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Two years afterwards, the Spaniards invaded Georgia. A fleet sailed from St. Augustine, and arrived at the Island of St. Simon, on the coast of Georgia. By means of a stratagem, Oglethorpe, with a much inferior force, repelled the attack, the country was relieved of its invaders, and Georgia and the Carolinas were saved from ruin.

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   1. NEWS of another war between England and France reached America in 1744. This war, commonly known in SketchAmerica as King George's War, originated in disputes regarding the succession to the throne of Austria, and hence in Europe was called the War of the Austrian Succession. In this war all the leading states of Europe were involved. But England had a particular quarrel with France, because Louis XV., king of France, had acknowledged Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, as the rightful sovereign of England, and had formed an alliance with Spain, then at war with that country.
The American colonies first learned the existence of a state of war through the surprise and capture by the French of a small English garrison at Canso, whence eighty prisoners were taken to Louisburg.
Sketch   2. The most important event of this war in America was the capture of Louisburg.
This fortress was called, from its strength, the Gibraltar of America. All the New England colonies furnished troops for its capture, and New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania made appropriations in Sketchaid of the enterprise. In April, 1745, the expedition sailed for Louisburg, under the command of General William Pepperell, of Maine. A month later Commodore Warren, with an English fleet, joined him at Came. The combined forces, numbering more than four thousand troops, landed and laid siege to the fortress, which, on the 28th of June,2 surrendered.

   1 See Map. p. 81.      2 June 17, 0. S.
   3 A powerful fleet was sent out by France the next year, under the Duke d'Anville, for the purpose of retaking Louisburg and desolating the English colonies; but a disastrous passage, shipwreck, and a fatal distemper, so reduced the armament that no attack was made.

   QUESTIONS. -- Describe the invasion of Georgia by the Spaniards. Chap. V. 1. When did news of another war between England and France reach America? Name of this war in America and in Europe? Origin of the war? What particular quarrel had England with France? -- How did the American colonies first learn of the war? 2. What was the most important event of this war in America? -- Give an account of the expedition against Louisburg.



   3. The central colonies, as in Queen Anne's war, were protected by the Iroquois confederacy, now the Six Nations. But the northern frontier suffered from hostile incursions.
A party of French and Indians from Crown Point captured a small garrison at Williamstown, Massachusetts, and ravaged the settlement at Saratoga, New York. To secure themselves against these attacks, the English colonies, as far south as Virginia, elated at the success at Louisburg, united in furnishing troops to act in concert with a British fleet for the conquest of Canada. But England failed to send the promised fleet, and the projected conquest fell through.
   4. A treaty negotiated at Aix-la-Chapelle,1 in 1748, terminated King George's war. By the treaty all Sketchconquests were to be mutually restored. The St. Mary's was fixed upon as the southern limit of Georgia; but the boundaries between the British and French provinces in America were left unsettled -- germ of another war.

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   I. THE BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES AND THE DECLARATION OF WAR. -- 1. We come now to the last and severest of the intercolonial struggles. The cause of this war, known as the French and Indian War, was the conflicting claims of France and England to territory in America. When war was actually declared, both these countries had formed alliances, which gave rise to the mighty struggle in Europe called the Seven Years' War.
Scarcely had the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle been signed, when the French and the English began to quarrel about the boundaries of Acadia.3 The former would restrict that name to the present Nova Scotia; the latter claimed under it the whole region east of the Penobscot and south of the St. Lawrence. Collisions took place between the rival claimants.
But severer troubles were brewing on the Ohio. An association of speculators, called the Ohio Company, having obtained from George II., king of England, a grant of a vast tract of land on the Ohio River,

   1 A city of Rhenish Prussia.      2 See Map, p. 81.      3 See p. 85, ¶ 4, and p. 54, ¶ 8, note 7.

   QUESTIONS. -- 3. What is said of the central colonies? Of the northern frontier? -- What is said of Williamstown and Saratoga? Why and by what colonies was the conquest of Canada projected? Why did the project fail? 4. When did King George's war end? Where was the treaty negotiated? Result in America of the treaty? Chap. VI. 1. What was the cause of the French and Indian war? What is said of this war in Europe? 2. What quarrel had the English and French about Acadia? What did the French consider the boundaries of Acadia? what the English? 3. How did difficulties originate on the Ohio?



