the time of his enlistment in Company D, Sixteenth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry December, 1861. While in his country's service, he received a wound in the battle of Pittsburg Landing, April 6, 1862, on account of which he was discharged on August 26, 1862, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, after which, in July, 1863, he came to Nebraska with a family by the name of Nettleton, coming overland by ox team from Wisconsin.
   In December, 1863, Mr. Gerecke again enlisted in the United States army from Burt county, Nebraska, and joined Company C, Seventh Iowa Cavalry, this regiment being stationed at that time at Omaha, Nebraska, on frontier duty. On May 7, 1866, Mr. Gerecke received his discharge at Leavenworth, Kansas, and in September, 1866, returned to Nebraska, going back to Burt county, where he took up a homestead, and where he is known as one of the pioneer homesteaders of Burt county.
   Mr. Gerecke also learned the carpenter's trade, and on April 29, 1869, moved to Norfolk, Madison county, Nebraska, where he went to work in a new flour and saw mill in Norfolk as a carpenter and millwright, and Norfolk has remained his home ever since.
   Our subject was first elected mayor of Norfolk, Nebraska, and served his people so well that he was elected to fill that office three differant times. He also held the office of justice of the peace fourteen years since 1880, and also served as assessor for Norfolk. Mr. Gerecke needs no words to acclaim his worth, as his own history tells of the popularity and esteem he enjoys in his community.
   Mr. Gerecke is democratic, and has been prominent in his party for a number of years, and was the nominee of his party for the state legislature about 1892.
   Mr. Gerecke's parents, after their residence in the state of Wisconsin, came to live in Madison county also, and were well known and highly respected by all. Our subject suffered the loss of both parents. His mother died in Norfolk in 1877 in her sixty-third year, and his father died in Norfolk in 1901 in his eighty-sixth year.
   Mr. Gerecke was married to Miss Sarah E. Brickley in Omaha, Nebraska, on July 22, 1871, and they are the parents of a fine family of seven children, whose names and histories are given as follows: Addie, who is married to A. K. Leonard. a druggist in Norfolk, Nebraska; Alfred M., also married, and lives in Holdrege, Nebraska; Ervin, married, and living in Fremont, Nebraska; Nellie, who is married to F. W. Emory. and living at Oakmont, Pennsylvania; Charley, who resides in Hastings, Nebraska; Clarence and Fred, who live in their home town, Norfolk, Nebraska.
   Mr. Gerecke is one of the few remaining old settlers of this portion of Nebraska. He has had a varied career. and has been a, successful man of affairs, and is one, of the best known citizens of Madison county.



   Rev. Sylvester Curtis Tubbs is a citizen of Custer county who has long been identified with its farm, stock and business interests. He is well known, also, for his activity in educational and religious interests. He has been especially forceful in church work and in different times has served as pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church in various churches in the Kearney district. He has in past years devoted considerable time to pastoral work in Custer and adjoining counties. On account of throat trouble, he gave up this line of work in 1904, but retains a keen interest in the affairs and welfare of the local church. Mr. Tubbs was born in Ulster county, New York, December 3, 1851, sixth child of the eight children of Lysander C. and Caroline (Swan) Tubbs. Of these children three sons and three daughters reached maturity. The parents were also natives of New York and were married in that state. The father died in Kansas March 23, 1875. The mother came to Nebraska with her son, Sylvester C., and her death occurred at his house, January 22, 1892. The only members of the family now surviving are Sylvester and his brother James O., who lives seven or eight miles south of Maxwell, in Lincoln county.
   Lysander C. Tubbs was a farmer and also had a lumber mill and blacksmith shop. The younger days of Sylvester C. Tubbs were spent on a farm and later he helped his father in the mill. The family moved to Vineland, New Jersey, about 1869 or 1870, and about one year later to Pottawattamie county, Kansas, where the death of the father occurred. Mr. Tubbs was married in that county July 8, 1875. to Mrs. Anna E. Larrem. and they lived on a farm in Kansas a few years after their marriage.
   In May, 1880, Mr. Tubbs brought his wife and their adopted son to Custer county, making the trip via the prairie schooner route, and spending three weeks on the road. With the parties were his brother-in-law, Andrew Case, and his Uncle, I. S. Sawn, with their families, and also George W. Ransier, brother of Mrs. Tubbs, and Luther Mattison. They reached their destination in June and all located in the same neighborhood. Mr. Tubbs secured a timber claim on the southeast quarter of section eighteen, township seventeen, range twenty-five, and several years later took the northeast quarter of the same section as a pre-emption, making a half-section farm. The timber claim was taken June 30, 1880, and he still holds both pieces of land, being one of the few old settlers to retain possession of their original farms.
   At the time he came to Custer county the cattle men and ranch men were the only residents of his part of it, and the members of his party were the original homesteaders of that region, being the farthest settlers up the South Loup river for about three years. Lexington, in Dawson county, was then their nearest trading point.



