his partner could have done likewise had they so desired. Later, while blasting in the shaft, the partner lost his eyes, and had both arms and both legs, as well as five ribs, broken. After this sad event, Mr. Dickerson, who had meantime returned to Nebraska, ordered his quarter interest to be sold, and the proceeds devoted to the needs of his unfortunate friend and partner.
   For about three years after his return to Nebraska in 1881, Mr. Dickerson was engaged in a mercantile business, which he then sold, and opened a furniture store. He disposed of this in turn, and established a dray business, which has prospered well, and in which he is a pioneer, as mentioned in the first paragraph of this article.
   Mr. Dickerson was married in Atkinson, June 21, 1882, to Miss Eva Davis, born near Mazeppa, Minnesota, daughter of James and Anna (Lyman) Davis, who were early settlers of Nebraska, reaching Holt county November 12, 1878, and settling on a ranch three miles south of Atkinson. Nine children have been born of this union, all of whom survive, and they are a family of whom any parents might feel justifiably proud. Winnie, the eldest child, is employed as clerk in a store at Atkinson; Ivan is an employe of the First National Bank of O'Neill; Ray is employed in a hardware store; Harold, Jane, Clara, Eva, Bernice and Hazel are all in school. The children are unusually rugged and strong, and up to the present time their parents have spent less than one hundred dollars for medicines and doctors for all of them.
   Politically, Mr. Dickerson is a staunch republican. He became a member of the Masonic order at Atkinson, and joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at O'Neill. He also belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Modern Woodmen of America.
   Few can recount a more striking personal experience than he underwent during the three days blizzard of October, 1880, in which his friend, Mr. Wolf, bore him company. They had been trapping on the Big Sandy, and left their cabin to go to the camp of a Mr. McElvaney, intending to join him in bringing a yoke of oxen to O'Neill. As the day had been comparatively warm, traveling was fairly comfortable, but while on their way over the hills, the storm broke over their heads almost with the unexpected suddenness of a thunder clap, and within a few minutes the air became full of blinding snow. Panic overtook the cattle, and Mr. McElvaney saw the futility of trying to make further progress under such conditions, so he turned back with the animals, and reached his camp safely. The others, however, pushed on toward the north, while the storm was increasing in fury with each moment, and the road was soon obliterated, so they decided to turn back, as Mr. McElvaney had done, and followed their own trail toward their starting point as best they might, but as they had been on the road for several hours, it took a long time to grope their way along in the teeth of the storm, and it seemed as if they were trying to find their way in pitchy darkness. After floundering for several hours though drifts and unfamiliar landmark to them, and they knew it was bluffs, where a log lay across a small stream, a familiar landmark to them, and they knew it was but a short distance from their cabin, to which they made their way. As they had left some provisions there, they anticipated a warm supper, but were dismayed at finding their food gone. They found out subsequently that a party of hungry hunters had found shelter in the cabin, and, following the custom of the country, had helped themselves to all they found, supposing the owners were safe in town. It is hard to realize the pangs of hunger and cold suffered by the two men who were shut up by the blinding storm for the following three days, as they were without either food or fire for that length of time, and ice dust constantly sifted through the crevices in the loosely-built log shack. On the morning of the third day, the storm showed signs of abating, and, weak from hunger and cold, the two lonely men started again on their long and weary journey across twenty miles of drifted snow piled on the prairie between them and the town of O'Neill. They grew so exhausted before they had completed their long walk that they took turns resting and walking, one going until he felt worn out, then sitting down to rest until joined by his companion, when they would again plod on until forced to rest again, letting his companion take his turn at resting, after which the latter would eventually pass him in turn. Thus staggering on and resting by turn, they were met by Mr. McElvaney, who had reached the town with the oxen on the second day, and not finding his friends, had started back to look for them, keeping his fears for their safety to himself, however. He was tortured with conjectures as to their probable fate, and kept his watch to the north, so that as soon as the snow had ceased falling he started to seek them, and was overjoyed at seeing the two struggling forms, and to recognize them. Upon reaching the little town, Mr. Dickerson and his companion found that nothing was considered too good for them, as soon as their sufferings and the hardships through which they had just passed became known. It was an experience which would have worn out most men beyond their powers of endurance.
   Mr. Dickerson was also out in the blizzard of January 12, 1888, for a time. He and a cousin had gone south of the town for a load of hay, and were returning with it when the storm struck them, three and a half miles from home. The. cousin, a tenderfoot in the country, wanted to go under the wagon and wait until the flurry was over, but Mr. Dickerson knew better what to expect. The first blast overturned their load, and left them floundering under part of the hay.



