University relative to The Creighton College, its property, and securities, as derived from the bequest of Mrs. Creighton, is that of trustee for The Creighton College.
   The funds invested for the support of the college had been increased from the division of the residue of the estate of Mrs. Mary Lucretia Creighton, so that when The Creighton University accepted the trust, the endow-



ment fund amounted to about $147,500. This fund, according to the original bequest and the terms and conditions of the trust, must be invested in securities in perpetuity, the interest alone to be used for the support of the faculty and the maintenance of the college. To those who are familiar only with the million dollar endowments of other universities and colleges, an endowment of $147,500 must appear a very modest sum. Even to those experienced in the management of Catholic colleges, it must seem a hazardous undertaking to build up and develop a free college on a financial basis of nothing more than the annual interest of $147,500. But the Jesuits, like most of the teaching orders of the Catholic church, receive no salary for their labor, and though in this particular instance they fully realized the financial difficulties, they consented to face them. In this, no doubt, they were animated by the hope of seeing restored one of the chief glories of their history, namely, the bestowal of gratuitous education, such as was given by their predecessors in the older and more fortunate days of the order, when all Jesuit colleges and universities were endowed and free institutions. The venture has thus far met with unexpected success, thanks to good friends, and in particular to John A. Creighton and his lamented wife, both of whom generously seconded the noble purpose of the original founders, and by large benefactions carried oil the good work to a development which, without their munificence, would have remained an impossibility.
   The college, located on Twenty-fifth and California streets, commands an excellent view of the city and surrounding country. The grounds cover all area of six acres, and with the buildings of the classical department of the university represent a value of $140,000.
   The main building was begun in 1877 and completed in 1878. It is built of brick trimmed with limestone. There are three stories and a basement, with a frontage of 56 and depth of 126 feet. The facade is surmounted by a tower 110 feet high. This building is at present devoted entirely to college purposes.
   The library, which had only 1,000 volumes in 1899, now contains about 17,000 volumes, among which are many works of considerable antiquity and value. It is a free library.
   In 1883, the scientific department of Creighton College was established and richly furnished by John A. Creighton with a complete chemical, physical, and astronomical outfit.
   The astronomical observatory received its full development in 1886, when the present observatory was erected on the brow of the hill north of the college. The cost of its erection was largely borne by John A. Creighton and John A. McShane.
   In the same year, 1886, the gift of a city



lot, valued at $15,000, enabled the trustees to secure by exchange, after the payment of a bonus of $2,000, a much needed house and lot adjoining the main building on the northeast.
   The college chapel, popularly known as St. John's Church, is situated to the southwest of the main building, facing California street. The cornerstone was laid by Rt. Rev. James O'Connor, D.D., on June 27, 1887, and the church was dedicated by the same prelate on May 6, 1888. The style of architecture is English Gothic. The church is built of Warrensburg sandstone, and is at present 112 feet in length by 75 feet in width. The plan, however, contemplates a building 184 feet long with a width at the transept of 138 feet. John A. Creighton subscribed $10,000 towards the erection of the church; the rest of the requisite funds, about $35,000, came from a sale of property belonging to the Jesuit fathers in their own right. The main altar is the gift of John A. McShane; the side altars were presented by John A. Creighton; the organ was donated by Mrs. John A. Schenk.
   The south wing of the present college building was begun in the fall of 1888, and was ready for occupation the following spring. Mr. and Mrs. John A. Creighton contributed $13,000 towards its erection; the rest of the cost was covered by the interest fund of the college. The wing is built of brick in the same style of architecture as the main building, and has a length of 90 feet and a depth of 36 feet.
   In 1888, Mrs. Sarah Emily Creighton, wife of John A. Creighton, bequeathed to the Creighton University some business property on Douglas street for the use of the Creighton College, according to the same terms and conditions as were designated in the bequest of her sister, Mrs. Mary Lucretia Creighton.
   Among the student societies for religious culture are the following: The Sodality of the Immaculate Conception, the Apostleship of Prayer -- League of the Sacred Heart, and the St. John Berchmans Sanctuary Society. Other societies are the Creighton Oratorical Association, the Creighton Literary Society, the Creighton Dramatic Circle, the Student's Library and Reading Room Association and the Creighton University Athletic Association.