   Mr. Tubbs experienced the losses and trials of the years of drouth and other vicissitudes of the early settler, but was not discouraged, and eventually reaped the fruits of his toil. His wife died on the home farm March 13, 1900, and in July, 1908, Mr. Tubbs left the farm and came to live in Arnold. No children had been born to their union.
   Mr. Tubbs had been an active worker and exhorter in the Methodist church before coming to Custer county, and soon after his arrival organized a Sunday school and held religious services. At first the congregation was made up of the little settlement of which his family was a part, with cattlemen and cowboys from the neighboring ranches, but in 1888 he entered the ministry and for several years thereafter was engaged in supply work. He was well fitted for this good work and held many early appointments in central Nebraska. It has been a regret and sorrow to his many friends and acquaintances that he has felt it necessary to give up active participation in this work.
   On July 8, 1901, Mr. Tubbs was united in marriage with Mrs. Orpha Olive Gregory, and two children have blessed their union: Anna Leota, born in Dawson county, and Velma Mary, born in Custer county. Mr. Tubbs is one of the best known men in the central part of the state and has been associated for many years with the best interests of the region.



   The highly cultivated fields of Nebraska and well equipped ranch properties bear little semblance of the land as it was in the time of the pioneer settler, when he found it at vast wilderness or barren prairie, perhaps covered in parts with brush or submerged. None of it was in shape for cultivation, and yet many of those who went to that Country under these unpromising conditions have remainded to become the owners of some of the finest farms in the state. Among those who have brought about this most pleasing condition is the gentleman above named, Abner Bailey, who for many years had a pleasant and comfortable home in section one, township twenty-seven, range four, in Pierce county, Nebraska. They now live on section fifteen, township sixteen, range forty-seven, near Lodge Pole, Cheyenne county, Nebraska, having moved to the new location March 1, 1911.
   Abner Bailey was born in 1845, in LaPorte, Indiana, and is the son of Volney W. and Anna (Hendricks) Bailey, the father being of English descent, born in New York state in 1820, and died in 1873; and the mother was of German descent, born in 1824, and died in 1894. Our subject's father served in the civil war, enlisting in 1864.
   Mr. Bailey came from LaPorte, Indiana, to Pierce county, Nebraska, in 1882, and homesteaded land in the southwest quarter, section one, township twenty-seven, range four, where he built a sod house in which he lived six months and then built a frame house. Here he developed a fine farm after going through all the hardships incident to those early pioneer times, and among other calamities suffered from the great hailstorm of 1894.
   Mr. Bailey was united in holy wedlock to Miss Marie Carr, and they have had two children born to them: Volney W., and Charles W.
   Mr. Bailey is highly respected and esteemed by all who know him, and he is a member of the Masonic order; in religious faith he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and in politics he votes the republican ticket.