   Mr. Dickerson unhitched the team, and led the horses home, keeping his eyes on the ground at every step in order to be able to see something of the road if possible. Although severely frosted, they reached home in safety. In early days, Mr. Dickerson often had to fight prairie fires, an experience which he had also met in boyhood while living in Wisconsin.
   The worst hailstorm he has known in the west killed thousands of birds in the trees near O'Neill, at the same time taking the bark off the north sides of many of the trees, a great number of which were thus killed. He lived in a log house for a time after occupying his claim, and his wife's family also lived in a log shack until they had time to erect a larger and more comfortable dwelling, which was also of logs. They burned hay for a time, as coal was too expensive and hard to procure, and wood too scarce, even along the streams. In early days, Mr. Dickerson shot antelope on the present site of O'Neill, but the bigger game hid already been driven westward to the mountains. There were a few deer, which, however, were not so plentiful as antelope, and one lone buffalo was seen by the early settlers in that region, though not by Mr. Dickerson. Mr. Dickerson knew most of the notable characters of his part of the state in the early days, among them being ''Kid" Wade, "Jack'' Nolan, "Limber Dick," "Black Bill'' and "Doc" Middleton, and he is one of the posse that finally captured the list named. He relates some very interesting incidents in connection with this event. After his release, Doc Middleton returned to Atkinson, and Mr. Dickerson, who had married during the interim and was engaged in the furniture business, took him home to dine with his family, afterwards introducing him to many of the townspeople, most of them newcomers, who had great curiosity as to the identity of the stranger.
   In concluding this article, we may say that no man in Atkinson is held in higher estimation by his fellows than Mr. Dickerson, and a man who has reared so large and creditable a family as he (with the assistance of his excellent and able wife and helpmate) is a blessing to his state and nation. Honest, industrious and energetic, he has been an inspiring example to all young men who have entered the business field in his locality.



   James Worden, one of the old-time farmers and stockmen of Boone county, Nebraska, has, since settling here in the early days, been engaged in various business enterprises, and is today recognized as a leading citizen and prosperous resident of Petersburg.
   Mr. Worden was born in Grant county, Wisconsin, on August 20, 1864, and was the youngest of two boys and three girls in the family of B. A. and Esther P. Worden. The father was born in New York state, and came to Boone county in company with Ira Whipple in the spring of 1872, traveling by team and wagon overland to look the country over. In the fall of the same year, he returned to Wisconsin and the following spring brought his entire family to Boone county, they also coming by wagon through the country. The father homesteaded immediately, and later two sons and one daughter also filed on homesteads. The parents are now living in Oregon, where they went for residence in 1894, and one son, Charles, and a daughter, also made that state their permanent home.
   At the time of coming to Boone county, James Worden was nine years of age, and his early education was received in the country schools here. At the age of twenty, he began for himself, purchasing a farm in 1885, situated about a mile and a half northwest of Petersburg, and resided there up to 1893. He followed mixed farming and stock raising, and achieved considerable success in both enterprises during his residence there.
   In 1894, Mr. Worden went to Illinois, purchasing a farm near Ashley, which he carried on for about one year, then returned to Boone county and was connected with different business enterprises. For six years he was with T. H. Sturdevant in the lumber and grain business, and afterwards started a livery and sales stable, which he carried on to October, 1910, when he sold. On his well improved farm he has one of the finest orchards in the county, raising annually over one thousand bushels of fruit.
   Mr. Worden was married on February 16, 1884, to Miss Edith Ganiard, who comes of a prominent pioneer Boone county family. They have two children, Grace, who is a popular teacher in the public schools of Petersburg, and Fay, also living at home.
   Mr. Worden is a truly self-made man, and is held in the highest esteem in his locality. He has always been prominent in political affairs in his county and state, and has held different public offices, serving as assessor of Oakland precinct and has been president of the school board of Petersburg for a number of years. In the year 1910 he served as census enumerator for the United States census taken that year.