   In 1892 John A. Creighton signified his willingness to found the medical department of Creighton University. To carry out his idea, the board of trustees held a meeting May 3, 1892, and unanimously resolved to establish the "John A. Creighton Medical College" as a department of the university. This action was taken in virtue of an act of the legislature, passed February 27, 1879, giving the university authorities power to "erect within and as departments of said institution, schools and colleges of the arts, sciences, and professions, as to them may seem proper." The funds necessary for maintaining the college, until it was on a paying basis, were guaranteed by the founder. Thirty-six students, representing six states, were registered the first year; and the number kept steadily increasing till the present time. It was the first institution in this section to require a four-years course in medicine.
   Pending the erection of a commodious structure, the college found a temporary home at Twelfth and Mason streets, in the old St. Joseph's Hospital, which had been vacated on the completion of the Creighton Memorial Hospital, at Tenth and Castellar streets.
   This magnificent hospital was founded in 1888 by Mrs. Sarah Emily Creighton, who bequeathed to the Franciscan Sisterhood $50,000 towards the construction of a building. Mr. Creighton took up as a labor of love the project initiated by his noble wife, and determined to make it a worthy memorial of her. Besides donating the ground on which the edifice stands, he added threefold to the amount of the original legacy, insuring thereby the construction of the best and most complete hospital in the West.
   By an arrangement made with the Sisters in charge of the hospital, through the good offices of the founder of the medical school, all clinical material and advantages have from the beginning been reserved and will continue to be devoted in perpetuity to the exclusive use of the faculty and students of the John A. Creighton Medical College.
   Though the temporary quarters of the college furnished all the facilities essential for



practical teaching, it soon became evident that something better was needed to meet the requirements of the rapidly increasing number of students. It has long been the cherished wish and intention of John A. Creighton to build a permanent home for the department of medicine and thus unite the two institutions, the Creighton University and the Creighton Memorial Hospital. Through his liberality such a building was completed and ready for



use in October, 1898. The building is situated on the northwest corner of Fourteenth and Davenport streets, where it stands a monument to its founder, an inspiration to the medical profession, and an ornament to the city. The building, furniture, and equipment cost about $70,000, without counting the value of the ground. After the completion of the college, an operating building, with a large amphitheater, the only one in the city, was erected in connection with the hospital for the use of the professors and students, at a cost of $10,000.
   The medical college building is located on the comer of Fourteenth and Davenport streets, five minutes' walk from the important business district of the city. Two street car lines pass in front of the building, one of which connects directly with the line running to the St. Joseph's Hospital. The college building has a basement and three stories, with a central extension, making that part four stories in height.
   The ground surface covered is 132x66 feet, with an east frontage of 132 feet and a south frontage of 66 feet.
   The design of the exterior of the building, being a modern adaptation of the Italian Renaissance, deals with the basement as the base, the first story as the pedestal, the second story as the shaft, and the third story as the frieze of the monument, the whole being crowned with. a cornice, which in turn is ornamented with dentals and consoles. From the very start the John A. Creighton Medical College enjoyed a high standing. The number of students, representing six or seven western states, has steadily increased from fifty until in 1905 it had reached 650. To Dr. D. C. Bryant, dean of Creighton Medical College, belongs much of the credit for the marked success of that institution. Dr. Bryant has been ably seconded by such eminent medical men of the Nebraska metropolis as Drs. J. S. Foote, J. P. Lord, W. O. Henry.



