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flanked on the north by the wild fastnesses of the Bad Lands and on the south by the picturesque beauty of the Pine Ridge, were enacted some of the most notable scenes in the last act of the great Sioux drama in our state. During the next five years this White river valley was the camping ground of the bulk of the Sioux nation. From these camps the adventurous young men slipped away to join the hostile Sioux during the Sioux war of 1876 and 1877. Here on September 26, 1876, the council was held which made the purchase of the Black Hills. Hither in April, 1877, came Crazy Horse with the ragged remnants of the hostile Sioux who had been on the war path for two years, except the few who escaped north under Sitting Bull. Here on September 5, 1877, Crazy Horse himself, the Napoleon of the latter years of Sioux warfare, was run through by the bayonet of a United States soldier. From this valley October 26, 1877, set out the most remarkable pageant in the history of the Sioux nation, the. last, spectacular, farewell to their long cherished Nebraska. In two great moving columns, separated by about twenty miles of space, the followers of Red Cloud and Spotted Tail moved away to make their permanent home on their present reservation in Dakota. The column of Spotted Tail included 4,600 Indians, two companies of United States cavalry, 120 transportation wagons and 2,000 head of beef cattle for subsistence. The Red Cloud column was larger. Marking their course with pillars of dust by day and a thousand watch fires by night, they marched away toward the Missouri river, leaving a thousand memories of the days of border warfare to be read by future generations of white men as an imperishable part of the early history of Nebraska.
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Red Cloud and Squaw. Photo by Geo. L. Gerlach, June 13, 1900

     The third distinct Indian people of Nebraska were the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, whose hunting grounds were the headwaters of the Platte and Republican, partly in Nebraska and partly in Colorado and Wyoming. Their language is utterly unlike the Pawnee or any of the Siouan dialects,---Brule, Oglala, Ponca, Omaha, Otoe or Missouri. It is Algonquin, the same language the Pilgrims heard from the tribes about Plymouth Rock and into which the Apostle Eliot translated the first Indian bible two hundred and forty years ago. One of the most remarkable proofs of Indian migrations is the presence of this little nation,---not more than 3,000 people,--surrounded on all sides by tribes different in blood and speech,--here at the base of the



Rocky mountains with unmistakable evidence of their relationship to King Philip and Samoset. Their own traditions relate that they came from the northeast a long distance. Their part in the story of Nebraska is mainly that of the Oglala Sioux, whose allies they were. The Northern Cheyennes have marked tribal differences from the Sioux,--even those with whom they were associated. They are lighter colored in complexion and very much more restless and active. They were among the bravest and hardest fighters of all the plains tribes and have given more trouble in management at agencies than any other tribe. Part of the tribe is now in Oklahoma and part at Tongue River in Montana.

     Besides the Indians mentioned who were found in Nebraska by the first white men there have been brought in and settled here by the United States government the following: The Winnebagoes, 1,100 in number, located in 1864 in the northern part of the Omaha reservation. The Santee Sioux---1,047 in number, located in 1866 in what is now Knox county. The Sac and Fox and Ioways whose reservation is mostly in Kansas, but includes a narrow strip in Richardson county near the Missouri river.

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A Typical Winnebago Indian, Village Near Winnebago Lake, Nebraska.

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@ 2002 for the NEGenWeb Project by Pam Rietsch, Ted & Carole Miller