   Mr. Doctor A. Jones, a prosperous retired farmer now residing in Wayne, is the seventh son in a family of eight sons and two daughters born to his parents; and in view of the supposed healing qualities of the seventh son he was baptized Doctor Albert Jones. His parents, Henry and Elizabeth (Hicks) Jones, were natives of Maryland and Ohio respectively; the former died in 1906, the latter about 1868.
   Mr. Jones was born in Clermont county, Ohio,



January 25, 1858, and there reared. At the age of twenty, he went to Texas and for two years was employed on the ranch of Atterburg Brothers, riding the range as a cowboy in Texas and Oklahoma for two years. Coming to Mills county, Iowa, for a time he was employed at farm labor and then rented land and farmed for a year or two prior to his moving to Nebraska in 1889. He purchased a half-section three miles west of Wayne, and lived here nearly twenty years, making farming a very successful vocation.
   In 1908, he purchased a fine dwelling adjoining Court Square in the city of Wayne, and gives his personal attention to his farming interests near the city.
   Mr. Jones was married in Mills county, Iowa, June 16, 1880, to Miss Lucy E. Strahan, who was born in Henderson county, Illinois. Her parents, J. M. and Frances (Davis) Strahan moved to eastern Iowa in 1865, and later on out to Mills county, where she and Mr. Jones met. Of six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Jones, all are living; they are: Marcellus F., who is running the home farm; Gale, who is the wife of George Sherbohrn, resides in Wayne; Jay , is farming four miles west of Wayne; Roscoe returned to the former residence of the family in Mills county, Iowa, and engages in farming there; Albert, who is an expert motorist, acts as his father's chauffeur in his business trips through the country; and Dorothy, the youngest, is still in school.
   Deer and antelope were extinct in the region when Mr. Jones came to Wayne county, but they were plentiful in Texas when he was employed there on the ranch. Much of the country throughout northeastern Nebraska was open prairie at the time Mr. Jones settled, here. In the period he has been a resident of the cornhusker's state, he has seen all this change-where was once open country covered with waving prairie grasses, are now to be seen highly tilled farms, miles of trees, substantial and elegant farm dwellings; big red barns, sheds, stacks of grain, and herds of cattle and horses; a country teeming with wealth and enjoying a prosperity that few sections can equal anywhere within the national domain.
   Mr. Jones is a democrat, and represented his county in the legislature during the years 1896, 1897 and 1898. He is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America and the Eagle lodges.