   That part of Nebraska lying south of the Platte river, covering an area of about 23,844 square miles, was erected into the Catholic Diocese of Lincoln on August 2, 1887. It is interesting to trace the gradual evolution of this territory from an unknown region in 1493 into a prosperous diocese in 1887.
   On June 25, 1493, Pope Alexander the Sixth published a bull erecting "those lands and islands which have been recently discovered in the western regions and the Oceanic Sea, as well as those that may yet be discovered," into a vicariate apostolic, and appointing Rev. Bernard Boil, the provincial of the Franciscan, in Spain, as vicar apostolic.
   Nevertheless, the authority of this vicar was



disregarded by the bishops of Spain, France, and England, who exercised their jurisdiction over the respective parts of America, under the control of their governments, until after the Declaration of Independence and the establishment of an American hierarchy. Hence this region of Nebraska was theoretically under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Spain from 1493 to 1682, when it came under the rule of the bishop of Quebec, and so remained until 1776. For the next five years it was subject to the bishop of Havana, Cuba. In 1781 Rt. Rev. Cyril de Barcelona was consecrated auxiliary bishop of Havana. He resided in New Orleans, and his jurisdiction extended over the Louisiana Territory and the Floridas until 1795, when he was succeeded by Bishop Louis Penalvert, who also resided in New Orleans until 1802. Then France exercised jurisdiction until 1805, when Archbishop John Carroll of Baltimore was appointed as administrator, his authority ceasing in 1815. From that time the bishop of New Orleans ruled until 1827, when it came under the jurisdiction of St. Louis. In 1850, Rome established the "Vicariate Apostolic of the Territory East of the Rocky Mountains." This vicariate included all territory west of the Missouri river to the Rocky mountains, and from the southern boundary of Kansas to the British possessions. Rt. Rev. John B. Miége, S.J., was appointed vicar apostolic.
   In 1857 Kansas was cut off, and the remaining part was erected into the vicariate of Nebraska. This vicariate was gradually trimmed down until 1885, when, comprising Nebraska and Wyoming, the diocese of Omaha was erected. Two years later, in 1887, took place the establishment of the present diocese of Lincoln. Its history is no less interesting. If Coronado's expedition entered the present state of Nebraska, it must have been somewhere within the limits of the Lincoln diocese. However, the first authentic records we have of Catholic priests ministering within the present borders of Nebraska, and of the Lincoln diocese, are those of the Jesuit Indian missionaries. Many of the early traders and trappers who dwelt in these regions had been baptized as Catholics, but, being far removed from churches and priests, they retained only the name and some traditions.
   The Jesuit Fathers, Peter John De Smet and Christian Hoecken, visited and baptized among the Indians living along the Missouri river. Father De Smet, in a letter dated De-



cember 16, 1839, writes, "A few days ago I also baptized two young Omahaw's, from 18 to 20 years old. One of them was the son of Opetanga (the great dog) Chief of his tribe, and nephew to the famous Blackbird." In 1840 Father De Smet accompanied Captain Drips and the American Fur Company's caravan up the Little Blue river, through the present Jefferson, Thayer, Nuckolls, Clay, Adams, and Kearney counties, to the Platte river, thence along the south shore to where Julesburg, Colorado, now is, crossed the river there, and proceeded through Wyoming to Oregon. He saw Chimney Rock on May 31,



