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Nebraska is adapted to dairying and the first to ship cream as a farm product, consigning to the Hygia Creamery Company, of Omaha.

     Mr. Kalblinger passed through the famous four dry seasons that proved so ruinous to the hopes and endeavors of thousands of the early settlers, and though facing much privation and suffering, did not give up. During the Indian scares the family slept two nights in Valentine and two nights the neighbors held fort in Mr. Kalblinger's big sod house in section 28, not knowing what minute they might be attacked. He now holds a fine standing in the local circles in which his useful life is passing. Politically he is a Republican, but has never sought or held office. He is noted as always speaking well of his neighbors, and one and all in turn bear high tributes as to his character and genuine worth. Mr. Kalblinger is a member of the Ancient Order United Workmen lodge at Valentine and together with his family is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.

     A view of the family residence will be found on another page in this work.

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     Thomas A. Green, residing on section 5, township 26, range 50, of Box Butte county, Nebraska, is regarded as one of the leading citizens of his locality. He has always been one of the important factors in the upbuilding of his region, aiding materially in its development and growth from the time of its early settlement.

     Thomas a. Green was born in Rutland county, Vermont, in 1858, and was raised and educated there. His father was of English descent and his mother of German descent, both born and reared in America. The father died at the good old age of eighty-six years and the mother died at the age of forty-eight.

     When our subject was twenty-four years of age he learned the carpenter's trade, and worked at that for a number of years in his native state, leaving there in 1883 and starting for the west. He spent several years in Iowa, working at his trade near Council Bluffs.

     He came to Box Butte county in 1885 and filed on a pre-emption and tree claim, on which he lived and proved up, and the following year took up a homestead in section 5, there erecting a sod cabin and began farming. When landing there he was obliged to go to North Platte for all his supplies, purchasing a team for this purpose, and also broke up some land, on which he planted a small crop.

     When the Burlington Railroad was put through this section he worked for three days for that company. Mr. Green saw many hard times from the drought periods; he was hailed out also and lost three crops from these causes, one season being completely burned out by the hot winds. However, he kept on trying to improve his farm, also purchasing more land as he was able, and is now the owner of five full sections, over three sections of which is deeded land, all of it fenced and fitted up with many improvements. He farms one hundred and sixty acres and engages principally in the cattle and horse raising business, running sixty head of the former and one hundred and fifty of the latter. A picture of the ranch property appears on another page.

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     Mr. Green is an independent voter.


     To the men of perseverance and stalwart determination who went to Nebraska when it was yet undeveloped as an agricultural and commercial region, the present prosperity enjoyed there is due. Among the early settlers of Harlan county who has been intimately identified with its development and has gained an enviable reputation as a citizen may be mentioned Austin E. Dixon, a prosperous and successful farmer of Alma township.

     Mr. Dixon is a native of Licking county, Ohio, and came here from Boone county, Iowa, where he lived for a number of years as a young man. His father, Jacob Dixon, died when our subject was a young boy. His grandfather, Joseph Dixon, came to America when a young man from England, and fought in the Revolutionary war in the New England militia. There were eleven children in his father's family and he was the youngest, the family being scattered all over the United States and engaged in different enterprises, but he stuck to farming and stock raising all his life and is amply repaid for his efforts in the ownership of a fine farm and competent fortune, which will insure him comfort for the remainder of his days. When he first came to Nebraska in 1877 he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres in Alma township, and has since bought more until he now owns three hundred and twenty acres of fine land, and has been very successful in every venture. Mr. Dixon served in the Civil war for eight months with the Eighteenth Missouri Regiment. He was at the last battle of Nashville, then through Alabama and North Carolina, the battle of Roundhead, and with the regiment in the grand review at Washington at the close of the war.

