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     Nebraska is included between latitude 40o and 43o north, and longitude 95o 25' and 104o west from Greenwich.

     It is bounded on the north by Dakota, east by Iowa and Missouri, from which it is separated by the Missouri River, south by Kansas and Colorado, and west by Colorado and Wyoming, containing an area of 75,995 square miles, or over 48,000,000 acres of land. The width from north to south is two hundred and eight miles, and the length in the central part is about four hundred and twenty miles, extending from the Missouri River westward to the base of the Rocky Mountains.

     Geographically, Nebraska is not far from the center of that portion of North America which may properly be called temperate in climate. The most aggressive and prosperous States of the Union lie chiefly between the same parallels. It is in the direct line of the great tidal wave of emigration to the gold fields of the Territories and the Pacific Coast.

     Nebraska is altogether a prairie State, having no mountains nor any hills of magnitude. Its surface consists of undulating prairies, rich alluvial valleys and table lands, stretching away into extensive level plains, with a gradual ascent from the Missouri River westward, reaching an altitude on its western border of about five thousand feet above the level of the sea, and yet the incline is so gradual that in the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad up the Platte Valley, not a tunnel, trestle or fill of any importance were required, nor a single difficulty encountered from the Missouri River to the foot of the Rocky Mountains.





     This, the only navigable river in Nebraska, forms the eastern line of the State, being the boundary between it and the States of Iowa and Missouri. It is an exceedingly crooked, treacherous stream, and yet it has been, and is to some extent, an important avenue for both travel and freight to the more distant northwest. Its source is in latitude 45 north, and longitude 110:30 west, high up in the Rocky Mountains, and the distance it flows from the Great Falls to its junction with the Mississippi River is 2,575 miles. Its course is nearly north to the Great falls, and thence to the northeast until it joins the White Earth River, from whence its course to its confluence with the Mississippi is generally southeast. Below the mouth of the Kansas River, the Missouri runs almost a due east course through the State of Missouri, emptying into the Mississippi in latitude 38:50 and longitude 90:45 west. Its chief tributaries between its mouth and Fort Leavenworth are the Osage, Grand and Kansas Rivers, the first two being navigable from 150 to 200 miles. North from its confluence with the Kansas it receives the Nodawa, Little Tarkio, Big Nemaha, Nishnabatona, Little Nemaha, and Platte Rivers before the city of Omaha is reached, while further to the north it receives the Boyer, Little Sioux, Big Sioux, James, Niobrara, White Earth and Yellowstone Rivers, besides a large number of less important streams. From the point where the Platte empties into it, to the mouth of the Yellowstone, the Missouri varies from 400 to 1,000 yards in width. The Missouri seems to hold a mortgage on the lands that flank it on either side, and it often takes such lands by force, only to return them when some other change in its ever shifting course is developed.

     Previous to the exploration made by Lewis and Clarke, the impression prevailed among the Spanish and French residents in what was then known as the Northwestern Territory, that the source of the Missouri was near the point where it joins the Niobrara, and most of the maps in use previous to the exploration referred to, locate its source at or near the point mentioned.



     The Western Engineer, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, by the



United States Government, was the first steamboat to navigate the Missouri.

     She left her moorings at Pittsburgh on the 3d of May, 1819, having on board an exploring expedition, sent out by order of the Government to explore the Missouri river and the country west of it to the Rocky Mountains. The expedition was under the command of S. H. Long, Major in the United States Engineer Corps, and arrived in St. Louis on the 20th of June, one month and seventeen days after starting. The mouth of the Platte was reached on the 17th of September following, and on the 19th of the same month the expedition cast anchor near the mouth of Boyer River, on the Iowa side, about five miles below Council Bluffs, mentioned by Lewis and Clarke, where it went into winter quarters. The point of encampment was known as Fort Lisa, and was occupied by the Missouri Fur Company as a trading post. Here the explorers remained during the winter of 1819-20, Major Long in the meantime returning to Philadelphia, the then seat of Government, with the reports of the expedition. On the 20th of June, 1820, Major Long returned to Fort Lisa, with orders from John C. Calhoun, then Secretary of War, for the expedition to proceed overland to the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red Rivers for the purpose of exploring those streams and the country contiguous to them, and, in accordance therewith the expedition left the boat at this point and proceeded up the valley of the Platte, holding councils with the numerous Indian tribes through which they passed.

