in the east. Their furniture was shipped front Wampum, Pennsylvania, to Grand Island, and was several weeks on the way. He going for them after arrival Mr. Mills was eleven days away from home on the way during which time Mrs. Mills was left alone in the almost empty house but felt no fear, having a faithful family dog, brought with them from the east, to guard her.
   The day of the blizzard of January 12, 1888, Mr. Mills started to the Hickenbottom sale at which so many were gathered that day, and giving the the [sic] mules they were driving to a homemade sled, their heads, the team took them to Mr. Joseph Gidding's, where they remained all night.
   The early nineties were trying years to the settlers; Mr. Mills suffered from drouth in 1890 and 1894, and lost all or part of the crops in 1893 and 1895 by hail.
   In politics Mr. Mills is democrat. Fraternally he is a member of the Masonic order, the Odd Fellows, and the Ancient Order of United Workmen.



   Few men living today in the state of Nebraska have memories of its prairies fifty years ago, but one of these few is Ben F. Stockwell, now retired, living in Boyd county, in the county seat. Mr. Stockwell first set foot on Nebraska soil in 1861, when he traversed the state on his way to Nevada, where for eighteen months he was employed in the silver mines of Virginia City. He had spent it short time in Utah, Idaho, and Montana, but made his longest sojourn in the state of Nevada before returning to his former home at La Grange, Indiana.
   Mr. Stockwell was born in the village of Alexander, Licking county, Ohio, September 7, 1838, and when four years old his parents moved to La Grange county, Indiana. He is a son of Ephriam and Margaret (Streeter) Stockwell, the former working as a millwright practically all his life. Ben Stockwell has been self-supporting since he was but nine years of age, working for his board and clothes, neither of which was over-abundant. At the age or twenty, he became one of a threshing crew, and for thirty years followed that emloyment [sic]. After his return from the mountains in the year 1862, Mr. Stockwell lived in Indiana until coming to the west. He lived during the winters of 1870-1871 in Jasper county, Iowa, before making residence in Nebraska in June, 1871, when he settled in Cass county, on a farm three miles west of Weeping Water, where he bought railroad land. Here he lived nine years, suffering total losses two years owing to the grasshopper pest. In 1880 he sold in Cass county, and moving to Lincoln county, Kansas, bought two hundred and forty acres six miles east of the city of Lincoln. Here he plied the science and art of farming and stock-raising seven years. Coming to Holt county in the fall of 1877, he bought a relinquishment and filed on a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres seven miles cast of Eagle Mills where he resided until 1903.
   In 1900 Mr. Stockwell retired from active farming and became a resident of Butte, where his brother, Dr. Stockwell, had been the leading phyiscian [sic] since the founding of the town. He bought two lots, built a residence, and at once planted trees which are today as large and thrifty as any in town. His place he sold to advantage in 1903, and built his present home, which faces the school square on the north.
   Mr. Stockwell was married September 5, 1860, to Miss Jane Rowland, a native of Huron county, Ohio. Her father, William Rowland, was a native of New York, who died at the age of eighty-seven; the mother, Mary Holcomb, lived until attaining her seventy-fifth year. Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Stockwell, named as follows: Lydia, wife of S. Anderson, of Henley, South Dakota; Kate, who is married to George Kirkland, of Atkinson, Holt county; Emma and her husband, Wilford Standeford, have a claim near Gregory, South Dakota; and Charlotte, is married to Ray Coleman, who is employed at Phoenix, Holt county, Nebraska.
   Mr. Stockwell was living in Holt county at the time of the great blizzard of January 12, 1888, and going from the house to the barn to feed his stock, he lost his way and with difficulty returned to his door. The weather looked suspicious to the mother that day, and the children were kept home from school, saving them suffering and distress.
   Mr. and Mrs. Stockwell never lived in the primitive sod house, as many settlers were compelled to do, but always lived near enough a town to buy lumber for a frame dwelling. Part of the time while living in Cass county corn was a drug on the market and furnished a cheaper fuel than coal.
   With a recollection of Nebraska extending over a period of more than fifty years Mr. Stockwell has no cause to regret the impulse that brough him to the state as a settler; and the state has cause to congratulate itself on acquiring so thrifty and substantial citizens as he.



