris, of Canadian birth, who died at Forestville Iowa, in October 1856, less than one year marriage. In the spring of 1856 Mr. Moon removed to Iowa and engaged in farming there. October 29, 1859, he married Sarah A. Gilbert, of New York birth, then living in Iowa, and they continued to live there until the spring of 1873. They then came to Sherman county and secured a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of land three miles west of Loup City, where they lived until 1885, when Mr. Moon was elected county judge and moved to Loup City. Prior to that time he had been ap-



pointed to fill the unexpired term of his predecessor. Later he served several years as county surveyor, and in each capacity acquitted himself with credit to himself and his office. In early days he was instrumental in organizing school district number fourteen, and served on the school board many years. He has always been actively interested in and closely identified with the upbuilding and development of Sherman county, and stands for progress along all lines of endeavor. He is one of the best known men in his part of the state and has the confidence and regard of a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. His wife died January 18, 1893, at Loup City, survived by her husband and four daughters. She and her husband had lost a son prior to her death.
   The four daughters of Judge Moon are as follows: Mary C., wife of G. P. Callaham, lives in Sioux county, Nebraska, and they have two children; Kate B., wife of Dr. A. S. Main, lives at Loup City; Lydia A., wife of Edwin Angier, of Loup City, has two children; and Effie M., of Sioux county, Nebraska.
   In 1908 Judge Moon removed to Sioux county, where he homesteaded four hundred and eighty acres of land, under the Kincaid act, on which he now lives. He has a vivid recollection of the trying experiences of early frontier life, but does not regret identifying himself with the region in which he has witnessed so remarkable a chance and period of development during the past forty years. His service in the civil war began July 28, 1862, when he enlisted as a member of Company H, of the Twenty-first Iowa Infantry. He served until the close of the war and was discharged at Clinton, Iowa reaching home July 28, 1865. The important engagements in which he participated were: Fort Gibson, Champion Hill, Big Black River, Siege of Vicksburg, campaign of Spanish Fort and Mobile and numerous skirmishes. He acquitted himself worthily and is entitled to look back with pride on his record.
   Mr. Moon lived but a short time in the pioneer soddy, but occupied a log house two winters in Sherman county, as well is living in that kind of a dwelling in Iowa and Illinois.
   He is a republican in politics and a member of the Methodist church and of the Grand Army of the Republic.



   A son of the west, Stephen C. Lynde, grain and coal dealer of Hartington, has known little of life except in the west since his advent to this breathing world in Geneva, Freeborn county, Minnesota, October 12, 1857, a period known as "Johnny-cake times" by the early settlers because corn meal formed almost their only food for a time. He was one of the first white children born in that country. His parents, Isaac and Parthena (Clark) Lynde, were natives of Jefferson county, New York, and his paternal grandfather was a soldier in the war of 18l2. The parents came west in 1851 or 1852, and lived almost two years at Warren, Illinois; at Dubuque, Iowa a year, and settled in Freeborn county, Minnesota, in 1855. They lived in Freeborn county until the fall of 1863, when they again removed to Warren, Jo Daviess county, Illinois, where the father died in 1883, and the mother in 1901.
   Here our subject lived until attaining his majority, when he again turned his face to the setting sun. He returned to Freeborn county where he found work for a year and then moved on to the farther west and soujourned for a time in Yankton, prior to his becomiug a citizen of Nebraska in 1879. He filed oh a timber claim three and a half miles west of where Coleridge is now, to which he perfected title. He boarded with a family near and found work on neighboring farms. After proving up oh his land he came to Yanktoon and became driver for one of the early livery men of the town. On one of these drives out into Douglas county South Dakota, he had occasion to visit Fort Randall, and while here met the famous chief Sitting Bull, smoking with him in his tepee a pipe of peace.
   In 1882 he filed on a homestead in Douglas county, eleven miles northwest of Grand View, at a time before the railroad had reached the town. He broke prairie for settlers to sustain himself, but remained on the homestead but a short time. Returning to Cedar county, he carried mail between Ponca, St. James, and Yankton until making his permanent residence in Hartington early in September of 1883. He ran a dray line for six or eight months and then went into the livery business, in which he was engaged for upwards of twenty years, duiing which time, in 1888 his farm with some of his stock was burned makin almost a total loss; the fire was, no doubt of incendiary orgin, but who his enemy could have been he positively knew. Disposing of his farm in 1905 he took a trip to Texas and securing nothing in that section that seemed as promising as Nebraska returned to Hartington, entered the grain and coal business, and has prospered in a comfortable way in his new career.
   Mr. Lynche was married at Jane's Mill near Jones, February 23, 1887 to Miss Lizzie Griffiths, a native of Wales, a point near the border not far from the English manufacturing city of Manchester. Her parents, Richard and Mary (Williams) Griffiths, died in their native county. and the orphan girl started to join an uncle in the new world. Coming with friends as far as Ohio she came alone to South Dakota, where she joined her uncle, John Richards, known to the Indians as "Honest John," then post-trader at the Boule agency. Four children were born to Mr. Lynde and wife, namely: Lloyd, employed in a bank at Wynott ; Alice, attending the state agricultural college at Ames, Iowa; Margaret, clerk in the Hartington postoffice; and Edward, a pupil in the Hartington schools.



