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CHAPTER 1. VIRGINIA.
at the price, at first, of one hundred and twenty, and afterwards. one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco, which was worth, at the time, three shillings a pound. Accessions of a different character were also made to the colony. By order of King James, one hundred criminals were sent over, to be sold as servants for a term of years.
12. Indian Massacre and War. -- The colony was now enjoying great prosperity; but in 1622 it experienced a stroke which. nearly proved fatal. Opechancanough, the chief of the Powhatans, proud, revengeful, and extremely hostile to the English, concerted a plan to cut them off at a blow; and it was so far put in execution that three hundred and forty-seven persons -- men, women, and children -- were slain almost in the same instant.
13. The whole surrounding Indian population had been enlisted by the artful Opechancanough, Powhatah's successor. Jamestown and some of the neighboring places were saved by the disclosure of a friendly Indian and messengers were sent out to warn the people, but it was too late to reach the distant settlements. As soon as the English had time to recover themselves, they rose to avenge the death of their slaughtered friends, destroyed many of the savages, and drove the remainder far into the wilderness. -- But, by the calamities which fell upon the colonists, their settlements were reduced from eighty to less than eight; in a short time, out of four thousand persons, but twenty-five hundred remained. Expeditions for exterminating the savages were occasionally made for ten years.
II. VIRGINIA A ROYAL PROVINCE. -- 1. The stockholders of the London Company had become very numerous, and the king, unable to restrain the freedom with which they discussed the royal prerogatives, took away their charter, in 1624.
QUESTIONS. -- What was the price of a wife? What other accessions were made to the colony? 12. What plan did Opechancanough concert? When? How far was his plan put in execution? 13. How were Jamestown and other places saved? How did the English avenge the death of their friends? To what extent were their settlements and population reduced? 1. When and why was the London Company deprived of its charter?
PERIOD II. -- 1607-1689. SETTLEMENTS.
The government of the colony was assumed by the crown, and vested in a governor and twelve councillors appointed by the king. Virginia was, however, permitted to retain its legislative assembly.
2. Second Indian War. -- In 1644 the Indians, who had remained unfriendly since the war of 1622, made a second attack on the English. By this onslaught about three hundred persons, in the frontier settlements, lost their lives. A vigorous war was immediately begun against the savages. The aged Opechancanough was taken prisoner, and shot by a soldier. The war continued about two years, and ended in the cession of large tracts of land to the English.
3. The sympathies of the colonists were with the king during the civil war in the mother country; and after the execution of King Charles I., his son, a fugitive from England, was recognized by the Virginians as their rightful sovereign. On the restoration of Charles II. to the throne, in 1660, he confirmed Sir William Berkeley in the office of governor, which he already held by the will of the people. From this time the governor seems to have devoted himself to restricting the liberties of the colonists; and they sent agents to England to lay their grievances at the foot of the throne. But Charles chose to forget Virginia's loyalty to him in exile, and the people could obtain no redress.
4. Navigation Acts. -- During the time of the Commonwealth, Parliament had extended its authority to America, in an act requiring all exports from the colonies to England to be carried in English or colonial vessels (1651).1 Virginia had reason to expect, after the restoration, some special marks of the king's favor. In 1660, however, an additional act required her, in common with the other colonies, to find in England alone a market for her principal exports; and, soon after, another act required the colonies to bring from England alone their principal imports. In 1672 duties were imposed upon articles imported from one colony to another. These restrictions upon commerce began that series of aggressions which a century later drove the colonies into the war of the revolution.2
5. Bacon's Rebellion. -- Many of the Virginia planters, indignant at the tyranny of Governor Berkeley, and disgusted with his inefficient measures for defence against the Indians, rose in opposition to his government in 1676,3
1 This act was intended both to promote English navigation and to strike a blow at the naval power of the Dutch, who were then engrossing almost the whole carrying trade of the world.
2 See pp. 101. 111. 3 One hundred years before the declaration of independence.
QUESTIONS. -- What is said of the government of the colony? 2. Give an account of the second Indian war. 3. With which party did the colonists sympathize during the civil war in England? What is said of Berkeley? 4. What navigation acts are mentioned? What is said of these restrictions upon commerce? 5. Give an account of Bacon's rebellion.
CHAPTER 1. VIRGINIA.
under the lead of Nathaniel Bacon, one of the council. The insurgents were making rapid headway against the governor, when Bacon suddenly died, and with him the cause he had espoused.
6. The immediate cause of this outbreak was the depredations of some Indians from Maryland, who, in revenge for the treacherous murder of several of their chiefs, committed many barbarities on the planters.1 As Berkeley would not defend them, the people demanded of him permission to arm and defend themselves. They also asked as a leader Nathaniel Bacon, a young man of great popularity, and distinguished for his talents and energy. The governor, fearing to put arms into the hands of discontented men, and jealous of Bacon's influence, refused. The Indians continued their ravages, attacking Bacon's plantation, and killing a number of his men. Without a commission, he placed himself at the head of those who had volunteered to repel the savages. Soon, duplicity on the part of the governor and his adherents compelled Bacon, in self-defence, to attack them in Jamestown. Berkeley's supporters made but a feeble resistance, and then fled from the town, which was burned to prevent their return.