   One of the earliest settlers of Staunton county, as well as one of the most successful retired farmers of that locality, is Carl Luedeke, who is now enjoying a well-earned life of comfort and ease in his quiet home in Staunton. His portrait will be found on another page of this volume.
   Mr. Luedeke was born in the village of Schwedt am Oder, province of Brandenburg, Prussia, on April 24, 1844, and lived in this little village for twenty-five years. His parents, Christian and Louisa (Biljet) Luedeke, lived out their days in their native land. Mr. Luedeke served in the military of the Emperor of Germany from June 12, 1866 to 1868.
   Mr. Luedeke came to America in 1869, sailing from Hamburg on the 24th of May in the "Westphalia." The vessel ran into hidden rocks near the coast, necessitating a return to Havre, where the vessel was placed in dry-dock for repairs. Mr. Luedeke finally reached New York City on June 4, proceeding further west by rail to Fremont, via Omaha. From here he went with a farmer to Rock Creek, Cuming county, which at that time was considered quite a city.
   After working by the month for Mr. Newman for a year, he filed on a homestead about sixteen miles west of West Point, and for thirteen years this was his home. After making many improvements on the place, he sold the farm in 1883, and purchased a quarter-section about nine miles south and west of Pilger, in Staunton county, to which he later added an adjoining tract of one hundred and twenty acres. By the exercise of thrift and industry, Mr. Luedeke accumulated farm after farm, until at the time of his retirement from active life, in December, 1903, he owned five hundred acres in Staunton county. He has since sold a quarter section and purchased two hundred and forty acres near Orchard, Antelope county, on which his son Emil resides.
   Mr. Luedeke was married in Schwedt am Oder on the 14th of April, 1869, to Miss Henrietta Fuener, a native of the same province. They were married just ten days before they sailed for America, the voyage making a most eventful wedding journey. Ten children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Luedeke, six of whom are living: Carl, Herman, Flora (now Mrs. Fred Kassebaum), Otto, Emil, and Hattie, now Mrs. William Wagner.
   Mr. Luedeke is a staunch democrat, and he is also a member of the Sons of Herman, as well as the German Singing Society of Staunton.
   Mr. Luedeke has his full share of pioneer experiences. He occupied in succession all the different kinds of dwellings used by the settlers in this region. His first home was a dug-out in which his family lived during the first summer, until a log house could be built. Although this had a dirt floor, they lived there for several years until the third dwelling, (also a log house) was erected. This had a floor of rough cottonwood boards, hauled from the mill at Rock Creek. Later, a fine frame house was built, which is Mr. Luedeke's home at the present time.
   Like other pioneers, he suffered many discouragements. From 1873 to 1877, the grasshoppers did more or less damage to all his crops, and in 1874, they took everything. Prairie fires



often threatened, destruction, and during his first season on the farm, his granary was struck by lightning and burned. it was only a small structure, but its destruction was at that time a great loss to Mr. Luedeke.
   The great blizzards, which sometimes raged for days, were also perils to be taken into consideration. For the most part, the settlers relied upon the cottonwood trees growing in the river bottoms for their fuel, but if the supply ran low, it was not uncommon for them to burn corn instead. Many of them lacked money to buy coffee, and were forced to use instead parched wheat, rye, and barley.
   Mr. Luedeke is recognized as one of the prominent citizens of the county, and during his long residence here has gained the confidence and esteem of a large circle of acquaintances.

Carl Luedeke.


   The gentleman named here was an old settler in the eastern part of Nebraska, and was well and favorably known.
   Paul Hoppen was born in Colnam-on-Rhine, Germany, December 4, 1846, and was the eldest of four children, having two sisters and one brother. One sister is living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the other in New York, and the brother in Sidney, Nebraska.
   Mr. Hoppen came to America in the latter sixties settled in the state of Wisconsin, and engaged in the manufacturing of wagons. In 1870 our subject came to Columbus, Nebraska, and went into the hotel business.
   On February 28, 1874, Mr. Hoppen was joined in holy wedlock to Mrs. Catherine Wellman, who was born in Germany and came to America in 1869. Mr. and Mrs. Hoppen were blessed with seven children, whose names are as follows: Edward, deceased February 21, 1908, survived by a wife and one child living in Columbus, Nebraska; William, deceased in 1878; Anna P., married to Jasper Nichols, who have two children and live in Columbus, Nebraska ; William L., deceased in 1888; Emma H., who resides at home; Marie, deceased in 1887; and Paul H., who lives at home.
   Mr. Hoppen homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land on Shell creek and purchased forty acres adjoining. He died November 1, 1900, at his home in Columbus, Nebraska, survived by his wife and four children.
   Mrs. Hoppen's father died in 1867, in Germany, and her mother died in 1895, in the state of Nebraska. She has one sister, Mrs. L. Schwarz who lives in Columbus, Nebraska ; one brother, who resides in Platte county, and another sister, deceased.
   Mrs. Hoppen is still living in the old home in Columbus, Nebraska, surrounded by a large circle of friends. Her husband was one of the earlier settlers of Platte county and was widely and favorably known.



