3, 1842, and descended from Irish and English stock, and served America in the civil war from 1861 to 1864, enlisting in Company C, Seventh Wisconsin, and Battery B, Number Four United States Light Artillery, and participated in the following battles: First battle of Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietem, Cold Harbor, Battle of the Wilderness, Siege of Petersburg and battle of the Potomac. His brother was killed in the Battle of the Wilderness. Our subject's father helped to build the railroad from Fremont to Norfolk, Nebraska. The mother of the subject of this sketch, Addie Phillips Fulton, was of English descent, a native of Wisconsin, and her father had come from the state of New York. Her grandfather took part in the war with Indians, which in his and his forefather's time was an additional hardship the later pioneers did not experience. When the grandfather was one year old, the Indians picked him up to carry him away, but he was rescued.
   Our subject and his parents began life in a modest way, and endured the many hardships incident to those early days in Nebraska. They took up eighty acres of land and built a shanty of rough boards, and their nearest market place was twenty-five miles distant. They faced starvation in those days on account of the grasshopper raids which took nearly all they had raised to sustain themselves with. The mother also had a hard time to protect the children from the Indians who had attempted to carry them away. The family also fought the prairie fires which devastated the prairies in those days.
   Mr. Fulton was married February 20, 1891, to Miss Bertha Dow, and they are the parents of four children, whose names are: John H., Blanche H., Muriel H., and Charles H. Our subject's wife came to Dodge county, Nebraska, from Germany when she was fourteen years old.
   In 1896, Mr. Fulton and family came to Antelope county and bought one hundred and sixty acres of good land from Mr. W. T. Kirk, who had homesteaded the land and proved up. Before buying his land, our subject rented it for twenty dollars per year, and in the early days experienced many hardships common to that period, losing crops in the hail storms; and he only received six cents per bushel for corn which he raised. Mr. Fulton now owns three hundred and twenty acres of good land, seven acres of which are cultivated to trees.
   Mr. Fulton is affiliated with the Workmen, Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen, ant Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodges, and holds the respect and high esteem of all who enjoy his friendship and business relationship.



   The late Charles L. Gallaher was among the early settlers of Custer county, where he was widely and favorably known, in his death the community lost a public-spirited and useful citizen. He was born in Brown county, Illinois, October, 3, 1859, eighth of the eleven children born to Harvey and Sally (Knight) Gallaher. He has one sister surviving, Mrs. Rhoda Woods, of Overton, an early settler of Hamilton. The Gallaher family is of English descent and its representatives were early settlers of Brown comity, Illinois. Harvey Gallaher served in the civil war and died in Brown county. His wife was also born in Illinois and died in Colorado.
   When about fourteen years of age, Charles L. Gallaher left home for Fairfield, Iowa, and there learned the trade of butcher. In 1886 he went on to Nebraska, locating in Broken Bow. Custer county. He was married at the home of the bride's mother in Custer county, on September 4, 1887, to Miss Mary E. Twombly, also a native of Brown county, Illinois, who came with her family to Saunders county in 1881. She is a daughter of Calvin and Susan (Wiley) Twombly, natives respectively of Vermont and North Carolina. Her father died in Brown county, in 1867, and her mother in Custer county, October 29, 1905. Mrs. Gallaher has a brother, Thomas E., and a half brother, Charles Bedford, living in Custer county, a brother in Kansas and one in South Dakota. In 1883 Mary E. Twombly came with her two brothers, Charles and Samuel, to Custer county and herself took a homestead of one quarter of section twenty-seven, township eighteen, range eighteen, which is still her home.
   Mr. Gallaher served several years as moderator of school district number two hundred and forty-two and stood well with his fellow citizens. He was all active and industrious farmer and interested in everything pertaining to the general welfare and progress. He died in a hospital in Lincoln, February 17, 1907, being survived by his widow and five children. Five children were born to him and his wife: Eva May, deceased Oliver P., Alice, Charles Elmer, Rena and Bell.
   Mrs. Gallaher, with the assistance of her two sons, still carries on the farm. They own four hundred and twenty acres of good stock and grain farm land, from which they derive a good income. They have one of the pleasant homes of the neighborhood and are held in high esteem by all.