   A typical pioneer of northeastern Nebraska is represented by the gentleman above named. He has lived many years in this section of the country and has been a part of the growth and development of this region, building up for himself a substantial home and fortune by his perseverance and thrift, and has come to be one of our foremost citizens.
   Mr. Campbell was born in Green county New York state July 16, 1846; he is the son of William and Mary (Van Steenberg) Campbell both natives of New York state. Our subject's grandfather, on the paternal side, and three uncles, served in the Revolutionary war.
   N. G. Campbell has an honorable war record to



his credit, having served his country in the civil war, enlisting in 1862, and receiving his honorable discharge October 7, 1865. He joined Company I, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York Volunteer Infantry, under General Grover, and Captain T. J. Rundell. He was with General Banks on the Red River campaign and then joined Sheridan and went down the Shennandoah Valley to Cedar Creek then joining Sherman in Savannah, Georgia, under which famous general he served during the campaign in North and South Carolina. Mr. Campbell participated in the battles of Fort Gisbon, Pleasant Hill, Winchester, Fisher Hill, and Cedar Creek. After receiving his discharge, Mr. Campbell returned to Green county, New York, and there remained until coming west.
   In 1878 Mr. Campbell came to Knox county, Nebraska, to make a fortune for himself and family, coming by way of Yankton, South Dakota, and from there driving to his homestead, where he now lives. He first built a frame house, the first of its kind to be erected in this section of the country. He lived on this place eight years before he owned a team; then managed to get two calves and raised them until they were old enough to-break to use for farm work and to go to market. These served the purpose fairly well for about three years, when in 1888 Mr. Campbell bought his first team of horses.
   Mr. Campbell also had his experience in the memorable blizzard of January 12, 1888, which storm will ever remain vividly in the minds of those who were unfortunate enough to experience it. In 1894, the crops were a total failure, being destroyed by the hot winds that prevailed that season during the drouth, our subject barely saving his seed. During the flood in the spring of 1881 the family lost practically all their household effects and what little they were able to recover was ruined by having been in the water. Thus can be recounted the many hardships and failures of the early pioneer, and it seems that more than the allotted share came to our subject.
   But Mr. Campbell has persevered through thick and thin as it were and now is reaping his reward of faithfulness and persistency. He is a substantial and popular citizen, which fact is attested to by the numerous offices he has satisfactorily and efficiently filled. He has been assessor of his precinct for eight years; he was postmaster of Herrick for ten years, and he has also served as justice of the peace. Mr. Campbell and his family own about six hundred and sixty acres of good land, which makes a fine estate.
   Mr. Campbell was married in 1869 to Miss Elizabeth Nelson, and Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are the parents of six children, whose names are as follows: George; Minnie, wife of Albert Lee; John; Edgar, who died November 10, 1910, leaving a widow who was Emily Finotti; Ina, wife of Mr. Will Poulson; and Rufus, who is married to Miss Della Redford.
   In politics Mr. Campbell is a democrat and he is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic at Bloomfield.



