LEWIS AND CLARKE'S EXPEDITION -- NEBRASKA AS A TERRITORY --
NEBRASKA ADMITTED AS A STATE -- POPULAR VOTE FOR GOVER-
NOR AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS.
About the middle of the seventeenth century Canadian traders visited the Indian tribes then inhabiting the northern part of the country now embraced within the limits of Nebraska, and established a profitable trade with them for their rich robes and furs, which was continued for long years thereafter. In 1673, Marquette, the famous French missionary among the Indians, visited this part of the country and explored and mapped out the principal streams. At that time all of this Northwestern country was claimed by Spain, and formed part of the great Province of Louisiana; but in 1683, La Salle took possession of the country in the name of the King of France, and the French held it until formally ceded to Spain in 1762. It was ceded back to the French in 1800, and was by them sold to the United States for $15,000,000.
The purchase was accomplished during the administration of President Jefferson, by treaty at Paris, April 30th, 1803, and ratified by the United States Senate on the 31st of October of the same year. An act was immediately passed by Congress by which the President was authorized to take possession of the Territory, in conformity with the treaty; on the 20th of December, 1803, the formal transfer was made to William C. C. Claiborne and James3
Wilkinson, commissioners of the United States, by M. Laussat, the colonial prefect, at New Orleans, of the French Republic. On the 26th of March, 1804, Congress passed an act dividing the province into two Territories, denominating the southern "The Territory of Orleans," and the northern "The District of Louisiana." The latter included within its boundaries all of the Territory now embraced by the States of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Oregon, and the largest parts of Minnesota, Kansas and Colorado, also the Territories of Washington, Montana, Idaho, and Dakota, and parts of Wyoming and Indian, containing altogether, about 1,122,975 square miles.
The District of Louisiana, thus defined, was regularly organized as the Territory of Louisiana, by an act of Congress passed on the 3rd of March, 1805, and President Jefferson immediately appointed General James Wilkinson, Governor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Governor, with Judges Return J. Meigs and John B. C. Lucas, of the Superior Court, constituted the Legislature of the Territory. St. Louis was made the Capital.
LEWIS AND CLARKE'S EXPEDITION.
Shortly after the acquisition of this vast Territory, an expedition for the exploration of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers, and to ascertain the most practicable route across the Continent to the Pacific Ocean, was organized under the auspices of President Jefferson and placed in command of Captains Merriweather Lewis and William Clarke, both young and intelligent officers in the army.
The corps consisted of forty-three men, including the officers, and was made up of regular soldiers, who had volunteered for the enterprise, several Kentuckians, two French interpreters, some hunters, and a colored servant belonging to Captain Clarke.
On Monday, May 14th, 1804, the expedition left its encampment on the Mississippi River, one mile below the mouth of the Missouri and, embarking on board of three boats, proceeded up the latter stream on their world-famed tour of discovery. The largest boat was a keel boat, fifty-five feet long, carrying a large square sail and twenty-two oars, and having a deck of ten feet each in the bow and stern, while the covering of the middle was so
arranged that it could be raised for breastworks in case of attack. The two smaller boats were open, carrying six and seven oars respectively. The stores consisted mainly of Indian goods, such as knives, tomahawks, gaily colored cloths, paint, beads, etc.; besides a large quantity of clothing, provisions, tools, powder, balls, gun-flints and other articles for use of the officers and men.