   William Rutherford is one of the earlier settlers of Nebraska and has experienced the discouragements and trying times incidental to pioneer life in any region. He is well and favorably known in his part of the state and has always given his influence in the cause of right and progress. He was born near Cottage Hill, Dubuque county, Iowa, April 12, 1859, a son of Samuel and Mary (Boyle) Rutherford, being the eldest of their three sons. He has a brother in



Colorado and one in Wyoming. His father, who was born in Livingston county, Illinois, served in the Twenty-second Iowa Infantry during the civil war, and died in 1863 while in the service. The mother, who was born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, now resides in Palmer, Nebraska.
   In September, 1872, the mother, who had married James L. Darrow, came with her family to Nebraska, where the three sons, William, Thomas and Samuel, homesteaded on their father's soldier's right, one hundred and sixty acres of land in Polk county.
   January 1, 1882, William Rutherford married Laura Davis, who was born in Warren county, Illinois, and came with her parents to Seward county, Nebraska, in 1869. She is a daughter of Samuel C. and Adaline (Henderson) Davis, the father a native of New York and the mother of Pennsylvania. Their first residence in Nebraska was a primitive dugout, which was later replaced with a "soddy." Mr. Davis, who served in the civil war, now lives at Hydetown, Pennsylvania, where his wife died in April, 1910. Mr. Davis served as postmaster of Pleasant Home, Nebraska, eight or nine years. Mrs. Rutherford has a brother in Oklahoma, a sister in the state of Washington and two sisters in Pennsylvania.
   After marriage Mr. and Mrs. Rutherford lived in Polk county some six or seven years, occupying a sod house the first four years of that time. About 1890 they moved to Nance county, remaining one year, removing thence to Oklahoma, for one summer. Returning to Nebraska they settled in Boone county, where they lived from about 1892 until 1906, when they came to Valley county and Mr. Rutherford purchased a four hundred acre stock and grain farm on section thirty-six, township seventeen, range fifteen, which was the home place until sold in the summer of 1911. It is a well improved and equipped farm and yielded a good profit to Mr. Rutherford, who has taken all active interest in public affairs and won a good standing in the community. He served as director of the school board of his district in Boone county, and in various other ways proved his devotion to the best interests of all.
   Three children have been born to Mr. Rutherford and wife: Lawrence S., at home; Pearl married William Hale and they live in Knox county, Nebraska; Harry O., at home. The Rutherfords are well known in social circles and have a host of friends.
   Mr. Rutherford has always been a man of stirring activity. He began the life of a thresherman at the age of eighteen and three years later became owner of an outfit and has operated in that line ever since; during these years he has worn out three or four engines and separators and five shellers; his sons have been a great assistance to him and understand the business as well as he.
   There were deer and elk in Polk county when Mr. Rutherford settled there, and here, too, he witnessed the devastation of his crops by grasshoppers in the summer of 1875.
   In politics he is a republican and was reared in the Catholic church.
   A view of the Rutherford home in Valley county is shown on another page together with a sketch of their old soddy of earlier days.

Residence of William Rutherford.



