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homestead near Adams, in Gage county, in 1903 being graduated from the Adams high school. In 1911 he was graduated from Cotner University with the degree of A. B., later took special work in astronomy at the State University of Missouri, and completed his theological course at Cotner. His first ministerial charge was Palmer, Nebraska, where he remained two years, then went to Alliance and during his term of two years there built up the congregation and erected the first stucco church edifice in Western Nebraska. He then came to Scottsbluff as pastor of the First Christian church, which charge he subsequently resigned and went to the southern part of Sioux county, where he took up a homestead, and while proving up, supplied the church at Gering, and accepted the regular pastorate of this church in the fall of 1918. As a minister Reverend Woten exemplifies his Christian faith in every possible way, but he is a liberal-minded man and a strong advocate of practical Christianity. The needs of his congregation spiritually are well looked after without encroaching too much on his time, and he gives attention to a transportation business and operates an omnibus line between Gering and Scottsbluff, which carries the mail between the two points.
   In 1912 Mr. Woten was united in marriage to Miss Lena Colborn, who was born at Palmer, Merrick county, Nebraska. They have three little daughters, namely: Arlene, Pauline and Frances, their ages ranging from five to two years. Mr. Woten is a Democrat in his political opinions. He belongs to the order of Odd Fellows, and has served as chaplain of the local lodge, and has also served in the highest office of the local organization W. 0. W. The Woten name is of German origin, but the ancestors of Reverend Woten have belonged to Great Britain since the Fifteenth century.

   FRANK L. FOREMAN, who is one of the substantial and representative farmers of the Mitchell valley, has been a resident of this great commonwealth for more than three decades, so that his personal experience covers virtually the entire period marking the development and progress of this now favored section of Nebraska. He is a man born to the soil who deserted it, but with the passing years found no satisfaction in the turmoil of cosmopolitan life and returned to a farm where kind mother earth has given him a bountiful reward for his labors.
   Frank Foreman was born in McDonough county, Illinois, March 5, 1868, the son of James and Hettie (Lamb) Foreman. The father was a native of the Buckeye state, born in Bellmont county, in 1838, who died in Gering at the age of sixty-eight years. Hettie Lamb was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1848 and passed away in Nebraska in 1916, a woman of great honor and warm heart. There were seven children in the Foreman family, of whom Frank was the eldest; the others were: William, a freighter at Thermopolis, Wyoming; Elmer, a freighter at Big Trail, Wyoming; Zella, the wife of Leonard Early, lives on the old homestead in Scottsbluff county; Bessie, the deceased wife of Thomas Bracken; one who died in infancy; and Charles, the second boy, who died in Missouri.
   James Foreman was a barber by trade but a farmer by vocation. He also had the honor of being a member of the Union army during the Civil War, enlisting in Illinois under Colonel Bob Ingersoll in the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry. He served four years and two months during that memorable conflict, taking part in many of the hardest fought battles of the war. Twice his mount was shot from under him but he lived to return home after the close of hostilities.
   Like so many men who had been in the army, Mr. Foreman was not contented with the conditions he had known before his service and determined to avail himself of the opportunities afforded farther west. With his family he came to Cheyenne county, Nebraska, in 1886, when that country was still unbroken prairie, took up a homestead, proved up on it, established a home, made good improvements on his farm and there engaged in general agriculture and stock-raising for a number of years. Later he retired and located in Gering where he took an active part in communal affairs. He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, helping the other members in the direction of the affairs of the local post, while in politics he was a staunch supporter of the Democratic party. The family were members of the Christian church.
   Frank Foreman received his educational advantages in the public schools of Illinois and as usual with a boy on a farm assisted with such work as his years and strength permitted during the vacations. He grew to manhood sturdy, resourceful, and self-reliant, all qualities which stood him in good stead when he accompanied the family to the new settlement in Cheyenne county, where he also took up a homestead on which he proved up, made many improvements necessary in a frontier community, established a home and soon was engaged in general farming and stock-raising. He knew and overcame many of the hardships