   Prescott Hemenway, proprietor of one of the most valuable estates in Antelope county, Nebraska, has been a resident of that locality for over forty-one years. He is prominently known throughout the northeastern part of the state as one of the foremost farmers and stock men of Nebraska, and after many years of hard labor in building up his business, is now prepared to enjoy the remaining years of his life in peace and comfort surrounded by a host of good friends and acquaintances. Not being content to sit idly by, Mr. Hemenway still looks after his farm and business.
   Mr. Hemenway is a native of Wayne township, Dupage county, Illinois, born April 4, 1849. His father, Charles E. Hemenway died in 1893 at the age of seventy-six years. His grandfather and uncle fought in the revolutionary war. Our subject's mother, Lucy (Fay) Hemenway, was born in the state of Massachusetts in July, 1820, and died in 1864.
   In 1870 Mr. Hemenway started for the west, went to Fremont, Nebraska, in March, 1870 and from there drove to the place which he homesteaded September 13, 1870, in section twenty-three, township twenty-six, range eight, Norfolk being the nearest postoffice, fifty miles away. Mr. Hemenway built a dug-out on this land in which he lived for one year, then built a log house in which he lived and "batched it." Later he took a timber claim of one hundred and sixty acres in Blaine township, December 21, 1872. In those early days many hardships were experienced, and in 1873 the grasshopper raid did great damage, destroying all the crops, and also again in 1876, which proved a hard blow for a young man starting in life. But he held on, stuck to his land and persevered, and has since prospered to an extent which has amassed a competency for him, placed him among the most solid and substantial of Nebraska's citizens.
   Mr. Hemenway was united in marriage in Elgin, Illinois, March 6, 1875, to Miss Maria Switzer, and Mr. and Mrs. Hemenway are the parents of six children, whose names are as follows: Herbert; Ray; Viola, wife of Mr. C. Rogers, she has one child and lives in Blain township; Byron; Hettie; and Mark.
   Mr. Hemenway, as before stated, is one of the foremost farmers and stock men of the state of Nebraska, and owns a fine estate of seventeen hundred acres of land. He has ten acres of beautiful grove, also a fine orchard. Mr. Hemenway is a republican, and is a member of the Odd Fellows and A. O. U. W.
   Mrs. Hemenway and daughter Hettie are members of the Degree of Honor.