   Scandanavia has given many of her sons to the west, and Knox county, Nebraska, has its share of these sturdy citizens. Among the natives of Norway who have won for themselves a worthy place in the new world, may be mentioned Guennes Gunderson, the lumberman of Crofton, Nebraska.
   Mr. Gunderson was born in Norway, June 5, 1863. His father, Hans Gunderson, emigrated to America with his family about the middle of May, 1870; crossing the North sea from Christiana to Hull, England, the embarked at Liverpool for New York, reaching their destination, Florence, Douglas county, Nebraska, the fifth of June. The family resided in town, the father succeeding in renting land nearby until 1886, when he moved to the far west and filed on a homestead, a timber claim and a pre-emption claim in Kimball county, where he lived for seven years. In 1893 he returned to the east end of the state, purchased eight acres of land in Washington county, and resides here at the age of seventy-two years. He retains his four hundred and eighty acres of land in Kimball county, which are cultivated under lease. He was married in Norway to Dorothea Hanson, who has shared with him all all the privations of pioneer life in the west.
   Guennes Gunderson attended the schools of Florence and remained under the parental roof until several years after coming of age. He filed on a homstead [sic] in Cheyenne county, and in 1884 came back east for a helpmeet to cheer his lonely home. He was married in Omaha, February 22, 1886, to Miss Mary Blade, whose parents, Gust and Engobar Blade, emigrated from Sweden with their family in 1880 and settled in Nebraska. Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Gunderson, six of whom are living. They are: Henry, in business in Yankton, South Dakota; Lulu, a successful teacher of Crofton; Clem, Ethel, Gladys and Pearl.
   Mr. Gunderson has been on his claim near Eckers postoffice in northwest part of Cheyenne county two years at the time of his marriage, and he made this his home four years more. In June of 1890 he came to Knox county, and farmed for two years near Crofton. He next engaged in carpentry and followed that trade until 1905, erecting buildings all over Knox and Cedar counties. He discontinued building to take charge as manager of the lumber yard at Crofton operated [sic] by Blinkiron Brothers, which firm was succeeded by Weller Brothers.
   He having been faithful in his management of his employers business, winning by his courteous treatment a large share of the patronage of the surrounding country.



Mr. Gunderson is a republican in political beliefs. He is a member of the Masonic lodge, the Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen, and the Yeomen of Crofton, and of the Eagles at Hartington; and with his wife he is a member of the Rebekah degree.
   The family lived at Florence during the grasshopper years, and suffered severely through their devastation. One notable incident Mr. Gunderson relates is that as late as March 16, 1881, he drove across the Missouri river at Florence, the last of a number of wagons in the party. Crossing was made at a later date a little further down the stream. What at the time, seemed to be a provoking delay, is all, probably, that saved the lives of Mr. Gunderson and two of his friends, the day of the drearful [sic] blizzard of January 12, 1888. One of the neighbors had a horse he wanted to lead to Hartington; the horse escaped and managed to elude his captors two hours. When they finally did get started, they were but a short distance ahead of the storm, which overtook them near the last house between their starting point and town. Here they found shelter and remained for the night. Had they been half or even a quarter of an hour earlier they might have perished in the storm.
   Hail storms in the west shower down chuncks of ice that are unbelievable further east. In one storm in this region during the fall of 1880, dropped a hailstone that measured upwards of nine inches in circumference. When a hail storm of that character passes over a farm, there is nothing of the crops left. The hail was so deep one spring that enough of it was gathered from a deep ravine to freeze ice cream three weeks after the storm.
   Deer and antelope were to be seen in the country after the Gunderson family came, and at one time in Cheyenne county, a deer came within forty feet of where Mr. Gunderson was sitting near his own door. Mr. Gunderson has lived at times in a dugout, and in log houses in truely primitive style.



   Chauncey Stewart, Senior, deceased, who owned and occupied and extensive farm in section thirty-one St. Paul precinct, was one of the oldest men in his locality, and also among the first pioneers to settle in Howard county.
   Mr. Steward was born in New York state on December 3, 1818, and made that state his residence up to the fall of 1856, at that time going to McHenry county, Illinois. During his young manhood he followed farming as an occupation, and was married in Oswego county, New York in 1850, to Miss Mary A. Southworth. Three children were born to them in New York state, seven others in Illinois and Wisconsin. Mr. Stewart also worked on the Erie Canal for considerable of the time he lived in New York state.
   Mr. Stewart and his family made Illinois their home for about twenty-four years, then came to Nebraska, landing in Grand Island in March, 1880, and in the same mouth came on to Howard county. He purchased a tract of land on section thirty-one, township fourteen, range ten, and at the time of his death had three hundred acres in his home place, all of which is highly cultivated and the entire place equipped with good improvements of all kinds.
   Mrs. Stewart died on the farm on November 24, 1908, at the ripe old age of seventy-five years, leaving a host of sorrowing friends, as she was a woman of the kindliest nature, beloved by all who knew her. She was survived by her ten children, and Mr. Stewart, whose death occurred on November 16, 1909, in his ninety-first year. He enjoyed good health and took a lively interest in the farm affairs up to the time he died although for some years had given up active work. The farm is carried on by his son, Chauncey, junior, who with his family occupies the homestead.
   Mr. Stewart had two sons living in Howard county, and two daughters, who reside in St. Paul, Mrs. Lucy Brown and Mrs. Lew Warner, while the balance of the children are scattered in different parts of the country.