and trials of a frontiersman, such as drought, insect pests and lack of adequate machinery for agricultural work, but none daunted him. After some years Mr. Foreman was able to dispose of his property to great advantage and left the farm to locate in Gering, where he opened and operated a barber shop, but the call of the land was in his blood and he responded by purchasing a farm in section 28-23-56, where he is the proprietor of forty acres of highly cultivated irrigated land on which he raises beets and conducts a general truck farm. The country looks very different today with its green cover than did the prairies when Mr. Foreman first located in the state, and he often speaks of the great happiness that comes to the farmer today with his insured crop no matter what the weather conditions may be.
   Mr. Moreman (sic) has ever been a man of active mind, he takes interest in all questions of the day entering actively into the civic life of the community and had the honor of being a delegate to the first county convention which located the seat of justice of Scottsbluff county at Gering. Independent all his life, it is but natural that this man should be independent in politics and he draws no party line in casting his vote directing his influence to the best man. Fraternally he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Rebeccas (sic), and the Woodmen of the World. There are seven children in the happy Foreman family: Glen, who has a ranch in Sioux county and a farm in the Scottsbluff locality; Loren, a teamster in Mitchell; Ray, also living in Mitchell; Zeta, Gwelda, and Wayne all at home. The family are members of the Methodist church.
   Mr. Foreman married at Hull, Nebraska, Grace Beck, who was born in Indiana, but reared in Nebraska from the age of ten years.

   HENRY A. SCHMODE, who, as superintendent of the plant of the Great Western Beet Sugar Company at Scottsbluff, fills a position of responsibility as he should, for he is a highly trained man in this particular industry in which he has had much practical experience.
   Henry A. Schmode was born in Silesia, Germany, in 1870. His parents were Constantine and Ernestina (Bleich) Schmode, natives of Posen, Germany. Of their eight children five survive, but only two of these live in the United States, Henry A. and Frederick, the latter being a machinist at Denver, Colorado. The father owned a woolen factory and employed fifty-five men in producing broadcloth. The parents were members of the Lutheran church.
   After being graduated from the high school in his home town, Henry A. Schmode served two years in the German army, as was the law. In 1893 he came to the United States and located at Norfolk, Nebraska, and there started the first Steffin process in the United States, and was superintendent of construction for one year, then went to California and in the following year started the second Steffin process plant in the United States, at Chino, in San Bernardino county. He remained there five years with the American Beet Sugar Company. From there he came to Grand Island, Nebraska, as master mechanic of the factory of the same firm and continued two years, then went to Ames, Nebraska, where he was associated with the Standard Beet Sugar Company for one year as master mechanic and for six years as superintendent of the factory. Mr. Schmode's services were then secured by the Great Western Sugar Company and he was so connected at Fort Collins for six months, then was master mechanic of the factory at Windsor, Colorado, from which plant he came to Scottsbluff and after superintending the construction of the Great Western's plant here, became superintendent and has continued his efficient service in that capacity ever since.
   At Norfolk, Nebraska, in 1897, Mr. Schmode was united in marriage to Hulda Mittelstadt, and they have three children, namely: Mart C., who is employed in the sugar factory; Edwin H. and Dorothy Irma, both of whom are attending school.
   Mr. Schmode and his family are members of the Presbyterian church, of which he has been a trustee for the past five years and during 1918 was president of the board. He is a Scottish Rite Mason and both he and wife belong to the Eastern Star. In addition to his scientific knowledge and executive efficiency, Mr. Schmode is a broad-minded, intelligent man and a valuable citizen. He gives his political support to the Republican party.

   FRED ANSEN. --There were many residents of Scottsbluff county as well as other sections in this state and in Colorado, who knew, respected and esteemed the late Fred Ansen, whose family is a valued one in the county. He was an honest, upright, industrious man, fulfilling every duty of life to the best of his ability, injuring none and helping many.
   Fred Ansen was born in Alsace-Lorraine, France, August 15, 1856. In 1881 he came to the United States and for a year worked in one of the big packing plants in Chicago, Illi-



nois, but he was not satisfied there as he had come to America in the hope of owning a farm. This hope he fulfilled in 1882 by locating in Buffalo county, Nebraska, where he secured a tract of land on which he lived three years. He then had a chance to sell it to advantage and went to Colorado, but on the way through Cheyenne county, Nebraska, stopped long enough to take up a homestead. He continued on his trip to Colorado where he was employed as a cook in mining camps until 1887, then returned to settle on his homestead and remained seven years, In the meanwhile he bought a farm in Mitchell valley, Nebraska, and moved there in 1894, and that farm remained the family home until 1905, when he came to Scottsbluff. Here Mrs. Ansen and the children remained while he once more returned to work in Colorado. His death occurred March 27, 1909. He was a Republican in politics, and both he and wife were members of the Lutheran church.
   In 1885 Fred Ansen was united in marriage to Miss Theresa Siebke, who was born in Germany, a daughter of John and Caroline (Haase) Siebke, who spent their lives in Germany. Mrs. Ansen came to the United States in 1881 and was married in Buffalo county, Nebraska. All of their six children are living: Mable, Margaret, Charles, Maude and May, twins, and Gladys. Maude is the wife of Steward Rice, a farmer in Scottsbluff county. The other daughters reside with their mother at Scottsbluff. Charles Ansen, the only son, entered military service in September, 1917, and crossed to Europe as a member of the American Expeditionary Force and is with the Army of Occupation yet in Germany. He is a young man of fine qualities, and has done his duty as a soldier.