prepared to establish settlements, and to open a trade with the Indians, The governor of Canada had early intelligence of the designs of this company, and, claiming the valley of the Ohio for France,1 sent, in the spring of 1753, twelve hundred men from Montreal to occupy the disputed territory. They established posts at Erie, at Waterford, and at Franklin,2 seized some of the English traders, and retained them as prisoners.
The company appealed for protection to Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, who resolved to send "a person of distinction to the commander of the French forces on the Ohio River, to know his reasons for invading the British dominions." The person intrusted with this service was George Washington, who then, at the early age of twenty-one, entered upon that line of public service which resulted in the independence of his country. He set out from Williamsburg,3 on his difficult and perilous journey, late in the autumn. He successfully accomplished his mission, and returned after an absence of nearly three months. The French commandant, St. Pierre, avowed the purpose of keeping possession of the Ohio, and of seizing every English trader found within the valley.
Early in the following spring, Virginia sent out a body of troops to protect the Ohio Company in Sketcherecting a fort at the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers. Washington became the leader of the expedition. Pressing forward with his troops, he reached the Great Meadows, erected a fort, and named it Fort Necessity. Here learning of the approach of a small force of the French, he attacked them by surprise, killing and taking prisoners nearly the whole party. This contest may be said to mark the opening of the war.
Meanwhile the French drove away the English who were building the fort, themselves completed the work, and named it, in honor of the governor of New France, Fort Duquesne. From this fortress they marched against Washington, who, at Fort Necessity, with but four hundred men, was compelled to surender (sic), July 4, on condition, however, that he, with his whole command, should be permitted to return unmolested to Virginia.
   7. Albany Plan of Union. --
The British ministry, perceiving war to be inevitable, recommended the colonies to secure the friendship of the Six Nations, and to unite in some scheme of common defence. Accordingly, a convention of delegates from the New England colonies,, and from New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, was held at Albany, on the day of the surrender of Fort Necessity, July 4,1754. This convention adopted a plan of union, drawn up by Benjamin Franklin. But this plan was approved neither by the provincial assemblies nor by the king's council. By the

   1 See p. 67, Chap. XII., and p. 20, § 11.
   2 Called by the French Presqu' Isle, Le Boeuf, and Venango, respectively.
   3 Then the capital of Virginia.

   QUESTIONS. -- Where did the French establish posts? 4. To whom did the Ohio company appeal for protection? What did Dinwiddie resolve to do? Whom did Dinwiddie send to the French commandant? Give an account of Washington's journey. What purpose did the French commandant avow? 5. What expedition did Virginia send out? When? Who became leader of the expedition? What fort did he build? Describe the opening of the war. 6. What is said of Fort Duquesne? Give an account of the attack upon Washington. 7. What Can you tell of the Albany plan of union?



former it was rejected, because it gave too much power to the crown; by the latter, because it gave too much power to the people.1
   8. Events of 1755 .-- Early in the spring of 1755, four expeditions were planned by the colonies; one against the French in Nova Scotia, a second against the French on the Ohio, a third against Crown Point,2 and a fourth against Niagara3 -- the first a disgraced success, the others discreditable failures.
   9. The expedition against Nova Scotia reached the Bay of Fundy in June. The French forts in that province were speedily reduced, and the whole region east of the Penobscot fell under British authority.
The submission of the province was followed by an act of the most heartless cruelty towards the French inhabitants of Acadia. Pretending to fear that the Acadians would aid the French in Canada, the English authorities assembled, by artifice, several thousands of these unsuspecting people, drove them on board ships, and scattered them among the colonies from New Hampshire to Georgia.4
   10. The expedition against the French on the Ohio was conducted by General Braddock, a British officer, who, with Colonel Washington as one of his aids, began his march from Virginia for Fort Duquesne in June, with about two thousand men. Ignorant of Indian warfare, yet too self-confident to receive advice, Braddock urged forward his troops, and, when within a few miles of the fort, was surprised by a small party of French and Indians, and suffered a terrible defeat.
The English regulars, appalled at the yells of the savages, and at the sight of their officers and comrades falling around them by shots from an unseen foe, broke and fled, leaving their artillery, stores, baggage, everything, in the hands of the enemy. Braddock, brave as he was obstinate, was mortally wounded while vainly attempting to rally his men. While the "regulars broke and ran like sheep before the hounds," the provincial troops, though held in great contempt by the English officers, fought bravely. Washington, cool and intrepid, and exposed to every danger, was one of the few officers that escaped unhurt.

   1 According to this plan, a grand council was to be formed, of members chosen by the provincial assemblies of the colonies. This council, with a governor-general appointed by the crown and having a negative voice, should be empowered to make general laws, to raise money in all the colonies for their defence, to call forth troops, regulate trade, and lay duties.
   2 See Map, p. 90, and p. 80, ¶      3. 3 See p. 80, ¶ 3.
   4 It is upon an incident connected with this act of tyranny that Longfellow's poem of Evangeline is founded. A few of the Acadians, escaping through the Woods, formed a settlement on the banks of the St. John, in the northern part of Maine, where their descendants, in language, manners, and customs but little changed since their exile, still reside.

   QUESTIONS. -- Why was the plan rejected by the provincial assemblies? Why by the king's council? 8. What expeditions were planned in 1755? 9. Give an account of the expedition against Nova Scotia. -- What is said of the treatment of the Acadians? 10. Give an account of the expedition against the French on the Ohio. -- What is said of the English regulars? What of Braddock? Of the provincial troops? Of Washington?



