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PERIOD IV. 1763-1789. THE REVOLUTION.
written by Alexander Hamilton -- who during the war had been the confidential aid of Washington, James Madison, and John Jay.
5. Early in the summer of 1788 it had received the assent of the requisite number of states. The rest soon gave in their adhesion to it.1 George Washington was the unanimous choice of both parties for the first president under the new constitution, and John Adams was elected vice-president.2
CONDITION, AT THE CLOSE OF THIS PERIOD, OF WHAT IS
NOW THE UNITED STATES.
1. The boundaries of the United States at the close of this Period have already been given,3 and most of the original thirteen states had taken their present limits.
New Hampshire,4 for a long time claiming jurisdiction over Vermont,5 had yielded her claim to New York, and taken the Connecticut as her western boundary. Massachusetts6 still exercised jurisdiction over Maine,7 but had arranged her western boundary with New York as at present, accepting, in satisfaction of the claim under her charter to territory farther west, the proprietorship of vast tracts of land in Western New York. Rhode Island8 and Connecticut8 had boundaries essentially the same as at present, the latter retaining, of all her claims under her charter, only a portion of territory on Lake Erie, known as the "Connecticut Reserve," which now constitutes the north-eastern part of Ohio9. New York8 claimed Vermont. New Jersey,8 Pennsylvania,10 Delaware,10 and Maryland,10 had boundaries as now. Virginia10 included Kentucky,5 and North Carolina,10 Tennessee.11 South Carolina10 had her present limits, and Georgia12 claimed as much of the present Alabama13 and Mississippi13 as then belonged to the United States.
1 The States ratified the new constitution in the following order: --
December 7, 1787.
May 23 1789.
June 21, 1788.
December 18. 1787.
June 26, 1788.
January 2, 1788.
November 21, 1789.
February 6, 1788.
2 See Appendix, p. ¶ ¶ 2, 2, 3, See. 1, Art. II., Const. U. S., and p. 16, Art. XII., Amendments Const. U. S.
3 See p. 146, ¶ 38.
4 See p. 75.
5 See p. 160.
6 See p 76.
7 See p. 190.
8 See p. 77.
9 See p. 165.
10 See p 78.
11 See p. 163.
12 See p. 79.
13 See p. 190.
QUESTIONS. -- 5. When had the new constitution received the assent of the requisite number of states? Who was the first president under this constitution? Vice-president? Chap. IV. 1. What of the limits of most of the original states at the close of this Period? -- What is said of New Hampshire? Massachusetts? Rhode Island and Connecticut? New York? New Jersey? Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland? Virginia? North Carolina? South Carolina? Georgia?
CHAPTER II. CONDITION &c.
2. The territory north of the Ohio, claimed by different States, had been ceded to the United States, and, by an ordinance of Congress in 1787, it was organized into a territory, called the North-west Territory. This vast region was secured to freedom by the ordinance which declared that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in punishment of crimes."1 Territory since annexed to the United States remained in general in the same condition as at the close of the last Period.
3. The population of the United States at the close of this Period was nearly four millions.
During the war there had been but little gain in the number of the inhabitants. Immigration nearly ceased. Many men had fallen in battle. Many Tories had left the country. After the close of the war the states began again to increase in population.
4. At the commencement of the Revolution the colonists of America were husbandmen, merchants, mechanics, and fishermen, who were occupied in the ordinary ditties of their respective callings, and were sober, honest, and industrious. But when the struggle for independence began, new fields for exertion were opened, and a great change was suddenly wrought in the American people. Many who were before only known in the humble sphere of peaceful occupations, soon shone forth in the cabinet or in the field. The war, too, did much to wear away local peculiarities and prejudices. But the Revolution introduced, at the same time, greater looseness of manners and morals. An army always carries deep vices in its train, and communicates its corruption to society around it. Besides this, the failure of public credit so far put it out of the power of individuals to perform private engagements, that the breach of them became common, and at length was scarcely disgraceful. That high sense of integrity, which had existed before, was thus exchanged for more loose and slippery notions of honesty and honor. The peace of 1783, however, tended, in a measure, to restore things to their former state. Those sober habits, for which the country was previously distinguished, began to return; business assumed a more regular and equitable character, and the tumultuous passions roused by the war subsided.
