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business, except as trustees of the college we hope to build, and to advise and help the people in the all-important work of a thorough education. We have laid the subject before the Rome Missionary Board and they smile upon the enterprise." Within the year three of these were in Iowa; Clark went to Fort Madison, Stewart to Denmark. Whether the latter did anything toward founding Denmark Academy, which ever has been and still is, a blessing to the state, we do not know. It was seven or eight years before Iowa College was located at Davenport. Mr. Gaylord was one of the trustees, and was careful to attend the meetings of the board, often taking the trip on horseback, a distance of eighty miles. In 1847-8 the first college building was erected at Davenport, a plain, substantial structure, 36x55. Perhaps you will pardon a little reminiscence here. For many years every home missionary's wife was expected to contribute to Iowa College ten dollars yearly at the meeting of the general association. Some home missionaries' wives, (not all), could contribute fifty dollars now more easily than we could spare ten in those days, when our husbands had a nominal salary of four hundred, much of this being paid in work and provisions.
   It was with these views and feelings, intensified by years and experience, that Mr. Gaylord came as a pioneer to Nebraska. The summer following the organization of the church at Fontenelle, in 1856, a school was commenced in a building temporarily erected for the purpose, which was also used for public worship on the Sabbath. The Baptist brethren had become somewhat reduced in numbers, and had not put up a building for their educational enterprise.
   We will now give some extracts from Mr. Gaylord's address on laying the foundation of the building for the preparatory department of the college in July, 1858:
   "We are assembled to-day to inaugurate an important enterprise - to rear the first building for an educational institution which we trust is to grow with our growth, and flourish with increasing vigor when its projectors and present patrons shall be silent in death. We behold gathered here a deeply interested assembly to lay the foundation of an edition which is regarded as the germ of a mighty agency for good, the first link in a chain of influence that is to reach far into the future. You recognize and associate with this, the law of progress which pervades all nature, and thus are led not to despise the



day of small things. The growth of empires illustrates this law. Rome had its beginning, although its true origin is concealed in fable. But its progress to the highest pinnacle of greatness was the work of centuries. So it is with us as a nation, and the operation of this principle is seen in the progress of those institutions and agencies which are calculated to elevate man in the scale of being and develop to the utmost the intellectual and moral powers of this, the noblest work of God. Thus to develop man's faculties is the work of education, and in a well ordered system of education the college occupies a most important place. In a new state, where form and character are to be given to society, it is all important that early and well directed efforts be made to found these institutions of learning. Such was the view which the early settlers of New England took of this subject. Many of them occupied a high rank as educated men, being graduates of the universities of Cambridge and Oxford in Old England. Scarcely had they arrived in this western world before their thoughts were turned to the establishment of a college. Their great object in coming to America was to plant a pure faith and build up churches on the firm basis of the gospel. To accomplish this, they justly regarded a pious and educated ministry as indispensable, and were convinced that to secure an adequate supply of ministers they must make provision for their education at home.
   "In accordance with these views a college was commenced at Cambridge near Boston, in 1638, which took the name of Harvard University from Rev. John Harvard. At a later period, in 1700, Yale College was commenced, first at Saybrook, but afterward moved to New Haven. The first contribution was a library of forty volumes. Each of the eleven trustees gave a number of books, and laying them on a table, said: I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony. Other donations were given in money, lands, goods and books. The early settlers in their deep poverty gave as they could for the endowment of their cherished institution. Such was the beginning of Yale College.
   "One hundred and thirty years after, it had sent forth about four thousand five hundred educated men, among whom were members of all the learned professions in the state of Connecticut, and no less than twenty-six presidents of American colleges. In 1827, a few