   Mr. Lynde escaped one of the severe blizzards that have swept the west since his first coming in 1879; at the time of the storm in October, 1880, he was buying grain at Warren, Illinois, where he had returned for a time. In the Blizzard of January 12, 1888, he luckily had none of his teams out ; one, however, was hitched to the vehicle ready to start, but the storm broke before they left the barn. When he first came there were many herds of antelope in the open country between Hartington and Creighton. He saw many deer on his homestead claim in South Dakota, and wolves, too, were numerous, howling on the hill tops around his ranch house waiting a chance to get to his poultry.
   Mr. Lynde has seen the country develop from a wilderness, and has had his share in the winning of the west. Of such men, sturdy, industrious, and thrifty, is the greatness of the great prairie commomwealths due.
   Mr. Lynde is a lifelong democrat ; he is a member of the Episcopal church, and of the Masonic fraternity at Hartington.



   The gentleman whose name heads this personal history was identified with the agricultural, civic, and business interests of eastern Nebraska, a great many years, and was well known as a prosperous and successful citizen.
   Ebenezer Hards was born in Rushville, Schuyler county, Illinois, October 24, 1844, and when ten years of age went with his parents to Annawan, Illinois, where he grew to manhood. In May of 1864, Mr. Hards enlisted in Company K, One Hundred thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and was honorably discharged on expiration of his term of service at the close of the war. Before his discharge, however, he was transferred to hospital service, and then became provost marshal.
   On July 27, 1869, at Annawan, Illinois, Mr. Hards was married to Miss Melvine C. Morris, who was born in New York State, but later moved to Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Hards made their first home near Des Moines, Iowa where they lived until 1871, when they came to Merrick county, Nebraska, and homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land near Chapman, Nebraska. After spending four years on the farm they moved to Central City, where he engaged in mercantile business. For many years he was one of the leading business men of the city, and was known as an honorable and conservative business man who gained and retained the confidence of all. He was prosperous and successful and retired from business in 1899.
   After long months of suffering, Mr. Hards died August 17, 1902, survived by his wife who lives her pleasant home in Central City, surrounded by a large circle of friends.
   Mr. Hards was a member of Buford Post number twenty-three Grand Army of the Republic, of Central City, also a member of the Knights of Pythias. He was a public spirited man, one whom the community could ill afford to lose. He held a high place in the estimation of all.



   Prominent among Knox county 's old settlers is Patrick O'Malley, who, since 1878, has made this region his home and done his share in the developing of the agricultural resources of this part of the country.
   Mr. O'Malley is a native of Ireland, being born in Carn Village, January 15, 1829. He followed farming there during his young manhood, and was married in his home vicinity in 1860, to Mary Roach. Mr. and Mrs. O'Malley have four children, Peter, Pat, Lawrence and James. They remained in Ireland up to 1870, at that time leaving for the United States, embarking at Liverpool on a steamship. Upon landing in New York little time was spent in that city, they going directly to Pennsylvania, where for eight years Mr. O'Malley worked as shipping clerk in a glassware and crockery store. They then came west to Nebraska, as above stated. His first location was in section twenty-one, township twenty-nine, range six, west, filing on a homestead, on which he proved up in due time. He barely made a living for his family during the early years in the west, often being without the actual necessaries of life, and finding it hard to make any improvements on his claim, but as times grew better they erected good buildings and eventually developed a fine farm.
   During the blizzard of 1888, Mr. O'Malley lost about thirty head of cattle, which was a severe setback to him. Then, in 1894, when his crops were well under way and prospects were fairly good for a bumper crop, along came those famous hot wind storms, which burned up all that he had growing. When they first came into Knox county their nearest trading point and supply station was at Yankton, where also they were obliged to haul their produce in wagons drawn with ox teams. Prairie fires often threatened them, and with other settlers he was obliged to fight for days to save their homes and property from the destroying flames.
   Mr. O'Malley now has two hundred and eighty acres of good land, a comfortable residence, fine groves, and everything that goes to make up a model rural home. He has considerable stock, raises splendid crops of grain, etc., each year, having the reputation of being a thoroughly successful agriculturalist and stockman.
   Mr. O'Malley has made two trips back to his old home in Ireland, and enjoyed to the fullest extent his visits with old friends there.