   Chauncey Stewart, junior, was born in Wisconsin on October 22, 1876, and came to Howard county with his parents in 1880. He grew up on the home farm, receiving his education in the local schools, and has been the main help of his father in carrying on the farm since his boyhood. He was married in Dannebrog, on February 24, 1909, to Bertha Nielsen, daughter of Hans Nielson, one of the prominent pioneers of Howard county, where she was born and reared. Mr. and Mrs. Steward have one child, Dale, who was born April 6, 1910.
   Mr. Stewart has been successful in his farming operations, and since assuming entire charge of the old homestead, has made many improvements, now being considered one of the practical and up-to-date agriculturists and stockmen of his vicinity. He is a young man of sterling worth and integrity, and ejoys [sic] the friedship [sic] of all with whom he has to do.



   James Hutchinson, a prominent farmer and stock raiser living on section nineteen, township twenty-three, range six, is well known throughout Antelope county, Nebraska, as a progressive and successful agriculturist, highly esteemed by all who know him.
   Mr. Hutchinson is a native of Lafayette county, Wisconsin, born March 27, 1859. His father, William Hutchinson, is a native of Eng-



land, born in Keswick village, Cumberland county; and our subject's mother, who was Miss Alderson, is also a native of England, being born in Newcastle. From his native state, out subject in 1868 went to Iowa where he remained eleven years; and in February, 1879 came to Nebraska, driving the entire distance in a covered wagon. He had heard the glowing acounts [sic] of this new country, of the land being so cheap and of such good soil, and decided this was the best place for a poor man without a competence to get a strat [sic]. He located in Antelope county where he brought one hnudred [sic] and sixty acres of railroad land. On this land he built a frame house fourteen by sixteen, and two years later built an addition of twelve by fourteen to this. He now has a beautiful home, well improved farm and a fine orchard and grove. In those first days of our subject's settlement in this part of the state, many disappointments and failures were experienced. In 1894 Mr. Hutchinson lost all his crops by the drouth. He got one hundred and fifty bushels of wheat off of forty acres of land. He suffered another loss in the memorable hailstorm of 1883, losing all small grain and the greater part of his corn crop.
   On September 15, 1886 Mr. Hutchinson was united in marriage to Miss Julia Harmon, and Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson are the parents of three children, whose names are as follows: Georgie, Clyde, and Iva, the last named died when a small child.
   Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson are surrounded in their beautiful home by a host of warm friends and enjoy the high esteem and respect of all who know them.