students in the theological seminary at New Haven entered into an arrangement to go to Illinois and found a college. Thus Illinois College at Jacksonville was begun in 1829, in a small building under the direction of Rev. J. M. Sturtevant. He began with nine boys, some of whom were unable to read. This institution, Knox College at Galesburg, Beloit College, Wisconsin, and Iowa College, have all been founded within thirty years in a region which, half a century ago, was entirely uninhabited: And yet all of them, by this law of progress, are exerting a good, extended, and growing influence. All are needed, none can be spared.
    "Those institutions founded by associated religious effort are under the direction, and receive more especially the patronage and support, of some one of the leading denominations. Those who may feel that a union of all in a given region of country would be better, will find it difficult to change the present tendency of things so as to secure this result, In the. meantime, I fear, the great interests of collegiate education would fail to be secured.  *  *  *  *  Within the last few years settlement and civilization have extended far on toward the setting sun. Twenty years ago the Indian title, unextinguished, reached to within forty miles of the Mississippi, and Iowa then had a population of 18,000. The Iowa Congregational brethren, after much deliberation, chose Davenport as the place to found their college. To-day we meet at a point three hundred and fifty miles west of that place. The swelling tide of population has broken in upon this region of surpassing beauty and fertility, and already, far to the west of us, the virgin soil of Nebraska is made tributary to the support of man. We are gathered here, many of us of New England birth and ancestry, to transplant from the Puritan nursery a young and healthful tree, expecting it to receive that care and culture which will insure its future growth. Our work to-day may seem small, but when viewed in its true design and relations is worthy to enlist our largest energies and most persevering efforts. Ours is foundation work. It is so in all departments of labor, and the corner stone is the most important in the foundation. This, we now lay.
   "The comer stone - the beginning of the temple of science and literature. To this posterity will look as the commencement of a practical effort to provide for the youth of our territory the benefits



of a liberal education. We expect this institution, so auspiciously begun, to advance in obedience to the law of progress we have contemplated, and to be deeply seated in the affections of the people of this place and of the Christian and liberal-minded people of the territory and future state.
   "I desire now to turn your attention briefly to the past and to trace the steps by which we have been led up to our present position. In May, 1856, the two churches of Omaha and Fontenelle were organized. In August of the next year (1857), another was formed at Fremont, and in six days afterward, on the 8th of August, the Congregational Association was organized at Omaha with these three churches. At the first meeting of the Association, held at Fremont in October, 1857, the subject of taking steps for a literary institution was brought forward, and after careful consideration it was resolved that it is expedient now to lay the foundations for an educational institution of a high order for Nebraska.
   Rev. R. Gaylord was chairman of a committee to receive proposals from different places and visit and report at the next meeting. In November a special meeting of the trustees of the Baptist University (eleven in number) was called to consider the resolutions passed by the Congregational Association, and a committee of three was appointed to confer with the committee of this association. The result of this conference was that in February, 1858, the university became the Congregational College of Nebraska. This Baptist institution, which had received its charter from the first territorial legislature, proposed through their committee to give over to a board of trustees appointed by the association all their property and interest, provided such association would erect a building for a preparatory school, of size sufficient to accommodate one hundred pupils, and open a school in October next, and within five years would also cause to be erected a college building of suitable dimensions and architectural proportions. The Nebraska Colonization company proposed on the same term's to donate to said board of trustees their title to one hundred and sixty acres of land on the south-east of town, and the citizens of Fontenelle and others contributed about sixty town lots, forty acres of land four miles from town, and seven hundred dollars in money, labor, and building materials. This, taken in connection with the situation of this place for beauty, health, its relation to other parts of




the territory, the character of its citizens, and the interest shown in the enterprise, induced the association to accept the proposals, and the contract was duly signed and ratified by the parties. In accordance with and fulfillment of that mutual agreement this work is now begun. The location is deemed a favorable one because it is removed from those temptations to evil and dissipation which gather around a commercial town, where business is the great absorbing interest. In this respect the location of Iowa College at Davenport has proved unwise and a removal of the institution will be a necessity. This place is also easy of access. It is but twenty miles from the Missouri river at the nearest point, and forty miles from Omaha, the leading business place in the territory, while it commands a view of the wide and beautiful Platte valley, destined at no distant day to be the great thoroughfare of the continent.
   "The work we have undertaken is to build up a literary institution of a high order, and place it under such religious influences as will be calculated under God to develop man's physical and intellectual powers in proper proportion, and to bring all under the control of his higher nature, which fits him not only to enjoy but to bless. It is to be under the supervision of a board of trustees appointed by the Congregational Association of Nebraska, and its aim and design to fit youth of both sexes to engage in the several pursuits and employments of society, and to discharge honorably and usefully the various duties of life.  *  *  *  *  Some may think we are premature in our efforts to lay so early the foundations of such an institution. Should this be the case I would say in reply, we are only acting in concert with the wisest and best minds in all the different periods of our country's history. Harvard University was founded only eighteen years after the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. The ends for which our fathers did chiefly erect a college,' says Increase Mather, 'were that so scholars might be educated for Christ and His Churches, and that they might be seasoned in their tender years with such principles as brought their blessed progenitors into this wilderness.' With similar views and feelings have those institutions established at the West within the last thirty years been founded. They have been begun with prayer and faith in God, and an earnest desire for His glory. That was an enlightened zeal and. wise policy which led Sturtevant and others within