   Located very pleasantly on the southeast quarter of section twenty-nine, township twenty-eight, range three, Pierce county, Nebraska, is to be found the estimable gentleman whose name introduces this biographical writing.
   Mr. Pochop was born in August, 1876, in Saunders county, Nebraska; he is a son of Frank and Barbara (Panas) Pochop, both natives of Bohemia, who came to America in 1871 and took up a homestead in Saunders county, Nebraska. Here they lived first in a dugout and later a sod house, and when in better circumstances, built a good frame dwelling. They came to Pierce county in 1892 and bought land, which Mr. Pochop turned over to his sons in 1903 and retired to Prague, Nebraska, where he lives in ease.
   The family experienced all the hardships and inconveniences of the pioneer days. They were thirty miles away from Fremont, the nearest market place, and all their grain was hauled by ox team. Besides burning hay for fuel, the family frequently resorted to the use of the stems of wild artichokes and corn stalks. The father brought his family through the years of drouth, of the grasshopper plague, when he lost all his crops for three years, besides enduring the ravages of chinch bugs and other pests. Hail ruined their crops from time to time, and prairie fires caused them much labor and anxiety.
   Our subject was reared on the farm, and received a common school education, later attending the Normal College at Plainview, Nebraska. He was joined in holy matrimony February 27, 1900, to Miss Bertha Kratochvil, who was born in 1882, a daughter of Frank and Katherine (Zizny) Kratochvil, all natives of Bohemia, where the mother died in 1884. The father emigrated with his family in 1886, sailing from Hamburg in the steamer "Westphalia." They came directly to Pierce county, where the father died in 1897.
   Mr. and Mrs. Pochop have four children, named as follows: Bessie, Henry, Edward and Bertha.
   Mr. Pochop is affiliated with the New York Life Insurance Company, and is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America and the C. Z. B. J. lodges. He is well known through this section and has gained the respect and esteem of his fellow men. He has a well appointed country home, with water and bath in the house, a large supply tank being situated on the rising ground to the north of the house. We show a view of the



farm buildings and grove of Mr. Pochop on another page.
   Like most Bohemians, the Pochop family is full of music - the father of our subject and five of his sons constituting at one time an orchestra. All are fond of music and have musical instruments of various kinds in the house at all. times. Mr. Pochop is a competent band leader, but his farming prevents his giving as much time to the art as he desires.
   Mr. Pochop escaped being in the blizzard of January 12, 1888, by the teacher's failure to appear at school that morning. After playing around for a time, the children all started home, and all but one boy, who loitered, reached their homes before the storm broke.

Residence of John Pochop.



   Boyd S. Leedom, editor of the "Osmond Republican," first came to Nebraska, April 1, 1874. His father, crossing the river at Sioux City that day, on the "Undine," took up his residence in Dakota county, Nebraska.
   Mr. Leedom was born in Franklin, Pennsylvania in 1857, and is a son of J. F. and Elizabeth Leedom., the former a minister of the gospel, they now residing in Dakota City. Both are natives of Pennsylvania and come of old colonial stock.
   Boyd attended the public schools as a boy, and after coming to Nebraska, while his parents supposed him in school all the time, he frequently "played hookey." He had an early taste for journalism - literally a "turn" - which has moulded his entire career. At one time, while living in Iowa he was sent to the office of the Humbolt Kosmos, for his father's paper, and was told that it was not yet printed, but if he would ink the forms until his father's paper was printed he might take it with him. While he thought it strange that this should be the last one to be printed, he did not mind the work, but remained until the papers were all out, and afterwards generally turned the press when he called at the office. He later wished to learn typesetting, so was promised instruction if he would turn the press every Thursday afternoon, which he did, running away from school to do this. His parents finally learned of the truancy of their son, but by this time he was able to set type like a veteran, so got off with a very light punishment. After coming to Nebraska, he had a case on the "Dakota City Mail" for two years, and later on the "Dixon County Courier." In 1880 he went to Lane, Kansas, and for two years edited the "Lane Advance," then returned to Nebraska and established the "Wakefield Republican," which he disposed of, and started the "Ponca Advance," which is now called "The Leader." His next venture was "The Wheeler County Republican," which be carried on up to February, 1892. He then came to Osmond and purchased the "Osmond Advance," which he changed to the "Republican," and in May, with the change of name, he changed its politics as well. Within three months he had but one country subscriber left, so strong was the populist sentiment in that vicinity, but he refused to become dismayed, although he got down to bed rock of hard times. The business men of the town stuck to him, and he gradually regained his country patronage after the wave of populism had passed.
   Mr. Leedom was married at Ponca, July 3, 1878, to Miss Ella M. Weighton, a native of Delaware, Ohio. Five children have been born to them: Chester N., editor of the "Cottonwood Republican," and president of the Stanley County Land Company, has cast his destinies with South Dakota interests. He is married and the father of three children: Ethel L. Leedom eldest daughter of our subject, is the wife of Roy Thomas, postmaster of Osmond, while Adelle J., now Mrs. Fred S. Fry, resides in Wynot, where her husband is a well known attorney; Joseph W. Leedom was for a year a student at the University of Nebraska, and one year at Morningside College, Sioux City, and is now a partner with his father in the newspaper business; Gertrude E., the youngest daughter, is attending the Osmond schools.
   Mr. Leedom is a life-long republican, and takes a prominent part in the doings of his party. He is a lawyer of considerable note, having been admitted to the bar in 1891. From 1897 to 1905 he served as postmaster at Osmond, and made an excellent official.
   He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, as well as of the Masonic fraternity, in which he takes a leading part.