1840. He returned in the fall along the Missouri river from Fort Benton. He passed through Nebraska again in 1841, with Fathers Point, Mengarini, and three lay brothers. On these journeys Father De Smet met several tribes of Indians, but it is not known, at present, whether he baptized any of them.
   In 1843 the Jesuit fathers, Peter Devos and Adrian Hoecken, passed over this route and were the first white men to discover and travel over the famous "short route" to Oregon, for which another person has received the credit.
   In 1848 Father De Smet journeyed on horseback for ten days from Bellevue to the mouth of the Niobrara river, meeting the Ponca Indians there, to whom he gave religious instruction and baptized their children. He also met a band of Sioux Indians returning with thirty-two scalps of old men, women and children, taken in an attack on the Omaha's camp, while the warriors were off hunting. Then, following what is now the northern boundary, Father De Smet penetrated as far as the northwestern corner of the present state, visiting the various tribes, until October, 1848, instructing them and baptizing their children.
   In 1851 he was present at the "Great Indian Council" held on the plains at the junction of the Horse river and the Platte in Scotts Bluff county. There he celebrated mass in the presence of the United States army officers and about 10,000 Indians on Sunday, September 14, 1851, and the same day he baptized twenty-eight half-blood children and five adults. During his stay here he also baptized 239 children of the Ogallalas, 305 of the Arapahos, 253 of the Cheyennes, 280 of the Brulé and Osage Sioux, 56 in the camp of Painted Bear, and 56 half-bloods. Returning along the Platte river he baptized five more half-bloods at the trading houses at Robidoux. From Fort Kearney he took the southern course, across the present Lincoln diocese, down the Little Blue river into Kansas, accompanied by Major Fitzpatrick, U.S.A., and six Indian deputies on their way to Washington, D.C.
   In 1858 Father De Smet passed over this route again as chaplain for the Seventh Regiment of regulars under Colonel Morrison, on their way to subdue the Mormons in Utah. Of this journey Father De Smet says: "I had frequently the consolation of celebrating the holy sacrifice of the mass, early in the morning, and on each occasion a large number of soldiers devoutly approached the Holy Table." He undoubtedly said mass at Fort Kearney, and perhaps at Cottonwood Springs. At the former place he baptized 208 Pawnee children, and at the Springs all the children in thirty lodges of Ogallalas. He returned by this same route shortly afterwards. The remnants of the once numerous tribes that formerly roamed over Nebraska's prairies are still under the religious care of the Jesuits.
   Bishop Miége, S.J., in his report to the "Catholic Almanac and Laity's Directory" for 1854, says: "The Catholic population scattered over the vast extent of the upper country, now called Nebraska, may not fall short of 3,000. It is our earnest wish to visit the Indian villages, forts, and trading posts as soon as possible." This wish he partly carried out the next year, for he visited Omaha and Nebraska City, to look after Catholic affairs and see what prospects there were for new missions. At Omaha he called on Governor Cuming, who told him that "two lots had been reserved for a Catholic church, and that more could be secured if necessary." "Being well pleased" (writes the bishop), "with the site of Omaha, I promised to send there a priest as soon as possible, and meanwhile I requested Father Trecy of St. Johns (now Jackson) opposite Sioux City, to do what he could for Omaha." Before Father Trecy could respond, Rev. Wm. Emonds, of Iowa, on one of his missionary trips in May, 1855, celebrated the first mass in Omaha, and the Catholics began arrangements for the building of a church. The church was dedicated by Rev. Thomas Scanlan of St. Joseph, Missouri, in August, 1856, and in the following October it was placed in charge of Rev. John Cavanaugh, who also attended Nebraska City in November, 1856. He was succeeded in 1857 by Rev. Jere. Trecy, who attended here for a few months,



and in August, 1857, Rev. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., the famous Benedictine missionary, officiated in Omaha and Nebraska City.
   In September, 1857, Rev. Geo. H. Plathe of Iowa administered a few baptisms. Rev. Augustine Wirth attended here and Nebraska City again in February and March, 1858. Then Rev. James Powers of Missouri came here about twice a month until August, 1858. At this time Rev. Hugh P. Kenny had charge of Nebraska City, from at least August to November 30, 1858. However, the Benedictine Fathers from Atchison, Kansas, were the first priests to make regular and constant visits to the towns within the present limits of Nebraska.
   In August, 1858, Rev. Francis Cannon, O.S.B., a newly ordained Benedictine priest, took charge of Omaha, and from there attended Plattsmouth and Nebraska City until the arrival of Bishop O'Gorman in Omaha in the latter part of May, 1859. Then he removed to Nebraska City and attended Plattsmouth, Rulo, Brownville, and Falls City until the end of 1859, when he was recalled to his monastery.
   These missions were then looked after by