the walls of Yale Seminary in 1827 to conceive the idea of founding a college for the state of Illinois. What was Illinois then? In some respects it was not so far advanced as Nebraska is now. Wonderful has been the growth of the West. Fourteen years have given Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota to the number of States to which Kansas and Nebraska are soon to be added. A mighty tide of emigration, borne by the locomotive to our borders, will soon spread over these fertile plains. No, we have not begun a day too soon, With a deep sense of the importance of our work, with a firmer faith in that God from whom all prosperity comes, we now lay the foundations of an institution for the promotion of Christian education, and for the good of the church and the world. And may that God whose we are and whom we serve crown the undertaking with ultimate and glorious success."
   In a note appended afterward Mr. Gaylord says: "This building for the preparatory department is nearly completed, and will be opened for the admission of students by the 20th of October, this year. It is forty by twenty-six, two stories high, with a cupola in which is to be placed an academy bell, the gift of friends in Cincinnati."
   Rev. C. G. Bisbee, for many years secretary of the institution, also principal from 1867 to 1870, has very kindly furnished facts and statistics, many of which will now be given. He says during the spring and summer while the building was in progress arrangements were made as thoroughly as practicable for opening the school. Rev. J. S. Bart was appointed principal of preparatory department and agent for the university. As compensation for his services he was to have forty dollars per month during term time, And ten per cent of moneys collected by him. Committees were busy deciding on text-books, arranging course of study, etc. All were joyous in anticipation of the speedy opening of the seminary. Rev. R. Gaylord was elected president of the board of trustees, a position which he held to the end. During the year 1859 Prof. Burt resigned. Following this period, a combination of circumstances proved most unfortunate to the college and the town. Hard times, caused by the reverses of those years which some of us well remember as years of great financial depression all over the country, and the "Indian scare," which took away, for a time, nearly all the princi-




pal citizens. During the summer of this year Mr. Gaylord went East to solicit funds for the college, and, notwithstanding the stringency in money matters, secured, principally from friends, sufficient to relieve the building from pressure, and meet some other expenses. The Indian scare spoken of is known as the "Pawnee war." It was begun in consequence of the whole tribe of Pawnees leaving their villages and camping on the Elkhorn river near Fontenelle, where they soon committed depredations which were very inconvenient for the settlers. Many families left their homes and fled to Fontenelle for safety. Companies were formed and the Indians pursued for some distance beyond West Point, and finally to Genoa and Columbus. Gov. Black accompanied the expedition, which was under the direct command of Col. Thayer, now our honored governor. Some Indians were captured and a very few killed. But these hindrances were a heavy blow to both seminary and people, and as a result the college building, the pride of the town, which had been occupied both as church and school stood unused except as a place of worship. In these dark days the trustees and friends of the institution could do little else than pray for the time to come when prosperity should again dawn upon the enterprise. But there were men who, during these three or four years, stood firm in the midst of the darkness, and without complaining bore the heavy burdens, never looking for or expecting any personal reward. There were the long journeys to attend trustee meetings, often and at all seasons - the snows and cold of winter or the heat of summer did not hinder - and sometimes the giving of a little money from private purses which were never heavy. But perhaps these were strengthened by being able to say: "Surely my work is with the Lord and my judgment with my God." Among these names is that of Deacon Corliss, of Fontenelle, who is still living.
   When there was no minister he conducted services on the Sabbath, took charge of the Sabbath school and prayer meeting, kept the keys of the building, and sometimes acted as janitor. These dark days were darkest in 1861-62 and '63. In 1864 Miss A. B. Savage, a lady who came highly recommended, was secured to take charge of the preparatory and ladies' department. Circulars were issued and Mr. Gaylord authorized to collect funds while on his trip East. In 1865 a building which had been used as a hotel was purchased for a board-