The expedition reached the mouth of the Platte River, Saturday, July 21st, where they encamped for the night, and proceeded on their journey early the following morning, making a distance of about ten miles that day, and going into camp near the present townsite of Bellevue, Sarpy County. Five days were spent at this camp in making necessary repairs to the outfit, dressing skins, and airing the provisions, baggage and stores; and from here two men were sent to the Indians then living up the Platte river to notify them of the recent change in the Government, and of the desire of the commanding officers to meet their Chiefs in council for treaty. July 27th the expedition proceeded up the river, and on the 30th it reached the point which had previously been agreed upon for holding a council with the Indians. This is the exact spot where, in 1819, the Government established Fort Atkinson - afterwards called Fort Calhoun - which was abandoned as a military post in 1827. The old town of Fort Calhoun, Washington County, now occupies the site. It is about sixteen miles in a straight line above Omaha, or forty by the river. The place is described as follows in the Journal of Lewis and Clarke:
"The land here consists of a plain, above the high water level, the soil of which is fertile and covered with a grass from five to eight feet high, interspersed with copses of large plums and a currant like those of the United States. It also furnishes two species of honeysuckle, one growing to a kind of a shrub common about Harrisburg, Kentucky, and the other not so high. The flowers grow in clusters, are short and of a light pink color. The leaves, too, are distinct, and do not surround the stem as do those of the United States. Back of this plain is a woody ridge about seventy feet above it, at the end of which we formed our camp. This ridge separates the lower from a higher prairie of a good quality, with grass of ten or twenty inches in height, and extending back about a mile to another elevation of eighty or ninety feet, beyond
which is one continuous plain. Near our camp we enjoy from the bluffs a most beautiful view of the river and the adjoining country. At a distance varying from four to ten miles, and of a height between seventy and three hundred feet, two parallel ranges of high land afford a passage to the Missouri, which enriches the low grounds between them. In its winding course it nourishes the willow islands, the scattered cottonwood, elm, sycamore, lynn, and ash; and the groves are interspersed with hickory, walnut, coffeenut, and oak. The hunters supplied us with deer, turkeys, geese, and beaver. Catfish are abundant in the river, and we have also seen a buffalo-fish. One of our men brought in yesterday an animal called by the Pawnees, chocantoosh, and by the French, blairvau, or badger."
Of the council with the Indians held at this camp the report says:
"We waited with much anxiety the return of our messenger to the Ottoes. Our apprehensions were at last relieved by the arrival of a party of about fourteen Ottoe and Missouri Indians who came at sunset on the second of August, accompanied by a Frenchman who resided among them and interpreted for us. Captains Lewis and Clarke went out to meet them and told them that we would hold a council in the morning. In the meantime we sent them some roasted meats, pork, flour and meal, in the return for which they made us a present of watermelons.
"The next morning, the Indians, with their six Chiefs, were all assembled under an awning formed with the mainsail, and in the presence of all of our party, paraded for the occasion. A speech was then made announcing to them the change in the Government, our promises of protection, and advice as to their future conduct. All the six Chiefs replied to our speech, each in his turn, according to rank. They expressed their joy at the change in the government, their hopes that we would recommend them to their great father (the President) that they might obtain trade and necessaries. They wanted arms as well for hunting as for defence [sic], and asked our mediation between them and the Mahas (Omahas), with whom they are now at war. We promised to do so, and wished some of them to accompany us to that nation, which they declined, for fear of being killed by them. We then proceeded to
distribute our presents. The Grand Chief of the nation, not being of the party, we sent him a flag, a medal and some ornaments for clothing. To the six Chiefs who were present we gave a medal of the second grade to one Ottoe Chief and a Missouri Chief, and a medal of the third grade to two inferior Chiefs of each nation; the customary mode of recognizing a Chief being to place a medal around his neck, which is considered among his tribe a proof of his consideration abroad. Each of these medals was accompanied by a present of paint, garters and cloth ornaments of dress, and to this we added a canister of powder, a bottle of whisky, and a few presents to the whole, which appeared to make them perfectly satisfied. The air gun, too, was fired and astonished them greatly. The absent Grand Chief was an Ottoe, named Wahrushhah, which, in English, degenerates into Little Thief. The two principal Chiefs present were Shongolongs, or Big Horse, and Wethea, or Hospitality; also, Shosguscan, or White Horse, an Ottoe. The incidents just related induced us to give to this place the name of Councilbluff. The situation of it is exceedingly favorable for a fort and trading factory, as the soil is well calculated for bricks, and there is an abundance of wood in the neighborhood, and the air being pure and healthy. It is also central to the chief resorts of the Indians, being one day's journey to the Ottoes; one and a half to the great Pawnees; two days from the Mahas; two and a quarter from the Pawnee Loups village; convenient to the hunting grounds of the Sioux, and twenty-five days' journey to Sante Fe. The ceremonies of the council being concluded, we set sail in the afternoon and encamped at the distance of five miles on the South side, where we found the musquitoes [sic] very troublesome."
On August 19th, at a point on the river a few miles below where Sioux City, Iowa, now stands, Sergeant Floyd, one of the party, was taken violently ill with colic, and in notwithstanding every effort possible was made by his comrades to save his life, he died on the following day. His remains were interred on the high bluffs overlooking the river, on the Iowa side, which have ever since been known as Floyd's Bluffs. After the burial the party proceeded a mile further to a small stream on the same side, and encamped. The commanding officers named this stream Floyd's
River, to perpetuate the memory of the first man who had fallen in this important expedition.