   Charles R. Mathews, a leading citizen of his part of Custer county, Nebraska, is one of the oldest settlers in central Nebraska. He was born in Virginia, March 11, 1843, next to the eldest child of Samuel G. and Naomi (Hudson) Mathews, who were parents of three sons and two daughters. The parents were natives of Virginia and the history of the Mathews family goes back to colonial times in Virginia, Samuel Mathews who died in 1660, being one of the three elected governors of Virginia, and he was one of the direct ancestors of the subject of this sketch. The father of Charles R. Mathews died in 1865 and the mother in 1868. One son, Jacob, lives in West Virginia and Mrs. Caroline Daniels also lives in that state.
   Mr. Mathews lived in his native state until the spring of 1874, and while attending a horticultural and pomological fair at Richmond saw a fine display of Nebraska products, which gave him an impetus to visit that state. He organized a party of eleven persons to come West, which arrived in Omaha, April 4, 1874, the only ones of this number who now live in Custer county are Mr. Mathews and H. B. Andrews. The party came to Kearney, thence to Loup City, Sherman county, and there hired an outfit to explore the unorganized territory in the Middle Loup river valley, being caught during this trip in a severe blizzard. They proceeded up the valley, through drifts of snow, to the mouth of Victora creek and there met some hunters and trappers who expatiated on the beauties of Victoria valley, with its pure cold springs gushing from the banks of the creek and the dense forest of large cedar trees, the place afterward being known as Big Cedar common. After spending several days looking this country over the party returned to Loup City, then a town of one hundred inhabitants, and sixty miles distant from the place where Mr. Mathews made his homestead location. Among the first settlers on Victoria creek were H. B. Andrews, Edward Nelson and Charles Mathews, and when Mr. Mathews was in Loup City for supplies in May, 1874, he met Oscar A. Smith and George E. Carr and induced them to locate adjoining homesteads along the creek. The next settler in the immediate neighborhood was Ezra A. Casewell, and Thomas Loughran took a homestead several miles further down the creek. In June Jacob Ross, with a family of grown daughters, made a welcome addition to the little community, and in the spring of 1875. Nathaniel H. Dryden and his family, J. R. Forsyth and J. P. Bell, came there.
   Victoria mineral springs, of pure cold water, are numerous in the vicinity of New Helena, Custer county, and are about the only mineral springs shown on the government map of the state. Some of the cedar log cabins erected there in 1874 and 1875 are still standing, and Mr. Mathews still occupies his, which was built in 1874. The country around his home is abundant with groves of beautiful trees and is a beautiful grain and stock region. Some of the trees which were set out by the early settlers are now three feet in diameter, but none of the original cedar trees are left. The fine grove on the Mathews place was set out by Mr. Mathews and is used for picnics and outings. The water from the mineral spring on his place has been at times bottled and placed on the market.
   During the winter of 1874 and 1875 Mr. Mathews circulated a petition to the government asking that a mail route he established from Kearney, via Loup City, Arcadia and Douglas Grove, to New Helena, and the first mail was brought over this route April 15, 1875. February 9, of that year Mr. Mathews received a commission as postmaster of New Helena. In 1876 a general uprising took place among the Sioux Indians, causing much uneasiness, and many families went to Loup City for protection, but no serious trouble resulted. In early days the region was known as Kountz county, in honor of the



Kountz brothers, of Omaha, but was not then regularly organized. Among the settlers of 1875 and 1876 were Isaac Merchant, W. O. Boley and Samuel Wagner. In 1878 the little settlement on Victoria creek had good crops and the following summer gave promise of an abundant harvest, over which prospects the settlers were exceedingly happy and held a fourth of July celebration at New Helena, but at that time one of the most severe and destructive hail storms ever experienced in the region came up and completely wiped out the crops. As late as 1880 the settlers hauled their seed grain from Central City and Grand Island, a distance of one hundred and twenty and one hundred and thirty miles.
   Mr. Mathews served as county judge in 1881 and 1883, and still has in his possession the manuscript of the records of his first courts. He has assisted in a variety of ways in the progress and development of Custer county and is one of the most widely known men in central Nebraska. His original homestead, located on the bank of Victoria creek and containing a log cabin surrounded by a fine grove of trees, is one of the landmarks of the region, being one of the pioneer estates that have changed but little in many years. There are fine springs in the neighborhood of the house and it is in a fine location. This is one of the best farms in the coutry [sic] and has a fine orchard, which adds greatly to its charm and value. In early years Mr. Mathews helped locate many of the pioneers and was one of the most prominent men in the valley. He is a democrat in politcs [sic] and is well posted on the leading questions and issues of the day. Although of a modest and quiet disposition, he has been actively identified with every measure of reform and progress which has come to his notice and is highly esteemed for his many fine qualities of mind and heart.



