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   12. McDowell set out with about thirty-five thousand men, and occupied Fairfax Court House and Centreville, the rebels withdrawing at his approach. But little resistance was encountered till the 18th, when Sketchthe advance found a rebel force at Blackburn's Ford, on Bull Run. After a sharp conflict the Federals fell back upon Centreville, but resumed their march early on the 21st. On reaching Bull Run, McDowell's army, by the necessity of keeping open his line of communication, and by the return of three months' men1 whose term of service had expired, was considerably reduced. Beauregard had in all about thirty thousand men. At eleven the battle was opened by a Union division, under Colonel David Hunter,2 who had crossed Bull Run at Sudley Spring. Soon the cannonade extended to Blackburn's Ford, some five miles down the stream. The principal action was near Stone Bridge, about two miles south of Sudley Spring. The rebels at first broke and fell back in disorder; but General Joseph E. Johnston3 brought reënforcements from the Shenandoah Valley to the battle-field in season to turn a Federal victory into a Federal rout. The Union loss was about three thousand men, besides -- either captured or abandoned in the retreat -- twenty-seven cannon and a large amount of small arms, ammunition, tents, and supplies. The Confederates lost about two thousand men, and were in no condition to pursue their demoralized enemy.4
   13. Though the people of the loyal states were astounded at news of this disaster they were not discouraged. They learned by this severe lesson the necessity of suitable preparation, and roused themselves to fresh exertions. Congress appropriated five hundred millions of dollars for carrying on the war, and authorized the president to raise five hundred thousand men, The next day after the battle General George B. McClellan,5 who had been conducting a brilliant campaign in West Virginia, was summoned to take command of the army on the Potomac. This army attempted no military operations of importance till the next year.6 Meanwhile it was assuming formidable proportions, and acquiring that perfection of discipline essential to success. The rebels, whose flag for along time flaunted in sight of the national capital, were gradually pushed back till the Federal troops occupied the positions they had held before the

   1 See p. 240, ¶ 3.      2 See p. 294, ¶ 17.     3 See p. 197, note 3; p. 217, note 2; and p. 309, ¶ 56.
4 "In our condition," said the Confederate General Johnston, "pursuit could not be thought of; for we were almost as much disorganized by our victory as the Federals by their defeat. Next day, many, supposing the war was over, actually went home. A party of our soldiers, hearing that a friend lay wounded twenty miles off, would start out to go and see him; or that another acquaintance was dead, they would go and bury him." -- Swinton.
5 See p. 217, note 2; p. 247, ¶ 16.      6 See p. 266, ¶ 28.

   QUESTIONS. -- 12. What particulars can you give of the advance. and the affair at Blackbum's Ford? Of the main action? 13. What effect had news of this disaster on the people of he loyal states? What did Congress do? Who was appointed to the command of the army on the Potomac? What of this army for the rest of the year?



battle of Bull Run. Lieutenant-General Scott,1 weighed down by age and infirmities, retired from active Sketchservice, and, November 1, General McClellan succeeded him as general-in-chief of the armies of the United States.
Sketch   14. There was in this, as in all the military departments throughout the rest of the year, much skirmishing between outposts. Scarcely a day passed when there were not somewhere on the extended line of operations2 one or more encounters which resulted in considerable loss. Indeed, this characterized the war throughout its whole duration. Only the more important of these conflicts can be mentioned in this history.
On the Potomac, above Washington, General Charles P. Stone was in command of a Union army at Poolesville. Wishing to make a demonstration upon the enemy at Leesburg, he sent about two thousand men across the river at Ball's Bluff, October 21. This force was overpowered, and not having sufficient means for recrossing the river, lost nearly half its number. The commander of the expedition, Colonel Edward D. Baker, senator from Oregon, was among the killed. The loss of the enemy was less than one third that of the Federals.3 Two months later General Edward O. C. Ord routed the rebels at Dranesville (December 20), in which direction he had moved for the double purpose of procuring forage for his horses and of pressing back the enemy.4
   16. Meanwhile important events had been taking place in West Virginia. The people of this section of the state, strongly loyal, had called a convention at Wheeling, disavowed the

   1 For more than half a century General Scott had taken a prominent part in public affairs, and in prosecuting war and negotiating peace had proved his right to rank with the first commanders and the first statesmen of the age. On his retirement from office he received the most Signal marks of public affection and veneration. He died at West Point, New York, in 1866, full of years and honors. See pp. 242, 418; 214, 411; 211, ¶ 1; 202, ¶¶ 3, 4; 198, 119; 197, ¶ 6; 196, 414; 182, 127; 179, ¶ 16; 174, ¶ 5.      2 See p. 243, ¶ 10.
   3 The battle at Ball's Bluff is known also as the battle of Leesburg Heights, and as the battle of Edwards' Ferry.      4 See p. 266, ¶ 27.

