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PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
6. Baltimore was next attacked. Landing at North Point, September 12,1 the enemy encountered a brave resistance from a detachment of militia, which, however, was forced to retire within the defences of the city. The British advanced, but finding the besieged well prepared to receive them, withdrew during the night of the 13th, and went on board their fleet, a part of which, for a day and a night, had kept up an ineffectual bombardment of Fort McHenry.2
In this unsuccessful attempt the assailants lost General Ross and three hundred men. After this, Cockburn returned to the congenial occupation of plunder, on the Carolina and Georgia coast.
7. While Jackson, who had been appointed to command in the south, was arranging a treaty with the Indians,3 a British squadron arrived at Pensacola, and, with the consent of the Spanish authorities, made it the headquarters for arming fugitive Creeks, and preparing expeditions against the United States. September 15 the enemy made an attack upon Fort Bowyer,4 but were repulsed with a loss of one ship of war and more than two hundred men. Jackson, after remonstrating in vain with the Spanish authorities for sheltering the enemies of a country with which Spain was at peace, seized Pensacola, and expelled the British from Florida. He then hastened to put New Orleans in a position of defence against an expected attack. He erected fortifications, organized the militia, called in volunteers, invited "the noble-hearted, generous, free men of color" to join his army, and proclaimed martial law.
8. The last important engagement of the war on the land was fought in defence of New Orleans, January 8, 1815. In this battle, General Jackson,3 with less than six thousand Americans, mostly militia, repulsed with great slaughter Sir Edward Pakenham, who advanced with twelve thousand troops, the flower of the British army, to assault the works thrown up to protect the city.
In December a fleet of the enemy, conveying Pakenham with his army, entered Lake Borgne, and on the 14th captured the American flotilla, after a severe conflict, in which the British lost a greater number than there were Americans engaged. A portion of the enemy, having landed, repelled, on the night of the 23d, an attack upon their camp. On the 24th, Jackson collected his army for the defence of New Orleans.
1 The day after the victories at Plattsburg. See p. 184, ¶ 1.
2 During the night of this bombardment, the song of the "Star-spanqled Banner" was written by Francis S. Key, who was detained on board a British ship, whither he had gone to procure the release of some captive friends. 3 See p. 182, ¶ 25.
4 Now Fort Morgan. Fort Bowyer was captured by the British on their return afler the defeat at New Orleans, on the same day that news of peace reached New York, February 11, 1815.
QUESTIONS. -- 6. Give an account of the attack upon Baltimore. -- What was the British loss in this attack? 7. Why did Jackson seize Pensacola? What did he next hasten to do? 8. Give an account of the battle of New Orleans. Of the conflict on Lake Borgne.
CHAPTER IV. MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION.
He took position a few miles below the city, on a neck of land lying between the Mississippi and an impenetrable swamp, and there threw up intrenchments. The British moved upon this position December 28, and again January 1, but were repulsed, only, however, to prepare for the grand assault. On the 8th, the English troops, regardless of the fatal fire of the American artillery, advanced, in solid columns, till they approached within range of the Kentucky and Tennessee marksmen, when the whole American line became one sheet of flame, and from musket and rifle poured into the foe an unceasing storm of death. The advancing columns faltered. Attempting to urge them on, Pakenham fell. Generals Gibbs and Keene were wounded -- the former, second in command, mortally. The enemy broke and fled in dismay. After two more unsuccessful attempts to storm the works, General Lambert, on whom the command now devolved, retreated to his ships. He also recalled a detachment which had succeeded in dislodging a party of Americans from a position on the other side of the Mississippi. The American loss on both sides of the river was seventy-one. Of these only seven were killed and six wounded in the principal action. The loss of the British was near twenty-five hundred.
9. The little navy1 of the United States had won imperishable renown in the first two years of the war, but in 1814 had become well-nigh exhausted. The government had been slow to recognize its merits, slower to add to its strength. Few vessels were now at sea. The smaller had been captured, the larger were held in the grasp of the blockade. The Essex, Captain Porter, after a successful cruise in the Atlantic, made great havoc among British whalemen in the Pacific; but, March 28, she fell a prey to a sloop of war and a frigate off Valparaiso. The sloop of war Peacock, Captain Warrington, captured the British brig of war Epervier,1 April 29, off Florida. The Peacock afterwards made prizes of fourteen merchantmen. The sloop of war Wasp, Commander
1 See pp. 180, 181, and p. 184, ¶ 1. 2 With $118,000 in specie on board.
QUESTIONS. -- Where did Jackson take position to defend New Orleans? Give a more particular account of the battle of New Orleans. State the losses on each side. 9. What is said of the American navy? What is said of Captain Porter and the Essex? Of Captain Warrington and the Peacock? Of Commander Blakely and the Wasp?
PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
Blakely, captured the sloop of war Reindeer, June 28, the Avon, September 1, and after taking several prizes, was lost at sea. After the disappearance of the Wasp, for a time the American flag ceased to wave from the mast-head of any national vessel. Commodore Decatur,1 in the frigate President, attempting to get to sea from New York, was taken, January 16, by a British squadron off Long Island. The Constitution,2 Captain Stewart, was more fortunate in escaping the blockade at Boston. Off Lisbon, February 20, she engaged the two British sloops of war Cyane and Levant, and took them both. March 23, the Hornet, Captain Biddle, captured the British brig of war Penguin, off Tristan d'Acunha.3
10. A treaty of peace was signed at Ghent,4 December 24, 1814, by American and British commissioners.5 Tidings of this treaty reached the United States about a month after the battle of New Orleans.
Late at night, on the 11th of February, a British sloop of war arrived in New York, bringing a treaty of peace, already ratified by England. The cry of Peace, peace, ran through the city. As if by one impulse the houses were illuminated, and the citizens, without distinction of party, thronged the streets to congratulate each other. The news was sent in every direction, and everywhere was received with the liveliest demonstrations of joy. The treaty was ratified by the Senate, February 17, 1815.
11. The treaty provided for the suspension of hostilities, the exchange of prisoners, the restoration of territories and possessions obtained by the contending powers during the war, the adjustment of unsettled boundaries, and for a combined effort to put an end to the slave trade. It made no mention of the causes of the war. Peace between the powers of Europe had removed the occasion of difficulties. Notwithstanding the successes at Plattsburg, at Baltimore, and at New Orleans, affairs wore a gloomy aspect. Commerce was annihilated,6 every branch of industry depressed, the treasury empty, and public credit destroyed. Moreover, a ravaged seaboard, a great national debt,7 and a want of unanimity among the states,8 were sources of deep concern to thoughtful men in America.
1 See p. 175, ¶ 7. p. 167, note 1, and p. 189, ¶ 1. 2 See p. 175, ¶ 7.
3 The principal island of a group in the South Atlantic Ocean, not quite halfway from the Cape of Good Hope to South America.
4 A city on the River Scheldt, in Belgium.
5 The American commissioners were John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin. 6 See p. 184, ¶ 2.
7 About one hundred and twenty millions of dollars. 8 See p. 184, ¶ 3.
QUESTIONS. -- What is said of Commodore Decatur and the President? Of Captain Stewart and the Constitution? Of Captain Biddle and the Hornet? 10. When and where was the treaty of peace signed? -- Give some account of the reception of the news of peace. 11. For what did the treaty provide? What is said of the aspect of affairs?
CHAPTER IV. MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION.
IV. FROM THE CLOSE OF THE WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN TO THE ASSESSION OF MONROE. -- 1. From 1795 to 1812, the United States had paid an annual tribute to the Dey of Algiers to protect American vessels from seizure by the Algerines. During the troubles with England the Dey had improved his opportunity to make aggressions on American commerce, and had reduced the crew of a captured vessel to slavery. After the ratification of peace with England, a squadron, under Commodore Decatur, sailed for the Mediterranean, and captured two Algerine ships. Decatur next appeared before Algiers, June 28, and dictated terms to the frightened Dey. By this treaty the Dey stipulated to indemnify the Americans for their losses in the war with him, to surrender without ransom their countrymen held as prisoners, to abandon the practice of enslaving them, and to renounce all claim of future tribute from them. Decatur then proceeded to Tunis and Tripoli, and exacted payment for American vessels which these powers had permitted the British to capture in their ports. The United States were the first nation that effectually resisted the outrageous claim of the Barbary pirates for tribute.1
2. In the early part of 1816 a new bank, called the Bank of the United States, was incorporated, to continue twenty years, with a capital of thirty-five millions of dollars.
The charter of the former bank had expired in 1811.2 The new bank was made the depository for the public moneys, unless the secretary of the treasury should otherwise direct.
3. In the presidential election of 1816 James Monroe, of Virginia, was chosen president, and Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, vice-president.
4. Indiana3 was admitted as a state in 1816.
In 1800 Indiana Territory was set off from the North-west Territory.4 It afterwards was made to include all the latter except Ohio,5 but in 1809 it had become reduced to the limits of the present state.6 This region was first discovered by the French. Vincennes, one of the oldest towns, was settled by a party of French Canadians about 1705.
1 See p. 166, ¶¶ 5, 6. 2 See p. 159, ¶ 6, note 2, and p. 199, ¶ 10
3 The name is derived from the word Indian. 4 See p. 151,.¶ 2. 5 See p. 165, ¶ 2.
6 By setting off the Territory of Michigan (see p. 200, ¶ 15), in 1805, and the Territory of Illinois (see p. 191, ¶ 2), in 1809.
QUESTIONS. -- 1. How did the difficulties with the Dey of Algiers originate? How was the Dey brought to terms? What did he stipulate in the treaty? What was exacted of Tunis and Tripoli? 2. What is said of the Bank of the United States? 3. Who were elected president and vice-president in 1816? 4. When was Indiana admitted to the Union? -- Give some account of the early history of Indiana.
PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION.1 1817-1825.
1. ON Monroe's accession the country was recovering from the effects of the late war. Commerce, manufactures, and every department of industry, were reviving. Great confidence was reposed in the president. Party spirit subsided, and in 1820 the president and vicepresident were reëlected, almost unanimously.2 The period of this administration is known as the era of good feeling.
2. Five states were admitted during this administration, making the whole number twenty-four: Mississippi, 1817; Illinois, 1818; Alabama, 1819; Maine, 1820; and Missouri, 1821.3
De Soto4 was the first European who visited the soil of Mississippi, which afterwards became a part of Louisiana,5 and partook of the history of that province till 1763. The claim of Georgia6 west of her present limits was ceded by her to the United States, and erected into the Territory, of Mississippi. Just before the war of 1812, the United States took possession of that part of Florida between the Perdido7 and Pearl Rivers, and this having been annexed to the Mississippi Territory, gave it the Gulf of Mexico for a southern boundary. The western part of this territory became the state of the same name. Alabama includes the rest of Mississippi Territory, and on the admission of Mississippi, was organized as the Territory of Alabama. These states were first settled by the French.8
1 See Appendix, p. 20.
2 The whole number of electoral votes at this time was two hundred and thirty-five. But one electoral vote was thrown against Mr. Monroe. fourteen votes were thrown against Mr. Tompkins, and three of the electors did not vote either for president or vice-president.
3 Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, and Missouri, derive their names, which are of Indian origin, from rivers of the same names. Mississippi, according to some, means the father of waters, according to others, the great and long river; Illinois, the river of men; Alabama, here we rest: Missouri, muddy water. For Maine, see p. 42, note 5.
4 See p. 13, ¶ 3. 5 See p. 57, ¶ 3. 6 See p. 150, ¶ 1.
7 See p. 166, ¶ 3. 8 See p. 80, ¶ 1.
QUESTIONS. -- 1. What was the condition of the country on the accession of Mr. Monroe? What is said of party spirit? How was the period of this administration known? 2. Name the states admitted during this administration, with the dates of their admission. -- Give some account of the early history of Mississippi and Alabama.
CHAPTER V. MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION.
Illinois, too, was once a part of the French possessions in America,1 and the French first established settlements within its limits about the year 1682, at Kaskaskia, the oldest European settlement in the valley of the Mississippi. It was a part of the North-west, then of the Indiana Territory,2 and in 1809 of the Territory of Illinois.3
The previous history of Maine has already been given.4
Missouri was part of the Louisiana Purchase,5 and, with all that vast country north of the present State of Louisiana6 (at first organized as the Territory of Orleans), was called the District of Louisiana, and placed under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory.2 After the Territory of Orleans had been admitted as the State of Louisiana, the District of Louisiana, already organized as a separate territory, took the name of Missouri Territory, a part of which became the State of Missouri. Its oldest town is Saint Genevieve, founded by the French in 1755.
3. When the admission of Missouri was proposed, violent debate arose on the question whether it should be a slave or a free state. It was finally agreed, in 1820, that Missouri might come in a slave state, but that slavery should be prohibited in all other territory, belonging to the United States, west of the Mississippi, and north of parallel 36o 30'. This agreement is known as the Missouri Compromise.
4. In the latter part of 1817, a war with the Seminole Indians broke out. General Jackson was sent against them, and speedily brought them to terms.
The Seminoles,7 who had harbored hostile Creeks7 and runaway negroes, at length began a series of murderous assaults upon the inhabitants of Southern Georgia. Jackson, still in command of the southern department, soon took the field at the head of a considerable force, a large part of which consisted of friendly Creeks. Believing that the hostile Indians were protected by the Spanish authorities, Jackson marched into Florida. He destroyed the Indian village near Tallahassee, took the Spanish fort at St. Marks, and drove out the authorities at Pensacola. He also burned a town on the Suwanee, inhabited principally by runaway negroes.8
5. In 1818 Congress granted a pension to the few surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolution. Subsequently, the widows and children of deceased officers were included in the provision.
1 see p. 67, Chap. XII. 2 See p. 189, ¶ 4.
3 The Territory of Illinois included, north of the state, a region which, on the admission of the state, was attached to Michigan Territory. See p. 200, ¶ 15.
4 See p. 41, ¶ 2. 5 See p. 166, ¶ 3. See p. 189, ¶ 4. 7 See p. 22, note (IV.).
8 During this invasion Jackson seized two British subjects, Alexander Arbuthnot, and Robert C. Ambrister, who, on the charge of having excited the Indians to hostilities, were tried by court martial, condemned, and executed.
QUESTIONS. -- Give some account of the early history of Illinois. -- Of Maine. -- Of Missouri. 3. What is meant by the Missouri compromise, and when was it agreed to? 4. What war broke out in 1817? Who was sent against the Indians, and with what result? -- Give some further account of this war. 5. To whom was a pension granted in 1818? Who were subsequently included in the provision?
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