   John Morrow, one of the highly respected old settlers of Howard county, has until very recently followed farming in different parts of Nebraska, and during his career here has succeeded in building up a valuable property through industry and good business ability.
   Mr. Morrow was born in Pike county, Illinois, on March 1, 1832, and grew up in that vicinity. He received a common school education, doing farm work up to 1864, when he enlisted in Company I, Seventieth Illinois Infantry, serving for four months with that regiment, then re-enlisted in Company I, One Hundred and Forty-eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, remaining with that regiment until the close of the war. He was honorably discharged September 5, 1865.
   Mr. Morrow was married in 1855, taking as his wife Savana Richey, a native of Indiana, and ten children were born of their union, named as follows: Eunice E., deceased; Joseph M., Alice, who died in infancy; James, married, father of three children, now living in Greeley county, Nebraska; John, residing in Washington; Louisa,



married and with her husband and three children, living in Oklahoma; Charles, with his wife and four children, living in Greeley county; Olive M., married and mother of three children, living in Antelope county; Fred and Ida, the latter married, and living in the state of Washington with her husband and three children. Mrs. Morrow died in 1883, sincerely mourned by her family and a large circle of friends.
   Mr. Morrow settled in Polk county, Nebraska, in 1873, and remained there up to 1889, then changed his location to Antelope county, where he lived for about two years. In December of 1891, he removed with his family to Howard county, purchasing eighty acres of school land situated across the river from the town of Cotesfield. He later purchased a forty-four acre tract adjoining his homestead, all of which he improved in good shape, erecting good buildings, gathering stock on it, etc. They lived on this place up to 1907, then sold out and bought one hundred and sixty acres in Logan county. During the latter year Mr. Morrow and his wife, who was formerly Elizabeth Hurst, of Polk county, they having been married in 1889, made a trip to the state of Washington, and there purchased a farm on which they lived for one year. Becoming homesick they returned to Nebraska, settling in Cotesfield, where they now reside.
   For the past twenty-three years Mr. Morrow has been in the ministry of the Free Will Baptist church, serving various charges, always giving his services without remuneration and laboring only for love of the work. He is a man of superior mental attainments, always willing and ready to aid in every good work which he finds to do, and both himself and his estimable wife enjoy the friendship and esteem of the entire community in which they live.
   Of Mr. Morrow's second marriage four children have been born: Lloyd H., who makes his home in Washington; Silas, Eugene W., and Curtis E., who are living with their parents.
   Mr. Morrow takes a commendable interest in local affairs and has held the office of assessor during former years, also was postmaster for a considerable length of time.