ing house. This and another block (block 52) were secured to the institution through the liberality and efforts of the citizens of Fontenelle. The trustees also instructed the executive committee to secure a male teacher and provide means for his support. As a result of correspondence between Rev. L. H. Jones and Prof. Fairchild, of Oberlin, Mr. H. E. Brown accepted the position of principal of the preparatory department, and was on the ground in the fall of '65, just about the time the college building was destroyed by fire - a heavy loss to both church and college, Prof. Brown was fertile in expedients and full of enthusiasm. He temporarily fitted up a part of the boarding house for a school-room for the winter, and the following spring the executive committee were authorized to build an addition to the boarding house for school purposes. Prof. Brown went East as financial agent, but was not successful in collecting funds. He returned early in the autumn with his family and superintended the building of the school room.
   But his ardor led him to undertake too much. His efforts for the spiritual welfare of the students were very successful and several were hopefully converted.
   Becoming discouraged he tendered his resignation, which was accepted after expressions of undiminished confidence on the part of each member of the board of trustees. About this time a donation of five hundred dollars was received from a gentleman in Brooklyn, and a part of it used to put the boarding house and school-room in good repair. In September, 1867, Rev. C. G. Bisbee was appointed principal, with Miss Sarah Jennie, assistant. Rev. Mr. Kuhlman was secured to teach the German class. During the winter term there were as many students as could be accommodated, and all were greatly encouraged. At the meeting of trustees in July the school was reported in a prosperous condition. But at the same meeting Rev. Mr. Alley, one of the trustees, presented a proposition from the, people of Weeping Water (where he was preaching) to secure a property basis of nine thousand dollars, provided the university be removed to that place. The question of re-location was referred to the executive committee. Rev. Mr. Bisbee was continued as principal. He was to furnish the instruction, provide for incidental expenses, and have the tuition and rent of the college property as compensation.




   During the year Weeping Water was visited and inducements for removal considered. In June the committee reported that Fontenelle was the better location. In July, 1869, Rev. Roswell Foster, then preaching in Fremont, proposed that the trustees invite bids from all parts of the state for the purpose of securing the most eligible and permanent location for the institution. This proposition was lost. But the association at their next meeting declined to elect trustees, and finally, through a committee appointed for that purpose, did relinquish the name and prestige of the association to the management and direction of the college, leaving the board of trustees at full liberty to conduct the affairs as circumstances might require, and to seek from the legislature such amendments to the charter as they might think proper.
   The trustees now resolved that the time had come to erect a new building in place of the one that was burned, and declared their wish to place the seminary on a catholic and firm basis. The next month, August, 1869, the treasurer presented to the trustees a subscription paper on which four thousand two hundred dollars were pledged for the new building, and they decided to erect the same at once. A building committee was appointed, plans and specifications received, and the work begun. The trustees also decided to extend a call to some suitable person to become president of the college, and authorized the president of the board to extend such call to Rev. S. H. Emery, of Quincy, Ill., at a salary of from one thousand to twelve hundred dollars. But he had previously made other arrangements and could not accept. In January, 1870, the first story of the new building, 30x50 feet, was ready for the winter term. The following March, Rev. Thomas Douglas became president and was authorized to employ teachers for the coming year. An organ was purchased and a music teacher secured. Rev. C. G. Bisbee resigned, and Prof. J. J. Boulter was obtained to fill his place. Mrs. Boulter kept the boarding house, and both were faithful and efficient workers. But in 1872 the new building was visited by an unexpected calamity. It was surmounted by a heavy cupola and the upper story was not yet finished. A severe wind, amounting to something like a cyclone, struck the building, and helped by the insecure cupola, wrenched it out of place, thus rendering it unsafe for the school. Some work was done toward repairing the injury and more contemplated. A



