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etc., in their relation to the home. Keeping of household accounts. Advanced course in cookery, including the preparation of salads, croquettes, pastry, cakes, etc., the preservation of food materials by canning, preserving, pickling, etc. Invalid cookery; serving of meals; preparation of dietaries." This was also continued the second semester. There were still two more courses, "5" and "6," which had not been arranged. Miss Bouton continued to give courses in the chemistry department dealing with analyses of food materials, and the chemistry of food and household sanitation.

   The School of Domestic Science was housed on the University campus uptown. It never attained the great enrollment of the School of Agriculture, and there was apparently more demand for the work from college girls than from those registered in the School of Domestic Science. At least part of the work was given in the Mechanic Arts building, which had been erected in 1897-98. Miss Bouton tells something of the conditions in her report printed in the regents' report in 1902:

   "Our total enrollment this fall is one hundred and three with seventy-four unrepeated names in place of forty-one two years ago. . . . . The large increase in the number of our students this fall has, however, filled our laboratories almost to the limit. . . . The end of the hall in mechanic arts building, which has been partitioned off for an office and a dining room is all too small for our present needs. . . . We have this fall started a noon lunch for which there seems to be a great demand. . . . Your attention is called to the fact that of the fifty-three students enrolled in the first year class thirty-five are college girls not enrolled in the School of Domestic Science. I speak of this because of rumors heard of the possibility of removing the School of Domestic Science to the farm. If you should see fit to remove the school to the farm the department of domestic science should, it seems to me, remain at the university."

   Apparently there was greater emphasis placed on the teaching of college women than school students. Miss Bouton's report, incorporated in the regents' report for the two years ending with 1904, stated:




   "Considerable progress has been made in raising the standard of scholarship in our department. This has been possible, because of the increasing proportion of fully prepared college students who are registering for the courses in Domestic Science. Because persons who are not prepared to enter the University as college students may enter the School of Domestic Science, we have since the organization of the School had a considerable number of students who were not able to reach the standards of scholarship which we are striving to maintain in the department. The proportion of this class of students has been gradually growing less as our work is becoming better known among college women. The number of poorly prepared students entering the School of Domestic Science has happily decreased. Girls have found out that the School is not an easy stepping stone by which poorly prepared students may enter the University. One new line of work which has been introduced in this department during the last biennium is a training class for teachers."

   The School of Domestic Science had not been a particularly flourishing institution. The attendance for eight years since its establishment in 1898-99 had been for the respective years 11, 11, 16, 21, 32, 23, 23 and 22. Domestic science became home economics in the University catalog published in 1906. The courses offered by this time included domestic art (sewing and designing), domestic science general cookery, domestic science advanced cookery, domestic art (taking up draughting, cutting and making of garments, as well as harmony of color and house decoration), household economics (including study of house plans and equipment, and management of household affairs), a general course in domestic science for those who could not spend much time at the subject, methods of teaching domestic science, and courses in elementary domestic art and elementary domestic science (given in the school), and a general course in domestic art. Most of these courses were continued the second semester.

   The report of the Board of Regents for the two years ending with 1906 tells of the organization of a four-year course in home economics:

   "A four-year course in home economics has been adopted and work therein begun. Preparation is the same as for entrance to the Uni-




versity, and the course leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science. Subjects relating to the home occupy the first two years instead of the mathematics and physics required in the general scientific course. . . . This course being for women what the agricultural, forestry and engineering courses are for men, includes instruction in those vocations which belong peculiarly to women. Domestic art is required the first and fourth years, domestic science the second and third years and home economics the fourth year. One year's work in physiology, hygiene and first aid to the injured is also required."

   In 1907-08 the school course in domestic science was offered in connection with the School of Agriculture at the college farm. Some twenty-five girls were in attendance, altho the home economics building was not yet complete. The erection of the new building at the college farm made it possible to give all the home economics work there, college as well as school instruction.

