Principal Hampton was succeeded in 1886 by Chas. H. Dye of Oberlin College, and he in 1888 by the present principal, Alexis C. Hart of Iowa College. The academy has enrolled 1,350 students from 225 towns in 17 states; 155 have been graduated from courses three or more years in length, 115 of whom finished preparation for college.
   To Rev. C. S. Harrison, Rev. Amos Dresser, E. B. James, A. E. Rice, W. H. Austin, and others of its founders, men of great energy, strong faith, and high ideals, the institution owes its character and its success.


   Weeping Water Academy was opened in September 1885, under a board of trustees who had incorporated the summer before.
   One instructor was employed, the Baptist church rented as a building, and Rev. Geo. Hindley, pastor of the Congregational church, acted as principal and taught some classes.
   The next year a flame "lean-to" was added to the Congregational church, and the school moved into these two rooms and the church.
   A flourishing music department was added soon. Mr. Hindley continued as principal with a gradually increased force of teachers until his resignation of the church pastorate in the fall of 1893. Rev. Chas. H. Richardson, the senior assistant, was acting principal during the school year 1893-1894, when the present principal, F. C. Taylor, accepted the position with three assistants and a music teacher.
   At the resignation of pastor and principal. Hindley, things looked dark for the school. The Congregational church, whose liberal, wealthy members were financially ruined by a boom reaction, was heavily in debt; the school was without property and meagerly equipped.
   Under the leadership of Rev. C. S. Harrison, the new pastor, the church debt was pledged and the old church, under an $1,800 mortgage, was deeded to the academy. Some back debts of the school were paid and buildings were rented and fitted up for dormitory uses. The old church was partitioned off and the school work, excepting music, was taken out of the new church into which it had drifted.
   The crop failure of 1894 and the increasing financial uncertainty of the following years brought additional reverses. Attendance fell off and the Congregational Education Society was unable to help. The teaching force was reduced one-fourth and the work contracted. It was a discouraging time. But holding steadily on, the school weathered the gale. Attendance increased. In 1897-1898 all current expenses and the mortgage indebtedness were squared up. The fourth instructor was soon restored and a second building occupied for business and science work.
   With good appliances for its science work, a library of over 1,000 volumes, and all of its four teachers college graduates of enthusiasm and teaching ability, the academy is deserving of its present high reputation.
   Though it has many immediate and ultimate needs, it is advancing in many lines each year and believes its way will open before it for still better things.
   Hindley Cottage, completed in 1904, was the first building ever built by the academy for itself. It cost $90,000 and was entirely paid for when finished. The building was designed to furnish dormitories for twenty young women, and a boarding hall to accommodate forty-eight students, either boys or girls. The building is two stories high above the basement, and the furnishings cost $1000.


   The following brief account of Chadron academy is condensed in the main from the monograph of Prof. A. B. Show on "Denominational Colleges" in Pamphlet No. 32, United States Bureau of Education.
   The building of railroads into northwestern Nebraska in the early years of the decade of 1880-1890 opened the way for the rapid settlement of that region, and within a short period it was filled with a numerous population and dotted with prosperous villages. Following closely this stream of immigration, various religious orders began the work of organizing



churches of their several kinds. Among the first foundations in the new district in the Congregational interest was the church at Chadron, Dawes county, established in the autumn of 1885. Chadron was at the time already a thriving village and rapidly grew to prominence among the towns of that region. Other churches were planted in like promising centers, and in 1887 there were enough of them to form a seperate (sic) "northwestern association" of Congregational churches.
   The opportunity for Christian education in this wide region soon attracted attention from ministers and missionary workers. The practical issue was the decision of the Northwestern Association in 1888 to found an academy at Chadron. Various other towns entered actively into the canvass for location, but the natural advantages and enterprise of Chadron secured for it the site of the new institution. At the same meeting the association provided for the government of the school and elected the first board of trustees. Immediately following this action the trustees selected a site for the academy on a hillside overlooking the town, purchased grounds sufficient for a campus, and began plans for the erection of a permanent building. The school was opened in an outgrown public schoolhouse, and December 3, 1890, the new building was dedicated and occupied at once. In November, 1892, this building was totally destroyed by fire. But without any interruption of instruction a new and satisfactory home for the school was provided. Since1894 one small building has been erected to serve as a dormitory for young women, and to provide a dining hall for the students in general. The enrollment for the year 1901-1902 was 120. The attendence (sic) is constantly on the increase: Prof. L. M. Oberkotter is principal with a corps of well-trained and efficient assistants.





