ably known. He owns thirteen hundred and twenty acres of stock and grain farm land, well improved and equipped, and has made a specialty of breeding Durham cattle and Poland China hogs. He is active in local affairs and for several years served as treasurer of school district number eighty-four. The family are prominent in social circles and are representative of the best interests of their community.



     In reviewing the history of Cedar county, Nebraska, the citizens who have contributed to her welfare must be given special mention, and a prominent place among this number is accorded the gentleman above named. He has been for many years a resident of the county and is universally respected as a man of integrity and excellent characteristics. He now has a comfortable home pleasantly situated in section twenty-three.
     Mr. Forsberg is a native of Sweden, and was born in 1867 in Linkoping. He received his education in the schools of his native land, and helped his parents, Peter and Carlion Forsberg, on their little farm.
     In 1882, our subscriber left Sweden via Gottenburg, on the steamer "Irene," bound for New York city. He came to Henry county, Illinois, and worked on a farm six miles south of Cambridge, the county seat, for ten years. Then in 1884, he came to Cedar county, Nebraska, where he bought the farm which he has since occupied.
     He has made many improvements of late years, and his farm now is a picture of thrift and industry.
     Mr. Forsberg came to Nebraska when there were quite a number of settlers in this region, and for this reason escaped many of the hardships which fell to the lot of the real pioneer. However, he did not entirely escape discouragements by any means. Even as late as 1894, he suffered quite a loss, when all his crops were a total failure owing to the hot, dry winds which prevailed.
     In 1897, our subscriber was united in marriage to Miss Emily Magensen. Six children have been born to them, upon whom they have bestowed the following names: Hilga, Ruth, Esther, Phoebe, Ida and Joseph.



     Among the younger residents of Merrick County, Nebraska, who have come to the front in a remarkable manner through industry and faithful effort, the gentleman above mentioned holds a prominent place, and is highly esteemed by all with whom he comes in contact.
     Thomas Windfield was born in Menard county, Illinois, January 8, 1875, and was the third of six children in the family of Troels and Hannah Windfield who had three sons and three daughters born to them. Troels Windfield, wife and five children, moved to Howard county, Nebraska, in 1884, settling on a farm. Troels Windfield, his wife, and a daughter, Mrs. Amelia Rasmussen, now live at Grand Island, Nebraska, and a son, Thurman, at Burwell, Nebraska. The other children are deceased.
     Thomas Windfield grew up in Howard and Merrick counties, receiving the common school education of that time, and by his own endeavors has mastered four or five languages, speaking the Danish, Swedish, German, and other tongues.
     Mr. Windfield was joined in holy wedlock to Miss Lyda Wagner on April 12, 1898, in Merrick county, Nebraska. Mrs. Windfield's parents were Christ and Ernestine (Vogel) Wagner, both born in Germany. They came to the United States in 1878, and located on a farm in Prairie Creek township, and there Mr. Wagner lived until the time of his death in 1892. Mrs. Wagner is still living in Merrick county.
     Mr. and Mrs. Windfield have had four children born to them: Lillian, Edgar, Clarence, and Mabel.
     In June, 1898, Mr. Windfield purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land on the northeast quarter of section twenty-eight, township thirteen, range eight, and eighty acres on section twenty-one. At the time of the purchase this land was in poor condition; but is now one of the fine farms of Merrick county, well equipped, is supplied with good buildings, and has a modern house built thereon. In the fall of 1910 Mr. Windfield purchased two hundred acres - one hundred and sixty farm, and forty acres hay land. The farm land is in section twenty-two. He now owns four hundred and forty all in Prairie Creek township. He has made a success of farming and stock raising, and has always been ready to do his part toward the upbuilding of his home county and state, having served as township clerk of Prairie Creek township, and treasurer of school district number forty-two.