   There were some twenty-two college subjects in home economics listed in the catalog published in 1908. The course of study for women in the School of Agriculture embraced three years' work, the same as the agricultural course for men. From this course they could be admitted to the home economics group of the Industrial College without examination, the same as the men could be admitted to the agricultural group. Miss Bouton was still in charge of the work in home economics at the close of this period.


   The School of Agriculture for many years quite overshadowed the agricultural courses of the Industrial College. In fact, in the 1900's there were often two-thirds as many students registered in the School of Agriculture as in all the collegiate courses of the Industrial College put together, scientific, engineering, and agriculture. No wonder the college farm began to be known as the home of the School of Agriculture. In fact, it is interesting to note that in 1895 there were just fifteen agricultural students in the University. In four or five years the number had grown to sixty-six.




   Dean Bessey tells something of the development of the Industrial College in the report of the Board of Regents for the two years ending in 1898:

   "Ten years ago the Industrial College was in the anomalous condition of being a college of applied science with no scientific course of study to serve as a center around which to group the technical courses. It had enrolled in college work but fourteen students, and in the preceding years the number had been still smaller. In the early part of the college year 1888-89, on recommendation of the faculty, the Regents quite radically changed the old scientific course hitherto found in the college of literature, science, and the arts and transferred it to the Industrial College. The changes made adapted it to its new environment, and fitted it to be the center of a group of industrial courses which at once began to grow up about it.

   "Before this reorganization there were but two courses of study in the Industrial College, viz., the course in civil engineering and the course in agriculture. For some time there had been offered in addition a short agricultural course, which, however, never attracted any students. The only departments of instruction catalogued as belonging to this college were civil engineering, botany, horticulture, and agriculture. As a result of the reorganization there were at once offered a general scientific course, and several modifications of these, viz., in electricity, chemistry, agricultural chemistry, geology, zoology, and agricultural biology. Two years later these were crystallized into four of the present 'groups' in this college, viz., general scientific, agricultural, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. To these additions have been made from time to time so that now there are two general groups or courses, viz., general scientific and general agricultural; seven special groups, viz., agriculture and chemistry, botany and agriculture, botany and zoology, chemistry and physics, horticulture and botany, mathematics and physics, zoology and philosophy, and six technical groups, viz., technical agriculture, civil engineering, municipal engineering, electrical engineering, steam engineering, and mechanical engineering.

   "In this period there have grown up in the congenial atmosphere of the college, the course Preparatory to Medicine, the Sugar School, the School of Mechanic Arts and the School of Agriculture and Dairying, all of which have attracted many students.

   "The following numerical data regarding the students in college classes in the Industrial College will be of interest in this connection:

   "In 1888-9, there were 57 students; in 1891-2, 117 students; in 1895-6, 228 students; in 18978, 327 students.




   "Counting all students in the Industrial College, its preparatory classes, sugar school, school of agriculture, and school of mechanic arts, the numbers for the years mentioned are as follows:

   "In 1888-9, there were 95 students; in 1891-2, 225 students; in 1895-6, 416 students; in 18978, 481 students."

   The enrollment in the Industrial College, including its allied schools, in 1898-9 was 483, in 1899-00 585, in 1900-01 595, in 1901-02 551, in 1902-03 673, in 1903-04 754, in 1904-5 852, in 1905-6 940, in 1906-7 1,086, in 1907-8 1,197, and in 1908-9 1,882. The number of students taking strictly agricultural studies toward the end of the period is not readily apparent. We may gain some idea perhaps by taking the records in the catalog published May 1, 1910. This was just after the College of Agriculture had been made a separate college, instead of a part of the Industrial College, in 1909. In this catalog there were 165 students listed in the newly formed College of Agriculture, 116 men and 49 women, the latter being mainly those who were taking home economics. These figures did not include the enrollment in the School of Agriculture. In June, 1910, nine students in the College of Agriculture received the degree of Bachelor of Science. These figures represent perhaps in a fair way the registration in agricultural and home economics subjects at the close of this period.