   Dr. Eugene L. Thomas, one of the well chosen former public officials of Nance county, Nebraska, who has served as county treasurer, and by his faithful and efficient labor in this capacity gained the complete confidence of his fellowmen, resides in Fullerton, and has large business and professional interests in the city where he has lived for a considerable number of years.
   Dr. Thomas is a native born westerner, opening his eyes on the world at Whitesville, Mo., April 7 1877. He is a son of Dillard J. and Phoebe Thomas, the third in order of birth in their family of five children, three of whom still make Missouri their home, while a son resides in New York state. Both parents live at Tarkio, Missouri. Eugene received his elementary education in his home vicinity, and as a young man attended the Stanberry Normal college in Missouri, graduating from that school in July, 1894, from the literary and musical departments. He held the position of professor of music in Gainesville college, Missouri, for about a year, then took up the study of dentistry at the University of Pennsylvania, remaining for three years, and was graduated in the class of '98. His first location was at Tarkio, Missouri, where he practiced for three years, and in June, 1901, came to Fullerton and opened an office which he carried on for three years, building up a good patronage and being well liked by all with whom he had any dealings.
   In November, 1905, Dr .Thomas was elected county treasurer on the republican ticket, aud two years later re-elected, and filled the office to the satisfaction of all, his last term expiring in January, 1910. When he first came into Nance county, Dr. Thomas purchased three hundred and twenty acres of land on section twenty-five, township sixteen, range seven, and this he has now in the finest possible condition as a stock and grain farm. He also owns considerable town property, and his residence is one of the finest in the county. Since the expiration of his term of service as county treasurer Dr. Thomas has been engaged in the real estate business at Fullerton in partnership with John A. Weems, under the firm name of Thomas & Weems.
   Dr. Thomas was married on June 6, 1900, to Miss Elsie O. Campbell, of Langdon, Missouri, where her mother still resides, her father being dead. She has one brother living in Fullerton, and another in Langdon, Missouri. Dr. and Mrs. Thomas have three daughters: Helen. M., Eugenia J., and Elsie L., all charming little misses, and they form a beautiful home circle.
   Dr. Thomas was a member of the city council elected in 1901, for two years.



   One of the best known men of Atkinson, Nebraska, is Conrad G. Boehme, a veteran of the civil war and now retired from active life. He has been a resident of Nebraska since about 1877, and has been an active influence in the development and progress of every community where he lived. His early life was eventful, and he has traveled through many parts of the country in the way of pleasure and business. He is a native of Amsterdam, Holland, born September 21, 1842, a son of George and Elizabeth ( Fossbeck) Boehme, the father being a German and the mother of French and Holland parentage. George Boehme was quite a traveler in his youth and in company with a brother visited all parts of Europe and made several trips to America, during one of which he visited Milwaukee, then a mere trading post. He was financially well off and brought a snug fortune with him when he came to the United States. He and his wife located on a farm twelve miles west of Springfield, Sangamon county, Illinois, and at one time he had sixty thousand dollars in gold in a Springfield bank.
   At the time of the beginning of the Civil war Conrad Boehme was living with his parents in Sangamon county, Illinois, where he was reared and educated, and August 11, 1861, he enlisted in Company D, Twenty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. After spending a short time at Hannibal, Missouri, the regiment proceeded to St. Louis by way of Macon, went by boat from St. Louis to Commerce, Missouri, and soon afterward participated in an action at Tipton, Kentucky, in which six thousand confederates were captured. They were in the forefront at the battles of Iuka and Corinth and the Siege of Vicksburg, and also participated in the fight at Jackson, Mississippi. For four months afterwards Mr. Boehme was detailed under John A. Logan, and after rejoining his regiment participated in the engagement at Pearl River. Following further maneuvers they were in the thick of the fight at Missionary Ridge, in which the regiment lost one hundred and twenty-seven men. they also took part in the fights at Lookout Mountain and Atlanta, resulting in the fall of the city. They wintered at Scottsville, Alabama, proceeding thence to Atlanta with skirmishing all the way on one or more of the three roads along which the army proceeded on its way to the great southern stronghold, and this condition lasted from May 1 until August 27, 1864, when the city fell. Having completed the term for which he had enlisted, Mr. Boehme was discharged shortly before General Sherman began his famous march to the sea, and at the time of Lee's surrender was in a hospital at Memphis. He had reached Springfield at the time of Lincoln's assassination and viewed the body of the martyred president in that city, where it lay in state, prior to interment at Vine-