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     Our subject was united in marriage to Miss Christina Johnson, of Boone county, Iowa. They are the parents of three children, namely: Ernest S., who married Myrtle Prettyman, daughter of Lewis Prettyman, assistant county treasurer of Harlan county, residing at Alma. They have two children, Lewis and John. The second son, James., married Emma Prettyman, sister to Myrtle, and both reside with their families on this section, having comfortable homes of their own. Mr. Dixon's only daughter, Mary., lives at home with her parents, and she and her mother and father spent 1906 on the Pacific slope visiting Mr. Dixon's brothers who reside there. Mr. Dixon is a member of the Evangelical church and a highly respected citizen of his community. In political sentiment he is a Prohibitionist.



     James M. Alderman is a wholesale dealer in choice Elkhorn valley hay, with headquarters at Newport, Nebraska, and meets a constant demand for his goods from many quarters. A man of push and energy, he asks no favors as he meets the competition of trade. He is resourceful in emergencies, knows what he wants, and meets to the letter every engagement or representation that he makes. Newport counts him among its most enterprising and pushing citizens.

     Mr. Alderman was born in Kansas City, Missouri, August 16, 1870, a son of James M., Sr., and Sarah J. (Kinder) Alderman. Alderman blood comes from Germany, though the parents of the subject of this writing were American-born. The senior Alderman was for a time a nurseryman in Brownville, Nebraska, where our subject was reared and educated. He is the fifth child in a family of seven sons and one daughter born to his parents.

     When Mr. Alderman was twenty years of age he took upon himself the direction of his own life, and in the month of June, 1890, he came to Newport, Nebraska, with the intention of learning the telegraphic art. Here, however, he found his brother already well established in business, and the younger Alderman was appointed postmaster, a position which he held for some four years, proving very acceptable to the patrons of the office. When he finally left the postoffice he did so that he might go into another line of business that did not seem to be fully covered by any enterprise already established in Newport. In 1895 he went into the hay business, in which he has increased his dealings every year. In the territory stretching from Wood Lake to Stuart he has bought hay very extensively, and has maintained offices at both Wood Lake and Bassett. For a time he worked in partnership with W. H.. Allen, but of late years has operated alone. How extensive his operations have been may be judged from the fact that in 1907 he shipped from Newport alone over twelve hundred carloads of hay.

     Mr. Alderman was married November 14, 1898, to Miss Grace Barr, whose father, John Barr, was at one time much interested in the oil business in Pennsylvania. The mother, who was Eva Mason prior to marriage, in after years became an old settler in Nebraska, and for a time lived in a sod house on a homestead claim, quite a contrast to the comfortable dwellings of the east. To Mr. and Mrs. Alderman have come three children to bless their union--Geneva, Donald and Anona.

     Mr. Alderman is a stanch Democrat, is a member of the Royal Highlanders, and with his family is a communicant of the Episcopal church.



     Among the leading old settlers and public-spirited citizens of Dawes county, Nebraska, the gentleman above mentioned deserves a foremost place. Mr. Willer has aided in no slight degree in the developing of the commercial resources of this region, and has done his full share in building up the schools and doing all in his power for the betterment of conditions socially and politically.

     Mr. Willer is a native of Kendall county, Illinois, born on his father (sic) farm January 26, 1863. His father, William H. Willer, was born in Ireland and came to America when a boy, as also did his mother, whose maiden name was Anna Kelley. Our subject was reared in Illinois until he was twenty-one years of age, and in 1884 he left home and started out to make his own way in the world, working in that state at anything he could find to do for three years, in the tile factories and sawmills, etc. In 1887 he came to Crawford and took up a pre-emption and tree claim, proving up on them in due time. He built up his farm, and also helped build the Hall grist mill at Crawford, and was afterwards employed by the concern for seven years. In 1892 he filed on a homestead but did not settle on it until 1896, then proved up. He bought the west half of section 35, township 31, range 52, where he now resides. He now has a ranch of nine hundred and twenty acres,

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and has one hundred acres of this in a high state of cultivation, raising splendid crops of small grain. His place is all fenced, and he has about sixteen miles of good fencing, with plenty of timber and running water on the ranch. He raises cattle, horses and hogs, running one hundred and nineteen head of cattle, fourteen horses and quite a number of hogs. Everything is kept up in the best condition possible, and bespeaks the thrift and industry of the owner.

