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[The figures in and at the end of the paragraphs in the Chronological Review refer to the pages upon which the events are mentioned.]
Lincoln became president in 1861, 239. He entered upon a second term in 1865, but, April 14, was assassinated, 308, and Vice-President Johnson succeeded to the presidency, 309.
During these administrations the most formidable rebellion known to history was subdued, and slavery in the United States was abolished by an amendment of the Constitution.
1861. The rebels began the war by an attack upon Fort Sumter, which was evacuated April 14. The president called for troops, and summoned Congress to meet in extra session, 240. Jefferson Davis issued letters of marque and reprisal, and President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the rebel ports, 242. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy, 241.
The Federals, in Virginia, were disastrously defeated at Bull Run (July 21), 243, and in the autumn at Ball's Bluff, but were victorious at Dranesville, 246. In West Virginia, General McClellan, in July, gained victories over the rebels at Rich Mountain and Carrick's Ford, and before the end of the year that region was nearly cleared of armed rebels, 247.
In Kentucky, the rebels, in September, took possession of Hickman and Columbus, and the Union troops, under General Grant, occupied Paducah, 250.
West of the Mississippi, General Lyon captured the rebel troops at Camp Jackson in May, 248, but fell back from the hard-fought battle of Wilson's Creek (August 10), 249.
On the Atlantic coast the Federals captured the rebel works at Hatteras Inlet (August 29), at Port Royal Entrance (November 7), and took Tybee Island, 251.
The Federal navy blockaded the whole Gulf and Atlantic coast of the rebel states, and rendered important service elsewhere. Rebel privateers inflicted great injury on Federal commerce, 252.
1862. The Federal government prohibited slavery in the territories, and abolished it in the District of Columbia; authorized the enlistment of colored troops, and enacted a test oath, 253.
In the west, east of the Mississippi, the Federals gained a victory at Mill Springs (January 19); captured Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson, 254, and Nashville; were victorious, under General Grant, at Pittsburg Landing (April 6 and 7), 255; and, under General Halleck, compelled the enemy to evacuate Corinth (May 30). In the autumn, the Federals, under General Rosecrans, defeated the enemy at Iuka, 256, and again before Corinth. The rebels lost the battle at Perryville (October 8), 257; and at Murfreesboro
1862. they were beaten by General Rosecrans in a three days' battle, which began December 31, 258.
West of the Mississippi, Union victories at Pea Ridge (March 7 and 8), 258, and, nine months afterwards, at Prairie Grove, decided the fate of Missouri and Arkansas, 259.
The rebel posts on the Mississippi, as far as Vicksburg, successively yielded to the Federals, 259, and Admiral Farragut opened the river from its mouth to New Orleans (April 25), of which city General Butler took military possession, 260.
On the Atlantic coast General Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough captured Roanoke Island, and before the end of April nearly the whole coast of North Carolina was at the mercy of the Federals, who also had reduced Fort Pulaski. The rebel ram Merrimac, after a day's havoc among the Union vesssels (sic) in Hampton Roads (March 8), was driven back to Norfolk by the Monitor, 264.
In Virginia, the rebels were beaten at Winchester, 266. The Army of the Potomac, under McClellan, compelled them to evacuate Yorktown, beat them at Williamsburg, repulsed them at Seven Pines and Fair Oaks (May 31), 267. Meanwhile Stonewall Jackson drove the Federals from the Shenandoah Valley, and then joined General Lee before Richmond, 268. Lee now, in a seven days' campaign of almost constant fighting, raised the siege of the rebel capital, pursuing McClellan to the James, where the latter repulsed the rebels, with great loss, at Malvern Hill (July 1), 269. The rebels next, moved against the Army of Virginia, commanded by General Pope, and, after a series of conflicts, beginning at Cedar Mountain and ending at Chantilly (September 1), compelled him to fall back within the defences of Washington, 271. Lee next invaded Maryland. McClellan gained a victory over him at South Mountain, and by the great battle of Antietam (September 17) forced the rebels, who had meanwhile captured Harper's Ferry, back to Virginia, 272. Burnside superseded McClellan, And was badly defeated at Fredericksburg (December 13), 273.
During the summer, the Sioux war broke out. It was suppressed the next year, 274.