   There were comparatively few students in the entire history of the University who graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. Just seven such degrees had been conferred, one in 1875, one in 1877, one in 1882, three in 1883, and one in 1891. The report of the Board of Regents for 1892, after discussing the different lines of work offered in the Industrial College, announced: "For all this work, the degree of B.Sc. is granted." Apparently, this marked the end of the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture at Nebraska.

   Undoubtedly, then, one must look in the list of graduates with the degree of Bachelor of Science for those who really were agricultural students during this period. The catalog




published in 1904 announced, apparently for the first time, that the Industrial College "offers courses leading' to the degree of Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, and Bachelor of Science in Forestry. Perhaps, even under this arrangement, there were students who graduated with the plain degree of Bachelor of Science, who, judged by the line of work they took up, should have had the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. The lists of graduates in the catalogs class all of these graduates simply as Bachelors of Science, without any subdivision into groups.

   It will be interesting no doubt to take a look at one of the catalogs published in the nineties to ascertain just what instruction along agricultural lines of collegiate grade was then offered. Take the catalog published in June, 1896, for instance. Associate Professor T. L. Lyon, of whom we have already heard, Dr. A. T. Peters, and H. C. Heald were listed as the instructors in "agriculture." There were nine courses in that subject, "agriculture" then representing a diversity of interests, which today are represented by separate departments. The courses included soils, field crops, stock feeding, breeds and breeding of stock, anatomy and physiology of farm animals, diseases of farm animals, dairying, sugar beet culture, and technology of sugar manufacture. "Entomology, ornithology, and taxidermy" was listed by itself in the catalog, with Professor Bruner and W. D. Hunter in charge. There were fourteen courses dealing with those subjects. Horticulture, with Associate Professor Fred W. Card in charge, had its own place in the catalog. These were eleven courses here, including pomology, vegetable gardening, landscape gardening, forestry, greenhouse work, horticultural literature, plant breeding, and original investigations, as well as continuations of certain of these courses.



Dean of the College and associated with its work for a quarter of a century



   The general scientific departments of the University contributed to the agricultural course of the Industrial College. The agricultural course embraced for the first year entomology, chemistry, English, hygiene, mathematics, horticulture, and physics. The second year there were botany, chemistry, English, horticulture, modern language, and physics. The third and fourth years there were English literature, agriculture, geology, zoology, military science, required English themes, and drill. Electives filled in the gaps in the course. By this time the school year was made up of two instead of three semesters, both of about equal length.

   The agricultural department of the Industrial College was notably advanced in 1901 when E. A. Burnett, who had come to the college in 1899 to take charge of the work in animal husbandry, was made associate dean in charge of agriculture. Dean Bessey was head of the Industrial College. By this time the college farm and its: experimental work was well under way, with new departments being formed and developed.

   In these years there was not a hard and fast line dividing the faculty of the School of Agriculture, the agricultural faculty of the Industrial College, and the staff of the experiment station. They were all connected with the "farm" and most of the faculty served in two or all three divisions of the work. This period, from about 1890 to 1908, was productive of most of the departments now on the farm campus.

   A notable figure in the early nineties was Prof. C. L. Ingersoll. Professor Ingersoll had graduated from the Michigan Agricultural College and had held professorships at both Michigan and Purdue. For nine years he had been president of the Colorado Agricultural College, but in 1891 he was made professor of agriculture and dean of the Industrial College at Nebraska, succeeding John S. Kingsley as agriculturist. In 1892 he also became director of




the Experiment Station. Failing health, however, compelled him to sever his connection with the college, and he passed away at Grand Junction, Colorado, December 15, 1895. T. L. Lyon, who had been assistant chemist in the Experiment Station, was elected associate professor of agriculture to succeed Professor Ingersoll.