   Perseverance and integrity are the stepping stones by which many men have reached success, but of the early settlers of the west these characteristics were required in greater measure than usually falls to the men of old settled regions. The genteleman [sic] above mentioned possesses these attributes in a marked degree and to this fact is due his present success. He resides in section two, township thirteen, range seven, where he has a finely developed farm, comfortable home, and good buildings.
   Absalom Y. King was born in New Jersey, January 7, 1842, and was third of eleven children in the family of Charles and Elizabeth (Van Fleet) King, who had nine sons and two daughters. The King family moved to Moline, Illinois, in 1855, and then to Henry county, Illinois, the following year. Mr. King was a farm boy, and farming and stock raising has been his occupation until this time.
   Mr. King enlisted in Company C, Ninth Illinois Cavalry, in March, 1864, and was mustered out at, Selina, Alabama, in November, 1865. He was out on scout duty most of the time during his service, and was also on patrol and detached skirmish duty. After his discharge our subject returned to Henry county, Illinois, and in the spring of 1873 came to Merrick county, Nebraska, taking up a homestead on section six, township fourteen, range eight.
   Mr. King was married to Miss Susan Artman, in Henry county, Illinois, November 17, 1864, one child being born of this union: John Edward. who is married, has one child, and resides at Lincoln, Nebraska. Mrs. King died in January, 1866.
   Mr. King was united in marriage a second time, when on October 5, 1867, he was bound in holy wedlock to Malinda McHenry, in Henry county, Illinois; and at the time of coming to Merrick county, Nebraska, the family consisted of himself, wife and three children. Six children in all were born to this union, three of whom were born in Merrick county. Of the six children five are living: Daisy, who resides at home; Charles



William, married, has four children, and lives in Merrick county; Annie May, lives at home; Eugene, married, has two children, and lives in Logan county, Nebraska; and Ernest, who resides at home; one child, Nora U., died in infancy.
   Mr. King lived on his homestead until 1884, and then purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land in section two, township thirteen, range seven, where he now resides. Mr. King is a democrat and has in past years filled different precinct offices. He and his family are pioneers of Merrick county, and enjoy the respect and esteem of a large circle of friends.


   New England and the east have furnished the west with many of its sturdiest citizens. New York was the birthplace of F. B. Smith, retired farmer of Creighton, Nebraska, who first saw the light of day in Oswego county, July 7, 1845. His father, Franklin Smith, died at the age of thirty-five when the boy was about four years old. His mother, who was Elizabeth House before marriage, passed away in 1896, at the age of seventy-five years.
   Mr. Smith learned the tanners' trade and was employed in tanneries ten years in his native county, and five years in Forest county, Pennsylvania. This was a forest country at that time and tan-bark was to be had in plentiful quantities throughout all the mountain region. In 1871 he came west, settling in Champaign county, Illinois, where he bought an eighty-acre farm which he cultivated until the fall of 1881. Selling to advantage, he sojourned in Glenwood, Iowa, from December of that year until February following, when he came to Nebraska the first day of March and bought a half section of school land three miles from Creighton. This he proceeded to improve with a fine frame house and good substantial buildings, and developed one of the most productive farms in the vicinity. In 1904 he retired from active farming, built a trim and commodious dwelling in the southwest part of Creighton, and is taking the best out of life for the balance of his days.
   Mr. Smith was first married in Oswego county, New York, November 15, 1866, to Miss Philura Wilkinson, who was born in that county, September 10, 1849, and passed away in Forest county, Pennsylvania, in March, 1878. She was the daughter of George W. and Polly Ann (Spicer) Wilkinson. Of the first marriage, one daughter was born, Alice May, who is the wife of Moses Dayger, living in Oswego county, New York.
   Mr. Smith was married a second time in Glenwood, Iowa, April 3, 1882, to Miss Emma Guyer, who was born near Syracuse, Onondaga county. New York. Her father, Charles Guyer, came to Iowa and secured a farm where he died; the mother Helen A. (Pierce) Guyer, died in New York when Mrs. Smith was a child. There were two children born to Mr. and Mrs. Smith: Olive, wife of John Quartier, who is farming near Creighton; and Hazel, the younger, is a student in the Creighton schools.
   Mr. Smith happened to be in town during the blizzard of January 12, 1888, and was prudent enough to remain; he lost only a few hogs, his cattle all being in shelter. Along with others he suffered the four years drouth in the early nineties, but had the endurance to see it through, and those who had confidence in Nebraska and stuck to the land have been rewarded a thousand fold. During the years when much corn was being burned Mr. Smith used coal; he was wise enough to give the problem a scientific test; weighing out a dollar's worth of corn at the prevailing price, and quantity of coal the same, he found that corn was no cheaper and could be turned into a marketable product in flesh, which coal could not.
   In political faith Mr. Smith is a democrat. He is a member of Creighton lodge number one hundred, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, having joined the order in New York when but four months past his twenty-first birthday; with Mrs. Smith he is also a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, and he also fraternizes with the Ancient Order United Workmen. The family all worship at the altar of the Baptist church.