1863. President Lincoln signalized the opening of the new year by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, 275.
In the west, east of the Mississippi, the Federals under Rosecrans were defeated at the Chickamauga (September 19 and 20), and besieged in Chattanooga. The siege was raised, and the enemy thoroughly defeated by Grant, in a three days' battle, beginning November 23, 276 Soon after, the rebels were repulsed before Knoxville, by Burnside, 277.
In Arkansas, the rebels were repulsed (July 4) at Helena, and, in September, Little Rock was captured, 278.
1863. Vicksburg was surrendered to General Grant (July 4), 279, and a few days later Port Hudson to General Banks, 281.
In Virginia, General Hooker superseded Burnside and was severely beaten at Chancellorsville (May 2, 3, 4) by Lee, who soon after set out for a second invasion of the loyal states. General Meade superseded Hooker beat Lee in the great and decisive battle of Gettysburg (July 1, 2, 3), and pursued him into Virginia, 283.
Rebel sympathizers excited a riot in New York city, in opposition to drafting, 286.
1864. Among the earlier events were the expedition to Meridian, 287, the Red River expedition, 288, a Federal defeat at Olustee, Florida, and the loss of Plymouth and Washington, North Carolina, 289.
Grant was appointed to the chief command of the Union armies, 290, and, with the Army of the Potomac, crossing the Rapidan (May 4), met the enemy in bloody conflicts in the Wilderness, at Spottsylvania, the North Anna, and Cold Harbor. Then crossing the James (June 14). joined by Butler from Fortress Monroe, he laid siege to Petersburg and Richmond, 291, and fought his way south as far as Hatcher's Run (October 27). Meanwhile the rebels made a third invasion of Maryland, 294. They were soon obliged to retreat, but hovered near the Potomac till General Sheridan, in a brilliant campaign, ending in the victory of Cedar Creek (October 19), closed the war in the Shenandoah valley, 295.
In the west, General Sherman made his famous march to the sea. Setting out (May 6) from Chattanooga, he fought the enemy at Resaca, Dallas, and Kenesaw Mountain, and captured Atlanta (September 2), 297; then sweeping through Georgia to the sea, he carried Fort McAllister by assault, and took Savannah (December 21), 300. Meanwhile the rebels had been successfully resisted at Franklin, and disastrously routed at Nashville (December 15, 16) by General Thomas, 299.
The rebels invaded Missouri, but were driven back, 301.
Three English-built rebel cruisers were captured, one of them being the notorious privateer Alabama (June 19), 301.
1865. Fort Fisher, North Carolina, was captured (January 15). Sherman swept northward through South Carolina, drove the rebels from Columbia, 304; compelled them to evacuate Charleston; then pressing forward into North Carolina, beat them at Averysboro' and at Bentonsville, and entered Goldsboro' (March 23), 305.
Grant's army began the final campaign (March 29), gave the rebels a crushing defeat at Five Forks, captured Richmond and Petersburg, and compelled Lee to surrender (April 9), near Appomattox Court House, 307. Mobile was taken, 306. Before the end of May all the rebel armies had surrendered, 309.
Jefferson Davis was captured (May 11), 310.
1866. The Atlantic cable was laid, 315.
1867. The Reconstruction Bill became a law, 316.
1867. Nebraska was admitted to the Union, 316. Alaska was purchased from Russia, 316.
1868. President Johnson was impeached, tried, and acquitted, 317. The Fourteenth Amendment was adopted, 318. Universal amnesty proclaimed, 318.
1869. General Grant was inaugurated president, 318. The Pacific Railroad was completed, 319.
1870. The Fifteenth Amendment was adopted, 319. The "Fenians" invaded Canada, 319.
1871. The Joint High Commission met at Washington and concluded a treaty in reference to the Alabama and other claims, 319. A terrible conflagration visited Chicago, 320.
1872. The Alabama Claims Commission sat at Geneva and awarded to the United States $15,500,000, 320. A destructive fire occurred at Boston, 321. President Grant was re-elected, 821.
1873. Grant began his second term of office as president, 321. A war with the Modoc Indians took place, 322. A general depression in mercantile and financial affairs was felt throughout the country, 322.
