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Published Monthly by the Nebraska State Historical Society
Associate Editors
The Staffs of the Nebraska State Historical Society and
Legislative Reference Bureau
Subscription $2.00 Per Year
q All sustaining members of the Nebraska State Historical
    Society receive Nebraska History without further payment.
Entered as second class mail matter, under act of July 16,
1894, at Lincoln, Nebraska, April 2, 1918.             




Picture or sketch 

(handwritten - "See C 1635")



   George Bird Grinnell long ago established a reputation as an authoritative historian of the Pawnee, the most important tribe of Indians of whom Nebraska was the principal habitat. On the second of March, 1920. Mr. Grinnell sent the secretary of the Historical Society the following story of an interesting incident in the life of this once powerful tribe of the Nebraska plains.
   In my book - Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk Tales - New

York 1889 - I tell something about the way in which the Skidi tribe came to be taken into the then large village, situated at one time on the Platte near Fremont, and later, up to the year 1874, on the Loup River in Nebraska about where the town of Genoa now stands. A long time ago I received some details of the fighting described on pages 233 and 234 of the Pawnee book; details which have never been published and which possess for me a certain interest in connection with rather ancient Pani history. The account was given about 1876 to Major Frank North and his brother by a very old Chaui Indian. The book says "There was a sharp rivalry between the Chaui and the Skidi and their disputes finally culminated in all unprovoked attack by the Skidi on some Pani while they were hunting buffalo."
   The Pani who were attacked were, as the book suggests, Chaui, and it is said that perhaps two hundred were killed - all men for it was a hunting party from the Chaui village which was then on the south side of the Platte River just below the Lone Tree, or where Central City, Nebraska, now is. The Chaui, who escaped, returned to their village. This was probably in the winter:
   It is supposed that at this time the Chani and the Skidi were about equal in numbers, and the Chaui did not feel strong enough alone to attack the Skidi. The Kitkehahki were then living on the Republican River, and the Pitahauerat on the Smoky Hill River. The Skidi village was on the Loup River, about where Fullerton, Nebraska, now is.
   The Chaui sent the pipe to the two other villages, told them what had happened, and asked their assistance. Councils were held about the matter, and the two tribes determined to help the Chaui. The two villages were moved up to the Platte River and camped with the Chaui. and the warriors at all three villages made preparations to attack the Skidi. The men crossed the Platte River in bull boats, made of green buffalo hides in the usual way - a detail which shows that the time must have been early summer when the Platte River was full from the melting snows of the mountains, and so not fordable.
   The allies made a night march, as already stated, and sent out warriors to represent buffaloes to induce the Skidi to come out of their village. The supposed buffaloes filed down toward the river, over the sand-hills at a point below the old village where the Skidi then lived, but on the other - south - side of the river. Other Pani warriors hid themselves along the river, a part in the timber of the river bottom, and a part behind the ridge of sand-hills back from the river. All these were above -further up the river than - the supposed buffaloes, so that when riding down to cut off the buffaloes, the Skidi must pass between the two lines of Pani warriors.
   The Skidi naturally crossed the Loup River opposite their own village to ride down the river to catch the buffaloes as they were running back from the river to the sand-hills. As soon its they had crossed, they galloped down the river oil the south side toward the place where the buffaloes had entered the timber to drink. The Pant waited and as soon as the Skidi hail fairly come within their lines, the Pant charged on them train in front, behind, and oil both sides, and attacked them with fury. The Skidi, surrounded and outnumbered, at once attempted to return, and broke through file lines wherever they could, trying to get back to their village; but the Pant followed and killed them all. the way up the valley. The old Chaui who told the story said that more than twice as many Skidi were killed as had been killed of the Chaui.
   The Skidi crossed the river to their village and all the men who had not gone out to chase the buffaloes came out of the village and joined the buffalo hunters, and prepared to make a stand on the south side of the village. The Pani stopped on the south side of the river and gathered there. The Chaui and the Pitahauerat wished to cross over and exterminate the Skidi, but the Kitkehaki said "No. They are the same people as ourselves, they speak a language nearly like ours; and they must not be destroyed." The dispute about this among the Pani tribes was sharp and angry, but the Kitkehaki were firm and finally said, "Let us take them over to the Platte and from now on make them live with as." To this the Pani finally agreed. They made signs to the Skidi that they did not want to fight any more they wished to talk. They crossed the river, told the Skidi what they had decided on, and the latter agreed to it. The Pani took much of the property of the Skidi, many horses. They also made many of the Skidi women marry into the other bands, so as to establish close relations with these bands.
   The old Chaui who gave this *account said that his father was a small boy when these events took place. This would throw them back into the eighteenth century. Many years ago, ancient Skidi and Chaui told me that they remembered fights between the Skidi and the other bands, but these memories refer to much later quarrels