The first brick Catholic church erected south of the Platte river in Nebraska

Rev. Casimir Seitz, O.S.B., from Atchison, Kansas, until the spring of 1860, when Rev. Philip Vogg, O.S.B., visited them from Atchison. In order to serve better the constantly increasing Catholic population, Father Vogg, in the fall of 1860, took up his residence in Nebraska City, and commenced the erection of St. Benedict's brick church, on Kearney Heights. This was the first Catholic brick church erected in the South Platte country, and the second of its kind in the state. The cornerstone was laid by Rt. Rev. James O'Gorman, vicar apostolic of Nebraska territory, in September, 1860. Father Vogg established the mission of Dawson's Mills in 1861, and shortly afterwards he was succeeded, on July 10, 1861, by Rev. Emmanuel Hartig, O.S.B., who completed the church building in Nebraska City, attended the missions already established, and founded new ones. Among these were Tecumseh, Palmyra, Salt Creek (now Lincoln), Aspinwall, Douglas, Elwood, Turkey Creek (now Steinauer), Auburn, and Arago. As there were no railroads here in those days, all these journeys were made on horseback in all kinds of weather.
   In 1861 Rev. Almire Fourmont, who was



stationed at Columbus, made occasional visits to Fort Kearney and Cottonwood Springs, both of which were on the south side of the Platte river. His successors, Rev. Fathers Kelly, Erlach, and Ryan, also visited these places occasionally.
   In June, 1863, Father Fourmont was transferred to Rulo, and attended Brownville and



Arago for about a year, then he returned to France.
   In the fall of 1863 Rev. John Daxacher was stationed at Plattsmouth, to attend the neighboring missions, until February, 1864, when be was transferred to Omaha. Rev. Win. Kelly succeeded Father Fourmont at Rulo, where he erected a frame church. He was succeeded in March, 1867, by the Rev. John A. Hayes, and in April, 1867, the Rev. Fred Uhing was made the resident priest of Arago.
   In 1868 Rev. John Lonergan, who resided at Fremont, crossed the Platte river and established missions at Sand Creek and Mead in Saunders county. In the meantime Father Hartig, O.S.B., required the aid of an assistant for his rapidly growing and increasing missions, and consequently Rev. Pirmine Koumley, O.S.B., was sent to him in 1868.
   After the organization of the state and the selection of Lincoln as the capital, Father Hartig celebrated the first mass in the city proper, in 1867, at the home of John Daly, a blacksmith, whose house stood on the present site of the Missouri Pacific depot, Ninth and S streets.
   In 1867 Governor David Butler donated three lots at the corner of Thirteenth and M streets for church purposes, upon which a frame church, 30 x 50 feet, was erected and was attended by Father Hartig until August, 1868. Then his assistant, Father Pirmine Koumley, O.S.B., came here once a month until February, 1869, when he was succeeded by Rev. Michael Hofmayr, O.S.B., another assistant, until September, 1869, when he became the first resident pastor.
   In 1870 another parish for English-speaking Catholics was organized in Nebraska City and placed in charge of Rev. John McGoldrick.
   In the year 1870 the five priests residing and having charge of missions south of the Platte river were the following: Revs. Emmanuel Hartig, O.S.B., and John McGoldrick at Nebraska City; Rev. Michael Hofmayr, O.S.B., at Lincoln; Rev. John A. Hayes at Plattsmouth; and Rev. Theodore Majerus at Rulo.
   In 1871 Rev. Wm. Kelly had charge of Lincoln, and as the Burlington railroad was building rapidly towards the west, he followed, because many members of the "construction gangs" were Catholics. During these visits he also established many missions along the route, as Crete, Exeter, Sutton, and Hastings. He also established the mission of Seward, besides attending occasionally to Plattsmouth, Louisville, Ashland, and Greenwood.
   In 1871, also, Rev. P. J. Erlach took charge of Rulo and missions. Father Hayes was succeeded in Plattsmouth in 1872 by Rev. Francis Bobal, who, besides, had charge of all the Bohemian missions in the state.