   The blood of the highlands flows in the veins of Gregor McGregor, the veteran blacksmith of Hartington, and his tongue has not forgotten all the gaelic his boyhood's ear heard around the family fireside. His portrait is presented on another page. His father, John McGregor, was born in the state of New York, and the grandfather in the highlands of Scotland, a "hielaman," as the gaels are called on their native hills. The mother, Agnes Lowrie, was born in the lowlands of Scotland and came to Canada with her parents.
   Mr. McGregor was born in Ridgetown, Ontario, August 14, 1849, and ten years later the family moved to Blenheim where later Gregor learned the blacksmiths' trade; in 1869 he came west and for a year found work in the shops at Omaha. In March, 1870, he started for Cedar county, Nebraska, coming by rail to Sioux City, and from Covington, (now South Sioux City), rode as far as Ponca on a freight wagon. From Ponca he started to walk to St. James and covered twenty-two miles the first day, reaching the home of Mr. McQuerry at Lynne creek some time after night fall, where, footsore and weary, he spent the night. Continuing the journey next morning, he reached St. James, his distination, an hour or two past noon, March 20, 1870. He at once set up his forge and soon had a thriving business, being the first and for a time the only blacksmith in that part of Nebraska. Work was brought to him for miles around, settlers from far away at Niobrara coming to Hoese's mill with their grist brought the mending needed at the smithy along with them, having that done while waiting their turns at the mill, which sometimes took several days.
   The first of January following, Mr. McGregor opened a shop at Jones Mill and remained in that location until in August, when he returned to St. James, bought the shop and for ten years made the sparks fly and the anvil ring in that location. Moving to St. Helena in the fall of 1881 he opened a shop there and served the community with smith work until the establishment of Hartington in September of 1883. He bought lots in town, built a shop, and for two years ran the first smithy in town; in 1885 he sold his shop and, in partnership with J. M. Lemmon, opened a livery establishment which they ran for ten years. After selling his interest in this business in the fall of 1895, he returned to his boyhood home in Blenheim, remaining nine months working at his trade. July 1 he went to Colorado and sojourned there four months, returning to Nebraska and settling in Wayne the latter part of October, where he found work in a shop there.
   In February of 1897 Mr. McGregor returned to Hartington, opened his present shop and has been at work at his forge here ever since. He is an expert farrier and his shop is crowded at all times with horses waiting to be shod. There, are few, if any, in the region to equal him in this difficult branch of the trade. He knows how to handle nervous and fractions horses and put them more at their ease.
   Mr. McGregor was married in Hartington, December 25, 1873, to Miss Alice Cole, daughter of Gideon and Ann Cole, who came to the state in the spring of 1870. Four children have bene [sic] born to Mr. and Mrs. McGregor, namely: Maud, wife of Robert Turner, now residing in Spokane, Washington; Mabel; Roy, a junior partner in a prosperous grocery store in Hartington, and Agnes.
   Mr. McGregor has passed safely through the many storms that have swept the western plains during the last forty years, and remembers well the few most notable blizzards that have taken toll of so many lives, both human and brute was living in St. Helena at the time of the three



days' blizzard of April, 1873; was living in St. James at the time of the third blizzard of October, 1880; and when the flood came in the spring following the winter of the deep snow, he helped rescue thirty people who were flooded out on the flats across the river in South Dakota. On January 12, 1888, the most destructive short time blizzard ever known, came rolling down on them from the north. Mx. McGregor was carrying the mail to Yankton at that time and started on his trip; though severe he was able to make his way against the storm while the road lay within the timber, but on emerging into open country beyond the horses refused to go, nor could they be forced to face the blast. He was forced to return to the starting point and wait until the next day when, despite the low temperature--some twenty degrees below zero, he made his usual trip and returned. Few had the courage to face such a frosty blast. Mr. McGregor has seen the prairies covered with deer and antelope, and has killed deer on the present site of Coleridge.
   Mr. McGregor, living in villages, has never dwelt in sod houses or dugouts, but he has attended "frolics" and danced in them. And those were jolly beyond a doubt; after recounting all their hardships and trials any of the old-timers will tell you that those days were the happiest of their lives.
   Mr. McGregor is a democrat in poltics [sic], and is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America lodge.