     In 1895 Mr. Willer was united in marriage to Miss Maud L. Marquis, daughter of Charles Marquis, who died when Mrs. Willer was a child, five years old, her mother is still living in New York state. To Mr. and Mrs. Willer three children have been born, namely: Herman, Clara and Bessie

     Mr. Willer has made a success of his ventures, and richly deserves his good fortune. He is a good citizen, well liked by all, and enjoys a happy and comfortable home. He is a reformer in his political views.



     W. O. Russell, a well known real estate dealer of McCook, Nebraska, is one of the prominent business men of the town. He is thoroughly versed in his line of work, and is a highly respected and worthy citizen, and one of the old settlers in this locality, having resided for the past thirty-six years in Redwillow and Furnas counties.

     Mr. Russell is a native of Pennsylvania, and was raised there. His father, John C. Russell, served in the Civil war for three years and three months in the Thirty-second Iowa Infantry, and during this time was in the field all over Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, taking part in all the battles of these campaigns under the command of General A. J. Smith. During the time he was serving as a soldier his wife, accompanied by her son, the subject of this sketch and one daughter, visited him at Island No. 10, and the impressions he received of an army in the field are still quite fresh in his memory. Our subject's mother was Miss Maria A. Prime, born in Indiana, and she has four brothers--George, Daniel, J. T. and Jacob Prime--all of whom settled in Furnas county, Nebraska, many years ago, two still living here and two in California. One son, John P. Russell, is road foreman of engines, located at Birmingham, Alabama, in the service of the Memphis & Northern Alabama Railway. Prior to 1888 he was connected with the Burlington & Missouri Railway at this point. Our subject's great-great-grandfather, Mr. Coleman of Pennsylvania, was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was killed during battle, In 1884 the Russell family held a reunion in Furnas county at the home of Jacob M. Prime, and at this affair there were over seventy relatives present.

     Mr. Russell came to Nebraska in 1872, locating one-half mile west of Edison, Furnas county. His father settled here with his family, coming from Hamilton county, Iowa, where he had farmed for many years, being a pioneer settler there, who, prior to this; had lived in Illinois. When the family came to Furnas county our subject was fourteen years old, and this was then almost a wilderness. There were but few settlers here, and the Indians were camped all along the Republican river, and the pioneers experienced many hard times and scares from the red skins, but never had any severe trouble through them. Lowell was then the trading point, and this was eighty to ninety miles distant from Edison. They went to farming their land and managed to get along very comfortably, hauling their supplies from Lowell, and often having a hard time in making the trip. In 1874 a bridge was built across the Platte river, and after this was completed they hauled wheat to Kearney, a distance of sixty-five miles. The second mowing machine in this district was owned by our subject's father. This was purchased in Lowell at a cost of one hundred and ten dollars. He also built the first wire fence in this section.

     Mr. Russell has been sheriff of Redwillow county. He held this office during the years 1888 and 1889, and that was one of the busiest times in the history of the county, being the time of the great railway strike, and he was kept busy attending to the duties connected with office, conducting a large number of foreclosures, etc. He was the man who started the first livery barn in McCook, in 1882, having moved into the town in the month of April of that year. He has resided here since that time, and also owns a fine farm in Redwillow county. He has served on the local school board, and is a charter member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a Republican.

     Mr. Russell married Miss Louisa McCorkle, of McCook, and they have three sons--Harrison, Lovel and Wray--living, and those dead are Ora O., William W. and James. The daughter living are Jessie E., Floyd A., Mary M. and Lottie May. Mr. Russell's father, also

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his sisters, with the exception of one, who lives in Oatville, Kansas, all reside in California.