     11. The expedition against Crown Point was led by General, William Johnson, of New York. Near Sketchthe south end of Lake George he met and defeated a force of French and Indians, under Baron Dieskau. Satisfied with this success, Johnson' wasted the autumn in erecting Fort William Henry, near the battle-ground. Leaving a garrison in the fort, he disbanded his troops.
Johnson arrived at the southern extremity of Lake George in the latter part of August. While here, intelligence was received that a large body of the enemy had landed at South Bay, now Whitehall, and was marching towards Fort Edward, which had recently been erected on the Hudson. A detachment sent out by Johnson to intercept the French and save the fort, was surprised and routed with frightful slaughter. Dieskau pursued, and made a spirited attack upon the camp of Johnson. Here victory decided for the English; the enemy retired in great disorder, leaving Dieskau wounded and a prisoner.
   12. Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, had command of the expedition against Niagara. He advanced as far as Lake Ontario; but the news of Braddocks defeat, the want of provisions, and the lateness of the season, caused the enterprise to be abandoned. Nothing was accomplished except the building of a new fort at Oswego, in which he left a garrison.

    II. U
NFORTUNATE CAMPAIGNS OF 1756 AND 1757. -- 1. Events of 1756. -- Thus far hostilities had been carried on without any formal proclamation of war; but in May, 1756, war was declared. Lord Loudoun, sent out as commander-in-chief of all the troops in the English colonies, attempted nothing of consequence.2 While he was trifling away the summer, the Marquis de Montcalm, who had been appointed to the chief command of the French, invested the fort at Oswego with about five thousand French, Canadians, and Indians, and after a brief siege took it.

   1 For this victory Johnson was made a baronet of Great Britain. See p.93, note 1.
   2 The plan of operations for 1756 had for its object the reduction of Crown Point, Fort Duquesne and Niagara; but owing to the delay and inefficiency of those in command, not one of these objects was even attempted.

   QUESTIONS. -- 11. Give an account of the expedition against Crown Point. -- Describe this expedition more particularly. 12. Give an account of the expedition against Niagara. 1. When was war formally declared? who was appointed commander-in-chief of the troops in the English colonies? Who was the French commander-in-chief? What did he do?



   By this capture the French obtained command of Lakes Ontario and Erie, and of the country of the Six Nations. Sixteen hundred prisoners, and a great quantity of artillery and stores, fell into the hands of the enemy.
The only success of the colonial forces, during this campaign, was the chastisement of the Indians, who, since the defeat of Braddock, had been laying waste the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, and murdering the inhabitants. Colonel John Armstrong, with about three hundred men, marched against Kittanning, their chief village, situated on the Alleghany, and, though meeting with an obstinate resistance, destroyed their town, and killed their principal chiefs.
   3. Events of 1757. --
The British Parliament made great preparations to prosecute the war in 1757. The reduction of Louisburg1 was resolved upon. A large force was collected and placed under Loudoun. At Halifax he was joined by a powerful fleet and a land force from England. But his tardiness gave the French time to reenforce the fortress, and the design of attacking it was abandoned.
Weakness and indecision marked the councils of the English during this campaign. Not so with the French. Montcalm, finding the troops withdrawn for the reduction of Louisburg, seized the occasion to make a descent on Fort William Henry,2 then garrisoned by two thousand men. With a force of about eight thousand French and Indians he laid siege to it, and at the expiration of six days it surrendered. General Webb, who lay at Fort Edward, only fifteen miles distant, with an army of four thousand men, offered no assistance to the besieged garrison. So gallant was the defence of Fort William Henry, that its brave commander, Colonel Monro, and his troops, were allowed an honorable capitulation, and promised a safe escort to Fort Edward. No sooner, however, had the troops left the protection of the fort, than the Indians attached to the French army, despite the efforts of Montcalm to prevent it, plundered them of their baggage, and murdered many of them in cold blood.

    III. S
UCCESSFUL PROSECUTION AND TERMINATION OF THE WAR. -- 1. In the summer of 1757, the celebrated William Pitt, afterwards Lord Chatham, was placed at the head of the administration, and breathed new soul into British councils. The tide of success now turned in favor of the English, who achieved victory after victory, until the whole of Canada surrendered to the British arms.
   2. Events of 1758. -- Three expeditions were proposed for this year; the first against Louisburg, the second against Ticonderoga,2 and the third against Fort Duquesne.

   1 See Map, p. 86.      2 See Map, p. 90.

   QUESTIONS .-- Result of this capture to the French? 2. What is said of the Indians in Pennsylvania? What chastisement was inflicted? 3. What can you tell of the attempt to reduce Louisburg in 1757? 4. What can you tell of Montcalm's descent on Fort William Henry? Of the defence of the fort? Of the Indians attached to the French army? III 1. What is said of William Pitt? 2. What expeditions were proposed for 1758?

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