     W. D. Grim, residing in Walnut Grove township is an agriculturist of prominence in Knox county, and one of those substantial citizens whose integrity, industry, thrift and economy have added so much to the material wealth and growth of Nebraska.
     Mr. Grim is a native of Ohio, born in Harrison county, October 31, 1845. His father was also born and reared in that state, of German parentage, and he was a resident of his native state up to 1855, at which time the entire family emigrated to Iowa, remaining there until 1873. During their residence in that state the father was located on a farm in Buchanan county, and part of the time our subject was with his parents,



assisting in carrying on the home place. In October, 1873, they packed up their goods and came on to Nebraska, where the father filed on a homestead in section thirty-three, township thirty, range six, Knox county, their first dwelling, which was their home for several years, being a log house. They went through pioneer experiences, suffering from all the drawbacks that fell to the lot of the early settlers in that region, but eventually succeeded in proving up on their land, and improving it in good shape.
     W. D. Grim filed on a pre-emption claim for himself in 1873, but failed to prove up on it. He then filed on it as a homestead and as such proved up on it. This was the northeast quarter of section five, township twenty-nine, range eight. He then built a dugout and started farming, but had a hard time to get along during the first years, the grasshoppers and hot winds taking all his crops during three successive years. After that time, however, prospects were better; he was able to add to his acreage, and at the present time he has a fine farm consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, equipped with every convenience in the way of buildings, machinery, etc., and every part of the place bears evidence of the most careful management and thrift. This place is on the southeast quarter of section thirty-two, township thirty, range eight, which he purchased about 1896, but he has lived on it in the neighborhood of twenty years, having rented the farm previous to purchasing.
     Mr. Grim was united in marriage October 8, 1868, to Miss Sarah E. Booth, and eight children have been born to this union, who are named as follows: Frank B. Grim, who is dead, leaving a wife and five children; Stella Belle, wife of Charles Hamilton, and mother of six children; Ella, May, wife of Wm. Lester Clyde, and the mother of twelve children; Charles E., married, and having three children; George, who is dead; Ira, married, and having three living children; and Maud, wife of Harry Yount, having one son. Another son, James, is also deceased.
     Mr. Grim has rented his farm for the past few years, and of late he has been devoting his time to inventions, his spare moments being given principally to a flying machine propelled by physical power.



     Gustave A. Mollin, a leading citizen of Genoa, Nebraska, and president of the Genoa National Bank, is recognized throughout that part of the state as a man of the highest responsibility and integrity of character, who has always been fully alive to the best interests of his county and state.
     Mr. Mollin was born in Dane county, Wisconsin, on December 1, 1855. He is the fourth member in a family of seven children born to Alfred and Louise Mollin, and of whom but one sister and his mother survive, the former, Mrs. H. Saare, residing in Newman Grove, Nebraska, and the latter making her home with her daughter.
     Mr. Mollin came to Nebraska in the fall of 1879, locating at first in Richardson county, where he spent a little over a year, then settled in Genoa. There, in company with a brother, he engaged in the mercantile business. His brother lived but a few months after they started in business, and the burden of the work fell upon our subject, who continued it for a number of years, selling it out in 1895, and later purchased a two hundred and forty acre farm in Lancaster county, living on it up to 1901. At that time he returned to Genoa and connected himself with the Nance County State Bank, which was organized on August 2, 1899, with L. G. Stocks as president. Mr. Mollin became cashier of the bank in 1901, and two years later the institution received its charter to become the Genoa National Bank. In 1904 the bank was reorganized with the following. stockholders: Edward L. Burke, D. A. Willard, Jacob Jernberg, Bengt Mortensen, E. M. Spear, Alfred M. Mollin, and G. A. Mollin. E. L. Burke was elected president and G. A. Mollin cashier, and the following year our subject succeeded to the presidency, and his son, Alfred M., was made cashier, both still holding these offices. The bank is on a solid basis and is doing a very large business, ranking among the very first in that part of Nebraska.
     Mr. Mollin was married on November 30, 1881, to Alta M. Cook, who was born in New York state, and prior to her marriage was a teacher in the public schools there. Mr. and Mrs. Mollin. have had five children, four of whom are living, named as follows: Alfred M., Stewart G., Fernand E., and Flora M. Mr. Mollin is one of Nance county's substantial men of affairs, alive to the best interests of his county and state, and enjoying the highest reputation as a man and worthy citizen. During the years 1892 to 1895 inclusive, he served as county supervisor, also as township treasurer for seven years, and was director of his school board for many years.