On Tuesday, the 4th day of September, the expedition reached the mouth of the Rapidwater, or Niobrara River, as now called, which was their last camping place on Nebraska soil, on their outward course.
Here we will leave the voyagers to pursue their long and hazardous journey across the continent, which was so successfully accomplished, notwithstanding the great difficulties, privations and dangers which they had to endure and overcome. The computed distance traveled by the expedition, from its starting point at the mouth of the Missouri River, to the farthest point of discovery on the Pacific ocean, is four thousand, one hundred and thirty-three miles, and the time consumed in making the journey was two years, four months and ten days, reaching St. Louis, on its return on the 23d day of September, 1806.
Clarke and Lewis found the country inhabited by numerous tribes of Indians, of whom the Pawnees, Otoes, (then called Ottoe), Missouris, and Omahas, (or Mahas), are spoken of as the principal nations living within what are now the limits of Nebraska. The Pawnees at that time occupied the country south of the Platte, with their principal villages along the Republican river, and are mentioned as being a very powerful and warlike nation, and the most skillful horsemen of the plains. The Otoes and Missouris lived in the eastern part of the Territory, with their villages on the south bank of the Platte River, while the Omahas, with whom they were at war, were located still further north, near the mouth of the Niobrara River.
At the time the territory was opened for settlement by the whites, all of these tribes had become greatly reduced in numbers by disease, privation and incessant warfare. The Sioux - of which tribe there were several branches - dominated the plains, being by far the most numerous and savage. They resided chiefly in the northwestern part of the Territory and were almost constantly at war. They frequently extended their hunting expeditions to the villages of the weaker tribes in the eastern part of the Territory, especially those of their hereditary enemy, the Pawnees, whom they fell upon and slaughtered without mercy. The Pawnees came
next, in point of numbers, to the Sioux, then the Omahas, Otoes and Missouris, but all were mere remnants of the once powerful tribes they represented.
The first to encroach upon the Indian sovereignty were the traders, who dealt with the Indians for their furs and skins.
The first white settlement in the Territory was made at Bellevue, Sarpy County, where, in 1810, the American Fur Company established a trading post. At its head, at the time of the organization of the Territory, was Col. Peter A. Sarpy, a French gentleman, well known on the frontier, and distinguished for his enterprise, sagacity and courage. In 1834 a Baptist mission was established near the trading post, but discontinued the following year on account of the death of the missionary, Rev. Moses Merrill. In 1847 the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions erected buildings at Bellevue for a Mission House and School, which was kept up until the removal of the Indians. In 1848, the Government established Fort Kearney, on the site now covered by Nebraska City, but soon afterward removed it to Fort Childs, then established on the Platte River, in the present Kearney County, the name of Fort Childs being changed to Kearney. With the exception of the few persons living at these posts, there were no white settlements in the Territory until the passage of the organic Act.
General John C. Fremont's surveying expedition passed up the Platte Valley in 1842, and in 1847 the Mormons made a large trail across the State in their march to Salt Lake, but it was not until about 1850, after the great tide of emigration had set in to California, and people had traveled over and seen the rich and beautiful country lying between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, which had hitherto been thought only a barren waste, that schemes for its organization into a Territory began to be agitated.
A bill was shortly afterwards introduced into Congress providing for the organization of one large Territory, embracing all of Kansas as at present bounded, and extending as far north as the Platte River. This, however, did not meet the wishes of the people of Iowa, who were desirous of having the country lying immediately west of them speedily opened up for white settlement, also; neither did it suit the thousands of emigrants who had flocked to
the eastern banks of the Missouri, and were anxiously waiting the permission of the General Government to cross over and settle in the new Territory. And to that end, in the fall of 1853, a considerable number of persons crossed the Missouri from Iowa, and assembling at Bellevue and Old Fort Kearney, proceeded to hold an election for a delegate to represent their interests at Washington in securing a territorial organization. Said election was held on the 11th day of October, 1853, and resulted in the unanimous choice of Hon. Hadley D. Johnson, a prominent lawyer and leading citizen of Council Bluffs, Iowa.
When Mr. Johnson reached Washington, about the first of January, 1854, he found that a bill was then in the hands of the Committee on Territories, providing for the organization of the single Territory of Nebraska, embracing, as before stated, all of present Kansas, and that portion of Nebraska lying south of the Platte river; and although Mr. Johnson was not entitled to a seat on the floor of the House, it was chiefly through his instrumentality and cogent arguments before the Committee on Territories, that a substitute for the original bill was reported, which substitute provided for the organization of two Territories instead of one, and which, with amendments, became the famous Kansas-Nebraska bill.