   Agronomy. - There had always been instruction in "agriculture" in the college. But "agriculture" as a subject in the earliest years embraced all the courses of the Agricultural College, generally speaking. Gradually it sloughed off one course after another, as a division of the subject became of sufficient importance to have a professor of its own. The catalog published in 1905 was the last one in which the general subject of "agriculture" appeared. By that time so many other departments had been established that "agriculture" now included mainly soils and crops, with a little farm management and grain grading. Prof. T. L. Lyon and E. G. Montgomery were then in charge of the work. In the next catalog "agriculture" had disappeared, but in its stead was "agronomy" with the same courses listed. This marked the final breaking up of the old general subject of "agriculture." Alvin Keyser was now connected with the department, in addition to Mr. Lyon and Mr. Montgomery.

   Professor Lyon resigned in September, 1906, and the. department of agronomy was divided. In the catalog of 1907 "agronomy" itself had disappeared, but in its stead were the departments of field crops, presided over by Professor Montgomery, and soils, presided over by Professor Keyser. This was reorganized again in 1909 and a department of agronomy and farm management created. There was also a division called experimental agronomy. The soils and field crops were again in the same department. The work in soils was now in charge of Prof. Percy B. Barker, the work in field crops in charge of Prof. Erwin




Hopt, the work in farm management in charge of Prof. C. W. Pugsley, and the work in experimental agronomy in charge of Prof. E. G. Montgomery. Professor Keyser had resigned to accept a position at the Colorado Agricultural College.

   Horticulture. - Horticulture was one of the pioneer subjects in the college. Harvey Culbertson, the first graduate of the Agricultural College, served as professor of that subject at one time. When Doctor Bessey came to the University he was "professor of botany and horticulture." Dean Bessey's duties as professor of horticulture at first had consisted largely, with the assistance of John Green, the head janitor, in putting the grounds of the University uptown into presentable shape. Trees were set out and efforts were made to develop a small botanical garden.

   "At last the time came (1892)," says Doctor Bessey, "when a separate professor of horticulture was elected, in the person of F. W. Taylor, who soon brought together several active and enthusiastic classes in horticulture." Professor Taylor resigned in 1893, but he was later to perform a valuable service as superintendent of farmers' institutes and in introducing the Kherson oat from Russia. Fred W. Card then became associate professor of horticulture. Mr. Card accomplished a great deal during the late nineties with the young but growing farm campus, just as Professor Bessey had done with the campus of the University downtown.

   To the department of horticulture fell the responsibility of developing the farm campus. R. A. Emerson, who was appointed assistant horticulturist on September 15, 1895, tells something of this development in Agriculture for October, 1910:

   "The first time I ever saw the University Farm campus (it was not a campus then) was one Saturday in the fall of 1892, when, together with a number of other University students, I cut and shocked corn there for Mr. Perin. The corn was growing in the west side of the orchard, northeast of the hog shed and yards, which




means that it was between the present horticultural building [this was succeeded by the Plant Industry building] and Home Economics Hall. . . .

   "West of Mr. Perin's house, extending from Holdrege street north along the west side of the orchard, was a grove of cottonwood, ash, and honey locust. Many of these trees are still standing. About the only bit of grass that was kept well trimmed, aside from that about the foreman's house, was the 'lawn' under the cottonwoods at the south end of the grove. Hand lawn mowers were not used here, and horse lawn mowers were unheard of, but the Jersey bull did excellent work within the limits of his lariat. . . .

   "To be sure, there was then as now - tho this may have come later - a horticultural building. But the building that now houses horticulture [even this has now been superseded] . . . is palatial in comparison with the building used in the early 90's. It stood north of the old implement room and contained a tool room where the hoe was kept, a harness room, general laboratory, and workshop, as well as office room for the foreman, hired man, orchardist, gardener, campus superintendent, Experiment Station assistant, teamster, etc. (All of these positions were filled by one man when I began working for the Department of Horticulture about 1895.)