1 This famous anti-slavery proviso was borrowed from a plan submitted to congress three years before by Jefferson, for the government not only of the Worth-west Territory, but of other territory south of the Ohio and between the present western boundaries of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia and the Mississippi River. The anti-slavery proviso was struck out; otherwise Jefferson's plan was adopted. Four slave states -- Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi -- were afterwards formed from the territory south of the Ohio.
QUESTIONS. -- 2. What was the North-west Territory? How was this vast region secured to freedom? What of territory since annexed to the United States? 3. What was the population of the United States at the close of this Period? -- What of gain in population during the war? After the close of the war? 4. What is said of the colonists at the commencement of the Revolution? What changes in occupation were brought about by the war? In local peculiarities and prejudices? In manners and morals? How was the high sense of integrity, which existed before the war impaired? What effect did peace have on manners and morals?
PERIOD IV. 1763-1789. THE REVOLUTION.
5. Slavery, although in opposition to the rights of man for which the war had been waged, and in violation of the principles enunciated in the Declaration of Independence, by which the revolt had been justified to the world, remained undisturbed in all the states till near the close of the war. Before the close of the Period, however, all the states, except South Carolina and Georgia, had prohibited the further importation of slaves, and the New England States and Pennsylvania had adopted measures for the final extinction of slavery -- an example followed, not many years later, by New York and New Jersey. Indeed, the wisest and best men of the time, north and south, looked forward with confidence and hope to the speedy abolition of an institution so repugnant to the principles of Christianity, and so fraught with danger to society, religion, and the state. Unfortunately, however, the system became riveted on the states east of the Mississippi, and south of Delaware Bay, Mason and Dixon's line,1 and the Ohio.
6. Religion. -- The frequent intercourse between different parts of the country, promoted by the Revolutionary War, had softened sectarian asperities, and nearly worn away the spirit of intolerance. But for these advantages the Revolution brought with it great disadvantages to religion in general. The atheistical philosophy, which had spread over France, was thickly sown in the American army by the French, and tended to produce a serious declension in the tone of religious feelings among the American people. -- In addition to this, religious institutions, during the war, were much neglected; churches were demolished, or converted into barracks; public worship was often suspended. After the war, infidelity began to lose ground, and the cause of religion to revive. Methodism was introduced into the United States during this Period. It increased rapidly, especially in the Middle States.
7. Education suffered, in common with other kindred interests. In several colleges the course of instruction was suspended; the hall was exchanged for the camp, and the gown for the sword and epaulet. After the war, interest in education revived, and before the end of the Period several colleges and other institutions of learning were established in different sections of the country. This Period added much that is valuable to the political and other literature of our language.
8. During the war, the commerce of the United States was suppressed, but it revived on the return of peace; the greater part of the shipping belonging to the country was destroyed by the enemy, or perished by a natural process of decay. Our coasts were so lined with British cruisers, as to render navigation too hazardous to be pursued to any considerable extent. For the two years immediately following the close
1 See p. 61, note 4.
QUESTIONS. -- 5. What is said of slavery? Before the close of the war what states had prohibited the further introduction of slaves? What states had adopted measures for the extinction of slavery? What others soon followed their example? To what did the wisest and best men look forward? Upon what states did slavery become riveted? 6. How did the war affect sectarianism and intolerance? What disadvantages to religion had the war brought? What is said of religious institutions? Of Methodism? 7. What of education during and after the war? 8. What of commerce?
CHAPTER II. CONDITION &c.
of the Revolution, the imports from England alone amounted to thirty millions of dollars, while the exports of the United States to that country were only between eight and nine millions.
9. Arts and manufactures made considerable progress in the United States during this Period. Cut off by the war from foreign sources of supply, the people of the United States had been obliged to look to their own industry and ingenuity to furnish articles needed in the struggle and for the usual occupations of life. On the return of peace, many branches of manufacture had become so firmly established that they held their ground, even against the excessive importations that immediately followed.
10. Agriculture was greatly interrupted, during the war, by the withdrawing of laborers to the camp, and by the distractions which disturbed all the occupations of society. But within a few years after peace was established, the exports of products raised in the United States were again considerable. Attention began to be paid to the culture of cotton, in the Southern States, about the year 1783, and it soon became a staple of that part of the country. About the same time, agricultural societies began to be formed in the United States.