   Among the substantial and worthy citizens of Ord, Nebraska, Lafe Paist, the subject of this biographical writing, stands in high repute, and is well known as a prosperous and successful man in his community.
   Mr. Paist was born in Carter, Wyoming, September 2, 1871, and was eldest of eleven children in the family of Charles E. and Nellie (Dowling) Paist, who had seven sons and four daughters. Charles E. Paist and family of wife and three children came to Kearney, Nebraska, in 1875; Mr. Paist became connected with the Union Pacific railroad as station agent at Buda station, taking a homestead claim near Buda, and still holding his position with the railway company. He is now located at Elba, Howard county, Nebraska, as station agent, his connection with the Union Pacific railroad dating back to 1868, when he was station agent at Elkhorn, Nebraska. Mr. Paist was married at Elkhorn station or Elk City, on September 15, 1870, to Miss Nellie E. Dowling, and shortly after marriage went to Wyoming in the employ of the railroad company. In 1888, on March 5, Mr. Paist with his wife and five children came to Valley county, Nebraska, locating in Ord, where Mr. Paist went into the mercantile business. Of the eleven children, eight were born in Nebraska, and ten of the eleven are now living; the parents and eight of the children are now residents of Nebraska.
   Lafe Paist, the principal subject of this sketch, since 1889, has made Valley county his home; he was in his father's store for three years, working in the store and going to school, finishing his education in 1889; with the exception of three years, Ord has been Mr. Paist's home since 1888. He has been connected with different mercantile establishments of Ord, being in the Millford store a greater portion of the time.
   Mr. Paist has in many ways been actively connected with the upbuilding of Valley county for twenty-two years, and is a popular young man of wide acquaintance and many friends. In the spring of 1904 he accepted the position of clerk in the county treasurer's office of Valley county; serving in that capacity until January 1, 1910, and in the fall of 1909 was nominee on the republican ticket for county treasurer of Valley county, was elected and took possession of the office on January 6, 1910.
   On November 29, 1899, Mr. Paist was united in marriage to Miss Myrtle E. Warner, daughter of Samuel and Mary (Young) Warner, at the home of her parents. The Warner family are old settlers of Nebraska, having come here about the year 1881. Mr. and Mrs. Paist are highly esteemed, and are favorably known in social and political circles.
   Mr. Paist in past years has been a member of Ord city council, and has also held the office of city treasurer in past years.



   Located very pleasantly in section twenty-six, township twenty-one, range three, is to be found the somewhat notable gentleman whose name introduces this biographical writing. Mr. Blank has been identified with the history of Madison county from a very early date, and during his residence in the region has been instrumental in a large measure for the present prosperity enjoyed by the entire population.
   Mr. Herman Blank is a native of Pommerania,



near Berlin, Germany, born April 14,1841. His parents were Wilhelm and Dora (Bessert) Blank, typical farmers of that country. He received a limited education.
   In 1866 Mr. Blank left his home for America, crossing as an emigrant, and landing in New York City, in which place he spent but a few days, then came west to Portage, Wisconsin. where he remained for eight years, working as section hand on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad.
   He became dissatisfied after several years in that state, so bought a team of horses and started to drive through the rough country for Nebraska. After a long and tiresome trip, he finally landed in Madison county, filing on the homestead which he now occupies, and on which he has used up two sod houses, finally erecting a good frame dwelling some twenty years ago.
   During the first few years here, Mr. Blank found the usual obstacles to overcome in the shape of crop failures caused by unfavorable weather conditions, blizzards, etc., but, like so many other sturdy pioneers, he stuck to his determination to win for himself a home and competence, and his possessions today are a silent testimony of his success. He has in all one hundred and sixty acres of fine land, also a complete set of substantial farm buildings, all kinds of stock, the place well supplied with fruit and shade trees, and altogether, it is one of the very up-to-date and valuable properties in the region.
   In 1880, Mr. Blank was united in marriage to Miss Molly Rudat, the ceremony taking place in Green Garden township, Madison county, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Blank have a family of five children, as follows: Lizzie, Minnie, Annie, Herman and Samuel.