In September, 1873, Rev. Ferdinand Lechleitner was appointed to Crete, to attend all territory west of Crete and south of the Platte river. Among the new missions which he founded were Fairfield, Fairbury, Red Cloud, Orleans, Lowell, Beatrice, Aurora, and Kenesaw.
   In May, 1874, Rev. John Curtis succeeded Father Kelly as pastor of Lincoln. On July 4, 1874, to the great sorrow of the vicariate, Bishop O'Gorman died and was interred in the cathedral. Rev. Wm. Byrne was chosen as administrator of the diocese. The following February, Most Rev. John Ireland, the present archbishop of St. Paul, Minn., was elected as. vicar apostolic, but at the earnest request of Bishop Grace of St. Paul this appointment was canceled and he was made coadjutor to Bishop Grace of St. Paul. In the meantime Rev. Thos. Bartle, O.S.B., succeeded Father Hartig at Nebraska City. Father Bobal was transferred to Omaha, Rev. John Jennette succeeding him at Plattsmouth, while Rev. John A. Hayes had charge of Falls City. Rt. Rev. James O'Connor was consecrated as vicar apostolic in August, 1876, and on his arrival in Omaha the Rev. Wm. Byrne was transferred to Lincoln.
   In July, 1877, Rev. Joseph Havorka was stationed at Linwood or Abie, Butler county, to take care of the Bohemians, while the Franciscan Fathers from Columbus looked after the other nationalities in the same county.
   In September, 1877, Rev. P. F. McCarthy was appointed first resident pastor of Tecumseh, and in November Rev. Thos. Donnelly took charge of Exeter and the missions in Fillmore and Clay counties. In January, 1878, Rev. B. Kueppenbender became resident priest at St. Stephens, with missions in Nuckolls, Thayer, and Jefferson counties. The following March Rev. Geo. J. Glauber was sent to Hastings, and attended all missions west and south of there, making his visits in lumberwagons and ox-carts. The same year Rev. F. Smutney was appointed to Wilber, for the Bohemians, and in July Rev. P. N. O'Brien occupied Seward, having charge of the missions in Seward, York, and Hamilton counties.
   In 1879 Rev. C. J. Quinn was rector at Lincoln and erected St. Theresa's Church. He was succeeded in 1880 by Rev. M. A. Kennedy, and the same year Rev. P. J. Erlach became pastor of Hebron.
   In 1881 Rev. J. B. Fitzgerald was sent to Auburn, Rev. James Simeon took charge of Hastings, while Rev. E. Hartig, O.S.B., returned from Kansas to Nebraska City, where he still resides. In 1882 Rev. J. A. Fanning became first resident priest at Orleans, in charge of all the missions along the Republican valley. The same year Rev. P. J. Boyle of Kearney attended Minden and a few other missions south of the Platte, while Rev. Aug. Rausch had charge of Wymore.
   In 1883 Rev. E. Rhullier was placed over the French congregation at Wheatland (now Campbell).
   In 1885 resident priests were sent to Beatrice, Plasi, Friend, and Grafton, while Rev. Thos. Cullen took charge of McCook and its missions, extending from Oxford, Nebraska, to Denver, Colorado.
   Such was the rapid development and progress of the church in the South Platte country that is was deemed advisable to erect it into an independent diocese in 1887. Rt. Rev. Thomas Bonacum, D.D., the first and present bishop of Lincoln, was born near Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1847, was educated by the Christian Brothers, and at St. Francis, Milwaukee, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and in Europe. He was ordained priest in 1870 for the St. Louis diocese, where he labored with great success, and was consecrated the first bishop of Lincoln on November 30, 1887, at St. Louis. He took possession of his see December 21, 1887, finding here twenty-nine priests, twenty-nine parishes, seventy-four missions, seventy-three churches, two academies for young ladies, with 197 pupils, two parochial schools with 109 pupils, three religious orders of women with twenty-four members, and a Catholic population of about 17,000.
   Since the arrival of the bishop the prosperity and progress of the diocese have been very remarkable, in spite of the several crop

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