Gregor McGregor.


   This gentleman was at the time of his death one of the oldest men of the state of Nebraska, who spent the greater part of their lives west of the Mississippi, and he had been a resident of Nebraska since 1881. When he first came to Nebraska white settlers were very widely scattered, there being but four houses between Creighton and Plainview, and three from the later place to Pierce.
   Mr. Harper was born in Huron county, Ohio, October 29, 1833, and was six years old when his years old when his father removed to DeKalb county, Illinois. He grew to manhood in the later vicinity, and in 1885 went to Delaware county, Iowa, where he had purchased a small farm the previous year, which, together with rented land he cultivated for nine years, then moved to Earlville, Iowa. Here he entered in the lumber business, also dealt in machinery, remaining in this place until coming to Nebraska, in 1881.
   On arriving in Nebraska he located at Bazille Mills, Knox county, and was landlord of the hotel there for four years then served as postmaster for four years under Cleveland's first administration. After living on, and improving his tree claim, located five miles west of Creighton, for one summer, he moved back to Iowa, locating at Greeley, Delaware county, where he took the management of the Greely House for two years.
   Returning to Nebraska Mr. Harper took up his residence at Plainview, Pierce county, in 1891, engaging successfully in the windmill business. He purchased some land, situated in the College addition to the town, helping to survey the site himself, and building in October of 1892, his residence being the first on the new addition.
   Surrounding this house is one of the finest groves in northeastern Nebraska, making of it during the summer, a beautiful shade bower, and one of the prettiest spots imaginable. Here Mr. Harper lived the remainder of his days, his death occuring January 26, 1910. Age seventy-six years and three months.
   Mr. Harper was a son of Joseph and Susan Harper, natives of New York and Vermont respectively, both passing from this life in Illinois a number of years ago. Our subject was married at Earlville, Iowa in September, 1866, to Amelia Jane Box, daughter of Henry Box and Mary Bates Box, both natives of England and married there. They now live at Greeley, Iowa.
   Mr. and Mrs. Harper had five children, all living named as follows: Nettie A., wife of Gearge W. Lane, living at Independence, Iowa; Harry Leroy, druggist and ex-member of the Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy Examiners, Beatrice, Nebraska; George Leslie, deputy sheriff at Deadwood, South Dakota; Joseph Earle, druggist and member of the Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy Examiners, Clearwater, Nebraska, and Ralph Dyer, employed by the Homestake Mining Company at Deadwood, South Dakota.
   Mr. Harper was always a democrat. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Modern Woodmen of America and I. 0. G. T. lodges, and himself and wife were members of the Rebeckah degree.



   For the past thirty years or more David Roe, a resident of Howard county, Nebraska, has identified himself with the farming interests of Warsaw precinct, and by building up a fine farm and lending his influence for good citizenship, he has become one of the most successful and prominent men of that locality.
   Mr. Roe is a native of Canada, born December 17, 1860, and is the second child in a family of three. The other two died while mere babes, leaving our subject the only child of his parents, and he was left motherless at the age of three years. His father married again, and with his family came to Howard county in 1872, arriving here in March. He filed on a homestead, and David grew to manhood on the farm, at the age of twenty-one taking a claim on his own account, situated on section twenty-six, township four-