   William Schaad was one of the early settlers of Custer county, with whose progress and development he has been closely associated for many years. He is a native of Peoria county, Illinois, born April 26, 1865, the fourth born of eleven children of Jacob and Mary (Best) Schaad. The parents were born in Germany and the mother died in Illinois in 1898. The father came to America as a young man and now resides on the old home place in Illinois, being now eighty-four years of age. William Schaad has one brother, George, in Custer county; four brothers in Illinois; one sister in Iowa and one in Illinois, and others of the children are now deceased.
   Mr. Schaad grew to manhood on his father's Illinois farm, was educated in the public schools there, and as a young man engaged in farming on his own account. In May, 1887, be came to Custer county, Nebraska, where he pre-empted one hundred and sixty acres of land in the sand hills, and also took a tree claim of like size on West Table. About one year later he moved to his uncle's farm on West Table and later purchased this place, which has since been his home. This uncle, Reverend John Schaad, was one of Custer county's old and respected settlers, and prominent in the community. The nephew has continued to improve and develop the land and now has six hundred and forty acres, a fine stock and grain farm, where in 1907 he erected a fine modern farm residence, at a cost of over five thousand dollars. He is a progressive and energetic farmer and stockman and has achieved more than ordinary success. He helped organize a school district which is known as number two hundred and forty-one, and served many years as treasurer of the board. He has also held township offices and is actively interested in local affairs.
   Mr. Schaad was married in Broken Bow township, February 6, 1890, to Miss Mary M. Whittington, a native of Peoria county, Illinois, who came to Custer county in 1887, and herself pre-empted one hundred and sixty acres of land in the sand hills. Her parents were Sanford M. and Eliza (Armstrong) Whittington, the former born in Tennessee and the latter in Pennsylvania. Mr. Whittington died in Kansas in 1886 and his wife in Illinois in 1878. Mr. and Mrs. Schaad have four children: Frederick E., H. Blanche, Fern C., and Mabel C., all at home, and the two first mentioned are twins. Mr. Schaad and wife are prominent and popular in social circles and active in religious and educational movements.



   The Muhm family were among the very early settlers of Nebraska, and Fred E. Muhm has spent most of his life in that state. When he accompanied his parents there, deer and antelope were frequently seen in Madison county, where they located. Then Columbus and West Point were their nearest trading points and they passed through the usual experiences and vicissitudes of the pioneer. They often had to fight prairie fires to protect their home, stock and crops, and during the first three years they suffered the loss of their grain through the depredations of grasshoppers. However, they triumphed over all difficulties and developed an excellent farm, where Fred E. Muhm was reared.
   Mr. Muhm is a native of Iowa, born in 1860, a son of Fred and Susie Muhm, the former a native of Germany and the latter of Illinois. The father came to America, as a young man, in a sailing vessel, and consumed three months in the voyage. He located in Madison county in 1870, and there took up a homestead, erecting a log house which was their home the first ten years.



   The education of Fred E. Muhm was begun in his native state and completed after he came to Nebraska. He was reared to farm work and had the advantage of knowing conditions and requirements of carrying on farming in Nebraska from early boyhood. In 1882 be came to Cedar county and purchased his present place, which is very well situated on section seventeen, township twenty-nine, range one, cast, and set about improving it. He has a comfortable house and other substantial buildings, and his estate is a valuable one. He has identified himself with the best interests of his community and is held in high esteem as a good citizen and desirable neighbor.
   In 1888 Mr. Muhm was united in marriage with Miss Hattie Kober, a native of Tama county, Iowa, and daughter of George and Elizabeth (Grunger) Kober, and seven children have blessed this union, namely: Hazel., John, Opal, Ruby, May, Onar, and Jay.
   Mr. Muhm is a republican, and has assisted in the public service at times as precinct assessor, and for twenty-three years he has been the treasurer of his school district.



