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miles southwest of Mullen. This contains four hundred and eighty acres of good range land, and is located in what is called "Antelope Valley." He farms one hundred and ten acres, and uses the balance for ranching purposes, engaging in stock raising to quite an extent.

     In 1879 Mr. Gardner was married to Miss Mehetabel Sager, at Sioux City, Iowa. Her father, Abraham Sager, was a farmer during his early life, and later was heavily interested in the lumber business at Wakesma, state of Michigan. Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Gardner, who are named as follows: Fred, Sadie, Dennis, Mary, James and Oliver D.

     The family have a pleasant home, and are well liked in their community. Mr. Gardner is a Bryan Democrat.



     W. A. Florey, known throughout the community in which he resides as an energetic and prosperous farmer and stock raiser, lives on his valuable estate situated on section 12, township 34, range 41, which lies on the line betwen (sic) Sheridan and Cherry county.

     Mr. Florey was born in Shebogan county, Wisconsin, in 1860. and was raised on a farm there. His father, George Anthony Florey, served in Company K, Thirty-fifth Wisconsin Regiment, during the Civil war, being enlisted for three years of service: was taken ill and died at Chicago while on the way home, where he was going to recruit his health, in the year 1864. He left a widow and two children, of whom our subject is the older. Our subject started in life for himself at the age of twenty, working in a cheese factory, and followed that work for several years, until he left Wisconsin for Nebraska. One year was spent in railroad work then he came to Sheridan county, settling in the locality in which he still resides, in 1886. He took a homestead and proved up, adding more land as he was able. His mother and younger brother came to Nebraska and they all lived together until the latter's health failed and he was obliged to return to Wisconsin, but the mother still lives here with her son, W. A. Mr. Florey farmed during the dry years, but his crops failed several seasons and when he was unable to raise enough seed for the following years stopped trying to farm and started in the cattle business. He gradually got ahead, and now owns one thousand seven hundred acres of land, and cuts annually about eight hundred tons of hay on his farm, having more hay than range land. He runs three hundred head of cattle and just enough horses to handle his ranch. He has a good set of buildings on his place, and his land is fenced, and altogether he is proprietor of a fine estate, and is doing well in his work. When he first came here he had nothing to start with, and is well content with what he has done.

     In 1903 Mr. Florey was married to Miss Hattie Wells, born in Manchester, Iowa, in 1873. Mrs. Florey is a daughter of Henry and Sarah Mervin Wells, both New Yorkers, who settled in Iowa many years ago. Mr. and Mrs. Florey have two children: Leonard W. Florey, born on June 20, 1904; and Elizabeth, born April 10, 1907.

     Although Mr. Florey has never had time to devote to taking an active, part in politics, he takes a commendable interest in local affairs of importance to his locality, and lends his influence for the benefit of the citizens of his community. He is a Republican.



     George Christopher, now a resident of section 21, township 31, range 29, belongs to a race that has made most valuable contributions to the great volume of American citizenship, not so numerous because the home country is but a little tract of the earth, but industrious, frugal, upright and intelligent to a high degree. How much the west and northwest owe to the Scandinavian countries, Norway. Sweden and Denmark, for the great flood of God-fearing and labor loving emigrants, may never he told, but the debt is very great, and the student of social and industrial conditions in those vast domains of the republic will never hesitate to acknowledge.

     George Christopher was born in Lancaster county, Nebraska, July 2, 1876, and is a son of James and Marie (Hansen) Christopher, both of whom were born and bred in Denmark. The father came to the United States in 1864, sailing from Liverpool in the steamship America, landing at Portland, Maine. Coming west he was among the oldest settlers of Lancaster county, where he appeared in 1874. He helped on the construction of the first postoffice building in the city of Lincoln, where he is now living retired from active life, but having a keen and vivid memory of these far away days and scenes.