     The Western Engineer, after the departure of the expedition, received a new commander and was employed for many years thereafter in transporting Government supplies to the forts and trading posts along the Missouri river.

     The Platte, the principal interior river of the State, is a broad, shallow stream, with low banks, about 1,200 miles in length, and is formed in the western part of the State by the confluence of the North and South Forks which have their sources in the Rocky Mountains, the former in Wyoming and the latter in Colorado. The course of the Platte is eastwardly through the central portion of the State, dividing it into two nearly equal portions, and emptying into the Missouri River on the line between Sarpy and Cass Counties. It has many large fertile islands, valuable at present for



their timber and fine grasses for hay. The great valley of the Platte, famous for its beauty and productiveness, extends through the State from east to west, and is from three to fifteen miles wide.

     The Platte has a large number of important tributaries flowing into it from the north, though none of any size from the south, with the exception of Salt Creek, in the eastern part of the State. The principal streams on the north are the Elkhorn, Loup and Wood Rivers, Shell and Prairie Creeks.

     The Elkhorn is about 300 miles in length, and a remarkably crooked stream. Its source is in the north-central part of the State in a number of sloughs or lakes, which cover an area of fifteen or twenty miles square, and its course is south-easterly, passing through the Counties of Holt, Antelope, Madison, Stanton, Cuming, Dodge, Washington, Douglas, and Sarpy, emptying into the Platte River in the last named County. The Elkhorn is a beautiful River, narrow, but deep and rapid, and furnishes unlimited waterpower for manufacturing purposes, as do also some of the larger creeks which join it on either side. The bottoms, varying in width from three to six miles, are composed of a sandy alluvium impregnated with carbonates and phosphate, and produce a large yield of the cereals and vegetables.

     The Loup River, the largest of the tributaries, is formed in Howard County by the junction of the North, Middle and South Forks, which rise in unorganized territory in the northwestern part of the State, each being a stream of considerable size. The general course of the Loup is easterly, passing through the Counties of Nance and Platte to the south-east corner of the last named where it joins the Platte. It is a swift running stream with fertile bottoms composed of a sandy loam, varying from three to five miles in width.

     Wood River rises in Custer County and flows easterly through the Counties of Dawson, Buffalo and Hall, emptying into the Platte in the southwestern part of Merrick County. It is a small stream, has a slow current, and seldom overflows its banks. The bottoms are comparatively narrow but rich and productive.

     Shell Creek is a sparkling stream rising in the northern part of Boone County, and flowing in a southeasterly course through Platte and Colfax Counties, joins the Platte in the southeastern part of




the last named County. It afford's some excellent mill privileges, and the valley through which it passes is remarkable for its beauty and fertility. The bluffs which skirt it rise in places to a height of from 75 to 100 feet above the Platte bottoms on the south.

     Prairie Creek rises in Buffalo County, flows northeasterly through the Counties of Hall, Merrick and Nance, and empties into the Platte in Platte County. It is a slender stream, about 80 miles in length, and its course lies through an undulating, sandy prairie of average productiveness.

     Salt Creek, the most important tributary of the Platte from the south, rises in the southern part of Lancaster County, flows northeasterly through that County and empties into the Platte near the town of Ashland. It is a very fine stream, supported by numerous creeks and springs, and passes through a beautiful and fertile region of country. It also furnishes unusually good mill privileges.

     The Republican, one of the finest and most important rivers in the State, waters the southern tier of Counties, as far east as Nuckolls County. It rises in the mountains of Colorado, flows in an easterly course, entering Nebraska at the southwest corner, passes through the Counties of Dundy, Hitchcock, Red Willow, Furnas, Franklin, Webster and Nuckolls, and thence into Kansas. The water of this river is clear and has a fall of about seven feet to the mile. The Valley of the Republican, varying in width from two to six miles, is famed for its magnificent scenery and rich bottoms. The Republican has a large number of very fine tributaries in this State, of which the most important are the Stinking Water, Blackwood, Red Willow, Medicine, Muddy, Turkey, Spring, Thompson, Center and Rock Creeks, on the north, and Driftwood, Beaver, Sappa and Prairie Dog Creeks on the south. The majority of these streams furnish an ample volume of water for mills, and with their branches, nourish and drain a large extent of country.