   William H. Stout, who is among the very earliest settlers of Boone county, Nebraska, is a prosperous agriculturalist of Manchester precinct. He still resides on his original homestead taken in April, 1871, which is now one of the most valuable and fully equipped farms in that region.
   Mr. Stout was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, on May 23, 1849. He was the oldest of two children born to John Y. and Mary Stout, both parents now deceased, while his brother resides in Michigan.
   When he was a child of three years, his parents moved into Michigan, and he made that state his home until he was about twenty-two years old, at that time coming into Nebraska and locating on a homestead in section twenty-one, township twenty, range six, of Boone county, this being one of the original homesteads in the county. There be went through all the pioneer experiences and became familiar with every change which came to that portion of the state. His first building was a sod house which he erected on a forty-acre plat, this land now being a part of the city of Albion, and the shanty itself stood on ground that is now one of the main streets of the place. He occupied this dwelling for a number of years, then put up a comfortable frame house, the lumber for the same being hauled from Columbus, Nebraska, and it was his home up to 1908 in its original state, when he



had the entire building remodeled, and the lumber used at that time was sawed out of timber cut from Boone county trees, Mr. Stout himself cutting the timber and preparing it from a growth of trees which he himself planted. Mr. Stout's home is situated just outside of the city limits of Albion, and is one of the pleasant and well-kept places of that section.
   For a number of years Mr. Stout has been engaged to quite an extent in the stock shipping business, also carrying on an extensive grain farm. He owns large tracts of land in different parts of Boone county, also four hundred and eighty acres in Dawson county, the same number acres in Frontier county, and three hundred and twenty acres in Wheeler county, and is justly called one of the successful and prominent old-timers of Nebraska. He is a truly self-made man, having practically made his own way in life since he was twelve years of age, and has devoted all of his time to the occupation of a farmer. He has always taken an active interest in promoting the growth of his chosen locality.