   The McDonalds, descendants of the hardy highlanders of Scotland, are a long-lived race. The three brothers, Captain C. F., Captain William and Lieutenant James V., were early settlers in Nebraska, coming betimes in the years 1876 and 1884. They are natives of Smyth county, Virginia, where the family had resided for three or four generations, their plantations aggregating some fifteen hundred acres which were cultivated by their slaves prior to the war.
   The eldest, Captain C. F. McDonald, a veteran of the confederate army, was born December 27, 1824. He lived continuously in his native state until he came west, and was occupied as a farmer, drover, and hotel keeper. He had seen the coming conflict and had raised a company that was mustered into the confederate service the day of the firing on Fort Sumpter, and served until the surrender of Lee. In 1883, Captain C. F. came to Staunton county, Nebraska, and April 5, 1884, arrived in Pierce county. He has lived in Pierce City since November 5, 1884, and has served his adopted home well in the capacity of constable, deputy sheriff, and town marshal, and has held the office of justice of the peace for eighteen years.
   The second, Captain William McDonald, was with the argonauts crossing the plains in 1849, remaining on the Pacific coast three years, and then returned by way of Panama and New York. Raising a company on the outbreak of the civil war, he served until the last day in a Virginia regiment. In 1876 he came to Staunton county, Nebraska, and later to Pierce county, which he served some fifteen years as county judge. His death occurred in March, 1907, at the age of seventy-eight years.
   The third, James V. McDonald, resident of Pierce county, Nebraska, was born November 30, 1833, and from a slave on his father's plantation learned blacksmithing and grew to be one of the most expert horse-shoers in that region. He could turn twenty-four shoes, make the one hundred and ninety-two nails needed, and set them on the hoofs in a day, and could make by hand two nails at one heat. In August, 1862, he enlisted in Company E, Derrick's Infantry, Floyd's brigade, serving as lieutenant, and the year following was transferred to Company E, Johnson's Cavalry Brigade, in which he served until the close of the war, being at Lynchburg when he heard of Lee's surrender. He served as second lieutenant in the quartermaster's department most of the time.
   Of the fourteen children born to the parents of the above three subjects three sons and seven daughters lived to maturity and raised families. The father, Solomon McDonald, who died December 14, 1811, at the age of fifty-eight years, was a son of Columbus McDonald. The mother, Nancy A. (Cox) McDonald, was a daughter of William and Hannah (Lamma) Cox, both natives of Virginia.
   James V. McDonald was married August 27, 1857, in Bristol, Tennessee, to Miss Emeline A. Gannaway, a native of Smyth county Virginia. Of twelve children born to them, eight reached maturity: J. Beauregard McDonald, county clerk of Pierce county; Robert F., drowned at Pierce; Charles T., contractor and builder, of Pierce; George E., who died in 1892; Stella, wife of E. S. Glaze, of Pierce; Kenneth Wilton, attorney-at-law, of Plainview; Grundy E., prominent physician of Wyoming; Solomon R., employed in the office of the superintendent of the Rock Island railroad, at Fairbury, Nebraska.
   Kenneth W. McDonald, our subject, was born in Smyth county, Virginia, January 18, 1874, of a third generation born in the same house. He is a son of James V. and Emeline A. (Gannaway) McDonald. The mother is a daughter of John and Kizziah (Barringer) Gannaway, the latter a daughter of Adam and Elizabeth (Strafer) Gannaway. The paternal grandparents were William and Elizabeth (Wright) Gannaway, all of whom were natives of Virginia. Mrs. McDonald is a cousin of William Gannaway Brownlee, famous during the civil war under the name of "Parson Brownlee," as the "fighting parson," and later Governor of Tennessee, and for years was editor of the "Knoxville Whig." Orphaned at an early age, he was reared in the family with Mrs. McDonald.
   Kenneth W. McDonald attended school three years in his native state and graduated in the Pierce schools in 1892; read law in the office of his present partner, Fred H. Free, and was admitted to the bar of the state of Nebraska in November, 1906.
   The McDonalds are all staunch democrats, and several members of the family have held office in the county by the favor of that oldest political organization.



   John S. Schow, a farmer of ability and progressiveness, resides in Fairdale precinct, and is one of the respected citizens of Howard county. He has succeeded through many difficulties in building up a good farm and home, and may be classed among the self-made men of that locality, being now well-to-do and enjoying a comfortable home and pleasant surroundings.
   Mr. Schow was born in Denmark, June 11, 1848, and was the fifth in a family of six children born to his parents, Seren and Catherine Schow. When he was nine years old the family came to America, their first location being Iowa City. Iowa. After a short stay in that vicinity they packed their belongings in wagons and started to make the trip overland to Salt Lake City, Utah, leaving Iowa City about June 1st, and landing