   The Indian school at Santee is a part of the educational work in the state. The school was founded in 1870 by the American Board, but in the readjustment of missionary work it was later on transferred to the American Missionary Association, by which it is supported. The Congregational churches in the state share in the work through the A. M. A. Situated in the northeast corner of Nebraska it is well located to accommodate the Indians of the Northwest. The principal of the school is the well-known Rev. A. L. Riggs, D.D.
   Santee is neither a college nor academy, but, as its name signifies, is a normal training school. Prof. Y. B. Riggs, M.A., the assistant principal, has given a concise account of the object of the school in these words:

    The fundamental purpose of Santee is the preparation of Indian young men and women for missionary and educational leadership among their own people. Active Christians and working churches are the result of Christian education.
   Government schools do not and can not provide adequate preparation for the missionary



teachers, preachers, and other Christian leaders that are needed. Santee does not conflict with, compete with, or parallel the work of the government schools or any other school . . . Home life is recognized as a potent educational means, and the Santee dormitories are accordingly small and numerous, each in charge of a Christian lady who appreciates the responsibilities of mothering her flock . . . In the academic work the pedogogical (sic) developments at Santee are not only abreast of the times, but often advance into originality. The course



of study is essentially unique. The secondary value of "form study," such as language and mathematics, is recognized, and the "real or thought studies," as history or the humanities, and the sciences, are made the basis of all "form study" teaching.
   The order, relative value, and most advantageous use of studies is made a constant pedagogical and psychological study at Santee . . . Industrial training occupies half of every pupil's school day.
   Besides the domestic training that the pupils incidentally receive in the care of their rooms, houses, and clothes -- both boys and girls -- the school, cooking school, shop, and farm give them more systematic instruction planned to fit the possibilities of their home conditons (sic). Santee pupils are taught to make good bread, and to prepare plain, nourishing food economically, and from such materials as they have at home or should be able to have.
   The students are practiced in the essentials of stock raising and general farming; and in laboratory they have experimental demonstration of the more important theories of agriculture.
   With the mechanical arts the object is not trade training, but "manu-mental" instruction, development of the mind and character through the hand and body. Blacksmithing, carpentering, printing are used for their mental and ethical value, a means to all-around development.
   Santee has also special classes for adults who have had no or but few educational advantages; these classes are called "adult primaries." The school also has an extension course with lectures by Santee teachers. Much interest is manifested in this special work, even by adult Indians with no previous training.
   In 1903 there were 230 students catalogued, of whom 123 were in the correspondence school, 8 in high school, 51 in the intermediate, including from fourth to seventh grades, 7 in the adult primary, 40 in the primary, 18 in instrumental music and 1 unclassified. The music scholars are included in the other grades.
   Looking at the bright and intelligent faces of the high school pupils one can hardly realize that these are children of "wild Indians." They illustrate what Christian training can do and is doing for the Indian races. They are a strong argument in favor of the Christian school for Indian boys and girls.
   In Santee there are representatives from different tribes including the Santee, Winnebago, Navajo, Sioux, and other tribes, all living and working in perfect harmony and good will, all becoming disciples of one Master, our Lord.
   Says Prof. Riggs: "During thirty-four years of Santee's history there have been great changes in the condition of all the Indians of the Northwest. Christianity has been the only power that has transformed barbarism into the beginnings of civilization."
   The Santee pupils, with rarely an exception; are, or become while in school, Christians and church members. And in answer to the ques-