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days

between the bands, in which disputes, however, there was no loss of life.
   The western states are now collecting and putting on record a wonderful lot of historical matter, and the men who have the opportunity to do this are to be congratulated on having such an interesting work to perform.
   I am glad to become a member of the State Historical Society for I have been a traveller in Nebraska for fifty years and in close touch with a number of its citizens for all that time. I am enclosing in this a check for six dollars to pay for the two volumes that you sent me, and also for membership in the State Historical Society for the coming year. I hope that this is right; if not, you will, I am sure, let me know so that I can adjust things.
   Thank you for your pleasant words about my books. I am extremely interested to know that you knew something about the Pawnee. I always felt that my book about the Pawnee was one of the two or three things that I have done that was worth doing. Of course it has been superseded perhaps by other things but I do hope that it has the real aboriginal flavor of those early people.
   You are no doubt familiar with the fact that Mr. John B. Dunbar had prepared a vocabulary and a grammar of the Pawnee language. The vocabulary he possessed, I think, at the time of his death, and many years before that he loaned it to me and I had it copied. That copy I still have. It should be possible to get hold of his original and print it as his. This grammar was lost many years ago.


   I am returning you Mr. Grinnell's letters and want to thank you for the papers you sent. The medal is very interesting. I think perhaps I know as much about the old Skidi village that was located up near Spring Creek as any man living or dead. I discovered it in 1871 and on my trip home to Columbus stopped at the Skidi village and had a long talk with Eagle Chief about it. The walls of the dirt lodges were some three feet high in this old village and one of them was so large (two hundred ten feet in diameter) that I wondered how they could have covered it and asked Eagle Chief about it. He said it must have been a council house and that perhaps it had no roof on it. He said the Skidi lived there at two different periods. It was from this village that the Skidi got separated and part of them went north and never came back. This band are now the Arickara. This happened when they lived there the first time. They then abandoned that village and moved up the North Loup but later came back to the Spring Creek village but he had no idea how long it might have been. I should like to say something about the name of Pita Leshara but it is too hard for me to write. There might have been a Skidi who took that name but there never was a Skidi that was head chief of the Pawnee tribe after the consolidation of the four bands. I guess I had better stop before I put my foot in it as I am too old to get into an argument with anyone.
   I saw by the paper that you were in Columbus not very long ago I would be very pleased to have you come to see me whenever you are in Columbus. I took Mr. Grinnell on a buffalo hunt with the Pawnee in 1872. Thanking you again for the papers and also for the invitation to accompany you and Mr. Grinnell next summer which I should very much like to do.                      L. H. NORTH.