subscription of fifteen hundred dollars by the citizens of Fontenelle was expected to meet all indebtedness. At a meeting of the Congregational association in Omaha, June, 1872, a vote was taken to place the Congregational college at Crete. Fontenelle was greatly disheartened but still hoped to save the buildings for a school. This pledge by the people of fifteen hundred dollars was partly collected. Then came the first grasshopper year. Because of this many could not pay what they had promised in more prosperous times. In 1874 the buildings were sold at auction. They were still standing in their places in 1876, but were afterwards removed. "The one hundred and sixty acres of choice land" was given on condition that the college should remain at Fontenelle. This reverted to the heirs of Deacon Keyes, of Quincy, who gave it on these conditions. Some other property was given in a similar way. Thus, for many years, says Rev. Mr. Bisbee, efforts were made to establish a Christian college at Fontenelle. Many prayers were offered and much self-denying labor put forth for its success. Encouragements and discouragements were experienced. Many were assisted in acquiring an education, and a goodly number found the Saviour. It did a good work in spite of great difficulties.

   The above record from the pen of Mrs. Reuben Gaylord is a valuable contribution to the early history of Christian education in Nebraska. Few are now surviving who could tell the story as it is here done, by one who shared in all its chief events. It preserves some of the words, and shows the spirit, which always animated the heart of REV. REUBEN GAYLORD, the acknowledged pioneer of both education and religious work in this state. It should be counted the first chapter in the history which here follows, of Doane College. Its success is but the realizing of the ideas, and carrying out of the plans, under another name, which Mr. Gaylord began at Fontenelle. The work is one. The history is, and will be one. In this just view of the case is found another bond of union for all friends of Christian education past and present, an added stimulus to help carry on to success and great usefulness what was so early and so well begun.

A. F. S.



[Read by Mr. John A. MacMurphy before the State Historical Society at Lincoln, January, 1886.)

   The narrative below was written by a relative, and collated by Mrs. H. J. MacMurphy for the historical references to the country that is now Nebraska, and will be interesting to all old settlers who have watched the growth of the state in later years:

   SCHUYLER, Neb., March 5.--Thirty-three years ago - April 20, 1853, a family consisting of father, mother, son and daughter started from Wisconsin to the then Eldorado - California - a journey of nearly 2,500 miles, to be made entirely by wagon.
   The family which undertook and accomplished this great journey were not tillers of the soil, used to wrestle with nature, but that of a merchant accustomed to all the refinements procurable in the western state which had been their home; the wife a woman of very much more than ordinary intellectual culture for that day, and the daughter a highly accomplished musician; both mother and daughter possessing the gifts which eminently fitted them to call about them the best of whatever society they were thrown among. A journal of their travels with the sun, kept by such a woman, would possess many interesting features and, having it in my possession, I hasten to share with our readers a few of its daily records, mostly, in this short article, such as pertain to their progress through Nebraska --Nebraska as it was thirty-three years ago. Our journey with them will be typical of the contrast between their progress then and that of the present day, a rapid touch here and there, with



most of the disagreeables left out, and accomplishing in days what took them months to perform.
   Let us, silent and invisible, but seeing through the magic of the chronicler's brain and fingers, drop into their wagon just as they come to the Mississippi.


   "April 28, 1853. The country presents an uneven, and in a cold rainstorm, a dreary and desolate appearance, and I could think of nothing except that it had received its impress from the hand of nature in a whirlwind. We had been climbing one long steep hill after another since we left Mineral Point, until just before we reached the Mississippi, when we entered a deep ravine between two steep rocky banks, which reached almost to the clouds, and when the river burst upon our view I at once recognized one of Catlin's beautiful views of the Mississippi. Here we crossed our first ferry and poor Frank suffered very much from fear; it was dark and dreary, the rain pouring in torrents, and just as we reached the opposite shore, a steamboat came puffing up to the wharf, when I think little Tony (a favorite horse) behaved himself much better than we did ourselves; but I assure you we were comfortable and happy when we seated ourselves in a pleasant parlor at Hewitt's city hotel at Dubuque, a fine, flourishing town numbering some 6,000 inhabitants, and increasing at the rate of 2,000 a year. The inhabitants seemed full of life and activity, and we met some very pleasant ladies, with one of whom Frank formed an acquaintance and found a piano, which she enjoyed very much."
   Now, just a glimpse of them by their campfires of an evening and then we will leave them to their slow journey across the prairies and bluffs, and over the sloughs of Iowa, which we speed across in a night, comfortably snoozing in a Pullman 'lower berth middle section,' rejoining them as they approach the borders of Nebraska.