in Utah August 15, 1857. In the party going to Utah were, about six hundred people, the wagon train being composed of sixty-six wagons and sixty-three vehicles which were called "handcars," and were propelled by hand power. After an eventful journey, tedious and discouraging experiences, they arrived at their destination, the Schow family locating at Spanish Forks, Utah, where they spent four years, engaged in farming. From there they went to Camp Floyd, which was the first soldiers' fort in Utah, and they made that their home for two years, following both farming and freighting, also herding stock on the plains, etc. These were really the pioneer days in Utah, and it is an interesting tale to listen to Mr. Schow's recital of the adventures they met with in those times. While living there, they were practically forced to remain cut off from all outside communication, as there were no regular trains or mode of travel excepting by wagon, etc.
   In 1864 Seren Schow and his family, consisting of himself, wife, our subject and another son, started for Nebraska, making this trip also by wagon drawn by one horse and an ox team. They were accompanied by three other families and their wagon teams, and during this trip they came upon a number of wagon parties who had been left stranded on the plains by Indians who had taken their horses and other stock which they were driving to new locations. Our subject and his family moved in Fremont on July 4th, and settled on a farm five miles north of that place which they occupied for nineteen years. The mother died there in 1873, and the father six years later, the sons remaining on the original homestead for several years.
   Our subject was married there to Mary Hansen, February 22, 1879, and she died in November of the same year. Mr. Schow soon afterwards moved into Nance county remaining there for nineteen years, then came into Howard county, arriving here on March 13, 1902. He at once purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land on sections seventeen and eighteen, township sixteen and range eleven, and here he has succeeded in building up a good home and farm, being classed among the well-to-do and progressive farmers of his locality He now owns six hundred and forty acres, all in the sections mentioned above except one quarter section in section nine, township fifteen, range ten.
   Mr. Schow was married the second time, in Nance county, to Mary Nielsen, the event occurring on April 6, 1883. Mrs Schow was born in Denmark, and came to America in 1881, settling in Nance county, Nebraska, with her brother where she met the man whom she later married. Mr. and Mrs. Schow have had ten children, nine of whom were born in Nance county, and the other in Howard county. They are named as follows: Mary, now deceased, Ana T., wife of Leonard Larson, John J., Andrew, Carrie L., Marie, Dora B., Laura, Ernest M., and a son who died in infancy. They are a fine family and have many friends in the community in which they live.
   Mr. Schow has served in different capacities in his precinct, now being on the school board of district number forty-three. Also, while living in Nance county, he held the office of school treasurer for thirteen years.



   Mingerson Coombs is one of the leading business men of Ord an is also one of the best known pioneers of Valley county. He was born in Knox county, Maine, on the 26th of March, 1845, and was the third of eight children born to Archibald and Harriet Newell Coombs. When he was only fourteen years of age, the family moved to LaPorte county, Indiana, where he worked on his father's farm until he had attained his majority.
   When Mr. Coombs became of age, he opened a store in New Carlisle, Indiana, and enjoyed a fair success there. In 1869, he moved to Berrien county, Michigan, where he bought a fruit farm. However, in 1873, he had an opportunity to dispose of the fruit farm at considerable advantage, so he sold it and came directly to Valley county, Nebraska, where he located a homestead and timber claim. It is a matter of gratification to Mr. Coombs that he succeeded in accomplishing here what few others did-taking a claim under the original timber act, which required the actual planting and cultivation of forty acres of timber. Mr. Coombs met with success with his efforts, many of the trees now standing being three feet in diameter and one on the place is over twelve feet in circumference.
   Mr. Coombs was engaged in farming for years, and of course, met with all the discouragements which caused so many to become "quitters." However, he stayed with the county until Nebraska has lived down the bad reputation given it in the early years. He has always had much to do with public affairs and at different times filled the office of county commissioner, county surveyor, county superintendent of schools, and mayor of Ord. This alone shows in what light he is regarded by the people. He is now engaged in mercantile business in Ord, and is one of the most prosperous men of the community.
   For nine years after coming to Valley county, Mr. Coombs was known as the "bachelor homesteader." His father and mother, however, came eventually to Valley county, and lived there for the rest of their lives, both living to a ripe old age. In 1882, Mr. Coombs was married to Miss Nellie Rowell in Creston, Iowa. Two children have been born to them, only one, Archibald K., now living.
   Mr. and Mrs. Coombs have always been closely



identified with the social life of Valley county, and have rendered great aid in the development of education in the community.