   Following is the address by Colenel [sic] B. W. Atkinson at the centennial celebration of the founding of Fort Atkinson, on October 11, 1919. The punctuation, capitalization, etc., are just as the colonel wrote them.
   It is my intention to make a brief response to the sentiment "General Atkinson, founder of Fort Atkinson"; to really give a brief outline of the military services of the man who founded this well known old fort.
   Before making these remarks, I wish to express my great gratification at being present here today, and my appreciation, of the efforts of the Nebraska Historical Society to have me present.
   General Henry Atkinson was born in North Carolina, and appointed Captain of the 3rd Inf. the first of July, 1808. He was appointed Colonel in the Inspector General's Department the 25th day of April, 1813. Appointed Colonel of 4th Inf. the 15th day of April, 1814, and transferred to the 37th Inf. the 22nd of April, 1814, and again to the 6th Inf. the 17th of May 1815. He was appointed a Brig. General the 13th of May, 1820. On the first of June, 1821, he, was appointed a Colonel and Adjutant General, which he declined. He was then appointed as the Colonel of the 6th Inf. upon the reduction of the Army, and retained that position with the rank of Brig. General. He died at Jefferson Barracks the 14th of June, 1842, and is buried at Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Kentucky.
   Prior to the War of 1812-1815, Gen. Atkinson had service at different military posts, and on August 27th, 1815, he assumed command of the 6th Inf., at Ft. Lewis, N. Y. Upon assuming command of the Regiment, Gen. Atkinson issued the following order: "Assume the command of the 6th Regt. of Inf. which the President of the United States has been pleased to confide to my care. In entering upon his duty he is not unconscious of the importance and responsibility of the charge, but he embraces it with confidence, relying as he does upon the aid which he will derive from the ability and experience at his field, staff and platoon officers, as well as upon the good character of the troops composing the Regiment." Such was Gen. Atkinson's faith in the 6th Inf. which playd [sic] such an important part with him in the Yellowstone Expedition, and in the founding of Fort Atkinson.
   The Regiment moved from Plattsburg, N. Y. to St. Louis, Mo., March, 1819, and in an order preparatory to the movement of the Regiment, up the river to Council Bluffs, Gen. Atkinson says: "Council Bluffs are situated in the finest climate and district of country in America, and may be justly assumed the most desirable post on the continent." The command left St. Louis July 4, 1819, on the transports "Jefferson," "Expedition", and "Johnson". Major