   "May 2, 1853. - We have progressed about fifteen miles and encamped for the night near a Scotch tavern, all preferring our tents and wagons to such accommodations as the place afforded. I think our friends would be much amused could they take a peep at us just now. Here I am sitting on the front seat of the wagon writing. Willie asleep beside me, Frank seated upon the bed playing her




guitar and singing 'I have Something Sweet to Tell You,' and just a few rods from us, seated around a blazing fire, are the gentlemen of our company, conversing as pleasantly as if we were at home in a parlor. Mrs. Sanborn and her little girls have retired for the night to their tent and Mr. Bradley is in his camp for the first time, from which sounds of mirth and hilarity come floating upon the evening breeze. Night cool, with strong indications of a storm.
   "May 15, 1853 - Morning warm and sultry, but oh, how unlike a Sabbath morn! We are all tired and would like very much to obey the command, 'remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy,' and to cease from our labors, but are compelled to travel in consequence of being quite late to commence our journey upon the plains. This eve we received a call from emigrants who had been at their camp, through the day, who informed us that more than thirty wagons had passed them to-day. To-night we have a pleasant spot of earth with good wood and water, and a most beautiful moonlight eve. We are twenty-six miles from Kanesville, have seen several snakes and Frank fancied one sleeping with her.
   "May 16, 1853 - In the afternoon we heard startling reports of the horrors of the route. Were there none more courageous than myself in the company, I think we might possibly take our homeward way again, but our gentlemen paid but little heed to these stories. This afternoon we met the first Indians we have seen. At eve we encamped on a small stream near Council Bluffs, five miles, from Kanesville, thinking it best to remain here until we are prepared to cross the river.


   "May 17, 1853 - The rain still pouring down in torrents, and a more cheerless, muddy set you could imagine in no other place except enroute for California. About 10 o'clock the clouds began to disperse, and our husbands left for Kanesville. At eve, soon after their return, the sky became completely overshadowed by the most terrific looking clouds imaginable; the wind began to blow and the rain to pour in torrents. We had worked hard all day to dry our beds from the drenching of the previous night, and had made them, up comfortably hoping to get a little sleep. I had just lost myself in a pleasant dream when some one called out, "The river is overflowing!" I started up and found that we were perfectly inundated, and such



a scramble for shoes and stockings, bed and bed clothes you cannot imagine. We ran to the wagon with all possible speed, and after tossing and tumbling we were at last ensconced in a wet bed in a wet wagon, with the wind blowing a perfect hurricane; and I thought if the doctor was with us he might possibly find something else besides fun in going to California. The next morning the first object which presented itself was my husband fishing for his boots with his whip, and I thought of the tines when his slippers chanced to be moved a few inches from the place where he left them the previous night, and concluded be would be as patient as Job himself by the time he arrived in California.
   "May 18, 1853 - Up in good season and soon bade adieu to our comfortable camping ground. There was little danger of our meeting the fate of Lot's wife, for sure am I that no one turned a face toward Sodom in our flight that morn. But we soon came to an apparently impassable gulf, and here our friend the Dutchman invited Frank to take a ride across upon his back, which she gladly accepted, and was soon landed upon the other side. The old greys made the first attempt, and came off victorious as usual; then the good little ponies jumped over. Now came Mr. Sanborn's turn and he was fast in the mud, from which the good old greys pulled him out; next the four fine horses of Mr. Bowinger came over finely: Then Charley, too, was fast in the mire, but with much prying and pulling he was at length extricated, when without further accident, we came on to Mosquito creek, where we found the bridge completely submerged, and here we were compelled to remain until --