As a preliminary measure to the opening up of the country to white settlement, Colonel Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and Major James M. Gatewood, Indian Agent, held a council at Bellevue, in February, 1854, with the Chiefs of the Omahas, and the confederate tribes of Otoe and Missouri Indians, in reference to selling their lands to the United States. Logan Fontenelle, Chief of the Omahas - a half-breed Indian, who was educated at St. Louis, and understood the English language perfectly - was chosen by the different tribes as head Chief in the negotiation of the treaty, and a delegation of Chiefs, headed by Fontenelle, proceeded to Washington. A treaty was made with the Otoes and Missouris on the 15th, and with the Omahas on the 16th day of March, 1854, and ratified June 21, following, which extinguished the Indian title to a large portion of the lands bordering on the west bank of the Missouri River. A proclamation of these treaties was made by President Pierce on the 24th of June, 1854.
NEBRASKA AS A TERRITORY.
Nebraska was organized as a Territory on the 30th day of May, 1854, at which time it contained 351,558 square miles, extending from the fortieth parallel of north latitude to the British Possessions, and from the Missouri River west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. On February 28, 1861, 16,035 square miles were set off to the Territory of Colorado; and on March 2d, 228,907 square miles to Dakota. At the latter date Nebraska received from Washington and Utah Territories a triangular tract of 15,378 square miles, lying on the southwest slope of the Rocky Mountains, north of the forty-first parallel, and east of the one hundred and tenth meridian. This, however, was included in the 45,999 square miles taken from Nebraska, March 3d, 1863, to form the Territory of Idaho. Nebraska was thus reduced to its present limits.
The first Territorial officers appointed by President Pierce, were as follows: Francis Burt, of South Carolina, Governor; Thomas B. Cuming, of Iowa, Secretary; Fenner Furguson, of Michigan, Chief Justice; James Bradley, of Indiana, and Edward R. Hardin, of Georgia, Associate Justices; Mark W. Izard, of Arkansas, Marshal, and Experience Estabrook, of Wisconsin, Attorney.
Governor Burt reached the Territory in ill-health, on the 6th day of October, 1854, and proceeded to Bellevue, where he was the guest of Rev. Wm. J. Hamilton, at the old Mission House. His illness proved of a fatal character, and he sank rapidly until on the morning of Wednesday, October 18th, 1854, he died.
With the death of Governor Burt the duties of organizing the Territorial government devolved upon Secretary Cuming, who, by virtue of his office, became the Acting Governor.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, NEBRASKA TERRITORY,
October 18th, 1854.
It has seemed good to an Allwise Providence to remove from the Territory by the hand of death, its Chief Magistrate, Governor FRANCIS BURT. He departed this life this morning, at the Mission House, in Bellevue, after an illness protracted since his arrival,
during which he received the most faithful medical aid and assiduous attention. His remains will be conveyed, on Friday next, to his home in Pendleton, South Carolina, attended by a suitable escort.
In this afflictive dispensation, as a mark of respect and affection for the lamented and distinguished Executive, and a sign of the public sorrow, the national colors within the Territory will be draped in mourning, and the Territorial officers will wear crape [sic] upon the left arm, for thirty days from date.
Given under my hand, at Bellevue, Nebraska Territory, this 18th day of October, A. D., 1854.
Acting Governor of Nebraska.
The Territory was divided into eight Counties, viz: Burt, Washington, Dodge, Douglas, Cass, Pierce, Forney and Richardson.
BURT COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at a point on the Missouri River, two miles above Fort Calhoun, thence westwardly, crossing the Elkhorn River, 120 miles, to the west boundary of lands ceded to the United States, thence northerly to Mauvaise River, and along the east bank of the same, to the Eau Qui Court, or Running Water, thence easterly to the Aaoway River, and along the south bank of it, to its mouth, and thence southerly along the Missouri River to the place of beginning.
Precincts - There were two precincts or places of voting in Burt County, viz: One in Tekamah Precinct, at the house of General John B. Robinson; and the second, in Blackbird Precinct, at the Blackbird House. J. B. Robinson, W. N. Byers and B. R. Folsom were appointed judges of the first election precinct, and W. W. Maynard and H. C. Purple clerks of the same; Frederick Buck, Dr. Shelley and John A. Lafferty judges of election in the second election precinct, and Lorenzo Driggs and William Sherman clerks of said precinct.