     The Niobrara River, the largest stream in the State north of the Platte, rises in Wyoming, flows eastwardly through the northern part of the State, forms part of the boundary line between Nebraska and Dakota, and empties into the Missouri on the northeastern boundary of the State. It has a rapid current and extensive alluvial bottoms similar to other large streams of Nebraska. In places



contiguous to the stream, however, there are considerable areas covered with a loose, shifting sand, yet the greater part of the bottom land is fertile and beautiful as any one could wish. The Niobrara passes through a country 300 miles on the west, almost wholly unsettled, and there are greater bodies of timber along its course and on its tributaries than in any other part of the State. The principal tributaries of the Niobrara are Snake River, the Pines, Willow, Eagle, Red Bird, and Verdigris Creeks, on the south and the Keya Paha River, Antelope, Clay and Reunion Creeks on the north. The Keya Paha River forms a small section of the boundary between Nebraska and Dakota.

     White River, a direct tributary of the Missouri, rises in the northwestern part of this State, and flows northeasterly through Dakota.

     The Big Blue River, one of the most beautiful streams in the State, rises in Hamilton County and flows in a general southeasterly course into Kansas, passing through the Counties of Polk, Butler, Seward, Saline and Gage. The Big Blue has a rocky bed, and is famous as a mill stream, also for the lovely scenery of its valley, and dry, rich bottoms and table lands. The principal tributaries are the North and West Blue Rivers and Lincoln Creek, or Middle Blue, each furnishing sufficient water for mills.

     The Little Blue River rises in Adams County and flows southeasterly, nearly parallel with the Big Blue, passing through the Counties of Adams, Clay, Nuckolls, Thayer and Jefferson, and joining the Big Blue in Kansas. It is a stream scarcely inferior to the Big Blue in size and importance, in the grandeur and fertility of its valley and its splendid mill advantages. The principal tributaries are Big and Little Sandy Creeks on the north, and Morehouse, Elk and Muddy Creeks on the south. These also have volume of water sufficient for mills.

     The Great Nemaha River, in Southeastern Nebraska, rises in Lancaster County, flows southeasterly through the counties of Gage, Johnson, Pawnee and Richardson, and discharges its waters into the Missouri in the southeast corner of the State. Its course lies through one of the most thickly populated and prosperous sections of the State, celebrated for its fine fruits and general productiveness. The Great Nemaha also affords fine advantages for manufacturing



purposes, more than a dozen mills being already located upon it. It is supported by numerous creeks and rivulets on either side, of which Muddy and Long Branch Creeks are the principal on the north, and the South Fork on the south. Muddy Creek extends, through both Nemaha and Richardson Counties, and has several flouring mills upon it.

     The Little Nemaha River rises in Cass County, flows southeasterly through Otoe and Nemaha Counties, running parallel with and from ten to fifteen miles north of the Great Nemaha, and empties into the Missouri. There are several first class flouring mills located on this stream, with plenty of room for more. The lands adjoining are composed of a deep, rich loam, and compare, for productiveness, with any in this part of the State. The principal tributaries are the North and South Forks, which, with their numerous branches, extend over and drain a large scope of country.

     Taken as a whole, Nebraska is remarkably well supplied with water, having, besides the rivers, many clear running creeks and brooks supported by never-failing springs. There are large portions of the State where running water can be found on each quarter section of land, and where such is not the case good water can be had by digging or boring at a depth of from thirty to sixty feet.

     Water is usually found in the lacustrine deposits at a depth of from twenty to forty feet, but sometimes it is necessary to go beneath these deposits before a good supply can be had. At the bottom of the lacustrine deposits there is generally a stratum of sand and gravel which is a great reservoir of water, and from which it flows in unlimited quantities, and frequently water is not found until this stratum is reached. In some sections of the State, in the vicinity of the larger water-courses south of the Platte, on the high divides between the Loup and Niobrara Rivers, and in the northeastern portions along the Missouri, where the lacustrine deposits are very thick, this stratum of sand and gravel is struck at a depth varying from sixty to one hundred and thirty feet. In many localities this underlying bed of sand and gravel lies on clay or rock, and in such places water is unusually plentiful. On all of the flood plains, valleys and undulating prairies, water is of easy access. It is found by chemical analysis that the water of the State is above the average



in purity, the most common foreign ingredient being the carbonate of lime.