     Our subject's father, J. C. Russell, has a history, as follows: His grandparents, Christopher and Isabella Russell, came from England to Pennsylvania in 1807. William Russell was married to Sarah Coleman in 1835. John S. Russell , our subject's (W. O. Russell's) father was the son of that union, being born in 1838. When John C. Russell was eight years old the family moved to Ogle county, Illinois. The father, William, worked at carpentering for one dollar and a quarter a day for two years. Later the family moved to Bureau county, Illinois, and bought forty acres of prairie land, which was operated by his son while he (John C.) still followed the carpenter's trade. The son operated this farm for five years. They then sold and came to Hamilton county, Iowa, in 1852. The father, William, bought some land, which his son operated while he still clung to his former occupation, that of carpenter. John C. Russell worked the farm until about 1857. He was a great hunter and spent winters hunting deer, turkey, geese, ducks and quail. John C. Russell was married to Miss Marie Angeline Prime in 1857.

     In 1862 he enlisted in the Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company K. Thirty-second Regiment, and served three years and thirteen days, during which time he participated in about fourteen hotly contested battles. In 1872 he came to Furnas county, Nebraska, with his family, among whom was his son, William O. Russell. They spent four weeks on the road with their teams and covered wagons, the same time taking care of a small herd of stock which they brought along with them. They located a homestead on the northeast quarter of section 34, township 3, range 22. He farmed here in Redwillow and Furnas counties until 1893, when he moved to California, where he now resides at Turlock. The first Republican convention was held on his homestead in a very early day, during the time when wild game was still plentiful on the prairies.

     Our subject, William O. Russell, has three uncles, Samuel Russell, James C. Russell and Milton Fisher, all of whom are pioneers of this part of Nebraska. He also has four sisters--Eva A., Sarah R., Mary and Angeline; also three brothers, John P., Warren N. (deceased) and Roy.

     Mary Prime, our subject's mother, was born in 1838 in Indiana. Her father, John Prime, and her mother. Rebecca (Hutto) Prime, were both residents of that state. The came to Hamilton county in the early days and settled near Homer. Mary Prime had six brothers and two sisters--George, Daniel, Nathaniel, John V., William, Jacob and the sisters, Mary Ann and Margarette.



     Prominent among the leading old settlers of Dawes county, Nebraska, the gentleman whose name heads this personal history is entitled to a foremost place. Mr. Hawk is a man of active public spirit, always lending his aid and influence for the bettering of conditions in his community, and has served his district in the capacity of justice of the peace, and as school director for many years past. Mr. Hawk resides in township 30, range 47, where he has a pleasant home and valuable estate.

     Mr. Hawk is a native of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, born in 1867. His father, William Hawk, was a farmer, also a native of Pennsylvania, born of German parentage, and he married Martha Speelman, also of German stock, born in that state. The family came to Ohio about 1872, settling on a farm in Darke county, where our subject was reared and educated, attending the country schools when he was not assisting in the farm work on the home place. At the age of nineteen years he left home and came to Washington county, Nebraska, locating near Blair, and there followed farm work for one summer. In the fall of 1887 he went to North Platte and did not settle permanently during the first two years in this section of the country. He worked at different occupations, being employed as a grocery clerk, hotel clerk and at other work, and then returned to Washington county and went back to farming in partnership with a brother, William L. Hawk, and continued at that during 1890, 1891 and 1892. He next moved to Thurston county, locating on the Omaha reservation, where he leased Indian lands and farmed for some time, leaving there in 1901, when he came to Dawes county and bought his present ranch. Here his buildings are on section 6, township 30, range 47, and his ranch consists of fifteen quarter sections, all adjoining in one solid body. Antelope postoffice is located on this ranch. He has one hundred acres under cultivation and thirty acres of fine alfalfa, with a splendid grove of ash and cottonwood trees. There is plenty of good water on the place, and he has three wells and windmills, com-

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fortable house and good farm buildings. He has a nice orchard and lots of small fruits planted, and everything to make a model farm home. He has built fifteen miles of fence enclosing his ranch, and also cross fences. He is largely engaged in rasing Hereford cattle and horses and mules, which he finds most profitable.