tene [sic], range eleven. Here he worked faithfully to build up a good home, and has succeeded in improving the place in first-class shape, now having a commodious residence and all good buildings, fine groves, orchards, etc. His farms comprise in all five hundred and sixty acres, which he devotes to mixed farming and stock raising.
   In the fall of 1909, Mr. Roe rented his farms and bought a fine modern residence and grounds in Dannesborg, to which place he moved in February, 1910, and intends making this his future home although he devotes a part of his time to looking after his farming interests.
   During his residence on his farm Mr. Roe was active in the affairs of his locality, serving as precinct assessor, road overseer, and other offices in the gift of his precinct, and was also moderator of school district number thirteen.
   Mr. Roe's wife's maiden name was Eliza Dodd, and to them have been born thirteen children ten of whom are now living: Mary Elizabeth, wife of Willard Morley, they living in Greeley county, Nebraska; James H., who lives near Alliance, Nebraska; William D., married and living at New Raymer, Colorado; Frank A., who died April 20, 1910, survived by a widow; Ernest. L., of Superior, Wyoming; Archie L., Arthur R., Lily Ruth, Albert W., Edward S., and Eliza Pearl, the last six living at home. John A. and Myrtle E. died in infancy. The family enjoys a large circle of acquaintances, and are among the popular members of the social set of their community.



   Frank S. Hays owns a well equipped and splendidly improved stock and grain farm in Custer county, which has been his home for nearly twenty-five years. He is a successful and progressive farmer, actively interested in the general welfare of his county and state, and highly respected as a citizen. He is a native of McLean county, Illinois, and the youngest child of Henry and Almarine (Rayborn) Hays. He has a brother, Marion G., in Custer county. The father was horn in Virginia, of Irish descent, and the mother was a native of Kentucky. Both died in McLean county, the former in 1860, and the later in November, 1906.
   Mr. Hays reached manhood in Illinois and was educated in the public schols [sic], after which he engaged in farming on his own account. In 1875 he went to California and worked at farming near San Jose, until 1879, when he returned to Illinois. He again secured work in San Jose, California, in the winter of 1880 and spent two years there, after which he spent several years traveling through many of the western states and engaging in various projects. He was married in McLean county, Illinois, at the Dawson home, August 7, 1884, to Miss Minie A. Dawson, a native of Illinois and daughter of J. Marion and Melinda F. (Props) Dawson, the former a native of Illinois and the latter born in Virginia. The father lives in Nevada, Iowa, the mother died in that state in July, 1896. Mrs. Hayes has three brothers and one sister in Iowa; two sisters and one brother in Illinois, and one sister, Mrs. Orrin Campbell in Dawson county, Nebraska.
   Mr. and Mrs. Hays made their home in Illinois for two years and in February, 1888, came with their only child, a daughter, to Custer county, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres on section twenty-eight, township seventeen, range eighteen, which has since been the home place. He now has a well improved and equipped stock and grain farm and is an energetic and successful farmer. He has served as treasurer of school district number four the past fifteen years, and for the past five years ling been treasurer of the Odd Fellows lodge at Westerville.
   Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mr. Hays, viz: Lida Constance, at home; Jessie A., a student in a commercial college at Broken Bow; Byron G., a student at Broken Bow; Marion P., Loren H., Hazel M., W. Harold and Marie F., at home.
   Mr. Hays is one of Custer county's early settler and owns several valuable pieces of property. He and his wife have passed through the years of trials and privations incident to pioneer life and are well and favorably known in the region. They have a wide circle of friends and acquaintances and are rearing a fine family to do them honor.
   Mrs. Hays and a neighbor, Mrs. Baker, were at the sale at Mr. Hickenbottom's the day of the well known blizzard of January 12, 1888, and, facing the storm, drove home through the blinding frozen mist, a feat few men accomplished for even half that distance. To Mrs. Hays fell the task of driving, and she reached home thoroughly chilled but uninjured.
   In politics Mr. Hays is a democrat and is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.



   Paul Fischer, who resides on section thirteen, township twenty-one, range two, Madison county, Nebraska, is regarded as one of the leading citizens of his locality. He has always been one of the important factors in the upbuilding of his region, aiding materially in its development and growth front the time of its earliest settlement, he having been a resident of Madison county for over forty years.
   Mr. Fischer is a native of Austria, where his birth occurred December 25, 1859; he is a son of John and Anna (Karl) Fischer, both natives of German Austria; the father was a coal miner by occupation in his native land. In 1868, our sub-

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