   QUESTIONS. -- What is said of Generals Scott and McClellan? 14. What is said of skirmishing in this and other departments? Of encounters? 15. Give an account of the action at Ball's Bluff.



ordinance of secession, established a loyal government, and taken steps to be admitted to the Union as a separate State. Late in June General McClellan1 took command here in person, and in a vigorous campaign of less than a month, drove from intrenchments ten thousand insurgent troops, and left the inhabitants free to organize for the Union.
The soil of West Virginia was early stained by the blood of civil war. Colonel Kelley 2 occupied Grafton, May 30, the rebels deserting the place on his approach, and four days later, assisted by Colonel Lander,3 routed near a thousand of them at Philippi. Colonel Wallace4 made a dash into Romney, and dispersed a rebel force which had been stationed there. After McClellan took command, Colonel William S. Rosecrans5 routed, in a severe fight, July 11, a body of rebels under Colonel Pegram, intrenched at Rich Mountain, near Beverly. This action put the Confederate forces in that region on the move to escape. McClellan directed a hot pursuit and they were overtaken on the 13th at Carrick's Ford. An engagement followed, in which they were put to flight, and their general, Robert S. Garnett, was slain. Another rebel force was in the Kanawha Valley, near Charleston, under General Wise. General Jacob D. Cox6 was sent into that region, and in a short time cleared it of armed rebels. In this short campaign the Union forces killed in battle two hundred and fifty insurgents, and took a thousand prisoners and large quantities of spoils.
   17. General Rosecrans5 succeeded McClellan in command in West Virginia, where the rebels soon reappeared under General Robert E. Lee,7 Virginia's ablest soldier, and General John B. Floyd.8 The Union arms were successful in almost every encounter, and before the end of the year this region, for the most part, had been again cleared of Confederate troops.
On the 10th of September Generals Rosecrans and Benham attacked Floyd, strongly posted near Carnifex Ferry. A spirited action ensued, and was ended by the darkness, under cover of which Floyd evacuated his position, and retreated across the Gauley River, leaving to the victors camp equipage, baggage, and small arms. General Lee, who had recently been appointed to the chief command in West Virginia, failing to dislodge the Union troops, under General Joseph J. Reynolds, at Cheat Mountain,

   1 See p. 273, ¶ 46.      2 See p. 248, ¶ 17.      3 See p. 266, ¶ 27.      4 See p. 295, ¶ 19.
   5 See p. 301, ¶ 38.       6 See p. 273. ¶ 47.
   7 Robert E. Lee bad remained in the favor and confidence of the Federal government till the Virginia convention passed a secession ordinance. He then took command of the state force of Virginia, in opposition to the nation which had educated, trusted, and honored him, and which he had sworn to support. See p. 217, note 2; p. 226, ¶ 7; and p. 308, ¶ 52.
   8 See p. 240, note 2, and p. 255,¶ 5.

   QUESTIONS. -- Who took command in West Virginia, and when? What is said of McClellan's campaign and its results? -- Give some account of the earlier military operations in West Virginia. Of military operations in this region after McClellan took command. 17. Who succeeded McClellan in command in West Virginia? Under whom did the rebels soon reappear? Results of operations in this region for the rest of the year? -- Give some particulars of military operations in West Virginia after General Rosecrans took command.