1874. Political disturbances prevailed in Louisiana and South Carolina, 322.
1875. Colorado applied for admission to the Union, 323.
1876. The Centennial Exhibition was held at Philadelphia, 323. War was carried on against the Sioux Indians, 323. Colorado was admitted to the Union, 323. Rutherford B. Hayes was elected president, 324.
1877. The Electoral Commission was established by Congress, 324. President Hayes was inaugurated, 324.
1878. The Silver Bill was passed by Congress. The Bankrupt Act was repealed. The Fisheries Commission sat at Halifax, and awarded to Great Britain $5,500,000, 326.
1879. Specie payment was resumed, 326. The Ute Indians created disturbances in Colorado. A general revival of business took place throughout the United States, 327.
1861. Decree for the emancipation of serfs issued by the Emperor of Russia.
Expedition against Mexico by France, England, and Spain. The two latter powers soon abandoned the enterprise.
Italy, except Rome and Venice, united into one kingdom under Victor Emmanuel.
1862. Revolution in Greece, and flight of King Otho. Prince George, of Denmark, was made king the next year.
Maximilian declared Emperor of Mexico.
1864. War of Austria and Prussia against Denmark. The latter power lost Schleswig-Holstein and other territory.
War between Spain and Peru.
Paraguay declared war against Brazil. The Argentine Republic took sides with Brazil.
1865. War between Spain and Chili. Peru joined Chili in the war.
1866. War of Prussia and Italy against Austria and other German States. Defeat of the Austrians in the great battle of Sadowa. Austria gave up Venice, which was made over to Italy. Prussia obtained great territorial acquisitions, and the leadership of all Germany.
Insurrection in Candia (Crete) against Turkey.
1867. The provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick united under one government, called the Dominion of Canada.
The Emperor Maximilian was captured by the Mexicans, tried, found guilty of usurpation, and shot.
1868. Invasion of Abyssinia by the British, on account of the refusal of the Abyssinians to release the British consul and others whom they had captured. It soon ended, by the capture of the fortress of Magdala and the suicide of King Theodore.
Revolution in Spain. General Prim placed at the head of the government, and Queen Isabella expelled.
Disraeli succeeded Lord Derby as prime minister of England, who was in turn succeeded by Gladstone.
Differences sprang up between Turkey and Greece, growing out of the action of the Greek government in the war with Crete. They were amicably settled by a conference of the Great Powers.
Civil war in Japan.
Insurrection in Cuba.
1869. End of civil war in Japan.
Cortez established regency in Spain. Marshal Serrano was appointed regent.
The OEcumenical Council was opened at Rome by Pope Plus IX.
1870. Canada was invaded by the Fenians. They were quickly repulsed. A great conflagration took place in Constantinople. 7000 buildings were burned and 2000 lives lost.
War was declared by France against Germany.
1871. Amadeus accepted the crown of Spain.
The war between France and Germany ended. The provinces of Alsace and Lorraine were ceded to Germany, and France required to pay an indemnity.
1873. The Sultan of Zanzibar signed a treaty with Great Britain for the suppression of the slave-trade.
King Amadeus abdicated the throne of Spain, and a republic was established.
An international exposition was held at Vienna.
1874. Senor Castelar resigned, and Marshal Serrano was elected president of the Spanish republic.
1875. The Turks made war upon Herzegovina. The insurrection in Bosnia and Servia was suppressed.
1876. Queen Victoria was entitled "Empress of India."
1877. War was declared by Russia against Turkey.
1878. The war between Russia and Turkey ended. Treaty of Berlin signed.
An international exposition was held at Paris.
A defensive treaty between England and Turkey was concluded.
1879. Marshal MacMahon, of France, resigned.
Zulu war in South Africa.
War between Chili and Peru.
Among the eminent persons who closed their career during this Period were,
Elizabeth Barrett Browning,
Lydia H. Sigourney,
Salmon P. Chase,
John Stuart Mill,
Dr. David Livingstone,
Sir Edwin Landseer,
Hans Christian Andersen,
John Lothrop Motley,
William Cullen Bryant,
Richard Henry Dana,
William Lloyd Garrison,
© 1999, 2000, 2001 for NEGenWeb Project by Ted & Carole Miller