   In this volume is given the life history of many of the foremost citizens of the state of Nebraska, and none holds a higher place in the annals of the region than the gentleman whose name heads this review. Mr. Ostrem is one of the prominent early settlers of Madison county, has spent in all about twenty-five years in this region, and during that time has accumulated a fine property by dint of thrift, economy and perseverance, and also has done a great deal towards advancing the best interests of that part of the state.
   T. C. Ostrem comes from the country that has given to us so many of the brave and sturdy settlers, and possesses all the best traits of his Norwegian ancestors. He first saw the light on July 2, 1870, and was the ninth in a family of nine children born to Goodman and Caroline Ostrem.
   When only seventeen years of age, our subject left his native land and came alone to America, where he was told that plenty of cheap land was to be had for those who were willing to work for it. He crossed the sea as an emigrant, and on landing in New York made arrangements to proceed at once to Nebraska, arriving in Madison county in the month of April, 1887, working out on different ranches for several years. In 1892 he purchased some land in Boone county, and spent two years in farming it, then traded the property for the farm which he now occupies, situated on section seventeen, township twenty-one, range four. This he has transformed into a fine place, having a complete set of substantial buildings, including a handsome residence, and is classed as one of the wealthy men of his locality, his farm comprising three hundred and twenty acres.
   Mr. Ostrem was united in marriage to Miss Lettie Simonson, who was born and reared in six children, named as follows: Casper, Amanda, Norway. She died in 1905, leaving a family of Gustave, Berntena, Gerhart and Benjamin.
   In 1907 Mr. Ostrem was married to Miss Ingeborg Bargo, to whom one child has been born, but died in infancy.



   John C. Kellogg. born in Lake county, Illinois, January 15, 1846, was the third of six children born to Asahel and Eunice (Heald) Kellogg. John C., the subject of this sketch, lived here on the Illinois farm until he was then about twenty years of age. He then went east, living in the state of New Jersey for about eighteen months during 1866 and 1867, afterwards returning again to the Illinois home.
   About April, 1869, John Kellogg, with Cornelius Benson, and Alza and Edwin Stewart, left Lake county for Columbus, Nebraska. They purchased horses, wagons, household goods, etc., and loaded one car, coming by rail to Council Bluffs. Here they unloaded and were ferried across the river and from Omaha to Columbus, going by the overland route with their teams. Upon reaching the river at Columbus, they discovered that there was no wagon bridge at this point. However, they succeeded in running the wagons across the railroad bridge by hand and swam the horses across. This expedient saved them the railroad charge of $20.00 from Columbus to Duncan, which meant a great deal to them at this particular time.
   Daniel Benson and family, who were from the same locality in Illinois, joined them at Columbus. Mr. Kellogg took a pre-emption claim in Platte county, but in the latter part of August, 1871, he, in company with Alonzo Shepherd, Alza Stewart and S. C. Scott, came to the North Loup river valley, taking homesteads near what are now the towns of North Loup and Scotia. They all located their claims on the east side of the river, in Greeley county, which at that time was not yet organized, Mr. Kellogg taking his land in sections twenty-nine and thirty-two, township eighteen, range twelve, most of it lying along the river.
   Mr. Kellogg returned to Platte county, but in the spring of the following year he took up his permanent residence on the North Loup homestead. This original homestead remained his bachelor home until September, 1878, when his father and sister came to Greeley county, taking up their homestead on section thirty-two, township twelve, range eighteen. His mother had died in Illinois in 1869 but his father lived until 1896 on the Nebraska farm.
   After the arrival of Mr. Kellogg's father and sister, he made his home with them until his own marriage on January 30, 1879, to Miss Belle Scott, daughter of Samuel C. and Caroline (Raydure) Scott. It will be recalled that Mr. Scott came to Greeley county in 1871 while Mr. Benson came in 1869.
   Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg took up their residence on the Asahel Kellogg Farm, and they still reside there. This farm is now owned by Mr. Kellogg and his own homestead adjoins it.
   Mr. Kellogg passed successfully through the hardships of the early pioneer history of Nebraska. The struggle for many years was a severe one, requiring a strong determination and much hard work to overcome the adverse circumstances. Mr. Kellogg was one of the very few who stayed on the old homestead through the years of adversity. He now has over seven hundred acres of land, a fine, comfortable home, an usually well-equipped grain and stock farm, and is reckoned one of the most successful and

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