about the middle of September joined Floyd and Wise, in the Kanawha Valley, making their united force Sketchtwenty thousand strong. Early in October, Reynolds inflicted considerable loss upon a detachment of the enemy encamped on Greenbrier River; and near the end of the month General Benjamin F. Kelley1 fell upon a force of Confederates a few miles from Romney, and compelled them to beat a precipitate retreat. On the approach of winter most of the Confederates were withdrawn from West Virginia. Floyd was transferred to Tennessee.2
   18. In Missouri3 the struggle between loyalty and secession began early in the year. The governor, Claiborne F. Jackson, was determined to take the state out of the Union, in opposition to the wishes of a majority of its people. But the energy of Lyon3 foiled his design.
To accomplish his treasonable purpose Jackson established camps of instruction in different parts of the state. One of these, near St. Louis, was named Camp Jackson, and here had been gathered twelve hundred troops, armed by the Confederate government. On the 10th of May Captain Lyon, with a body of home-guards, suddenly surrounded the camp and took the whole force prisoners. A mob followed Lyon, and making a violent demonstration against his men, the latter fired into the crowd, killing and wounding a number of persons. Jackson next attempted to carry out his design from Jefferson City, the capital of the state. He issued a proclamation calling out the militia to repel Federal invasion. A rebel force was entering the state from Arkansas, to assist him.
Lyon gave the governor no time to prepare. With three thousand such troops as he could collect, he started for Jefferson City. Jackson fled, but made a stand with his adherents near Booneville. On the 18th of June Lyon was upon him, and after a sharp engagement put him again to fight towards the south-western part of the state, where the insurgents were collecting in considerable numbers. The Federal Colonel Franz Sigel,4 with about fifteen hundred men, had been despatched to meet the enemy in that quarter. After gaining some advantages Sigel found himself confronted, July 5, near Carthage, by a superior and increasing force of the enemy, and, after a gallant contest, retreated and rejoined Lyon.
   20. Near the end of July General John C. Frémont5 assumed chief command in Missouri. He immediately set about organizing an army and preparing a fleet of gunboats and mortar boats to operate on the Mississippi and its tributaries. Bands of rebel marauders were forming in different parts of the state.

   1 see p. 247, ¶ 16. 2 See p. 273, ¶ 47. 3 See p. 242, ¶ 5. 4 See p. 291, ¶ 10. 5 See p. 214, ¶ 3, and p. 271,¶ 39.

   QUESTIONS. -- 18. What is said of the struggle in Missouri? -- Give an account of the capture of Camp Jackson? What did Governor Jackson next do? 10. Give an account of Lyon's movements and the engagement near Booneville. Give an account of Colonel Sigel's operations near Carthage. 20. When did Frémont assume command in Missouri? What did he act about doing? What is said of rebel marauders?



General John Pope1 was sent into North Missouri, and quickly restored order in that region. An insurgent army, full twenty thousand strong, under Generals Price2 and McCulloch,3 soon gathered around Lyon, who bad pressed the rebels to the south-western part of the state.
   21. In this emergency, Lyon,4 though outnumbered four to one, advanced against the enemy, and, August 10, attacked them at their camp on Wilson's Creek, where was fought, except that at Bull Run, the severest battle of the year. After a conflict of six hours, in which the enemy were repeatedly driven from the field, the Union troops fell back, thus leaving South-western Missouri open to the rebels.
In this battle General Price was in command of disloyal Missourians; General McCulloch, of rebel invaders from Arkansas. After the conflict had raged for some time with varying success, Lyon ordered a bayonet charge. Putting himself at the head of a body of troops who had lost their leader, he exclaimed, "Come on, brave men! I will lead you." The charge was made, and the enemy again fled; but during the struggle the heroic Lyon was slain. The loss was severe on both sides.
The last of the same month Frémont proclaimed martial law in Missouri, and declared the slaves of rebels freemen -- a declaration which the president modified so as to restrict its operation to slaves actually assisting the rebellion. Lexington fell into the hands of the enemy, September 20, after a gallant defence by Colonel James A. Mulligan, who, with but little more than twenty-five hundred men, behind intrenchments, held out four days against ten times as many men, under General Price, and only surrendered after he had exhausted his ammunition, and the supply of water had been for three days cut off from the brave garrison.
   23. In October Frémont, with an army of thirty thousand men, took the field in person, and marched towards Springfield in pursuit of the foe.' Early the next month be was relieved, General Hunter' taking his place. Later in the month,

   1 See p. 213 note 1; and p. 275, ¶ 50.    2 See p. 301, ¶ 33.
   3 See p. 258, ¶ 15.      4 See p. 248, ¶ 18.
   5 One of the most brilliant exploits of the war was a charge made by one hundred and sixty horsemen of a body of cavalry known as Frémont's Body-guard, under Major Zagonyi, an Hungarian refugee. On the 25th of October, perceiving the rebels, estimated at two thousand, drawn up ready to receive them, near Springfield, the charge wall sounded. On rushed the body-guard, in the face of a murderous fire, with irrepressible enthusiasm, shouting, "Frémont and the Union!" The enemy were routed, and fled in every direction.
   6 See p. 245, ¶ 12.

   QUESTIONS. -- Who was sent to North Missouri, and with what result? Around whom did a large insurgent army gather, and under what generals? Where was Lyon? 21. Give an account of the battle on Wilson's Creek. -- What further particulars can you give of this battle? 22. What is said of Frémont's proclamation of martial law? What is said of the defence and surrender of Lexington? 23. What further is said of Frémont? By whom was he relieved. and who, later in the month, took command in the department?

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