     Mr. Christopher, the subject of this writing, remained at home, and participated in the family fortunes until he reached the age of twenty-one years, when he struck out in life for himself, and spent the ensuing three years in farm work in Gage county. In 1896

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he was married to Miss Elmina Ellis, whose sister is the wife of Aaron VanWinkle, a sketch of whom appears on another page. Paul, Ray and George are the young children who have came to bless this union.

     The Christopher family removed to Cherry county in 1906, where the husband and father has speedily become one of the most important land owners and operators of the entire county. He bought outright sixteen hundred and eighty acres of land, has leased three sections of school land, and has a Kincaid homestead of six hundred and forty acres, making in all forty-two hundred and forty acres under his management. On this vast tract of land he is branching out quite extensively in stock raising, having at the present writing (1908) about eight hundred and fifty head of cattle, with one hundred and twenty head of horses. Here he has a good house, large and roomy barns, and a cattle shed three hundred and fifty feet long. Windmills of the most modern type provide ample water for the stock, and everything on the ranch seems to meet the most critical inspection. A fine view of the place is shown on another page of this work.

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     Mr. Christopher is a Republican, and has attended several county and state conventions of that party as a prominent and working delegate. While in Lancaster county he was a leading member of the party and his position as a representative Republican has been conceded in Cherry county from the moment of his arrival. He is a member of the Masonic order, affiliating with the lodge at Valentine.


     Rev. Anson Rogers Graves, Protestant Episcopal bishop of the missionary diocese of Kearney. comprising western Nebraska, was consecrated January 1. 1890, and has given eighteen years of his life work earnestly and successfully to this diocese. He was not discouraged by the great financial depression of 1892-'97 nor by the crop failures when from eighty to ninety thousand people left Nebraska. Happily, in recent years of bounteous harvests thousands of this number have returned, and are eagerly settling on the fertile lands of this section of the country. Above all else, the splendid school for boys, the Kearney Military Academy, founded by Bishop Graves in 1892 and carried by his efforts through the disastrous years that followed, 15 now blessed with great prosperity, so that in addition to the fine buildings of the institution already erected, the year 1907 sees another building erected, entirely fire-proof and costing over fifty thousand dollars.

     Anson Rogers Graves was born in Wells, Rutland county, Vermont, April 13, 1842. He worked his way through college, and was graduated at Hobart College in 1866 with the degree of A. M., and LL.D. was conferred on him by Hobart College and D. D. by Racine College. He married in April, 1877, Mary Totten Watrous, of Brattleboro, Vermont. He was assistant pastor in Grace church, Brooklyn; rector of St. Luke's, at Plattsmouth, Nebraska; assistant at Gethsemane church, Minneapolis, Minnesota; rector of All Saints, Northfield, Minnesota; All Saints, Littleton, New Hampshire; St. Peters, Bennington, Vermont, and rector for six years of Gethsemane church, Minneapolis. Bishop Graves is the author of various sermons and tracts, and is a man of superior education, greatly esteemed by all.

     When Bishop Graves entered on his duties in this state, in 1890, there were three hundred and seventy-five communicants in his diocese. There are now over two thousand four hundred here. Then six clergymen carried on the work, now there are fifteen; then twelve churches, now thirty; church proprety (sic) was then estimated at forty thousand dollars, and now reaches three hundred thousand dollars; then there was no school here, and now we have the splendid academy with eighty thousand dollars in buildings and thirty-six thousand dollars endowment.

     Bishop Grave's family consists of the following members: Rev. Fred D. Graves, of Alliance, Nebraska; Elliott V. Graves, instructor in athletics and manual training in Lawrence University, Wisconsin, who was on the football team of the Nebraska University, at Lincoln, and well known throughout the country. Margaret married to Rev. G. G. Bennett; Gertrude, David W. and Paul.

     The bishop's duties are to oversee the work of the Episcopal church in his district, secure clergymen for the work and see that they are paid, secure funds in the east for schools, endowments and missionary work, hold the church properties and see that they are cared for, visit all the stations where work is carried on once or twice a year and look after vacancies when they occur. In speaking of his work the bishop said: "During my episcopate I have baptized three hundred and eight, confirmed three thousand five hundred and forty-five, married twenty-two couples; officiated at twenty-four burials, consecrated

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six churches arid dedicated many chapels, admitted thirty candidates for holy orders, ordained fourteen deacons, admitted one deaconess, ordained thirteen priests, received or found working in the field sixty-four clergymen, have lost by death, removal or deposition forty-four.