   "Friday, May 20, 1853 - Our husbands went into town yesterday, but the river is still rising and the bridge so impaired that we are unable to cross  *  *  *. At noon, the water still rising and the bridge in a very bad condition our company thought it best to get over as soon as possible. They were obliged to swim their horses and draw their wagons over the bridge; we ourselves crossed in a canoe, were the last over, and happy indeed were we when we found ourselves in our good friend Mr. B.'s wagon, riding toward a beautiful camping ground a mile from the creek, where we pitched our tents among the hills and passed a very pleasant eve, the moon shining as sweetly as if no cloud had ever obscured its brightness. Frank's playing and




singing and the sound of Theodore's violin borne upon the evening breeze from Mr. Sanborn's tent is very sweet indeed.
   "May 21, 1853 - We left the camp early for Kanesville where we remained some hours. The place presents a singular appearance from being built of logs. Is full of life and activity at present, being crowded with emigrants purchasing their stores for California. We know very little of the wickedness of mankind when at home, removed from the confusion and excitement of the world. Such profanity I had no idea was practised in the world as I have beard since we have been among the emigrants. Frank remarked that there was no God here except to be profaned. At night we encamped upon the shores of the Missouri six miles from Kanesville.


   "May 22, 1853 - Cold and rainy; traveled upon the shores of the Missouri until we came to Ferryville, where we had hoped to cross the river, but we must remain here until to-morrow in consequence of so many trains being here before us. Weather more pleasant, but no Sunday for us, surrounded by noise and confusion on the banks of the muddy Missouri, the water of which we are obliged to settle with milk before using.
   "May 23, 1853 - Wind, blowing and sand flying in every direction (that sounds natural). About two o'clock we commenced crossing the river and at eve are upon the western shore, waiting for our company to cross. Just at sunset we left the banks of the Missouri and proceeded seven miles, riding until 12 o'clock, and weary enough were we all, but found fine grass, which we considered sufficient compensation for all our trouble. Near our camping ground is a stream, which from appearances often overflows its banks, these being in some places thirty-five feet high. This afternoon we passed an old Mormon village, built of logs, where the Mormons first located after leaving Illinois, now entirely abandoned. It is situated upon the western shore of the Missouri about a mile from Ferryville. We now bid adieu to the world for a long, long time, and may, perchance, never mingle in its busy scenes again. We are in Nebraska, inhabited only by Indians.


   "May 24, 1853. - Left our encampment at 9 o'clock, all well and apparently in fine spirits. At noon we crossed the Pappeo creek.



We have encamped on a lovely spot of earth where the scenery from the bank of the river (Elkhorn) some thirty feet high, is truly delightful. It requires the pen of the poet or the pencil of the painter to portray its beauties, but it should remain sacred to the red men of the forest, for there is little to induce the white man to wrest it from them, in consequence of the scarcity of timber. To-night the boys are all excitement in consequence of the proximity of the Indians. Our horses are all near our tents and everyone is making his boast of what be will do should they attempt to steal them.
   [Little the writer thought as she uttered that prophecy that eleven years only from that day her niece and namesake would attend a boarding school (Brownell Hall) less than a mile from the spot where she crossed the Missouri.]
   "May 25, 1853. - We are now, at eight o'clock, at Elkhorn ferry, and our gentlemen thinking their charges rather exhorbitant (sic), seem inclined to be independent and provide themselves with some means of crossing. The river is very shallow. This was an erroneous idea which I derived from a guide; as I stood upon the shore I found the water to be at least twelve feet deep. After conversing with the ferryman, whom they found to be a gentlemanly man, who had been an officer in the United States army. and hearing that the ferry belonged to a St. Louis company who had purchased it of the Indians, they thought it best to pay their tonnage and cross without delay. We then proceeded over low wet lands for some miles and encamped upon the Elkhorn river, where we were obliged to take our horses across a deep ravine to enable them to secure sufficient grass. All the emigrant companies we have seen to-day have passed on to the river and we are left entirely alone.


   "May 25, 1853. - We are travelling near the Platte river, and as far as we have seen Nebraska I think the country much more beautiful than Iowa, but have never seen so few flowers in any other country at this season of the year. The snakes I have observed today are all of an entirely different character from those we have seen before and I should think much more harmless.
   "May 28, 1853. - We came on to the ferry at Loup Forks, where we shall be obliged to remain until tomorrow in consequence of the crowd here before us.