     The first family to settle in Butte was that of John D. Gormley, father of the man whose name heads this sketch, and Len was the first white boy to play on the open prairies where the town now stands. John D. Gormley came to the site of Butte in the spring of 1890, and secured a claim in the school section on the north edge of town, but finding it devoid of water, transferred his interests to the quarter section just south, which was later dedicated to the town site. Here the following year the county seat was established by proclamation, and later by the vote of the citizens of the county. The elder Gormley came to Nebraska from Vinton county, Ohio, in



the spring of 1883, and settled on a homestead seven miles south of Stuart, where he followed ranching some seven years, until his removal to Boyd county in 1890. Here he opened a general store and continued in business for fifteen years, in the meanwhile purchasing a ranch west of Butte. He traded largely in stock, feeding large droves of cattle and hogs each year. In 1905 he removed to Herrick, South Dakota, where he is engaged in the real estate and stock business.
     Len B. Gormley is a son of John D. and Harriett (Halley) Gormley, to whom were also born two daughters, Mary and Rosa, who, with their mother, reside in Butte. Our subject was born in Vinton county, Ohio, June 16, 1879, and was little more than an infant when the family removed to the ranch south of Stuart. He has no recollection of the state of his birth, and is typically a westerner. Most of his education was secured in the schools of Butte, and as soon as he attained sufficient age he took his place as salesman in the store, as well as by his father's side in his cattle dealing, and became thoroughly familiar with both the drovers' life and the storekeeper's vocation. Since his father's removal to Herrick, Mr. Gormley has continued stock trading and farming as well, having eighty acres of fine corn land west of town. He frequently rents additional acreage and raises some years nearly five thousand bushels of corn, part of which he feeds, selling the remainder in the open market. He farmed a small tract, his home place, on the north edge of town and devoted the rest of his time to stock trading until recently, when he moved to the country to engage in farming on a larger scale.
     Mr. Gormley was married October 31, 1902, to Miss Dora Hull, a native of Iowa, and daughter of Martin Hull, whose life in Nebraska is given at length in this volume. Of the four children born to this family two survive: Calvin and Joy. One little one's life was lost and the mother's face severely burned by the explosion of a lamp in which gasoline had been accidentally mixed with the oil. Mr. Gormley was himself severely burned while rescuing his wife and child through a window. The case was carried into the federal courts after a judgment was rendered against the Standard Oil company, but later a compromise was effected through which Mr. Gormley received a substantial amount, but nothing can compensate for the loss of the little one and the mother's suffering.
     Mr. Gormley well remembers the fatal blizzard of January 12, 1888. He was but a small lad a the time and fortunately was at home when the storm struck. His father had hitched the team to go to town and, hearing a noise, looked out upon the approaching wall of frozen mist. To safely go from house to barn at feeding time, the father used a rope between the buildings or he might have been lost in the short space intervening between the house and barn. One severe hailstorm is firmly fixed in the memory of Mr. Gormley. He was at work in the field a quarter of a mile from home, when he heard the roaring of the approaching hail. He ran and escaped most of the storm, but was pelted severely before reaching shelter. Twenty chickens and some hogs were killed, and large lumps were to be seen for days on the horses and cattle from the bruises made by the large chunks of falling ice. The house they were living in was a "soddy," and the elder Gormley had just covered the sheeting with a fresh coat of paper ready to lay the outer covering of sod. After the hail there was not enough left of the paper to cover a shingle. Ice and rain had beaten through the boards and soaked everything in the house. The family lived in the sod house seven years, and later had a frame dwelling. Mr. Gormley has seen deer and antelope since coming to Boyd county, but was too small to hunt at that time. One crossed the road near their house, soon after they first located at Butte, passed south across the lot where the court house now stands and was later killed on the south side of the butte below them. Hunters from Whetstone Creek at one time brought five deer on a sled to the elder Gormley's for sale.
     Mr. Gormley learned the Sioux language, and when a boy, could converse quite well with the Indians, but from disuse much of his vocabulary, has been forgotten. During the Indian scare in 1892, the Gormley family rested comparatively easy in mind. Swift Bear, the chief, was a friend and promised to warn if any danger threatened, which fortunately it did not. Prairie fires caused much labor at times, fighting the flames for hours or even days; and these alarms annoyed them every spring and fall when the Indians burned the prairies.