tion: "Does an Indian on returning from school relapse to the heathen ways of his people?" Professor Riggs answers, "No, never if he becomes a genuine Christian."
   Statistics can not tell all that the eighteen teachers and helpers in the Santee school are doing for the uplift and Christian civilization of the Indian tribes; nor can a superficial study of the work done give any adequate conception of its value. It is only they who watch the progress of these Indian boys and girls as they go through the years of study in Santee, and then out among their people as leaders and helpers, who are competent to judge of the charcter (sic) of the work done in the school, and the transformation of the Indian into a Christian and honored member of society. Santee Normal Training School is an institution of untold blessings to the Indians of the Northwest. It brings to the Indians within its reach a new hope, a new career, a new life.
   Into this Indian mission work the Riggs family have put their lives. "Dr. A. L. Riggs was born in the work," his father being a missionary among the Sioux in 1857, and his son is following in his steps. They have made Santee largely what it is, and are the inspiration of its growing work.
   On account of railroad facilities Santee has been more accesible (sic) to South Dakota and the Northwest than to Nebraska in which it is situated, and for this reason the Nebraska churches have not come in as close touch with this institution as with the other Congregational schools in the state, but the Santee Normal Training School is doing a work of which all Nebraskans are proud, and in which citizens in other states who keep in touch with the Indian work in the country take a great interest.
   The Santee Mission was begun by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 1866, but the school, as above indicated, was founded in 1870, and the whole mission was transferred in 1882 to the American Missionary Association.
   The following missionaries have been in commission: Rev. John P. Williamson, D.D., Mrs. Sarah F. Williamson, 1866 to 1870; Mr. Edward R. Pond, Mrs. Mary F. Pond, 1866 to 1871; Rev. A. L. Riggs, D.D., Mrs. Mary B. Riggs, 1870 to 1882; and since 1882 under



Indian Preacher, Pastor, and Missionary

the A. M. A. Prof. F. B. Riggs, M.A., for some years has been associated with Dr. Riggs as assistant principal of the school.


   The fiftieth anniversary of the organziation (sic) of the First Congregational Church of Omaha was held May 4, 1906. As this was the first church organized in the state, the date marked the completion of the first half century of Congregationalism in Nebraska. At this gathering, therefore, in view of the abundant prosperity of the state, it was decided that the Nebraska churches ought not longer to look to the national society for home missionary help, but that with the beginning of the new half century the state should become self-supporting in its missionary work. All of the churches joined heartily in this advance movement with the result that the date of the Omaha anniversary meeting marks the beginning of a



new era in the history of Congregational church work in the state.
   The first half century, which included the period of railroad extension throughout the state, and the planting of new towns along these lines, was naturally a period of church organization in the newly located community centers. This form of church activity, therefore, became the type of work which characterized the period during which Dr. H. Bross served as superintendent of home missions, from 1889 to 1906. He closed his work as superintendent on the anniversary date, May 4, 1906, and at that time the total number of churches reported was 201.
   With the beginning of the new half century from 1906 to the present time, covering a period of thirteen years, the aim has been to make the work intensive rather than extensive, seeking to develop stronger churches rather than to increase the number of separate organizations. But few new churches have been added, as there was no longer a special call for them, and some which had ceased to be active have been dropped from the list, leaving the present enrollment 196. That this policy of strengthening the churches already planted has proved to be the right one to follow is shown by comparing present figures with those of 1906. While the number of churches has remained practically the same, the gain in strength and missionary activity during this period covering the twelve years from 1906 to the close of 1918, is indicated as follows:

    Growth in membership, from 16,000 to 19,000.
   Growth in Sunday school membership, from 16,000 to 21,000.
   Growth in contributions for home missions, from $6,827 to $10,853.
   Growth in total benevolences, from $26,264 to $56,316.
   Growth in home expenses, from $170,042 to $244,698.
   Growth in value of church property, from $77,746 to $1,455,117.
   At the beginning of the period of self-support, it was stated in the last report of the superintendent of home missions, that the number of home missionary churches in the state totalled about 100. At the present time the total does not exceed one-fourth of that number. This large increase in the number of self-supporting churches is due in large measure to the spirit awakened by the self-supporting policy adopted.
   The general plan for church supervision has also undergone a marked change during this period. Instead of a distinctively missionary society, with its superintendent of home missions, and home missionary board, the chief' duties of which were to care for the weaker churches in the way of granting financial aid, and assisting in finding them pastors, the present plan has merged the former missionary society with the state conference, thus including all of the churches in the state, whether weak or strong. A general superintendent of Congregational work is elected, who, together with the conference board, gives general supervision to all the work of the state, seeking by counsel and coöperation to be helpful to each church as occasion may require. Two pastors-at-large are employed to assist the superintendent in the general field work over the state.
   The Sunday school work has also undergone a marked change in recent years, the educational part being under the direction of the National Education Society, with a state secretary in charge; and the extension part being supervised by the Home Missionary Society, under the direction of the state superintendent.
   These and other changes in the administration of the work have made it impossible to retain the office in the superintendent's home, as was formerly done, and for the past three years large and convenient offices have been maintained at 408-409 Ganter Building, Lincoln, where the board and various committee meetings can be held, and where all of the state business is regularly transacted.
   During the past four years a state paper, The Congregational Record of Nebraska, has been published bi-monthly, edited by the superintendent, and maintaining regular depart-



ments through which church news and information concerning plans of work are transmitted regularly to the churches.
   The personnel of those employed for the state work has had but few changes during the thirteen years covered by this review. Rev. S. I. Hanford has served as state superintendent since Dr. H. Bross closed his work in 1906. Rev. N. L. Packard was general missionary until 1911, and has since served as pastor at Liberty and Wahoo. Rev. J. S. Dick and Rev. W. D. King have been pastors-at-large, the former since 1909, and the latter since 1910.
   Rev. J. D. Stewart, the veteran Sunday school superintendent, who served in that capacity for thirty years, from January 1, 1883, to January 1, 1913, continued to assist in the Sunday school work of the state until the sudden close of his life at his home in Arthur county, April 14, 1916, in his seventy-ninth year. A church has been built to his memory at Arthur by the churches of the state.
   Rev. S. H. Buell followed Mr. Stewart as state superintendent of Sunday school work, and served for four and a half years. His successor, Dr. C. G. Murphy, began his work in the state in March, 1918. By the reorganization of the Sunday school department, Dr. Murphy came as secretary of religious education, giving his whole time to the educational features of the work; while the extension, or missionary part, was transferred to the home missionary department.
   The state has shared with the other states of the Union in a five-year preparatory program arranged by the national council, for stimulating the interest and inciting to fuller participation in, the tercentenary celebration of the landing of the Pilgrims, which will be held in 1920. Special emphasis has been placed on some one feature of the plan for each of the five years, covering in general the renewed application of the Pilgrim principles; the more aggressive reaching out of the churches by evangelism for an increased membership; a more definite effort to enlist and train leaders for Christian work, both in the ministry and for other lines of Christian activity; the awakening of a fresh zeal for missions, with larger annual contributions for that purpose; and the raising of a large, permanent memorial fund, the income from which can be used for providing pensions for retired ministers and for augmenting the help furnished by the ministerial relief fund. The churches of the state have joined with those of the nation at large in the simultaneous drives and general team work by which these tercentenary movements have been brought to the attention of the individual church, and the reaction has stimulated the activities of the churches generally. It has also manifested itself in the quickened spirit with which these responses have been made.
   The churches are at present rallying from the abnormal condition caused by the war period through which they have passed, and are recovering from the loss sustained during the prevalence of the Spanish influenza in the closing months of 1918. A general spirit of coöperation is manifest in, seeking to be more helpful in social and civic betterment, and in uniting with other similar organizations in the endeavor to make the church a larger factor in molding aright public sentiment and conserving the best interests of home and community life. This feature of church activity is one of the marked characteristics of our present day church life and work.

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