   "May 29, 1853. - Cold, the rain pouring down upon our horses, and we must remain until to-morrow.
   "May 30, 1853. - At 7 o'clock we left our encampment and went to the ferry, where we remained two or three hours waiting for the company with whom we intend to travel across. The river at the forks is seven or eight rods wide and twelve feet deep in the current of the stream; the bed and banks of the river are entirely composed of quicksand. The ferryman, Commodore Decatur, was very polite indeed, and when we left, bade us good-bye, calling Frank very familiarly by her name, and wishing the blessing of God might rest upon us, for which we felt truly grateful, as it was the first time we had heard the name of, the Supreme Being spoken since we left Madison; but oh! how dreadfully profaned.  *  *  *  To-night we have encamped near the river.
   "May 31, 1853 - We have traveled about twelve miles; our way has been somewhat diversified by hills and valleys; bluffs and prairies; have encamped near the river where we find wood, water and good grass. We have now ten wagons and twenty-eight horses in our train.


   "June 4, 1853. - The Indians are constantly committing depredations on the emigrants. Our company lost 148 head of cattle in the storm of Saturday night, but have recovered most of them. Another lost ten horses. Our company keep a double watch, but possibly the Indians may outwit them notwithstanding. This Nebraska is a miserable, unpleasant place indeed, and can never be inhabited, except by the Red men of the forest (prairies); the climate is very cold and it is almost impossible even for the grass to grow."
   [Farther on she says, as the weather becomes pleasanter, "Nebraska is improving in appearance as the weather grows warmer; the soil is fine and it will probably be inhabited by a civilized race of beings in time," thus barely saving her reputation as a prophetess. Only about half way have we followed them on their travels, but having accomplished my object of giving some particulars of their journey through Nebraska, which might be interesting to old Nebraskans, we must leave them, with but a single further quotation announcing their final arrival in California.]



   "Monday, Oct. 9, 1853. - At three o'clock we reached Indian Valley, where our wanderings cease for the winter, at least  *  *  *  My husband having decided to remain here, has purchased an interest in a ranch situated in the center of the valley. The building was as rude and dreary looking as any human habitation your imagination can picture, having been occupied since the first settlement by dogs and Diggers (a low tribe of Indians), but we have made several additions and alterations until we think it quite comfortable in these wild mountains. The exterior is just as rough as unhewn logs piled up together can be made to look, and I had consoled myself with the hope of covering it with grape vines, or the wild honeysuckle, or some other climbing plant, but since the opening of spring I find there is not a single thing in the vegetable world of this region which depends upon another for support, but every plant stands upon its own ground and points directly to the heavens; therefore I shall be obliged to plant the wild roses and evergreens about it and make the interior as pleasant as possible. It contains two large rooms, which we use for parlor, dining room and kitchen and occasionally throw open the folding doors and make a ball room of them. Our family room is comfortable, with a large stone fire-place, but as for windows, all the sunlight we are blessed with comes peeping through holes out in the logs. Our floors are uncarpeted, except my room, that has a blanket on the floor. Our furniture has been manufactured from pine trees, our tables are pine boards and can boast of four good legs; for seats we use little stools, except three small barrel chairs, and one large one, made from a pine tree and covered with a cayote's skin. Our walls are covered with furniture calicoes, and when we have a good blazing fire, and all sitting in its cheerful light with flute, guitar, books and papers, we can hardly realize that we are isolated from the whole world and completely hemmed in by the snowclad mountains of California. But so it is! Here we are, like Rasselas, shut up in the 'Happy Valley,' and like him wishing to be liberated and permitted to mingle with the world again."
   [I hope some old resident of Nebraska will locate exactly some of




the points mentioned in the journal, notably Ferryville, Kanesville, the Mormon village, the points called Elkhorn ferry and Loup Forks, which, the last, must be nearer the mouth of the Loup than, the present Loup Fork. Also the name of the officer in charge of ferry at Elkhorn.]

S. W.

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