     When our subject landed in Herman, Nebraska, March 3, 1887, he had a very common outfit of clothes and but ten dollars in cash. This was the extent of his worldly possessions. After spending two years in the North Platte country he returned to Washington county, Nebraska, going to the village of Herman. Like most farmer boys, while working on his father's ranch, he had the ambition to move to the city and live the gentleman's life, wearing fine clothes and leaving the so-called dreaded farm work, but, after working as a clerk in a grocery store for a year, he found that city life was much more monotonous and tiresome than he had expected and that there were a great many more temptations and a great deal more strife there than back on the old farm, and he was anxious to return to simple life of the country. Our subject was very fond of horses and cattle and decided to own some. So in the winter of 1889 and 1890, he and his brother William borrowed three hundred dollars from their father with which to make partial payment on horses and machinery in order that they might start to farming. They rented one hundred and eighty acres of land in Washington county, Nebraska, and farmed there for about a year with fair success. The next year William, our subject's brother, decided to quit farming, so our subject rented one hundred and sixty acres and "batched it" for about two years. During these two years he barely realized enough to pay rent and interest. Our subject then moved to Thurston county, Nebraska, and leased land on the Omaha Indian reservation. It was at this time that he went to Avoca, Iowa, and was married, and then he returned to his ranch, where with the assistance of his estimable helpmeeet he began to accumulate a little money. After living there for eight years our subject decided to leave the reservation and buy a home in some other locality, so they sold out most of their belongings, realizing about six thousand dollars. They moved to Dawes county, Nebraska, when he purchased his present home, then amounting to nineteen hundred and eighty acres of land, and also one hundred head of cattle.

     Not being satisfied with raising common grade cattle he went to Cumming (sic) county, Nebraska, and purchased sixty head of registered Hereford cattle, never regretting this purchase. Later in the same year he bought a Spanish jack. At this time he had twenty-six head of horses; now he has one hundred and five head of horses and mules, one hundred and fifty head of cattle, of which one hundred and twenty head are thoroughbreds. They sell their surplus stock every year and realize a fine profit. Our subject has added three hundred and twenty acres of new land to his ranch and also has not forgotten to improve the conveniences of their home, the house being piped for water, this doing away with the old pump and carrying of water. They still have some inconveniences to overcome, one being the distance of thirty miles which the two daughter have to go every week in order for them to take their music lessons.

     Each member of the family has their little interest in the ranch, owning cattle and horses, and thus the interest in caring for the stock is kept up. Since coming to this section of the country our subject has seen material changes in the country, values of land being quadrupled. Our subject is a firm believer in the old tried and true maxim, "Honesty, practical economy and industry will lead to success."

     In the spring of 1893 Mr. Hawk was united in marriage to Miss Sarah M. Beistline, daughter of Simon A Beistline, a farmer of Pennsylvania German stock, who settled in Nebraska in 1894. To Mr. and Mrs. Hawk have been born three children, named as follows: Howard F., aged fourteen years; Stella G., aged twelve, and Ruth a., aged nine years.

     Mr. Hawk is a Democrat and a strong party man.



     Taylor S. Northup was born in Sandy Hill, Washington county, New York, in the year 1831. His father, American-born, was a manufacturer of note in his day and made the first steel plow produced in America. Our subject's mother was Ruth Taylor before marriage, being of American nativity; her father was a farmer in New York state.

     Taylor S. Northup was married in 1860 to Miss Helen Amigh, of Hudson, New York, where her father was a leading merchant. The noted Rev. Henry Ward Beecher officiated at the wedding. Mrs. Northup is a lady of scholarly attainments and of wide literary culture and was principal of Rutger's College, New

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York, for some time, and was the first woman in America to be appointed to a professorship of mathematics. She is a graduate of Utica Female Seminary, at Utica, New York, one of the celebrated institutions of learning in the eastern states.