   John A. Miller, one of the representative agriculturalists of Merrick county, Nebraska, owns and operates a large farm in section thirty-four, township thirteen, range eight, where he has a good, comfortable home. He is recognized as one of the successful and prosperous citizens of the county.
   John A. Miller was born in Germany, October 8, 1842, and was the fourth of five children in the family of Peter and Charlotte (Goger) Miller, who had five sons born to them. The Miller family emigrated to America in 1856, and settled in the state of Wisconsin on a farm, where our subject grew to manhood.
   In November, 1861, Mr. Miller enlisted in Company H, First Wisconsin Cavalry, in which he served until time of his discharge, in July, 1864, on account of disability. Mr. Miller returned home to Wisconsin, but upon recovering his health re-enlisted in the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and received final discharge at the close of the war in Madison, Wisconsin. Mr. Miller saw about four years' service and was in numerous engagements and skirmishes. He was a veteran in point of service, and had an honorable war record. He was in the battle at Chickamauga and with Sherman at the time he began his march to the sea. He participated in many engagements and battles. After the war, Mr. Miller returned to Wisconsin to the home farm.
   In January, 1868, Mr. Miller was joined in holy wedlock to Miss Albertina Hoffman in Wisconsin, and in March, 1873, Mr. and Mrs. Miller and three children moved to Merrick county, Nebraska, where Mr. Miller homesteaded on section thirty-four, township thirteen, range eight, which has been well developed and still remains the Miller home. Mr. Miller is one of the few original homesteaders in this section of Nebraska that still live on the homestead farm. He has passed through the different phases of pioneer life in Merrick county in the years of hard times, grasshopper raids, drouths, etc. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have thirteen children living: Amelia, who is married to John Scheibe, has seven children and lives in Howard county; Julius, also married and lives in Merrick county, has two children; Elizabeth, married to William Otte, has five children and lives in Howard county; Susie, married to Henry Thede, has six children and lives in Merrick county; Julia, married to Herman Ruphoff, living in Schuyler, Nebraska, and has four children; Esther, who is married to Albert Peters, has four children and lives in Howard county, Nebraska; Ferdinand, married, has two children, and lives in Merrick county; Mollie and August, at home; Emma, who is married to William Krause, lives in Howard county and has one child; and John, Sarah, and Clara, who reside under the parental roof.
   Mr. and Mrs. Miller and family are well known and have the respect and esteem of many friends.



   A typical pioneer of northeastern Nebraska is represented by the gentleman above named. He has lived in this section of the country for about twenty years, and has made himself felt as a part of the growth and development of the region, building up for himself, incidentally, a substantial home and valuable property.
   Mr. Johnson is a native of Sweden. He was born March 12, 1851, and is a son of John and Lotoa Johnson, who were well known farmers and worthy citizens of their community in the old country. During his boyhood our subject helped carry on the home farm, remaining with his parents until he was twenty-one years of age, at which time he left home and embarked for America. Spending little time in the city, he went almost directly to Iowa, where he secured work in a coal mine, following the same in the vicinity of Boone county for ten years. About the month of March, 1885, he came to Antelope county, Nebraska, where he filed on a homestead and tree claim, proving up on two hundred and forty acres of land in the required time. During his early residence in that vicinity he experienced many hardships and privations, incident to the life of the early settler on the Nebraska frontier, but bravely stuck to his self-imposed task of building up for himself a home and carving a fortune out of adversity, and his present pros-



perity is proof of his energy and perseverance. During the blizzard of 1888 he suffered severe lose, nearly all of his cattle being frozen to death. A short time after this, he sold his holdings in Antelope county and came to Knox county. In 1892 he purchased a tract of three hundred and twenty acres of fine land, which he has improved with good buildings, groves, etc. He has a very handsome residence, plenty of shade and fruit trees surrounding his dwelling, and his place is known as one of the most beautiful homes and best equipped stock and grain farms in the section.
   July 8, 1876, Mr. Johnson was united in marriage to Miss Clara Carlson, a native of Sweden, and to them have been born the following children, all of whom are occupying honorable positions in life: Gust, Amanda, Edward, Leta, Minnie, Hilda, Carl, Freeman, Clifford, Warner, Mabel and Lawrence.