Gad Humphreys was in command of the regiment and Gen. Atkinson, who at that time was the Commander of the 9th Military District, accompanied the Expedition in command. In a personal letter Gen. Atkinson states,"We were greatly retarded by the steamboats, which formed the part of our transportation, not being able to navigate in the Missouri with any facility. There were three, neither of which reached any given point. One ascended only 150 miles, another 350 miles, and the third 450 miles. The cargoes of all having afterwards to be carried up in keel boats. The difficulties, of course, kept back the progress of troops as it would not have done to have proceeded and left our supplies unprotected, and besides it was necesary [sic] to have them to subsist on. Notwithstanding all the embarrassment we reached Council Bluffs, a point 700 miles above the mouth of the river, on the first of October. Here, from the vicinity of several powerful tribes of Indians, it became necessary to erect a post. The troops were landed and put to work to cover themselves for the winter, and erect the necessary defenses, all of which were completed in season, and we remained contented with the prospect of sending one of the regiments to the mouth of the Yellowstone early in the Spring. The Rifle Regiment which was stationed at a point 450 miles up the Missouri was joined to my command." In another personal letter, Gen. Atkinson writes, "As the troops were halted at the Bluffs our military duties consisted in looking after the conduct and movements of the Indians, and to maintain proper discipline. Much idle time of course might have been expended, but instead of indulging in it, we turned our attention to farming and raising stock." In December, 1822, Gen. Atkinson again wrote in a private letter, "The first season we made 12,000 bushels of corn, the second 16,000 bushels, and the third 20,000 bushels. Besides more potatoes and all sorts of garden vegetables than can be devoured. We have have a stock of 300 cattle, and the troops have the milk of 100 cows. We have a saw mill, and a grist mill, and I think in another year we shall subsist ourselves without drawing upon the interior." Thus was started the first post west of the Missouri, and the first settlement in Nebraska. From Chittenden's History of the American Fur Trade of the Far West, the following relating to Gen. Atkinson is copied: "He conducted the Expedition with the practical good sense with which this officer was distinguished." Chittenden also states that Gen. Atkinson devised and used on the trip down the Ohio River from Pittsburg to St. Louis, a form of stern wheel paddle boat, the wheel of which was worked by the troops aboard, and that this method of propulsion proved such a success that he adopted the same method of propelling a number of keel boats up the river to Council Bluffs.
   Gen. Atkinson was recalled to Jefferson Barracks in 1822, where he commanded the First Western Department for a number of years, and organized and commanded the Infantry School of Practice, which was organized in 1827 after the return of the 6th Inf. from the withdrawal of the troops from Ft. Atkinson. The school may rightfully be called the father of our schools of instruction which have since grown into a system now headed by the Army War College of today in Washington.
   In 1825, Gen. Atkinson and Major Benjamin O'Fallon of St. Louis, were commissioned by the President to conduct treaties with the Missouri Indians, and proceed with a strong military escort from Ft. Atkinson to a point 120 miles above the mouth of the Yellowstone River. Gen. Atkinson and Major O'Fallon left St. Louis on March 25, 1825, and arrived at Ft. Atkinson April 19th. The last of the goods to be used by them on this trip arrived May 13th, and they started out May 14th. The records of this Expedition tell us that Gen. Atkinson used on this voyage the same form of paddle wheeled keel boats which he had adopted on the trip down the Ohio River and on the trip up the river bringing the troops to Ft. Atkinson. Gen. Atkinson and Major O'Fallon arrived back at Ft. Atkinson the 19th of the following September, and returned to Jefferson Barracks the 7th of October, having been absent on this trip for seven months. Gen. Atkinson then resumed his command of the Western Department.
   During his tour of duty at Jefferson Barracks, the Black Hawk War of 1832 came on. Gen. Atkinson commanded the troops in this short, but bloody campaign, April-September, 1832, which terminated with the capture of the celebrated chief, Black Hawk, and his confinement at Jefferson Barracks. He was criticized by the press for what was termed his harsh treatment of Black Hawk in confining him under heavy guard with ball and chain, but Gen. Atkinson seems to have had a very good knowledge of Indian character as is evidenced by the following taken from Thwaites History of the Black Hawk War: "Gen. Atkinson, however, was energetic and possessed of much executive ability, and overcame these difficulties as rapidly as possible. He had military skill, courage, perseverance, and knowledge of Indian character, and during his preparations for the campaign took pains to personally assure himself of the peaceful attitude of those Sacs and Foxes not members of the British band." The Indians named Gen. Atkinson, "The White Beaver." Upon the completion of the Black Hawk War, Gen. Atkinson returned to Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and remained in command of this Western Dept. till his death in 1842.
   Gen. Henry Atkinson married Miss Mary Bullit, of the well known family of that name from Kentucky. He had one son, Edward Graham Atkinson, who married a Miss Walker, daughter of Major Benjamin Walker of the Army, who for many years was stationed in St. Louis and well known in that City, and in the Army.
   Colonel Benjamin Walker Atkinson, only son of Edward Graham Atkinson, married Miss Caroline Bayard Randolph, whose father was an army officer, and of the old Randolph family of the South. He has two children, a married daughter, and a son, Lieut. Benjamin Walker Atkinson, Jr., of the Marine Corps. Colonel Atkinson entered the service in 1882. He is now on duty as the Inspector of the New York Recruiting District, stationed in New York City.
   In closing this brief outline of the military services of Gen. Atkinson, I cannot refrain from again saying how greatly pleased it has made me to be here today. I feel I belong in a way to Nebraska, if Nebraska will adopt me. This feeling has led me to make application to join the Nebraska Historical Society. This feeling goes back beyond today. In 1895 or 1896, I found among my grandfather's papers a letter telling of the arrival of the command here.

Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days


   That letter I cannot quote, being inaccessible now, but I am sure a copy is in the Historical Society's records. The letter was copied and sent by me to the "Omaha Bee." It was published and followed (as recollected) by a letter in the same newspaper which stated Gen. Atkinson's letter has settled a long dispute as to the exact location of the first Fort. This letter was the beginning of my acquaintance with the Nebraska Historical Society, for I shortly received a letter from the Honorable J. Sterling Morton, asking me to write an account of the Missouri River Expedition, from St. Louis to Council Bluffs, from such data as was accessible. I dug into the old records of the 6th Inf., (being Staff Officer of that famous regiment) but before the completion of my work, was ordered to the Philippine Islands. The material collected was sent to the Secretary of the Society. On my return a few years later, I was again hunted up and asked to complete my work, but before this could be done, orders again took me back to the Islands. I sent by express to the Secretary a number of the old order books of the regiment and photographs were made of some of the old orders, the books being returned to me on the eve of my sailing. A photograph of one of the old orders appears in the State Journal of Sept. 14, last. In 1911, while stationed at Ft. Crook, I made a trip to this old Fort with my wife and son. We enjoyed a most interesting and pleasant day under the guidance of Mr. Woods going over the old reservation. My son dug up and brought away as a souvenir a half brick from a point where Mr. Wood told him his great grandfather's quarters stood. A few weeks ago your well known Secretary, Mr. Sheldon, located me again through the War Dept. and invited me most earnestly to come here today and make a reply to the sentiment "Gen. Atkinson, the founder of Ft. Atkinson." I have endeavored to do this, be as brief as possible and trust I have not worn out your patience. I thank you.

   The commissioners to make treaties with the Upper Missouri River Indians started from Fort Atkinson, on the transport Antelope, October seventh, 1825, and the Missouri Republican of October 24th notes that they arrived at St. Louis on the 20th of the month.
   By authority of an act of Congress of March second, 1821, the army was organized in 1822 into two grand divisions, the eastern and the western, and each division was divided into departments. General Atkinson was commander of the first department of the Western division. In the year 1829, however, he was temporarily commander of the western division, in the place of Major General Edmund P. Gaines, and Major Winfield Scott was the commander for 1828. With these exceptions, General Gaines was commander from the year of the reorganization, 1822, until that plan of division was discontinued in 1842.
There were two campaigns in the Black Hawk war of 1832, though they were perhaps not clearly distinct. The first was commanded by General James D. Henry, brigadier general of Illinois militia, who was possessed of great courage and native military acumen. On the 21st of July he won the battle of Wisconsin Heights, which occurred near the Wisconsin river, about twenty-five miles northwest of the site now occupied by Madison. This was the beginning of the end of the war. At the final battle - of Bad Axe - on the second of August. General Atkinson commanded in person, though just as Colonel Richard M. Johnson had done at the battle of the Thames, Henry saw the critical time and place to make the charge, and made it. In The Story of the Black Hawk War, (Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII), from which Colonel Atkinson quotes above, Mr. Thwaites, the author, says:
It appears that there was much jealousy displayed by Atkinson, at the fact that the laurels of the campaign, such as they were, had thus far been won by the volunteers; and Henry, as the chief of the victors at Wisconsin Heights, was especially unpopular at headquarters.
In the disposition of the troops for the battle, Henry's command was left without orders. "This," continues the story, "was clearly an affront to Henry, Atkinson's design doubtless being to crowd him out of what all anticipated would be the closing engagement of the campaign, and what little glory might come of it. But the fates did not desert the brigadier."
Extended accounts of the Yellowstone expedition of 1819, by myself, are printed in volume XVII, Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society, in this magazine of July-September, 1919, and in the Sunday State Journal of October 12, 1919. A. W.