   One of the most prominent Grand Army men of northeastern Nebraska is found in the veteran comrade, H. E. Holt, of Butte, who has been a resident of the state since the fall of 1886, when he settled ten miles north of Johnstown, in Brown county, and filed on a homestead and timber claim, leasing at the same time a school section. He begun farming, but crops were poor, and, after trying it for five years, decided to make a change, so sold out and removed to Boyd county. Here he invested in town lots in Butte, obtaining twenty in three different blocks, which are now worth a considerable sum of money. He has a pleasant home and cosy cottage surrounded by a grove of fine trees, orchard and beautiful lawns. Mr. Holt is custodian of the school house and grounds in Butte, and their neat appearance bespeaks his faithfulness to duty. He as familiarly known to everyone in his town as "Grandpa" Holt, and the children, particularly, claim him as their own.
   Mr: Holt was born in Troopsburg, Steuben county, New York, on March 20, 1842, and grew up there. Before attaining his majority he enlisted in Company H, Eighty-sixth New York Volunteers, joining the regiment on September 7, 1861, and serving for three years. He then re-enlisted in the same company on December 31, 1863, remaining up to June 27, 1865, which is the date of his discharge. Mr. Holt's company was in the thickest of the fight, he having been a participant in the second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Siege of Pittsburg and the Richmond campaign, besides numerous smaller engagements, making truly a long list of famous battles for one man to have gone through and come out alive. He was at Appomatox at the time of Lee's surrender, and was on picket duty when General Meade received Lee's offer of a conditional surrender, remembering perfectly General Grant's demand for the surrender within an hour, or the beginning of hostilities again. The answer to this demand is well known to all.
   After the close of the war, Mr. Holt returned to his native county, remaining there engaged in farming until his emigration west, in 1886.
   Mr. Holt was married in Troopsburg, New York, on December 30, 1865, to Miss Ruth J. Metcalf, who was born in Brookfield, Tioga county, Pennsylvania. Her parents, Moses and Polly Ann Metcalf, spent their entire lives in the east, her father attaining to the age of eighty-three, while his wife survived him by several years, passing away at the ripe old age of ninety. Mr. and Mrs. Holt have had eight children, and they are named as follows: Will Ellsworth, living on a homestead in Fall River county, South Dakota; Cora B., wife of Emerson Whipple of Tampa, Florida; Estella, wife of Edwin Wilson, of Neodesha, Kansas; Gertrude, wife of William Dew, living in Belfry, Montana; Orton, engaged in the mercantile business in Three Lakes, Washington; Franklin E., a paper hanger by trade, living in Laird, Colorado; Mary W., wife of Jacob Sieler, a leading merchant of Butte; and Moses, who remains under the parental roof.
   Mr. Holt has been a lifelong republican, as are most of the boys who wore the blue. He is a member of the W. M. Hooton Post number three hundred and thirty-eight, Grand Army of the Republic, at Butte, and during the greater part of his residence here, has served as commander.



   Burlen W. Lowe is one of Custer county's early settlers and has long been identified with the stock and grain interests of the region. He owns a large and well-improved farm, which includes his original homestead, and is widely and favorably known. He has lived retired from active life for some half dozen years past, and has a pleasant home in Callaway, devoting his attention to the business of buying and selling stock. Mr. Lowe was born in South Valley, New York, January 22, 1846, fourth of eight children of Peter and Louisa (Lettes) Lowe, both natives of the same place. The father was of Holland descent and died in Irondale, Missouri, February 10, 1898, and the mother died in New York, November 15, 1859. Mr. Lowe's ancestors have lived in America for several generations past, and his great grandfather, Peter Lowe, came from Holland to New York about 1750, and served under General Washington in the Revolutionary war as captain. Mr. Lowe has brothers and sisters as follows: Mrs. E. A. Cornist of Ladi,



Custer county; Mrs. Luella Wineland, of Blue Springs, Nebraska; I. N. Lowe of Chapman, Kansas; Dea T. Lowe, Adrian, Michigan; M. S. Lowe of Monroe, Michigan; Mrs. L. M. Lowe Ricketts who died in Lincoln, Nebraska, March 28, 1902. A few years after Louisa Lettes Lowe's death, Peter Lowe was married to Caroline Knowlton, June 18, 1860. To this union there were four children: R. A. Lowe, of Alamosia, Colorado; W. K. Lowe, of Monroe, Michigan; F. E. Lowe; Hollis of Sulligant, Alabama; and G. A. Lowe. Caroline K. Lowe died in St. Louis, February 2, 1900, and was buried by the side of her husband at Irendale, Missouri.
   Mr. Lowe reached manhood on the farm where he was born and received his early education in the local public schools. Later he attended private schools and was for a time a student in the seminary at Cooperstown, New York. In 1867, he accompanied his father to Adrian, Michigan, and for some fourteen years thereafter was in the employ of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad company. He was married at the home of the bride's parents at Cherry Valley, New York, on December 28, 1868, to Fannie E. Gaylor, a native of the state and daughter of Chauncey and Mary (Hannah) Gaylor, the former born in New York and the latter in England. Both parents died in Cherry Valley, the father April 23, 1904, and the mother August 19, 1899. She had come to the United States with her parents at the age of twelve years. Mrs. Lowe has two brothers and two sisters living in Cherry Valley, New York. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Lowe, namely: Eber C., married, and living in New York; Ethel, died in 1906, survived by her husband, Fred Wineland, and the following children: Elmer A., married, and living in Custer county; Eola L., wife of F. L. Hoffman, of Custer county, has one daughter; Elroy P., married and living in Deadwood, South Dakota, has two sons. Three children died in infancy.
   In March, 1885, Mr. Lowe, with his wife and five children came to Custer county, where he preempted one hundred and sixty acres of land on section twenty-eight, township fourteen, range twenty-two, took a timber claim of the same size, and in 1888 took homestead on section twenty-nine, township fourteen, range twenty-two, which was the home place until a few years since. He set out to improve and develop his land, and brought it to a high state of production, erecting suitable buildings and furnishing it with the necessary equipment for successful farming. For several years he served as a member of the school board of district number seventy-three, and also held other township offices. He is a man of recognized business ability and has won the respect of his neighbors and associates. In 1905 he retired and came to Callaway, his present home.