     There has been no thorough geological survey yet made of Nebraska. Prof. F. V. Hayden, however, has made a careful examination of the southeastern part of the State, and Prof. Samuel Aughey, of the Nebraska State University, of different localities further west, and from these investigations enough has been discovered to demonstrate the presence of considerable mineral wealth. Coal, salt, peat, marl, limestone of several varieties, sandstone, fine clays and mineral paint have been discovered.

     Coal exists in considerable quantities in Cass, Otoe, Nemaha, Richardson, Johnson and Pawnee Counties, in the southeastern part of the State. The coal is of good quality, and in Cass and Nemaha Counties the seams vary from eighteen inches to two feet in thickness. Several miles below Plattsmouth, in Cass County, a shaft has been sunk to a seam eighteen inches thick; also at Aspinwall, Nemaha County, and at various other points. The coal from the mine in Pawnee County is preferred in many places to any other in the market. Thin seams of lignite coal exist in Dodge, Burt, Dixon, Dakota and other Counties in the northern part of the State. Near Ponca, in Dixon County, a bed eighteen inches thick supplies fuel to the farmers and people of the neighborhood.

     The surface indications in several of the Republican Valley Counties are very favorable for coal. The veins already found are light, though the coal is of a fine bituminous quality, free from sulphur.

     It is believed that the coal measures underlie the greater portion of the State, and that there are thick, workable beds at a greater depth than has yet been reached, but they remain to be developed by larger capital than has thus far been employed.

     Salt is found in great abundance at Lincoln, the Capital of the State. The great salt basin, three miles from that city, covers an area of twelve by tewnty-five [sic] miles, in which innumerable salt springs rise to the surface, forming an extensive marsh, through the length of which, partially draining it, flows Salt Creek, a tributary of the Platte River. The water from these Springs contains by weight 29 per cent. of pure salt, and a very



considerable amount of that useful article is manufactured here by solar evaportion [sic].

     Building Stone, of several varieties and various qualities, is abundant. Magnesian and common blue limestone of an excellent quality, suitable for building, is found in large quanties [sic] in the southeastern Counties, and in all of the Counties bordering on the Missouri, south of the Platte River, good building stone is plentiful. In Cass and Sarpy Counties, along the Platte, large quarries have been opened, and the stone extensively used at Omaha for building, macadamizing the streets, and rip-rapping the river banks. The elegant U. S. postoffice building at Lincoln was constructed of Sarpy County limestone. On the Republican, the Nemahas and Blues, and some of their tributaries, magnesian limestone of the finest quality is abundant. Extensive quarries are being worked in Lancaster County, south of Lincoln, and in Gage County, near Beatrice. The major part of the stone used in the construction of the State buildings at Lincoln was taken from these quarries. Valuable quarries have also been opened in some of the northeastern Counties, extensive beds of fine magnesian limestone having been discovered on Logan Creek, and at other points. On the Elkhorn and Loup Rivers, and in other sections north of the Platte, a fair quality of building stone is found, but in smaller quantities. An excellent brown sandstone is abundant in a number of the eastern Counties. It is extensively used for building and in walling wells and cellars. A superior coarse red sand, valuable as a building material, is found in abundance in many of the Counties.

     Peat exists in great quantities in various parts of the State. On the Blue Rivers, the Elkhorn, Calamus, Logan, on Elk Creek in Dakota County, and on many other streams, there are extensive deposits of peat, which, if properly prepared, would supply the State with fuel for many years. No use has yet been made of these deposits, but such treasures cannot remain long undeveloped.

     Marl Beds are abundant, especially in the western sections of the State, but no use of it has yet been made, the richness of the soil preventing any demand for fertilizers. The beds, however, remain in store against the future demands of agriculture.

     Clay of many varieties and degrees of fineness abound. Good common clay for the manufacture of brick can be found in almost



any County. Clay for fire brick, said to equal the celebrated Milwaukee fire clay, is found at different points in the bluffs of the Missouri, and a superior quality of potters' clay is abundant in the southeastern and northeastern sections of the State. In Jefferson and Cass Counties there is a fine, valuable clay resembling Kaolin.