   "The first improvements of a horticultural sort begun on the farm campus after the time I first saw it were made by Professor Card during the late 90's, when a considerable number of trees were set near the horse barn and the dairy building [now poultry and rural economics building]. Professor Card also established an orchard of some ten or fifteen acres where the veterinary building and cattle barns now stand. Soon after he left the University and when the new animal husbandry department began growing, this young orchard was grubbed out to make room for barns and yards, and another orchard of some twenty acres was established near the east end of the farm.

   "The ten-year period from the late 90's, when Professor Card left, to the time Mr. Dunman came to take charge of the campus a couple of years ago, was one of rapid development. Practically all the buildings we now have were erected during this time. . . . One never knew, after a group of trees or shrubs was planted, how long before a driveway, walk or sewer ditch would be sent straight thru it or a building erected upon that very spot. . . .

   "It was toward the end of this period that the arboretum was established as a part of the campus. This move was characterized by a prominent Nebraska horticulturist as the most important step




ever taken by the University in a horticultural direction. A large number of varieties of trees and shrubs of certain families were planted and these now constitute what there is of the arboretum.

   "To my notion, the most important thing that has ever happened for the good of the farm campus was the decision of the Board of Regents to adopt a permanent plan to be followed in the placing of future buildings. While this plan was adopted some years ago, it really belongs to the present period of campus improvement. It was the beginning of new things on the campus."

   Professor Card left the University in 1898 to become professor of horticulture in the Rhode Island Agricultural College. Others who served for more or less time during these years, up to about 1910, included Val Keyser and F. E. Denny. The catalog published in 1909 listed three members of the department of horticulture. Professor Emerson was in charge, altho he was shortly to receive a call to Cornell University. The other two members of the faculty were V. V. Westgate and R. F. Howard, both adjunct professors. W. H. Dunman was landscape gardener.

   Forestry. - Forestry in which lectures were given in the early years of the University was once regarded as merely a branch of horticulture. However, in later years of this period when the regular courses in forestry began to be given, the subject was not so closely related to agriculture. The regents' report, for the two years ending with 1904, announced that "the courses in Forestry, which have been in operation over a year, are proving popular, the likelihood being that demand for training in this interesting branch will increase in the near future, especially through the afforestation policy adopted by the National Government which has already been put in operation within our State." This work was under the supervision of the dean of the Industrial College rather than the associate dean in charge of agriculture. Francis G. Miller was professor of forestry. In 1906 he was made a member of the Experiment Station staff. He was succeeded by Prof. F. J. Phillips, September 1, 1907. When the Industrial College




was separated into the College of Agriculture and the College of Engineering in 1909, forestry became a branch of work in the College of Agriculture.

   Agricultural Chemistry. - Agricultural chemistry was one of the oldest departments in the University. True, it had not been known precisely as agricultural chemistry, but Prof. Samuel Aughey, the first professor of natural sciences in the University, and later Prof. H. H. Nicholson, had so closely allied themselves with the work of the farm and the experiment station that it may almost be said that they made chemistry an integral part of the agricultural course. Mr. Nicholson became chemist of the experiment station immediately upon its organization.

   In the regents' report is the notation that in 1891, "T. Lyttleton Lyon, B.Sc., 1891, Cornell, was appointed instructor in agricultural chemistry." Mr. Lyon and Dr. Rachel Lloyd were listed as assistant chemists of the experiment station, while Mr. Nicholson served as chemist. The old stone house at the college farm was occupied by the chemistry division of the experiment station in 1896. When the new experiment station building was completed about 1900, the chemistry work of the station found quarters there.

   The report of the experiment station for 1902 announced that the department of agricultural chemistry had been made an independent department, separate from the department downtown. Prof. Samuel Avery was placed in charge. A course in agricultural chemistry of collegiate grade was listed in the catalog published in 1903 It was given by Doctor Avery and consisted in the analysis of agricultural products. There were two more courses listed, but they apparently were given in the School of Agriculture. Of course before this time instruction in chemistry had been given in connection with both school and college courses.

   In 1905 Doctor Avery was placed in charge of the department of chemistry of the University, retaining general direction of the work in the experiment station. He suc-


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