     "Since I have been bishop there have been in our district 4,000 baptisms; 2,855 confirmations; 841 marriages; 1,328 burials by our clergy; 40,765 public services; and the money raised for all purposes $317,596. For a district of thinly scattered people with only four parishes barely self-supporting, and not one really wealthy churchman in it, we think this is a good showing."

Autobiography of Bishop Graves: The Farmer Boy Who Became a Bishop, 1911.



     Energetic efforts and intelligence go hand in hand in the building up of one's fortune, regardless of the vocation to which they are applied. One of the well-developed and highly improved estates of Sioux county is that owned and operated by Thomas Doyle, who resides in section 21, township 32, range 55, and is the possessor of nine hundred and sixty acres of land. The comfortable circumstances enjoyed by this gentleman have been brought about by the exercise of judicious labor and painstaking care, and every appointment of his place bespeaks good taste and refinement.

     Thomas Doyle is a native of Tipperary county, Ireland, born in 1849, his parents spending their entire lives in that country. He grew to manhood in his native county, following farming as an occupation, and when he reached his thirtieth year determined to seek his fortune in the new world, so took passage for America, landing in New York city in July. 1881. He came west immediately, settling first in Dubuque, Iowa, spending about three years in that city. He then came to Nebraska and secured work at railroad construction, going into the Black Hills, and from there to Casper, Wyoming. He later traveled through Washington and Idaho, but made no permanent settlement, and finally returned to Nebraska in 1891, taking up a homestead in section 17, township 32. range 54. In 1880 he bought his present farm where he still lives, which is situated on West Hat creek. He at once began to improve his farm, put up substantial buildings and breaking up land for crops, and while he went through many hardships during the first few years, has succeeded splendidly. He has the ranch all fenced, and about one hundred acres under cultivation, also has plenty of range and hay land. He is engaged in stock raising on a large scale, and is doing well, operating his property along progressive lines, and is recognized as one of the well-to-do ranchmen of his county. The place is well supplied with good running water, and there is considerable timber on it.

     Mr. Doyle was married in 1880 to Catherine Dellaney, and two children were born to this union, but he had the sad misfortune to loose both children and mother in 1881.

     Mr. Doyle was married in 1902, the second time, to Mary Spannin, born in America of German descent, and they are the parents of three children, named as follows: Kate, Mary and Thomas. The family occupy a pleasant home and enjoy the respect and esteem of all in their community. Our subject has always taken an active interest in local affairs, and is among the honored pioneers of this locality, and no man, from what the people say, stands more on his word and integrity than does Thomas Doyle.



     James McClymont, of Industry township. Phelps county, Nebraska, is one of the most successful and prosperous agriculturists in this locality. He resides in section 5, township 5. range 19, where he has built up a fine farm and home, and is highly esteemed by all who know him.

     Mr. McClymont is a native of Knox county, Illinois. born in 1853, of Scotch descent, his father being Peter McClymont. Our subject came to Nebraska in 1889 and located on the farm where he now lives in 1889, originally purchasing a half section of land in section 5. township 5, range 19, and later adding the balance of this section and also one hundred and sixty acres which lies across the road from his place, making a fine farm of eight hundred acres. All of this is first-class farming land, and he is engaged in mixed farming and stock raising. He has been very successful in his grain crops, and is progressive in his methods of farming. He also is widely known as keeping only the best grades of stock, having a drove of from seventy-five to one hundred good grade Poland China hogs, and fifty to seventy-five white-faced cattle of the Hereford breed. Each winter he feeds and ships a few carloads of stock which nets him a good round sum. He keeps about twenty-five head of horses, preferring the fullblooded Percherons, and raises a number of fine colts. He is known throughout the

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