     Mineral Paint. Along the Missouri River, in the southeastern part of the State, there are immense deposits of ochre of a quality equal to any in the market. It is of various colors-red, brown, yellow and other shades, according to the amount of iron that is present. A company has recently been organized for the purpose of working these mines.


     Timber is one of the natural deficiencies of the State. Yet whilst there are no dense forests nor large bodies of native timber, the supply is sufficient for the wants of the people for some years to come, and the rapid growth of the artificial groves will, in a few years, furnish an abundance. On the Niobrara and Keya Paha Rivers, and their tributaries, in the north-central and western portions of the State, there is a considerable tract of pine, cedar, ash, oak, walnut and other varieties of timber, which will shortly be opened up, and a cheap conveyance to the markets afforded by the Columbus, Covington & Black Hills R. R. and other lines now in course of construction through this sparsely settled region. All of the Counties bordering on the Missouri still have sufficient native timber to supply the present demands for fuel. The Elkhorn, Loup and other large streams north of the Platte, and the Nemahas, the Blues and Republican, and their tributaries south of it, are tolerably well skirted with timber. In the early settlement of the State there were a number of fine groves of hardwood scattered throughout the eastern portion, but these were the first to be claimed by the settlers, and many of them have long since disappeared, but are fast growing up again; yet there are many beautiful native groves still standing in several of the Counties. In the canons and along the streams in the western part of the State there is still a considerable quantity of good timber, and formerly there was a great deal of fine cedar, which was extensively used in building forts, and in the construction of railroads.



     There are about fifty species of native forest trees growing in the State, embracing two varieties of cottonwood, ten of oak, six of Hickory, four of elm, three of maple, four of ash, two of locust, three of cedar, two of pine, several of willow, and one each of hackberry, sycamore, mulberry, coffee-bean, ironwood, box elder and linn.

     The deep interest taken by the people in tree planting has greatly increased the quantity, and wherever the sweeping prairie fires have been kept in check the native timber is extending its limits and growing up finely. Many of the. artificial groves already furnish sufficient fuel for the farmer. Cottonwood, soft maple and box elder are the most rapid growth native trees. Experience has shown that a farmer can raise his own fuel within five years, from the seed.


     The surface of Nebraska consists chiefly of valley, table and beautifully rolling prairie land, there being no mountains, nor any hills, lakes, or swamps of magnitude within her borders. Fully one-sixth of the whole State is valley and bottom land; twenty per cent. is table land, and fifty per cent. gently rolling prairie, while the bluffs cover, perhaps, ten per cent.

     The extensive and magnificent valleys of the Platte, Republican, Elkhorn, the Loups, Niobrara, the Blues, Nemahas, and other large streams, are among the most attractive on the Continent, and have gained a national renown for the grandeur of their scenery, their unsurpassed fertility and general adaptability to agricultural purposes. The streams are most generally fringed with a luxuriant growth of native timber, while on one side, and sometimes both, a range of low, rounded hills, rising in places to precipitous bluffs, mark the dividing line between the valley and upland.

     The table lands which occupy so large a per cent. of the area, are elevated considerably above the bottoms, and lie in beautful [sic] level plateaus, varying in width from half a mile to a mile and a half, rising in a succession of gradations, one above another, until the upland is reached. In the South Platte country, west of the Blues, there are extensive table lands, or plains, which appear



to the eye almost perfectly level, yet having a gradual ascent to the westward; and the same may also be said of many sections north of the Platte, especially in the vicinity of the Loup Forks.

     The rolling lands, of which the surface of the State so largely consists, particularly the east half, are everywhere visible, from the bluffs of the Missouri to the western border. In nearly all of the Missouri River Counties, for several miles into the interior, the lands are considerably rolling, and somewhat broken in occasional places, yet it is very rarely so steep or broken as to prevent easy tillage, except in the bluffs themselves; and further westward the high, rolling land is gradually succeeded by low, gently undulating prairies which sweep in graceful outlines across the wide divides till lost to view in the distance. In the western part of the State, now used as stock ranges, there are large tracts, embracing millions of acres, of almost monotonously level prairie. Near the western border, south of the Platte, the surface is more rolling and rugged, and is frequently cut through by deep ravines and long, winding canons; and the same is also the case in some localities bordering on the Forks of the Platte, and in the vicinity of the Loups and other streams in the northern part of the State.