     Joseph Pelster, a prosperous agriculturist and one of the leading citizens of Boone county, Nebraska, is one of the pioneers of that region. His pleasant home and valuable estate is situated on section three, township twenty-two, range seven, where he has spent the past seventeen years.
     Mr. Pelster was born in Shelby county, Ohio, on April 1, 1861, and remained in that vicinity until he was nineteen years of age. He was the fifth in order of birth in a family of three boys and four girls born to John H. and Elizabeth Pelster, who were natives of Germany, and came to America in 1858, locating in Ohio in that year.
     One son, Conrad, went to Kansas in 1880, and our subject joined him there immediately afterward, the two engaging in farming.
     Joseph Pelster was married in Seneca, Kansas, on November 28, 1882, to Miss Margaret Honvlez, who was reared in Illinois. The young couple came to Boone county the following year, and rented land for some time, finally purchasing some land in section three. township twenty-two,



range seven, in 1893, and this has been their home farm since that time. Mr. Pelster has worked faithfully in building up a good home and has met with marked success in his efforts, having a well improved farm, fully equipped for both grain and stock raising.
     Our subject is one of the really old-timers of Boone county, and has passed through all the various changes that have taken place, being himself an important factor in this progress. He came into the locality overland from Kansas, in company with his brother Conrad, and in the party there were also Joseph Schlipf, John Moser, Antone Zuent and Martin Kitzhner, all well known old settlers of Boone county.
     Mr. and Mrs. Pelster have twelve children, all born in Boone county, and named as follows: Albert, John, Joseph, Edward, Theresa, (the two latter twins), Barney, Katie, Louis, Adolph, George and Nora, (twins), and Leonard, all living at home with the exception of Albert, John and Theresa, who are married. They are a most interesting family, and have been a help and blessing to their parents in their career here, all filling honorable positions in life and popular with all whom they come in contact.
     Mr. Pelster has in years gone by been closely identified with the best interests of his community, holding different precinct offices.



     For over a quarter of a century, this gentleman has been closely identified with the growth and development of Wayne county, Nebraska, and is counted among the most prominent settlers of that region. He is proprietor of a very valuable estate located on section thirty-six, township twenty-seven, range one, east, where he has made a comfortable home for himself.
     Mr. James was born in 1851, in Wales, and was the son of William and Mary James. His father was a small farmer, and the subscriber remained at home until twenty-eight years old, receiving his education in the local schools, and helping his parents in the farm work.
     In 1880, Mr. James decided to emigrate to America, and embarked at Liverpool on the old steamship "Egypt" for New York. He came first to Iowa, where he remained four years. In 1884, he came to Wayne county, Nebraska, and purchased the farm on which he now resides. His first dwelling house was a dugout and he lived here for four years. He kept bachelor's quarters until 1899, when he was united in marriage to Miss Nellie M. James. Three children have been born to them: Artie, Edna and WIlma, all of whom are living.
     Mr. James has suffered from the usual discouragements attending a settler's life on the prairies. However, he had faith in the country and remained there, and has now received his reward. He has always taken a commendable interest in local public affairs, and has always done his part in helping to develop the agricultural resources of the country. Mr. and Mrs. James occupy a prominent position socially and enjoy the respect and esteem of a large circle of friends and acquaintances.