Bayard Taylor, world traveler and poet, once wrote that the Missouri River valley was unrivalled as a land of rich agricultural resources and beauty of landscape. Many observers since have confirmed his view. A circle two hundred miles in diameter with its center at the southeast corner of Nebraska, encloses a region whose possibilities as a home for the human race cannot be beaten on the planet.
A barrel of Jonathan apples sent from the Weaver orchards at Falls City, by Arthur J. Weaver, president of the Nebraska Constitutional Convention of 1920, to the secretary of the State Historical

Society, brings fresh evidence of the productive power of that favored region and was inspiration for the following reply:

There's a bench of brown bluffs
   By the Big Muddy shores,
From Plattsmouth way down to Saint Joe, --
Where God finished making the world out-of-doors, --
'Tis the land where the Jonathans grow.

There the soil is wind-blown from old lakes overthrown
   In the ages gone by long ago,
But it blossoms in May while the white orchards say:
"Watch. the Winesap and Jonathan grow."

The alfalfa plant blooms on the crest of those hills
   While its roots pierce the subsoil below,
And the apple roots sink sixty feet deep to drink
   Of the springs where the sweet waters flow.

The warm sun and soft breeze
   Kiss and rock the tall trees
   In the long summer days to and fro,
Till they blend into one - waters, wind, soil and sun --
   As their children, the Jonathans, grow.

There's the tang of old wine in those apples divine,
There's the breath of south winds in their cells,
And a musky perfume like the alfalfa bloom,
Which the apple roots drink from deep wells.

There's a red, rosy bliss like a lover's last kiss
   On the check of a maiden I know,
Blushing deep on the face of the Jonathan race
   In this land where the Jonathans grow,

Till the end of my days let me live in that land
   Where the apple tree blooms -- and the rose --
Where the honey bee sips purple alfalfa lips
   And the nectar-like Jonathan grows.

- Addison E. Sheldon.

Picture or sketch 


(handwritten - "See C 1569")

Death of H. M. Bushnell:
   Mr. H. M. Bushnell who passed away just as the new year was coming in was probably the best known Nebraska editor in the state. His editorial experience dated back to 1876 at Plattsmouth. It included the stormy and strenuous days of the Lincoln Daily Call from 1888 to 1894, and since that time a continuous connection with various publications and public enterprises. Mr. Bushnell held the positions of president of the Nebraska Press Association, president of the Nebraska Society, Sons of the American Revolution and for many years was an active member of the State Historical Society.