   Albert Russell, a prominent and well-known citizen of Arcadia, Nebraska, is interested in all that pertains to the welfare or progress of his county and state. He is a native of Delaware, Indiana, born December 31, 1851, an only child and left an orphan in infancy. He was adopted by John Russell and wife of that state, assuming their name. When six years of age he accompanied his foster parents to Henry county, Illinois, where, near Kewanee, he received his education and grew to maturity. he engaged in farming there and was married in that county, November 10, 1874, to Miss Emma Gates, who was born at Chillicothe, Illinois, daughter of Nathaniel and Julia (Cross) Gates. Her father, a carpenter by trade, was born in New York and died in Illinois in 1876, while her mother, a native of Ohio, died in Illinois in 1872. A brother lives at Council Bluffs, Iowa. a sister died in April, 1911, in Henry county, Illinois, and one brother died in service during the civil war. Mrs. Russell passed into eternity, June 6, 1911, leaving a loving memory of christian womanhood.
   In February, 1877, Mr. Russell brought his wife and their first born, Grace, to Nebraska, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of railroad land in Platte county. where they resided until 1903, when they came to Arcadia, their home since that time. Mr. Russell purchased two hundred acres of land within the city limits and there has a splendidly improved and well equipped grain farm. He has taken an active part in local affairs and during the years 1909-10 served as supervisor on the county board. He is now a member of the city board, and has well performed every duty that has fallen to him in his official capacity.
   Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Russel, and six of them now survive: Grace, married Charles Dockhorn, and has one son, Glen; Fred J., of Valley county, is married and has three children; Harry W., lives in Idaho, is married and has two children; Milo C., married, and living in Valley county, has one child; Olive O., wife of Adam Kunkle, of Schuyler Nebraska, has three children; Myrtle F., died in 1904; Ora, died in infancy in 1894; Albert E., is a student, in Lincoln Business College.
   Mr. Russell owns five hundred and thirty acres of land and is one of the more successful farmers of the region. He is a member of the Congregational church, the Modern Woodmen of America, and in politics is independent of party lines. During his residence in Platte county Mr. Russell and family lived in a dugout for fourteen years. The blizzard of October, 1880, that inaugurated "the winter of the deep snow," Mr. Russell was loading poles at the Platte river and found great difficulty in reaching home. He was out, in the fearful blizzard of January 12, 1888,



on the road to town three miles from home, and with difficulty found a place of shelter.
   On another page we show a view of Mr. Russell's well kept town home, of his farm property !and of the old home in Platte county.

Town Residence of Albert Russell.