     It would be impossible to give a sketch of the history of northeastern Nebraska without including much of the experiences of Mr. S. Burtwistle, who is one of the most prominent of the old settlers. For forty years he has been a continuous resident of Stanton county, and during that time he has been closely identified with every measure which has had as its object, the ultimate improvement of all conditions in the community. He is a man of untiring energy and perseverance and by honest efforts, has become one of the well-to-do men of that locality.
     Mr. Burtwistle was born in 1858, in Canada, and is the son of Richard and Melissa Burtwistle. The father was a native-born Englishman, while the mother was a Canadian by birth. The subscriber received his early education in Canada, and remained at home with his parents in his native town.
     In 1870, with his parents, Mr. Burtwistle came to Stanton county, Nebraska, where they took up a homestead about two miles west of Pilger, which they proceeded to improve and fit up as a place in which to pass the remainder of their lives. They suffered considerably from the grasshoppers during the first few years of their stay, and were several times compelled to fight prairie fires in order to save their home from destruction.
     In 1879, Mr. Burtwistle was united in marriage to Miss Ellen Spence, of Stanton county. Soon after, he bought his present farm in section twenty-six, township twenty-four, range two, east. Since his possession, the farm has been improved by the addition of necessary buildings, fences, wells, etc., until now it is as good a farm as call be found in the county.
     Mr. and Mrs. Burtwistle are the parents of three children, named as follows: Ethel, now Mrs. Alven Barr; Harold, and Anna, now Mrs. Arthur Barr. Mr. and Mrs. Burtwistle are prominent members of the community and enjoy the respect and esteem of a large circle of friends.



     In the person of Joseph Fisher, mentioned above, we have another of the sturdy sons of Germany who left their native land in their young manhood and came to America to carve out for themselves a name and. fortune in the land of liberty and freedom.
     Mr. Fisher was born in the village of Camk,



Bavaria province, Germany, February 14, 1844, and is a son of Wolfgang and Holtzer Fisher. Our subject was reared and educated in the old country, and served his native land from 1866 to 1871 in the army, and participated in the war between Germany and Austria, and Germany and France, during which strife he received a wound.
     Mr. Fisher left Germany on the steamer "Waisser," and was thirteen days on the ocean, to come to America, the land of promise, in the spring of 1872, and after reaching New York, he came west to Indiana, remaining there until fall, then went to Carroll county, Iowa. In 1898 he came to Antelope county, Nebraska, and bought a farm of five hundred and twenty acres.
     In 1873 Mr. Fisher was united in marriage to Miss Anna Benzkoffer, who was also a native of Rosenheim, Germany, and came to America when she was three years old. Mr. and Mrs. Fisher are the parents of a fine family of eleven children, whose names are given as follows: Mary, who married M. Rebeck, lives in New Mexico, and has three children; Lizzie, lives at Creighton, Nebraska, married to Otto Rebeck, has three children; John, married to Pauline Mock, has four children, lives at Creighton, Nebraska; Joe; Frank, who married Ada Newhearst, has two children, lives at Brunswick, Nebraska; Jacob, married Rosa Woolley, and Albert, Louise, married to Fred Sulsdorf; Rose; Peter; and Amanda.
     Mr. Fisher and family are enjoying the respect and esteem of all who know them, both in a social and business way, and Mr. Fisher is known to his associates as a good citizen and a progressive fanner. Mr. Fisher was moderator on the school board in district number fifty, 1902-1907; and he was moderator on the same board, 1900-1901. The family are German Catholics in religious affiliations.