gar Hill, the eminence now occupied by the pressent state house.
   Mr. Boehme's first visit to Nebraska occurred April, 1865, when he came with several of his comrades in arms on the boat "Montana," to Omaha, nineteen days from St. Louis. About two weeks after his arrival he, was taken very ill and started back to St. Louis, but his malady was so severe that he was unable to bear the voyage and four of his comrades carried him ashore at Brownsville, where he remained two weeks, too ill to be moved. About a month from the time he had landed at Omaha he took a boat for St. Louis, proceeded by rail from that city to Springfield, where his father met him with a wagon containing several mattresses, and took him twelve miles out to the family home. There he soon recovered his usual health, so that at the end of eight weeks he took a position as traveling salesman for a Buffalo hardware firm and traveled eight months through the state of Indiana. Then, proceeding to St. Louis, he entered the employ of the Lilly Foundry Company, remaining with them a year and a half. He spent some time farming with his father and then went to New Orleans and thence to Galveston. Soon afterward he went to Vera Cruz, Mexico, by water, and there was offered a place in the Mexican army, which he did not consider a favorable place for a "gringo" like himself, so returned to the United States, and after sojourning for a time in each of several cities along the river, reached home, soon after which he married and rented a farm near Bowling Green, Missouri, remainingg there three years.
   After spending about one year in Sangamon county, Illinois, about 1877 Mr. Boehme came to Cuming county, Nebraska, and took charge of a ranch of eighteen hundred acres of land three miles north of West Point, for his brother-inlaw. A year later he began his career as a railroad man, in the track department of the Elkhorn Valley Company, whose road is at present a part of the Northwestern system. He was set at work ballasting from the Missouri river to Valentine, and in 1881 took charge of the gravel pit west of town, and superintended the loading of thirty to forty car's of gravel daily for use along the tracks. He was thus employed, under the direction of the general manager, Mr. Hughes, when by the carelessness of a train crew, he was thrown between the car's, where the wheels nearly cut him in two. The doctors packed him in ice and pronounced his case hopeless, but he graudally grew better and contradicted their decision by recovering, being a living example of what one man accomplished by sheer will power and determination not to die, though expected to do so. After spending three months on a bed of intense suffering, Mr. Boehme began moving around a little on crutches, and eventually grew able to get along without their support, recovering almost his former vigorous health.
   The marriage of Mr. Boehme was solemnized west of Springfield, Illinois, August 17, 1871, when he was united with Miss Mary E. Yates, daughter of William and Jane (Shape) Yates, and a niece of the famous war governor of Illinois. Mrs. Yates, a native of Kentucky, died in May, 1909, at the age of eighty-seven years. Mrs. Boehme was born in Adair county, Kentucky, and died June 9, 1909, having borne her husband eight children, namely: Richard F. W., living under the parental roof, is a carpenter of unusual skill and also able to work at other branches of building work; Virginia Alice married R. Everett Marshall, of Atkinson; George E. is on a ranch in South Dakota; Lulu married Frank Wollen, of Fremont; Justin L., an unusual well-built athlete, was killed in February, 1905; Arthur, a carpenter and builder, lives with his father; Luella, wife of Dell Akin, the postmaster of Atkinson, and Ruth, the youngest of three daughters.
   In the memorable blizzard which occurred a few years after Mr. Boehme came to Nebraska, he performed a most praiseworthy part in helping to save the children of some of his neighbors. his own children were in two schools in different sections of the town. He went first to the southern school, where the younger ones were, and together with his own and several other children, proceeded to the school in the northern part of town. He found guide ropes stretched from the depot to the school and took twelve or fourteen children to his own house. On the first day of the blizzard, which lasted from October 15, to 17, Mr. Boehme had charge of a section gang three miles from Scribner, and at the time the storm commenced the pay car had just visited them and paid the men. When the storm broke they pushed the car into town and were unable to do any work on the road for three days. When he first came to Atkinson there was no depot there and not even a tank, and he has witnessed the remarkable development of the town to its present size and prosperity. During the early days of his residence in the state he often found it necessary to fight prairie fires for days at a time.
   In politics Mr. Boehme is a republican and cast his first vote in Cartwright Hall, in Sangamon county, in 1864. He is, a member of the Ancient Order United Workmen and until discontinuance of the Grand Army of the Republic post at Atkinson belonged to same, having held the office of post commander and various other offices. For a time after coming to Nebraska he belonged to the Knights of Pythias. He saw Nebaska in its most primitive state, when the prairie was unbroken as far as the mountains, and has witnessed the gradual change of the face of the country to one of homes and farms, interspersed with towus, villages and cities. He has never regretted casting his lot with the great



west, having found financial profit in the change, and having there established a good home, the scene of happiness and content.