   Among the leading old settlers and public-spirited citizens of Pierce county, Nebraska, the gentleman above mentioned deserves a foremost place, he having lived on his present location since 1893. Mr. Schulz is a native of the village of Beverdick, province of Pommerania, Germany, and was born September 16, 1844. He lived in his native country until he reached the age of twenty-nine years, emigrating in 1873 to the new world, arriving in New York after a sixteen days voyage from Liverpool, England, having reached that port by way of Stettin and Hull.
   After landing in New York he came directly to Nebraska and settled on the land he now occupies, which is in section six, township twenty-five, range one. Owing to hard times in Pierce county, he sought work in Iowa for two years to keep his family in provisions. Our subject has succeeded in developing a good farm, engaged in mixed farming and stock raising, and now owns five hundred and twenty acres of land, five acres of which are covered with trees.
   Mr. Schulz did not escape the privations and hardships of those pioneer days which beset the venturesome sons of the soil who migrated to Nebraska in search of prosperity. In those days, Wisner was his nearest market place, and in 1873 his crops were burned out by the hot winds, and for three years the grasshoppers took everything, which caused him great suffering; but after the coming of the better years he was very fortunate. He also went through the blizzard of 1888, and in 1881 suffered from the high water, but after all these trials has succeeded in accumulating a nice property.
   Mr. Schulz was married September 28, 1880, to Miss Johanna Gehm, who was also a native of Pommerania. She died December 10, 1900. Seven children were born to them, named is follows: Elsa, married William Wagner; Ida, married Emil Newman, deceased; Minnie, married Peter Dick; Bertha, and Reinhold. Adolph and Albert are deceased.
   Mr. Schulz is a member of the German Lutheran church.



   The gentleman above named, now deceased, was for many years known throughout Howard county as one of the successful farmers and largest land owners of that section. He was proprietor of five hundred acres of fine farming and grazing land, all of which he accumulated by thrift and good management. He was a pioneer in the region, and has been closely identified with its upbuilding from the early days of its settlement by white men.
   Mr. Jensen was a native of Denmark, born in Norre Vissing, October 10, 1843. His boyhood was spent on his father's home, and he followed farming as a young man. On November 29, 1872, he was united in marriage to Karen Petersen, who grew up in the same province with our subject, and they made their home there up to 1881, then emigrated to America. Their first location was at St. Paul, Nebraska, which they made their home for seven years, during which time Mr. Jensen was engaged in the hotel and livery business.
   From there they moved on a farm containing one hundred and sixty acres, situated six miles southwest of St. Paul. Mr. Jensen worked faithfully to improve the place, and succeeded in developing a fine farm, erecting good buildings of all kinds, and put it in first class condition. His principal crop was grain, but he also raised considerable stock. He remained on the farm up to the time of his death, which occurred on November 22, 1908. He was greatly missed by the entire community in which he made his home, as he was a man of broad mind, a very ardent temperance worker, and one who gave liberally of his means to aid the cause.
   Mr. Jensen's family consisted of a wife and six living children, who are named as follows: Peter, who is vice president of the Boelus State Bank, he is married, has three children, and lives in Boleus, where he carries on a general merchandise business; Mary, employed by the Brandies store at Omaha; Ella, attending college at Grand Island; Niels, cashier of the Boelus State Bank; Anita, who clerks in her brother Peter's store in Boelus; and Jenssine, assistant cashier in the Boelus State Bank.
   After her husband's death, Mrs. Jensen rented the farm and moved into Boelus, where with her children, she occupies a handsome residence and joins in the social life of the town.
   In 1905, Mr. Jensen, his two sons, Peter and Niels, in partnership with L. B. Kenyon, purchased the Boelus State Bank. Mr. Kenyon was elected president, Anders Jensen, vice president, Peter Jensen, cashier, and Niels Jensen, assistant cashier. Anders Jensen continued to act as vice-president of the bank until his death. On January 1, 1909, Mr. Kenyon was continued as president, Peter Jensen was elected vice president in place of his father, and Niels continued as cashier, with Miss Jenssine Jensen as assistant cashier, which force remains the same at the present time.