     John Paton, now deceased, was formerly one of the well known business men of Nance county, Nebraska where he had resided for many years. Mr. Paton was prominent in public affairs of that section, advocating by precept and personal example a high ideal of citizenship characterized by simplicity, frankness and directness, and in the pursuit of his career was an important factor in the upbuilding of his vicinity. We take pleasure in presenting a portrait of Mr. Paton on another page.
     The "Paton Crest" is a bible and a sword surrounded by the words "Virtute Viget." John Paton, our subject, was the son of John Paton and Isabella Hendry, who were married in 1840, making their home in Ayreshire, Scotland. To this union were born ten children: Dewar, John, Hugh, Mary, William, Isabella, Jean, Janet, Margaret and Alexander. In her devotion to the family motto or principle, one Paton lady, about the year 1600, was burned at the stake - she would not recant. She was a protestant persecuted by the Roman Catholics.
     John Paton was born in Ayreshire, Scotland, on November 20, 1847, and made that country his home until he was thirty-three years of age, at that time coming to America. His first location was at Fullerton, Nebraska, where in company with his brother, Dewar Paton, and a sister's husband, John Caldwell, they purchased twenty thousand acres of land in Nance county, owning and controlling several large ranches. These they sold within a few years. After a time Mr. Paton engaged in the grain and lumber business in partnership with Fred Fuller, Sr., and continued with the concern for a number of years, then dissolved the partnership, Mr. Fuller taking over the lumber business and our subject keeping the grain interests and two elevators. He was comparatively successful in his business ventures and would have amassed a comfortable fortune by his efforts but for his benevolent nature. At the time of his death, which occurred on July 28, 1901, John Paton was classed among the philanthropic men of the state who had shared many dollars earned with those about him less fortunate than, himself.
     Mr. Paton was married in 1888, to Miss Eliza Caldwell, of Chicago Heights, Ill., she being a woman of education and accomplishments, a graduate of Bloomington Normal College in Illinois. Her parents were Scotch-Irish. One child resulted from their union, Anne, now a student at the Nebraska Wesleyan University. Mrs. Paton departed this life on March 14, 1895, her. death occurring in California, and she was deeply mourned by her family and a large circle of friends by whom she was dearly beloved for her fine christian character and charming personality. She was buried in Chicago Heights, Illinois.
     On September 1, 1898, Mr. Paton was married again, to Miss Ella E. J. Stillman, also of Illinois, being born near Peoria. Her parents were from New York. Miss Stillman had been a student at Lombard College, Galesburg, and at the Lincoln Normal College, also attended the Nebraska Wesleyan University at Lincoln, Nebraska. She was a teacher in the Nance county public schools for six years, and in November, 1897, had the honor to be elected county superintendent of public instruction of Nance county, filling that office with credit and gaining the commendation of all by her ability and tact. Mrs. Paton attended many county, district and state teachers' associations. She is a woman of considerable literary talent, an elocutionist, amateur journalist and editor, also an artist of more than ordinary ability. In 1907 Mrs. Paton disposed of their pleasant residence with its splendid grounds, known all over the region as "Paton Heights," and has designed and built a beautiful home in Fullerton, known as "Ash Cottage." Mrs. Paton has been a delegate



to several state and national conventions of various women's organizations and she is thoroughly progressive. Mrs. Paton is at the present time making her home with her two daughters, Anne, mentioned above, and Gladys, now in school at Fullerton. Gladys Paton is thoroughly a Paton, devoted to her home, school and church, and very much resembles her father and Anne in her looks, likes and inclinations.
     For over twenty years prior to his demise, Mr. Paton had been an elder in the Presbyterian church, and was an active worker for the temperance cause in his state. He was county superintendent of Sunday schools for many years, and had given a number of very successful lectures on temperance and biblical subjects and on "Christian Citizenship." Mr. Paton traveled extensively, both in the United States and European countries.
     Mr. Paton's eldest daughter, Anne, was born in Fullerton, and received her elementary education in the public schools of Chicago Heights, Illinois, and Fullerton. She is now taking a course in the classics at the Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, also studying music, for which she exhibits a marked talent, at the Nebraska Wesleyan Conservatory of Music. She is a young woman of fine mind and high christian ideals, and with her gifted step-mother, is a popular member of the social life of their community. Anne Paton inherited a comfortable legacy from her mother. The Paton home has a reputation for lavish hospitality and the guests have included many of the most worthy, capable, influential and scholarly people who have visited the community. The Patons have built four of the best homes or residences in Fullerton and indelibly stamped upon the town their love of refinement, good breeding and general culture. The Patons have been one of the families identified with the building of good schools, good churches and good homes in Nance county, Nebraska.