     Many glowing tributes have been paid to the charming landscape of Nebraska by eminent visitors and distinguished writers, during the past several years. The following is from the pages of The North American Review, volume CIX:

     "The most perfect display of the prairies is found in the eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska. It is no exaggeration to pronounce this region, as left by the hand of Nature, the most beautiful country in its landscape upon the face of the earth. Here the forest is restricted to narrow fringes along the rivers and streams, the courses of which are thus defined as far as the eye can reach, whilst all between is a broad expanse of meadow lands, carpeted with the richest verdure and wearing the appearance of artistically graded lawns. They are familiarly called the rolling prairies, because the land rises and falls in gentle swells, which attain an elevation of thirty feet, more or less, and descend again to the original level, within the distance of one or more miles. The



crest-lines of these motionless waves of land intersect each other at every conceivable angle, the effect of which is to bring into view the most extended landscape, and to show the dark green foliage of the forest trees skirting the streams in pleasing contrast, with the light green of the prairie grass. In their spring covering of vegetation these prairies wear the semblance of an old and once highly cultivated Country, from the soil of which every inequality of surface, every stone and every bush has been carefully removed, and the surface rolled down into absolute uniformity. The marvel is suggested, how Nature could have kept these verdant fields in such luxuriance after man had apparently abandoned them to waste."

     Prof. Samuel Aughey thus writes of the "Bad Lands" of Nebraska:

     "In the extreme western part of the State, between Spon Hill Creek and the Niobrara River, there is a remarkable region, extending down from the White Earth River in Dakota Territory. The surface deposits here are miocene tertiary. This region is known as the Bad Lands, Manvaises Terres, or in the Dakota language, Ma-kao-si-tcha, which means a difficult country to travel, because, while the surface is broken, there is little, if any, good water, wood or game. Here are some of the most curious remains in the world, and the Geologist never tires of investigating them. The almost vertical sections of white rock have been chisseled [sic] by water agencies into unique forms. Indeed, as viewed from a distance, they remind the explorer of one of those old cities which only exhibit their ruins as reminders of their ancient greatness. Among these grandest desolations, the weird, wild, old stories of witchery appear plausible and possible. It is in the deepest canons, at the foot of the stair-like projections, that the earliest of those wonderful fossil treasures are found which have done so much to revolutionize our notions of the life of tertiary times. Here are found the remains of rhinoceri, some with horns and some without, titanotheriums, and hyopatami, which were river horses much like the hippopatami of modern times. Higher up in the deposits are found countless numbers of turtles mingled with the remains of land animals. Among these are the wonderful oreontidae, which Leidy calls ruminating hogs, because their



cutting teeth and canines and their feet are like those of the swine family, while their molars were patterned after those of the deer, and the upper portions of the head much like that of the camels.

     "Several species of fossil monkeys have also been found in these sediments. The vast numbers of these animals were kept within proper bounds by gigantic carnivorous animals, such as sabre-toothed tigers, hyaenodons, wolves, etc. Though this region is unattractive to the utilitarian, I doubt whether any portion of Nebraska will be of so much benefit to mankind, simply because here we have outlined so marvelously the old life of miocene times and it must ever be a stimulus to geological studies. A State that contains within its borders such a wealth of fossil treasures ought to give in the future illustrious diciples [sic] to science."

     The sand areas, or hills, so often spoken of, are also found in the western portion of the State, chiefly along the Upper Loups and the Niobrara, and some of their tributaries; also on the south side of the Platte, where they run parallel with the stream, and are from one to six miles wide. In the northern part of the State, however, they cover much larger areas. These hills are composed of fine sand, pebbles and gravel, and in some places are covered with nutricious [sic] grasses, and are stationary, while in other places, again, they are entirely barren, and the sand so loosely compacted that the wind is ever changing their form.

     This sand region has never been thoroughly explored nor properly investigated. Some scientists have undertaken to account for these hills by the theory that the winds in the course of ages have blown the sand from the bars on the rivers; but there are many difficulties in the way of this theory, as in many places the hills are composed of pebbles and stones that could not well have been moved by the wind.

     Numerous important streams rise in this sand region of the northern part of the State, among which are the Loups, the Elkhorn, Cedar and Calamus flowing southwardly, and the Pines, Evergreen, Plum and Fairfield Creeks, flowing northwardly to the Niobrara.

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