WASHINGTON COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at a point on the Missouri River, one mile north of Omaha City,, thence due west to the dividing ridge between the Elkhorn and Missouri Rivers, thence northwestwardly twenty miles to the Elkhorn River, thence eastwardly to a point on the Missouri River, two,
miles above Fort Calhoun, and thence southerly along said River, to the place of beginning.
Precinct - There was one precinct or place of voting in said County, viz: At the Postoffice at Florence. Anselam Arnold, Charles How and William Bryant were appointed judges of election, and Henry Springer and William More clerks of same.
DODGE COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at a point on the Platte River, twenty miles west of Bellevue, thence westwardly, along the said Platte River, to the mouth of Shell Creek, thence north twenty-five miles, thence east to the dividing ridge between the Elkhorn and Missouri rivers, and thence southerly, to the place of beginning.
Precinct - There was one precinct or place of voting in said County, viz: At the house of Dr. M. H. Clark, in Fontenelle precinct. William Kline, Christopher S. Leiber and Wm. S. Estley were appointed judges of election, and Wm. Taylor and E. G. McNeely, clerks of same.
DOUGLAS COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at the mouth of the Platte River, thence north along the west bank of the Missouri River, to a point one mile north of Omaha City, thence west along the south boundary of Washington County, twenty miles, thence south ten miles, more or less, to the Platte River, and thence east to the place of beginning.
Precincts - There were two precincts or places of voting in, said County, viz: One at the brick building at Omaha City and one at the Mission House at Bellevue. David Lindley, T. G. Goodwill and Chas. B. Smith were appointed judges of election in the Omaha precinct, and M. C. Gaylord and Dr. Pattee, clerks of same. Isaiah Bennet, D. E. Reed and Thos. Morton were appointed judges of the Bellevue precinct, and G. Hollister and Silas A. Strickland, clerks of the same.
CASS COUNTY was bounded as follows: North by the Platte River, east by the Missouri, south by the Weeping Water River to its head waters, thence westwardly to the west boundary of lands ceded to the United States, and thence by said boundary, north to, the Platte River.
Precincts. - There were two precincts or places of voting in said County, viz.: one at the house of Colonel Thompson, in
Kanosha precinct, and one at the house of Samuel Martin, in Martin's precinct. J. S. Griffith, Thomas B. Ashley and L. Young were appointed judges of election in Kanosha precinct and Benjamin B. Thompson and Wm. H. Davis, clerks of the same. James O'Neil, Thos. P. Palmer and Stephen Willes were appointed judges of election in Martin's precinct, and T. S. Gaskill and Levi G. Todd, clerks of the same.
PIERCE COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at the mouth of the Weeping Water River, on the Missouri River, thence westwardly, along the south bank of the same, to its head waters, thence due west, to the west boundary of lands ceded to the United States, (100 miles,) thence south twenty miles, to the north line of Forney County, thence due east, along the north line of said Forney County to Camp Creek, and along the north bank of said Creek, to the Missouri River, and thence northwardly along said River to the place of beginning.
Precinct. - There was one precinct or place of voting in said County, viz.: at the house of Major H. P. Downs. Wm. C. Fowlkes, Simpson Hargous and Henry Bradford were appointed judges of election, and James H. Cowles and James H. Decker, clerks of the same.
FORNEY COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at the mouth of Camp creek, thence to the head waters of the same, thence due west to a point sixty miles from the Missouri river, thence due south twenty miles, thence east to the head waters of the Little Nemaha River, thence along the north bank of said River to the Missouri River, and thence along the Missouri River north to the place of beginning.
Precinct. - There was one precinct or place of voting in said County, viz.: at the place known as Brownville, at the house of Richard Brown. Richard Brown, Allen L. Coate and Israel Cuming were appointed judges of election, and A. J. Benedict and Stephen Sloan, clerks of same.
RICHARDSON COUNTY was bounded as follows: Commencing at the northwest corner of the half breed tract, thence westwardly along the south bank of the Little Nemaha River, thence westwardly to a point sixty miles west of the Missouri River, thence south to the 40th parallel, the boundary between Kansas and
Nebraska, thence east along said boundary, to the Missouri River 3 thence north along the Missouri River and west ten miles to the southwest corner of the half breed tract, and thence northerly) along the boundary of said tract to the place of beginning.