John Paton, Deceased.


     Among the men who came to the state of Nebraska in the early seventies is the subject of this sketch, Isaac Chamberlain. He is prominently known throughout the northeastern part of the state as one of the foremost farmers, and after many years' hard labor in building up his business, is now prepared to enjoy the remaining years of his life in peace and comfort, surrounded by a host of good friends and acquaintances.
     Mr. Chamberlain was born in 1833 in the state of Maine, where in his early manhood he was engaged in farming. On February 27, 1862, Mr. Chamberlain was mustered into the United States army, in Company M, First Maine Cavalry, under Captain Brown. He was in the battles of Bull Run and Antietam; then did detached duty to quartermaster's department. He was discharged February 27, 1865, and went to Newburgh, Maine. In the fall of 1871 he went to Zumbro, Minnesota, where he resided until the spring of 1874. In 1874, Mr. Chamberlain started for the west with an ox team and was seven weeks on the way to Pierce county, Nebraska, where he put a soldier's filing on section five, township twenty-seven, range four. His nearest market place was Yankton, South Dakota, fifty miles distant. He built a sod house and lived there but one year, as the drouth and grasshoppers took all his crops, which he had depended on for sustenance for himself and family. He was forced to abandon his claim and worked on a steamboat which plied on the Missouri river; and later when he had accumulated enough money, bought a lot and built a house and secured eight head of cattle. Again fate seemed to pursue him, this time the high waters took his house and stock. He was a poor man and it seemed that everything was against him, as he had nothing left. House, stock, and everything was gone.
     In 1881 Mr. Chamberlain came back to Plainview, Nebraska, where he suffered the usual hardships prevalent in the west in those days, burning hay and sunflowers for fuel. Deer and antelope and wild game were plentiful in those days.
     Mr. Chamberlain was united in marriage, to Miss Nancy Colsen in 1853, Miss Colsen being born in Hermon, Maine. They were the parents of eight children, whose names are as follows: George, born 1855, and died 1863; Edward, born 1857, and died 1863; Delson, born 1860, is married and has four children; Eva, born 1862, married to Mr. Sturgis and they are the parents of two children, whose names are George and Lila, the latter being married to Clyde Miller, who went to Africa as a missionary; Charles, born 1866, married Olive Moser, and they have five children; Ada, who married Sanford Packard, has five children; Franklin, who married Eva Headington, has two children; and Katie, born 1875, and died the same year.
     Our subject was united in marriage to Mrs. Kirk, on September 23, 1903. Mrs. Kirk was one of the early settlers of Antelope county, to where she came from Crawford county, Iowa, in 1878. She was born in the state of Michigan in 1839, and was married to Mr. Kirk, her former husband, in 1855, they having two children: Charles R., who is married and has eight children, and Olive A., who is married to Martin Christenson and has six children.
     Mr. and Mrs. Kirk experienced all the inconveniences and hardships which the earlier settlers were subjected to. The dry hot year of 1885 was so severe they had to keep wet towels around the room and on the doors to keep the house cool enough so that Mr. Kirk could live, as he was a great sufferer with asthma. In 1890 they lost all their crops by hail.



Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlain enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them.