   Samuel P. Warner, a well known and highly esteemed old settler of Valley county, Nebraska,



resides in Ord, where he has a pleasant home and enjoys the respect and friendship of the many. In his many years residence in this locality Mr. Warner has always done his full share in the betterment of conditions in his home state and county, and is accorded a foremost place as a substantial and worthy citizen.
   Mr. Warner is a native of Brown county, New York state, born February 24, 1844, a son of Alfred and Sally (Perkins) Warner; he was ninth in a family of fourteen children, and has two brothers residing in Wisconsin, and another in Minnesota, the other children being deceased, as are also the parents; the father died January 13, 1867, in Wisconsin, and the mother passed away October 17, 1870, in Mukwonago, Wisconsin.
   In early childhood Mr. Warner went with his parents to Wisconsin, where he grew to manhood, and on January 5, 1863, enlisted in Company B, First Wisconsin Heavy Artillery; he served until the close of the war, receiving his honorable discharge at Lexington, Kentucky, July 1, 1865. After the war he returned to Wisconsin, working at his trade of carpentry.
   On September 29, 1875, Mr. Warner was united in marriage to Miss Mary Young, who was born in Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Warner have had one child, Myrtle E., who is the wife of Lafayette Paist, treasurer of Valley county. Mrs. Warners' parents are deceased, her father, Silas Young, died in Wisconsin; her mother, Bertha (Terry) Young, passed away in Nebraska. Mrs. Warner has a brother and a sister living in California. Mr. and Mrs. Warner are among the earlier settlers of the county and are widely and favorably known. Mr. Warner is a member of the Odd Fellows lodge, and is popular with all classes of citizens in Valley county.
   In November of 1879, Mr. Warner came to Valley county, Nebraska, where he homesteaded forty acres of land twelve miles north of Ord, which was the home place for about seven years, when in 1886 the family moved to Ord, where Mr. Warner engaged in carpentry. Mr. Warner is a successful man of affairs, owning good city property, and in 1908 built a fine modern home where he now lives.



   The gentleman above named is one of the very oldest settlers in Madison county, Nebraska, and is familiarly known to every one, having lived in Madison county for the past forty years or more, since his earliest residence here having been one of the leading citizens, who by his influence and personal aid has helped to a wonderful degree in the development of the region. Since 1908 Mr. Osborn has resided on his present farm, which is located in section twenty-one, township twenty-four, range four, where he, and his family are surrounded by a host of good friends and neighbors.
   Mr. Osborn claims Virginia for his native state, which was also the State of nativity of his parents, Enoch and Rena (Hocks) Osborn. Our subject remained in Virginia until he attained the age of twenty-one years, receiving the usual school advantages, and after reaching manhood followed the occupation of farming
   While still living in Virginia, Mr. Osborn enlisted in the confederate army during the civil war, serving under Captain Cox in Company C, Forty-fifth Virginia Infantry, receiving his honorable discharge in 1865. Mr. Osborn was captured at Richmond and taken to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he was kept prisoner for nine months. His father was also a confederate soldier, enlisting in Company C, Forty-fifth Virginia Infantry, father and son marching almost side by side. After the war, they both returned to Virginia, remaining there some few years.
   In 1868, Mr. Osborn, our subject, left his home in Virginia and started for the west, coming by rail to Omaha. From there he came overland by ox team to his homestead southwest of Battle Creek, where he built a sod house and "batched it" for several years.
   In those first years of settlement in the wild and unbroken frontier, many hardships and discouragements were experienced by those sturdy sons who braved dangers and much suffering, enduring many losses and crop failures through the various causes of grasshopper plagues, prairie fires, and elements of the weather. The grasshopper pests that infested this portion of the country were about the greatest source of anxiety, they often coming in great clouds and swooping down on the fields of ripened crops, eating every spear of green to be found for miles in every direction. Prairie fires were often fought to save property and homes, and the settlers in those days were constantly on the alert of this danger. As late as 1894, Mr. Osborn lost the entire season's crops by the hot winds that burned out the soil and killed all vegetation; this was due to the severe drouth which caused so much havoc in that part of the country.
   In 1908, Mr. Osborn bought his present home, which is known as the Northup homestead; this, as before stated, is located on section twenty-one, township twenty-four, range four.
   Mr. Osborn was married March 14, 1873, to Miss Molly Lyon, a native of Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Osborn are the parents of four children, named as the following: Lee, Alice, Frank and Enoch. They are a fine family, and enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them.
   Mr. Osborn is a member of the Masonic fraternity and a democrat.

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