   Energetic efforts and intelligence go hand in hand in the building up of a fortune, regardless of the vocation to which they are applied. One of the well developed and highly improved estates of Stanton county, is that owned by Mr. H. Voelker, whose pleasant home is located in section eight, township twenty-two, range two, east.
   Mr. Voelker is a German by birth, and was born in Pommeron, Germany, in 1856, the son of John and Arelka Voelker. His childhood and early manhood years were spent in his native land, where he also obtained his education.
   In 1882 Mr. Voelker came from Germany to America, by way of Bremen. After landing in New York, he located in the city of Elmira, in that state, and accepted employment in a woolen mill, where he remained for about three years, coming then to Madison county, Nebraska, where he engaged in farm work in the vicinity of Norfolk.
   In 1890, Mr. Voelker came to Stanton county and bought a farm of three hundred and twenty acres, where he erected a frame house about sixteen by twenty-four, which remained the home of the family for many years. Many improvements have been put on the farm since he purchased it, which have greatly enhanced its value.
   Mr. Voelker was united in marriage to Miss Augusta Timm, in 1882. They are the parents of eight children, all of whom are living. The children are named as follows: Herman, Gustave, Martha, Anna, Paul, Otto, Ida and Clara.
   During his long residence in this country, Mr. Voelker has won the esteem of all who know him. His many sterling qualities have gained him friends everywhere he has gone.
   Mr. Voelker served in the army of the German Empire from 1876 to 1879, but has had no opportunity for military service in America.



   Located very pleasantly in section four, township twenty-four, range five, is to be found the family whose name introduces this biographical writing. It has been identified with the history of Antelope county, Nebraska, from a very early date. Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson were born in Guthrie Grove, Lee county, Illinois; Mrs. Atkinson's name before marriage being Rebecca Guthrie. Her mother was born near Wheeling, West Virginia. Mrs. Atkinson was married in 1865 to Willis Lee, and they became the parents of six children. Mr. Lee's father served in the civil war, enlisting in 1863, and receiving an honorable discharge in 1865. On December 23, 1879, Mr. Lee died in Nodaway county, Missouri, leaving six little children to the care of his wife, who had a very hard struggle to provide for them. Two of the children are now living: Benjamin F., and Ida, who is now Mrs. Charles McCauley.
   On May 24,1885, Mrs. Atkinson was united in marriage to William Atkinson, and they had one child born to them, Levie, who still resides at home. Mr. William H. Atkinson was born in Illinois, April 8, 1844. He was married in 1874 to Lucy Long, of Illinois, who died February 18, 1879. In 1882 he came to Antelope county, Nebraska, from Illinois, and bought two hundred and forty acres of land from Mr. Ben Trueblood, who was the homesteader of the land. On this land Mr. Atkinson found a log house, in which he lived for ten months, working fifteen acres and renting the balance of his land; then returned to Illinois where he married. His father, William Atkinson, was a native of county Armaugh, Ireland, born in 1806. In coming to America our subject's father embarked on a sail boat, and did not see land for seventy days. He then stopped off at New Brunswick where he worked in the lumber region, where timber was being procured with which to build ships, and then went to New Hampshire, where he worked on a railroad. Mrs. Atkinson's mother, Mary Ross, was a native of Wheeling, West Virginia, and died at the age of sixty-six years, deeply mourned by all.
   Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson experienced many hardships and trials in early days. In the memorable blizzard of January 12, 1888, Mr. Atkinson lost none of his own stock as did so many of the settlers, but he found shelter in his own shed for a neighbor's cattle, who could not drive them against the storm. Mr. Atkinson's children were at school, but the boy assisted in getting a neighbor's little girl home and froze his ears while on the way. The severity of the storm may be realized from the statement that it was thirty de-

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