Precincts. - There were two precincts or places of voting in said County, viz.: one at the house of Wm. Level, in precinct No. 1; the second at the house of Christian Bobst, in precinct No. 2. John Purket, Robert, T. Archer (sic) and James M. Roberts were appointed judges of election of the first precinct, and Wm. W. Soper and John A. Singleton, Clerks of the same; and Henry Shellhorn, Henry Abrams and Wm. J. Burns, judges of election in precinct No. 2, and Christian Bobst and W. L. Soper, clerks of the same.
An enumeration of the inhabitants of the Territory was made in accordance with a proclamation of the Acting Governor, dated October 21, 1854, and the following apportionment of Councilmen and Representatives was made in accordance with the census returns of November 20th:
BURT COUNTY. -- One Councilman, two Representatives.
WASHINGTON COUNTY. -- One Councilman, two Representatives.
DODGE COUNTY. -- One Councilman, two Representatives.
DOUGLAS COUNTY. -- Four Councilmen, eight Representatives.
CASS COUNTY. -- One Councilman, three Representatives.
PIERCE COUNTY. -- Three Councilmen, five Representatives.
FORNEY COUNTY. -- One Councilman, two Representatives.
RICHARDSON COUNTY. -- One Councilman, two Representatives.
The first general election for members of the Legislature and a delegate to Congress, was held on December 12th, 1854, in pursuance of a proclamation dated November 23d, and by proclamation of December 20th, the Legislative Assembly was convened at Omaha on the 16th day of January, 1855.
The following gentlemen composed the first Legislature:
RICHARDSON COUNTY. -- J. L. Sharp, President.
BURT COUNTY. -- B. R. Folsom.
WASHINGTON COUNTY .-- J. C. Mitchell.
DODGE COUNTY. -- M. H. Clark.
DOUGLAS COUNTY. -- T. G. Goodwill, A. D. Jones, O. D. Richardson, S. E. Rogers.
CASS COUNTY. -- Luke Nuckolls.
PIERCE COUNTY. -- A. H. Bradford, H. P. Bennet, C. H. Cowles.
FORNEY COUNTY. -- Richard Brown.
OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL --- Dr. G. L. Miller, Omaha, Chief Clerk; O. F. Lake, Brownville, Assistant Clerk; S. A. Lewis, Omaha, Sergeant-At-Arms; N. R. Folsom, Tekamah, Doorkeeper.
DOUGLAS COUNTY. -- A. J. Hanscom, Speaker; W. N. Byers, Wm. Clancy, F. Davidson, Thomas Davis, A. D. Goyer, A. J. Poppleton, Robt. Whitted.
BURT COUNTY. -- J. B. Robertson, A. C. Purple.
WASHINGTON COUNTY. -- A. Archer, A. J. Smith.
DODGE COUNTY. -- E. R. Doyle, J. W. Richardson.
CASS COUNTY. -- J. M. Latham, Wm. Kempton, J. D. H. Thompson.
PIERCE COUNTY. -- G. Bennet, J. H. Cowles, J. H. Decker, W. H. Hail, Wm. Maddox.
FORNEY COUNTY. -- W. A. Finney, J. M. Wood.
RICHARDSON COUNTY. -- D. M. Johnson, J. A. Singleton.
OFFICERS OF THE HOUSE. -- J. W. Paddock, Chief Clerk; G. L. Eayre, Assistant Clerk; J. L. Gibbs, Sergeant-At-Arms; B. B. Thompson, Doorkeeper.
Hon. Napoleon B. Giddings, was elected as Nebraska's first delegate to Congress.
The Territory was divided into three Judicial Districts, which was made public by proclamation on December 20th, 1854. Hon. Fenner Ferguson, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was assigned to the First Judicial District, embracing the Counties of Douglas and Dodge; Hon. Edward R. Hardin, Assistant Justice Supreme Court to the Second Judicial District, embracing all that portion of the Territory lying south of the Platte River; and Hon. James Bradley, Assistant Justice Supreme Court, to the Third Judicial District, embracing the Counties of Washington and Burt.
Judges of Probate, Justice of the Peace, Sheriffs, Constables, and Clerks of the Court, were also designated for the several Counties.
The erection of a Capitol building was commenced at Omaha in the fall of 1855, and completed by January, 1858. It was a commodious brick structure, and occupied a commanding position on Capitol Hill.
Hon. Mark W. Izard, of Arkansas, the second Governor, relieved Acting Governor Cuming, in February, 1855. He was
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