On the death of Bacon, Berkeley recovered his power, and wreaked his vengeance on the patriots with fines, confiscations, and executions, till the thoughtless and ungrateful Charles declared, "The old fool has taken away more lives in that naked country, than I for the murder of my father."
7. The Virginians, though oppressed for some years by needy and covetous governors, continued eminently loyal, and when the Revolution in England placed William and Mary on the throne, in 1689, acknowledged with reluctance the new sovereigns. See p. 78. ¶ 14.
1 This was the year of King Philip's war in New England, 1676. See p. 42, ¶ 4, and p. 61, ¶ 8.
QUESTIONS. -- Who was its leader? Its result? 6. Give the particulars of this rebellion. 7. What is said of the Virginians?
PERIOD II. -- 1607-1689. SETTLEMENTS.
I. NORTH VIRGINIA. -- 1. Soon after the issue of the Virginia Charter,2 the Plymouth Company sent out a number of emigrants under George Popham, to establish a plantation in North Virginia. *1607.* The same year that Jamestown was settled they landed near the mouth of the Kennebec, and erected a fort, which they named Fort St. George. But discouraged by the rigors of a severe winter, and by the death of their leader, they returned the next year to England.
2. In 1614, Captain John Smith3 sailed from England with two ships, for purposes of trade and discovery in North Virginia. Leaving a part of his company at Monhegan Island,4 to engage in fishing, he explored the coast from the Penobscot to Cape Cod, made a map of it, and named the country New England, which name was confirmed by Prince Charles (afterwards Charles 1.).
3. In 1620 the old Plymouth Company was dissolved, and another charter was obtained from the king, by which a new company was formed, called the Council of Plymouth. To this company was granted, under the name of New England, in absolute property, all the territory between the fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of north latitude (that is, from about the latitude of Philadelphia to the latitude of the Bay of Chaleurs), and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
This charter was the basis of the several grants subsequently made of the New England territory, which, however, was destined to be first settled without any patent from the Council of Plymouth, or from the king, and, indeed, without their knowledge.
II. PLYMOUTH COLONY. -- 1. In 1620 a colony of Puritans from England reached the coast of Massachusetts, and landing December 21,5 began a settlement which was named Plymouth.6 This was the first permanent settlement in what is now called New England.
The Puritans were dissenters from the Church of England, and because they desired a purer form of worship, received from their enemies, in derision, the name which they have made honorable. A band of these,
1 See Map, p. 45. and p. 39, note 1. 2 See p. 17, § III. 3 See pp. 30,31.
4 This Island, on the coast of Maine, had for some years been the rendezvous of fishermen, and for a long time remained, as it has again become, the centre of important fisheries.
5 December 11, O. S. 6 The spot was named Plymouth on Smith's map.
QUESTIONS. -- 1. Give an account of the expedition under George Popham. 2. Give an account of the expedition under Captain John Smith. 3. When was the Plymouth Company dissolved, and what company took its place? Give the name and limits of the grant to the new company. -- Of what was its charter the basis? II. 1. When, where, and by whom was the first permanent settlement in New England made? Who were the Puritans? Why so named?
CHAPTER II. MASSACHUSETTS.
with their able and pious pastor, John Robinson, in 1608 took refuge in Holland from the persecutions they suffered in England.
2. After some years they determined to remove to America.1 To carry but this design, they formed a partnership with certain merchants of London. The merchants were to furnish money and share the profits with the colonists, who were to furnish labor .2 Having kept a day of solemn humiliation and prayer, the Pilgrims embarked for Southampton, where they were joined by others from London. In August, 1620, they set sail for the New World in two vessels, the Speedwell and the Mayflower. But the Speedwell soon sprung a leak, and they put back to Plymouth, where she was condemned as unseaworthy; and the Mayflower, taking on board one hundred and two of the emigrants, sailed from Plymouth in the month of September. They intended to settle near the Hudson River, but after a tempestuous passage of more than two months, they came to anchor in the harbor of Cape Cod.
3. Before landing the male immigrants subscribed their names to a written agreement to obey such laws as might be enacted from time to time for the common good.
1 They were induced to take this step from the fear lest their posterity should mingle with the people of Holland, and their church became extinct, and from the hope of laying a foundation for the extensive advancement of the kingdom of Christ in America.
2 At the end of seven years all the property held by the company was to be divided among the merchants and colonists, so that the former should draw as large a share of the profits for each contribution of £10 (about $50) as the latter for seven years of labor.
QUESTIONS. -- Where did some of them take refuge? What partnership did they form? Describe their voyage in the Mayflower. 3. What took place before landing?
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