     Taylor S. Northup was reared in New York state, graduating from the high schools. He then took up work with his father and was foreman of the foundry until he went to Brooklyn, where he secured the contract for and built the main sewer in the city. He afterwards entered the government employ and was United States assessor for five years; then a custom house gauger for nine years, and for three years was mine superintendent at Nevada, New York. In 1893 he came west to Blaine county and went into the cattle business, remaining on a homestead until 1903. He then purchased the present farm on section 17, township 17, range 28, in Logan county, where he made a marked success at farming and stock raising. The farm of three hundred and twenty acres is located eight miles south of Gandy. Mr. Northup was one of the leading old settlers of Nebraska and was well and favorably known over several of the western countries. Mr. Northup died October 7, 1908, of heart failure.



     Frank Teller, long and prominently known in Perkins county, Nebraska, was born in Wayne county, New York, in 1852, coming of old American stock, his father being a native of New York state and his mother of good old Yankee ancestors. The former died in his native state, while the mother was for several years a resident of Nebraska, and died in Buffalo county in 1892.

     Our subject made his native state his home until he was twelve years of age, when the family came to Illinois and lived there for nine years, he attending the common schools and following farm work as a boy. In 1871 they came to Nebraska and were among the earliest settler in Lancaster county, locating on Rock creek. From the time Mr. Teller left New York state he had supported himself and helped take care of his mother, and on coming to Nebraska he began farming on a small place which he bought, succeeding in making a very good living. He distinctly remembers the town of Lincoln when it was a mere village and has watched the growth of different sections of the state from their earliest settlement by white men. He has passed through all the Nebraska times, witnessing grasshopper raids, drouths and suffering hardships and privations of every kind in building up a home. In 1875 he went to Iowa, spent one year there, then was in Texas for about two years and in Indian Territory and Oklahoma for some little time, traveling from one state to another with a team and covered wagon, leading a typical nomadic existence for several years.

     In 1881 Mr. Teller returned to Nebraska, settling in York county, and remained for four years, following farming. He left that section and moved to Perkins county, landing here in 1885, locating seven miles from the Colorado state line, taking up a homestead on section 30, township 10, range 40. Ogallala was his nearest trading point and postal station, and that town was thirty-five miles from his claim. He built a sod shanty, started to break up land for crops, and went through the drouth seasons during 1893, 1894 and 1895, being scarcely able to raise half a crop, but stuck to his place and finally proved up on it. A part of this time he went to Richardson county, where he was able to secure work, also spent a short time in Buffalo county, coming back to western Nebraska in 1899, and settling near his old homestead, remaining there up to 1903. He then located near Madrid and spent two years, purchasing his present farm on section 24, township 10, range 37, in 1905, and now has a quarter section of good land. He has improved this with good buildings, including a house costing one thousand dollars, of commodious size, substantial barns and other outbuildings, and engages in mixed farming and stock raising.

     On January 20, 1887, Mr. Teller was married to Miss Lizzie Alexander, daughter of Samuel D. Alexander, who was an old homesteader in Perkins county and well known as a shoemaker, following that occupation for many years in the vicinity. Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Teller--Edna Belle, Lloyd and Harlow.



     Henry R. Neumann, residing in Lodgepole precinct, Cheyenne county, is a typical representative of western Nebraska, and has the honor of having been born and reared in the county in which he now lives. His father, Henry, came to this region before the Union Pacific Railroad was put through this section and he is one of the genuine old-timers in this locality. His marriage to Miss Fedelia McMurray, of Sidney, in 1867, was the first wedding to be celebrated in the young town, and together they bult (sic) up a good home and