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days


  The following article lists the states which have a state flag and gives year of adoption with description:
   Alabama - 1895, crimson cross of St. Andrew on field of white.
   Arizona - Two stripes, upper red and lower blue  Upper stripe is made up of thirteen rays of glory, alternating red and yellow. In center a large golden star, overlaps the two stripes of which the flag is composed.
   Arkansas - 1913, red field with white diamond upon which appears "Arkansas" with a blue star above and two blue stars below. White diamond surrounded by blue border with 25 white stars thereon.
   California - 1911, white with red stripe below and red star at union. Grizzly bear at center with "California Republic" in black below.
   Colorado - 1908, three stripes with C in gold.
   Connectlcut - Azure blue field with shield (arms of the state).
   Delaware - 1914, blue field, with great seal in center. "December 7, 1787" below.
   Florida - 1899, state seal on ground of white with red bars.
   Georgia - 1879, one-third blue with state seal, remaining two-thirds divided into three horizontal stripes, upper and lower red, middle white.
   Idaho - 1909, blue field, name of state and seal thereon.
   Illinois - 1915, state seal in black or national colors becomes state banner.
   Indiana - 1901, (banner) blue field, 19 stars, and a flaming torch in gold or buff.
   Iowa - 1917, white with American eagle holding in his beak the scroll with "Our Liberty We Prize and Our Rights We Will Maintain" in blue letters. "Iowa" below this in red letters.
   Kansas - Blue with state seal.
   Kentucky - 1880, navy blue ground with seal in a wreath of goldenrod.
   Louisiana - 1912, blue field, with pelican feeding its young, "Union, Justice and Confidence" below.
   Maine - 1909, field of blue, coat of arms embroidered in silk.
   Maryland - 1904, shield of state (personal shield of Lord Baltimore), colors, red, black, gold, silver.
   Massachusetts - 1908, white field, seal in center.
   Michigan - 1911, blue field with arms of state thereon.
   Minnesota - 1893, blue field with state seal in center. Tip of staff has golden gopher.
   Mississippi - after Civil War, blue, white and red stripes with a red union upon which appears a blue cross of St. Andrew and thirteen white stars.
   Missouri - 1913, red, white and blue horizontal stripes with band of blue in center, enclosing coat of arms of state on white ground, twenty-four stars on the blue band.
   Montana - 1905, blue field with seal of state and gold fringe.
   Nevada - Body of solid blue, seal in center with scroll about it, "Nevada" above, with eighteen gold stars, and motto below.
   New Hampshire - 1909, blue field with state seal in center.
   New Jersey - 1896, yellow field, state seal in center.
   New Mexico - Turquoise blue, union of American flag with forty-seven stars in it. In upper fly corner the figures 47, state seal in lower fly corner, "New Mexico" in white in center.
   New York - 1909, blue ground with arms in colors thereon.
   North Dakota - 1911, blue ground, yellow fringe or border, eagle in center, with olive branch and arrows; a shield with thirteen red and white stripes; "E pluribus unum, "North Dakota."
   North Carolina - 1885, red, white and blue ground, gold "N" and "C" with a star between, date below and above - "April 12, 1776" and "May 20, 1775."
   Ohio - 1902, pennant shaped, three red and two white horizontal stripes, union consisting of seventeen white stars in a blue triangular field around a red disc with white 0 thereon.
   Oklahoma - 1911, red with white star bordered in blue, within the star the figures 46.
   Oregon - Blue with state seal in center.
   Pennsylvania - 1907, blue field with state seal in colors.
   Rhode Island - 1877, white ground, on each side in center a golden anchor, underneath a blue ribbon with motto "Hope" in gold letters, surrounded by thirteen gold stars, flag edged with yellow fringe.
   South Carolina - 1861, blue with an argent crescent at the point. In the union, with a white palmetto tree in the center.
   South Dakota - 1909, blue field, blazing sun in center; "South Dakota" above sun. "The Sunshine State" below. On reverse of sun the state seal. Fringed edge.
   Tennessee - 1905, red field, blue bar at edge of fly, separated by white bar. In red field, blue circle with white border, three stars on blue circle.
   Texas - White and red stripe with broad blue perpendicular stripe at hoist or staff side and upon it a white star.
   Utah - 1911, blue field, gold fringe, center a shield with eagle above; six arrows at top of shield, crosswise, "Industry" and a beehive, and lilies growing. "Utah" below hive and "1847" below Utah; two American flags crossed and draped above shield. "1896" below shield and flags. Whole design circled in gold.
   Vermont - 1862, thirteen red and white stripes, large white star in blue field with coat of arms.
   Virginia - 1861, blue field, white circle in center with coat of arms

thereon (on reverse side the great seal), white silk fringe at fly edge.
   Washington - Green field with state seal (front view of face of George Washington) in center.
   West Virginia - 1904, white with state seal, under which, on red scroll in gold letters "'West Virginia."
   Wisconsin - 1913, dark blue silk, with state coat of arms embroidered on both sides.
   Wyoming - 1917, blue field with red border and white border text to the blue field. White buffalo in center, with state seal in colors on buffalo.