     Louis H. Sorensen, residing on section five, township thirteen, range eleven, is one of the representative farmers of Howard county, Nebraska, who have aided materially in its development and advancement. He is a gentleman of energetic character, and well merits his success and high standing.
     Mr. Sorensen was born in Pewaukee, Waukesha county, Wisconsin, December 18, 1871, and is a son of Christian and Annie Sorensen, the fifth in a family of seven children, of whom one brother and a sister, also the father, are deceased. The entire family are now residents of Howard county, excepting three brothers, one of whom lives in Osceola, Nebraska, and the other two in the state of Washington. They settled in Nebraska in 1872, homesteading a tract of land which was their home continuously during all these years, and enjoy the distinction of being one of the original families to settle in Howard county. They have built up a good home and farm.
     Louis received his early education in the country schools, later attending the normal college at Fremont, Nebraska, for one term. After leaving school he assisted his father in the farm work until he reached the age of twenty-one years, when he started for himself, purchasing one hundred and twenty acres on section five, township thirteen, range eleven. This he has improved with good buildings of all kinds, including a handsome and comfortable residence, having nice lawns, trees, etc., surrounding the house, making it one of the pleasantest homes in the vicinity. He engages in stock raising extensively, also farms considerable land, and has been very successful in his various undertakings.
     Mr. Sorensen was married to Ellen M. Jensen on October 18, 1893, the event taking place at Nysted. Mrs. Sorensen comes of an old Howard county family, and is a most estimable and charming lady. Both our subject and his wife are among the popular younger members of society in their community, and enjoy a large circle of friends. They have four children, as follows: Harley L., Richard C., Ferdinand and Ester.



     To be called a "leading old settler" is much praise to accord a citizen of any community, and this term when applied to the gentleman herein named, means more than is ordinarily meant when applying the term. Mr. Conner has been a resident of the eastern part of Nebraska for the past forty-five years, and has built up a valuable estate, and, incidentally, gained an enviable reputation as a worthy citizen.
     Stillwell Conner, retired farmer, son of Henry and Mary (Truax) Conner, was born in Morrow county, Ohio, December 19, 1843, and is third in a family of five children; he has one brother, John, residing in Kansas, Nebraska, a sister, Rachel, is the widow of Isaac Thomas, and resides in Valley county; and two sisters are dead, as are also the parents, the father having died in 1867, and the mother in 1859, both in Ohio.
     When nineteen years of age, Mr. Conner joined his brother in Wisconsin, where he worked on a farm. In 1866 he came on west to Nebraska, locating in Dodge county, where he homesteaded eighty acres eight miles east of Fremont.
     In 1869, Mr. Conner was married to Miss Caroline Close, of Wisconsin, and to Mr. and Mrs. Conner five children have been born, namely: Clarence, who died in childhood; Ora, deceased in infancy; John, who is married, has one child, and lives on the home farm in Valley county; Stella, wife of Frank Adams, has two children, and resides in Colorado; and an unnamed infant who is deceased.
     In 1872, Mr. Conner moved with his family to Saunders county, Nebraska, where he lived about seven years. Mrs. Conner died in the fall of 1879 at the home in Saunders county, deeply mourned by many friends and her surviving husband and family.
     In 1887, Mr. Conner came to Valley county, purchasing one hundred and sixty acres eight miles west of Ord, which he sold in 1892, and purchased a three hundred and twenty acre grain farm in sections thirty-one and thirty-two, township nineteen, range fourteen, moving on to same, a fine farm just south of Ord.
     On September 19, 1888, Mr. Conner was married to Mrs. Mary Moore, who was born in New York state, and came to Valley county with her brother, C. H. Snow, in 1877. Mr. and Mrs. Conner have one adopted daughter, Olive, who resides at home.
     In 1901, Mr. Conner retired from active farming and moved to Ord, where he built a good home where they now live. He has served as treasurer of school district number seventeen for some years; also has served in other districts where he has lived. Mr. Conner has passed through much of Nebraska's history, experiencing all the ups and downs of pioneer life. He is an active man of affairs with varied interests, enjoying the highest esteem of a large circle of friends.



     Frederick W. Richardson, now a resident of Cherry county, Nebraska, was born in Winnebago, county, Illinois, July 31, 1844, and one of eight children in the family of Charles W. and

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