QUESTIONS.--9. What is said of arts and manufactures? 10. What of agriculture?
(The figures in and at the end of the paragraphs in the Chronological Review refer to the Pages upon which the events are mentioned.]
1764. Parliament first declared its intention of raising a revenue from America, 102.
1765. The Stamp Act was passed by Parliament, 102.
The Colonial Congress met in New York, 104.
1767 A tax was imposed upon tea, and several other articles, 106.
1770 The affray known as the Boston Massacre took place, 107.
1773. Committees of Correspondence and Inquiry were appointed, 108.
The tea was thrown into Boston harbor, 108.
1774. The Boston Port Bill was enacted, 108.
The first Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, 109.
1775. (April 19.) The first blood of the Revolutionary War was shed at Lexington, 111.
Royal authority terminated throughout the colonies, 114; Congress assumed the authority of a general government, 115; Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, 115.
The battle of Bunker Hill was fought, 114.
1776. The British were driven from Boston, 117; and an attack on Charleston, South Carolina, was gallantly repulsed, 118.
Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence (July 4), 119.
The Americans were defeated on Long Island, 120; evacuated New York, and fought an indecisive battle at White Plains -- Washington retreated through New Jersey, 121; took a thousand prisoners at Trenton, 122.
1777. The army with Washington routed the enemy at Princeton, 123; was defeated at the Brandywine, left Philadelphia to be occupied by the British, and was repulsed by them at Germantown, 125.
In the north, the enemy were defeated at Bennington, 127; and their army, under Burgoyne, surrendered at Saratoga, after two severe battles, 128.
Congress sent out for adoption the Articles of Confederation, 128.
1778. France entered into treaties of alliance and commerce with the United States, 130.
The Americans were victorious at Monmouth Court-House, 131; the British took Savannah, 133.
1779. The Americans were defeated at Brier Creek, 134; the British at Stony Point, 135; and John Paul Jones captured two English frigates in one of the most desperate naval combats on record, 136.
General Sullivan led an army into Western New York, to chastise the Indians, who had joined with the British and Tories, 136.
1780. Charleston, South Carolina, surrendered to the British, 137; the Americans were defeated at Camden, and the British at King's Mountain, 138.
Arnold plotted to betray WSest Point to the enemy, 139.
1781. General Greene conducted his celebrated campaign in the Carolinas, 141; the Americans gaining a victory at the Cowpens, 141; being defeated at Guilford Court-House, 142; and engaging the enemy in a hard-fought but indecisive battle at Eutaw Springs, 143.
Washington, aided by the French Beet and army, captured the British army and fleet at Yorktown (October 19)--the last important event of the war, 145.
1783. The treaty of peace was signed at Paris, 147.
1788. The new Constitution, prepared the year before, received the assent of the number of states required in order to go into effect, 150.
1763. Great improvement in pottery, by Wedgwood, in England.
1768-74. Turkey wages war with Russia for violating Turkish territory in pursuing the Poles.
1769. Machine for spinning by rollers invented by Arkwright. The next year Hargreaves receives a patent for the spinning-jenny.
1772. First partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The second partition occurred in 1793, and the final partition in 1795.
1773. The Order of Jesuits abolished by Pope Clement XIV.
1774. Louis XVI. king of France. He was beheaded in 1793.
1778. Sandwich Islands discovered by Captain Cook.
1780. Armed neutrality between Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, for the protection of neutral flags against the right of search claimed by England. The league soon comprehended nearly the whole of Europe.
The Gordon or "No Popery" riots in London.
Hyder Ali conquers the Carnatic, and soon after is conquered by Sir Eyre Coote.
1782. Watt, after making many improvements in the steam engine, invents a double-acting or rotalive engine.
1783. First ministry of William Pitt, the younger.
1785. Power-loom invented by Cartwright.
1787-92. War between Turkey and Russia -- disastrous to the former.
Austria takes part in the war as an ally of Russia.
Among the eminent men who closed their career during this Period were,
Wm. Pitt, Earl of Chatham,
Robert Lord Clive,
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