   William Hartford James, of Colfax, Washington, former secretary of state and acting governor of Nebraska, died February 2nd. He was born at Marlon, Ohio, October 15, 1831, and received life education in the public schools supplemented by two years in the academy there. In 1853 he removed to Des Moines, Iowa, and was admitted to the bar. He was married to Louisa Epler in 1857 and moved to Dakota county, Nebraska, where he had previously filed upon a claim. During his residence of fourteen years in Dakota county he was engaged in the practice of law and surveying; was a member of the first board of trustees of Dakota City and first board of aldermen, and was county attorney and justice of the peace. He was president of a democratic mass convention held in St. Johns, July 11, 1857. In 1864 he was appointed by Abraham Lincoln register of the land office at Dakota City and served five years. In the fall of 1870, Mr. James was elected secretary of state, on the republican ticket, and after the impeachment of Governor Butler in 1871, he became acting governor. In 1877 he removed to Colfax, Washington, having been appointed register of the United States land office. He took a prominent part in public affairs in the early days of Colfax and at one time was mayor.

   Charles Frederick Gunther, a romantic figure in the history of Chicago, died February 10th; was a world renowned collector of historical art, especially Civil and Revolutionary war paintings and relics; born in Germany, March 6th, 1837; came with his parents to Pennsylvania in 1842. He was engaged in business in Memphis in 1860 and during the Civil War he served as an officer on a Confederate boat. He removed to Chicago in 1868 where he established one of the largest candy factories of the West; served as city treasurer and was once candidate for governor of Illinois. Mr. Gunther was an honorary member of the Nebraska State Historical Society, elected in 1911, at which time he presented to the Society a large oil painting depicting buffaloes grazing upon the Nebraska plains.

Passing of the Nebraska Pioneer

   Mrs. J. W. Newell, resident of Nebraska since 1862, died in Blair, March 8th.
   Francis Henry Yager, pioneer Otoe county since 1864, died in Nebraska City, March 8th. Mrs. Yager died April 3, 1919 after they had celebrated their sixty-fifth wedding anniversary.
   Mrs. Mary S. Shannon, who came with her husband to Nebraska in 1859, died in Pawnee City March 9th.
   Frank Maly, resident of Nebraska since 1866, died at his home near Crofton, March 10th.
   Mrs. Eliza Reeves, a teacher in Otoe county in 1866, died in Alliance, March 10th.
   John Volkhardy, born in Germany in 1835, died March 10th in Nebraska City whore he had settled in 1864; participated in the Civil War toward its close.
   Mrs. Matilda Sides, ninety-five years old, died at her farm residence near Dakota City, where she had lived for fifty-five years coming to Nebraska in 1865. Her husband died January 3, 1909, after which Ms. Sides lived alone and looked after her household affairs with faculties unimpaired until within it few days of her death.
   Mrs. Marian Dripps Barnes who was born at Bellevue, Nebraska, November 15, 1827, died in Barneston, March 11th. She was the daughter of Major Andrew Dripps and his wife, an Oto woman. Major Dripps was an agent of the American Fur Company and was in charge of the frontier post at Bellevue. Mrs. Barnes was educated in the Convent of the Visitation at Kaskaskia, Ill., and in 1856 was married to Francis M. Barnes, founder of the town of Barneston.
   Matthias Schmuecker, who came to Nebraska with his mother and her family by ox team in the fifties, died at his home in Cuming county, near St. Charles, March 16th.
   Mrs. Elizabeth LaGourge, who settled in Gage county in 1854, died in Beatrice March 21st.
   John Henry Dundas, for fifty-seven years a resident of Nemaha county, died at Auburn March 22nd; born in Kane county, Ill., in 1846; married March 29, 1871, to Wealthy J. Bishop; entered journalism in 1884, when he purchased the Nebraska Republican; two years latter purchased the Granger which he continued to edit and publish until five years ago; was senator from his (second) district in the legislature of 1897; a member of the People's Independent Party and was a leader in antimonopoly and prohibition movements.
   Frederick Wohlenberg, a resident of Lincoln since 1867, died March 26th.
   Robert S. Sackley, resident of Nebraska since the early sixties, died in Syracuse, March 27th.

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