   The gentleman whose name heads this personal history is one of the many pioneers of Nebraska who for many years carried on a diversified system of agriculture in a most successful manner, with results that richly rewarded his industry aud thrift. He became owner of a fine estate in Boone township, and is widely known as one of the substantial and worthy citizens of Boone county. He now resides in Albion with his family.
   Justin Postle is a native of the town of Friendship, Alleghany county, New York state, born on February 24, 1837, and is a son of Cyrenus and Olive Postle, the fourth in order of birth in their family of seven children, father and mother both now dead. When Justin was about four years of age the family moved to Wisconsin, and there he grew to manhood, following farming with his father until his eighteenth year, at which time he went into Minnesota. He was married on May 20, 1860, to Miss Amelia Bennett, of Michigan. In 1870 they returned to Wisconsin, and engaged in the hotel business at Oregon, which he carried on for about one year, then went back to farming, continuing in that occupation up to the spring of 1884. He then came on to Nebraska, settling in Boone county on a section of land which he purchased. This farm was situated seven miles southeast of Albion, and was a fine tract of land, remaining the home place for about twenty years, during which time Mr. Postle succeeded in putting many improvements on it, erecting a complete set of substantial farm buildings, planting trees of all kinds, and altogether making of it one of the finest and most productive and valuable properties in the county. He retired from active farm life in 1903, removing to Albion, and has since made that city his home.
   Mr. and Mrs. Postle have had five children, namely: Emma J., who married George Clapp, of Boone county; Charles F., a widower, of Boone, Iowa; Cyrenus L., married and living in this county, and Eudora, wife of William C. Rengler, and Nellie A., wife of Fred E. Culver, both of Boone county. The family are highly esteemed by all in the region as worthy citizens, and among the prominent pioneers of that part of Nebraska.
   In 1910 Mr. and Mrs. Postle celebrated their golden wedding anniversary, at which all their children and grandchildren were present-there being sixteen of the latter.
   Our subject has always been deeply interested in the upbuilding of his county and state, and has aided materially in bringing about the prosperity enjoyed in the region at the present time. He served on the school board of district number five for a number of years.



   J. H. Brugger, one of the leading farmers and stockmen of Wayne county, Nebraska, has always contributed his full share toward the upbuilding and improvenient of his community, and conditions in his county and state.
   He was born in Snyder county, Pennsylvania,, May 11, 1874, and is a son of Jacob and Katherine Brugger, also natives of the Keystone state. The father's parents immigrated to America from Germany before his birth and spent their last days in Peunsylvania. Jacob Brugger and wife were parents of nine children seven now living. J. H. Brugger was brought by his parents to Indiana when he was about six years of age, and about 1887 the family came to Fremont, Nebraska, and for a time rented land.
   In 1891, Jacob Brugger purchased the farm on section fourteen, township twenty-six, range two, east, Wayne county. Jacob Brugger died May 8, 1901, and his wife died May 7, 1887. After the death of Jacob Brugger, his son, J. H., purchased the farm where he has since continued to reside. He has since been actively interested in making all possible improvements and has brought his land to a high state of cultivation. He has a comfortable residence and substantial buildings for other uses, and devotes his place to general farming, with special attention to stock raising. His farm is pleasantly located, and he is one of the more progressive and enterprising farmers of the county, paying much attention to modern methods of scientific farming. He is one of the substantial aud influential citizens of Wayne county and has a large number of friends.
   In 1901, Mr. Brugger was united in marriage with Miss Laura Pryor, a native of Iowa, and a daughter of Peter and Mary Pryor. Four children have been born to Mr. Brugger and wife, namely: Norbit, Walden, Eulalie and Dale.



   John C. Burke was born in Ireland, and in his young manhood learned the trade of boilermaker. At the time that the confederate vessel "Alabama" was being built at Shields, England, Mr. Burke and his brother were employed on its construction, and upon its completion, a large part of its crew enlisted for service out of the shops, supposing the vessel was destined for South African service. Upon being launched and equipped for sea service, the "Alabama" sailed under sealed orders, which when opened revealed the fact that they were bound for the United States and enlisted in the confederate service. Thereupon a mutiny occurred and the men were returned to the original shipping port. But some months later on Mr. Burke came to the United States in the early sixties, when he enlisted in the Twenty-second Iowa Volunteer Infantry,

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