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reared their little family of three children, meeting with much sorrow in being obliged to lay to rest in death five other children who died in childhood. Those who grew to maturity were Rosebud, Henry and Ray, all being reared and educated in Cheyenne county. The family of Neumann is closely identified with all the early history of western Nebraska, Mr. Neumann traveling here overland immediately after the close of the Civil war, in which he was a soldier, and saw much hard *large cottonwood trees in his yard, where the children of two races played together.* The father and mother retired from active life and moved from Nebraska to Denver, Colorado, in 1902, taking life easy in their declining years. During his active years he accumulated about four thousand acres of Nebraska land, most of which he sold before retiring. After our subject grew to manhood he bought the old homestead in section 31, township 14, range 47, comprising three hundred and twenty acres, on which is the substantial rock dwelling in which the family lived for years, with rock barn and other buildings. His fine ranch land is situated on Lodgepole creek, with a good supply of running water, making it well adapted to stock raising as well as farming. He farms about fifty acres, and deals in cattle, running about sixty head, and also half a hundred horses, and is one of the progressive and well-to-do ranchmen and highly esteemed citizens of his community.

     Mr. Neumann was married to Pluma E. Dickinson, daughter of Friend Dickinson, a well known ranchman, owner of the ranch by the same name, located near Lodgepole, Nebraska, of whom an extended sketch appears on another page. Mrs. Neumann's mother died June 20, 1886, and the father at present resides in Lodgepole. The marriage of our subject and Miss Dickinson was celebrated on the bride's father's ranch on March 28, 1894, and was largely attended by the friends of the contracting parties. In political views Mr. Neumann is a loyal Republican.

     *Portion between the two asterisks in the above bio appears exactly as it is in the original book. Interpretation is left to descendants.



     William A. Pettycrew, a successful and prominent business man of Valentine, is one of the old settlers of Cherry county, and a man who has done his full share toward the upbuilding of the community. He well merits his high standing as a citizen and the success which has attended him.

     Mr. Pettycrew was born in Mercer county, Pennsylvania, May 19, 1855, a son of James Pettycrew, of Scotch-Irish descent, who followed farming and merchandising in Pennsylvania prior to his emigration to Iowa. Our subject, the fourth in a family of eleven children, was reared and educated in Iowa, residing there until he was thirty years old. He followed farming as an occupation, owning a farm of one hundred and twenty-six acres, which was well stocked and kept in a good state of cultivation. In 1885 he came to Cherry county, pre-empted a claim and after computing title took a homestead and tree claim situated six miles northwest of Valentine, where he remained until 1895, establishing a comfortable home on a farm comprising four hundred and eighty acres. After enduring and surviving the devastating drouths (sic) of the early nineties he decided to quit farming and enter the business world, so moved to Valentine in 1895, where he established a grocery store, later adding other departments until he is now the proprietor of one of the leading general stores here.

     In 1878, Mr. Pettycrew was married to Miss Adelia E. Carpenter, who died leaving three children, namely: Archie D., Inez A. and Floyd M. In 1906 Mr. Pettycrew married Miss Fannie D. Muchmore, a successful teacher in Cherry county, and a very estimable lady.

     Mr. Pettycrew enjoys an enviable reputation as a business man of great ability, and has the respect and confidence of all who know him.



     Garrold O. Fairhead is one of the old-timers who has seen his share of the hard times that fall to the lot of the pioneers in an undeveloped country. He has gone through many tough experiences, but in spite of everything has always managed to enjoy life, making the best of hard situations, never complaining at his lot, and now he has a comfortable home and is surrounded by hosts of friends in the locality where he chose his home.

     Mr. Fairhead was born in England, September 9, 1861, and came to Canada with his mother in 1873, where they remained for seven years, before Mr. Fairhead crossed the borderland to the United States. His father, James Fairhead, died while the family lived in England, and his mother's death occurred in 1901 in Nebraska. Our subject is the fifth member of a family of ten children. At the age of twelve years he started out to make his own living, working on farms during the summer months and attended schools in the winter months. He landed in Sioux City, Iowa, in 1880. There he followed farming for a time, then took charge of the C. C. Orr ranch

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