sist of unconsolidated materials. The sandhill region
which covers the northwestern half of the state is derived
from the disintegration of Tertiary sands and their
subsequent transportation by the wind. In the early history
of the state, when herds roved unrestricted over the Plains,
and when prairie fires were unchecked, the bare sands became
shifting sand dunes, and grass, underbrush, and trees were
destroyed, and the region presented the appearance of a
desert, as it was then supposed to be. Now some of the best
ranches, hay lands, and grazing lands are to be found in the
heart of the sand-hill country. The Southeastern half of the
state is covered, from a few feet to one hundred feet or
more in depth, with a fine, light yellow loam of great
fertility, known as the loess, or bluff deposit, from its
habit of standing in vertical walls. Economically this
constitutes the basis of the agricultural greatness of
Nebraska. The eastern fifth of the state has a thin layer of
glacial drift under the loess. West of Seward county
evidence of glacial drift ceases. The material composing our
drift is clay, gravel, sand, bowlders (sic) of granite,
green stone, and the like from distant northern points, but
more especially pink bowlders (sic) of Sioux quartzite from
Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This formation is of little
economic value, although its bowlders (sic), some of which
are as much as twenty feet in diameter, are utilized to some
extent for foundations and other building purposes.
FALLS OF THE NORTH LOUP RIVER
Plunge about twelve feet; width, forty to fifty feet.
ARCHAEOLOGY.3 The geographical position of Nebraska, situated as it is between the Missouri river on the east and the great Rockies on the west, is conducive to a complicated and interesting archaeology, as well as geology, fauna, and flora. We find the Stone Age implements distributed along the waterways so abundantly that we may readily conclude that primitive man gradually worked his way over the entire state by following the streams. The archaeology of the state can be determined only by the implements. The quantity of Stone Age material found, naturally divides itself into three classes. While these three classes overlap each other in many cases, yet every implement may be readily placed in one of them. These classes may be subdivided, it is
3 For this description of the archeology of Nebraska we are indebted to Mr. E. E. Blackman, archaeologist of the Nebraska State Historical Society.-ED.
true, but in that subdivision some one implement will be
found which is doubtful, and at this stage of the study,
lines of demarcation point out but three distinct classes.
The first, or most primitive class, is found, without
pottery intermixed, along the Blue river and in the
southeastern portions of the state. The second, or
intermediate class, consists of chipped implements of
massive size, found along the Elkhorn and Missouri rivers;
they are abundant in the northeastern part of Kansas as
well. A few have been found along the Platte river. The
third class (which may be subdivided most easily) consists
of chipped flints showing fine workmanship; and abundant
potsherds, some beaten copper ornaments, and a few
"ceremonials" are intermixed, The houseform, or lodge
circles, may be studied in this class, and are most abundant
along the Platte and its tributaries.
4The term Amerind is coming into general use among archaeologists and scientific men as a short and appropriate designation of the American Indian.-ED.
FLINT SPEARHEAD FOUND NEAR BLAIR, NEBRASKA
HEMATITE BUST FOUND NEAR LINCOLN, NEBRASKA
FLINT TOMAHAWK FOUND NEAR WYMORE, NEBRASKA, BY JAMES CRAWFORD
ments of flint are found with very sharp edges left by
the fracture, showing that cutting tools, having sharp
natural fractures instead of having been artificially
chipped to a cutting edge, were used.
FOUND BY WALTER RICE NEAR BLUE SPRINGS, NEBRASKA
fourth ledge from the top. The trench, as dug from the
hillside surface back to the edge of the pit on the brow of
the hill, terminates at a solid, perpendicular wall. Here
appear marks of discoloration caused by fire. Quantities of
charcoal and ashes were found at the base of the wall and
scattered throughout the debris which the trench passes
through for half its length,
5 See report of Archaeologist in Annual Report State Board of Agriculture, 1902.
is broken lime rocks having large fractures on them as if
struck by some heavy body. Many of these rocks show the
rounded matrix of a flint nodule which has been removed. The
surface near the pit is strewn with flint spalls. The first
stratum, as shown in a quarry near by, is a rotten lime
rock; the second is a fairly good building stone without
flint nodules, and at the perpendicular wall where the
trench ends it is from twenty-six to thirty-eight inches
thick. The third stratum, which is very compact and from
thirty to forty-two inches thick, contains the flint
nodules, about two-thirds of the way down. These nodules are
from the size of an egg to the size of a man's head, and are
about twelve inches apart each way. They cleave out very
readily, and leave a rounded matrix when the ledge is broken
THE ONLY COMPLETE PIECE OF INDIAN POTTERY EVER DISCOVERED IN NEBRASKA, SO FAR AS KNOWN.
are undoubtedly chipped by the pressure process, and at
times show much skill in their manufacture. With them are
often found the finer and smaller implements of class
6 London, 1842.