   WILLIAM S. CLINE, one of the retired residents of Scottsbluff, has been one of the substantial farmers and highly esteemed citizens of Scottsbluff county for many years. When he came first to this section he made wise investments and now owns some of the best farm land in the upper valley. He has taken active and useful part in all civic and commercial movements for the betterment of the county, since making the Panhandle his home.
   William S. Cline was born in Hendricks county, Indiana February 27, 1857. the eldest of a family of six children born to John F. and Mary Jane (Goben) Cline. Both parents were born in Indiana, from which state they loved to Clark county, Iowa, in 1866, where the father bought a farm on which he and his wife passed the remainder of their days. They were members of the Christian church, most worthy people in every relation of life. William S. Cline has two brothers and two sisters: Francis Marion, lives retired at Scottsbluff; Jesse Bennett, is a farmer in Iowa; Margaret, is the wife of Andrew Adams, a farmer in Iowa, and Rose, is the wife of Perl King, an Iowa farmer.
   William S. Cline attended the public schools and was reared to farm pursuits. In 1905 he came to Scottsbluff county and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land east of the town and eighty acres where the sugar factory now stands. He owns eighty acres of fine irrigated land north of Scottsbluff that would command a high price in the market if it were for sale. It may not be out of place to say that when Mr. Cline first came to Nebraska he was practically without capital, but he had the good judgment to take advantage of the opportunities offered here to a young man of energy and industry, with the result that by the time he had reached middle age he was able to retire with a competency.
   On November 11, 1883, Mr. Cline married Miss Margaret Bevins, who was born in Iowa, a daughter of Asher and Anna Bevins, the former born in Highland county, Ohio, and the latter in Delaware. They died in Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Cline have the following children: Rose, the wife of C. C. Terhune, a railroad man at Omaha; Nellie, the wife of Otis Simmons, a carpenter at Scottsbluff; Millie, the wife of Charles Bisel, of Scottsbluff; Walter, is a farmer but lives in Scottsbluff; Homer, operates a garage in Scottsbluff, and Lola, the wife of George Brown, who is employed in the sugar factory here. Mr. Cline and his family are members of the Presbyterian church. He is a Democrat in politics and has always been a loyal party man but has not been willing to accept public office. Since 1910 he has been a resident of Scottsbluff, a welcome addition to the town's most reputable citizenship.

   EDWARD C. DUNHAM, who is a prominent citizen of Scottsbluff county, and for many years active in the agricultural field, since 1917, when he retired and moved into Scottsbluff, has given much attention to the Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of which he is president. Mr. Dunham was born at St. Louis, Missouri, December 13, 1856.
   The parents of Mr. Dunham were Cornelius L. and Mary (Buswell) Dunham, the former of whom was born at New Haven,



Connecticut, and the latter in the state of Vermont. He was a student at Jacksonville, Illinois, and she, a graduate of Knox College, was a teacher in the School for the Blind, when they met and they were married in that city. Later they moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where the father of Mr. Dunham taught school for four years, then moved to Bureau county, Illinois, where he engaged in farming until 1862. In that year he entered the Union army for service in the Civil War as a member of Company H, Ninety-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry. His service covered three and a half years, during which he was promoted to a sergeancy. He participated in the siege of Vicksburg and in the campaign around Chattanooga and Memphis, Tennessee. After the war closed he returned to his Illinois farm and lived there until 1876 when he removed to Grinnell, Iowa. He accumulated a competency and later he and wife gave themselves the pleasure of extensive travel. They were members of the Congregational church. In his political views the father believed the principles of the Republican party the most advantageous for the country and supported this organization until the end of his life.
   Of the seven children born to Cornelius L. Dunham and his wife, Edward C. was the eldest, the others being: Ida G., the wife of S. H. Blackwell, a farmer near Longmont, Colorado; Cornelius L., an orange grower in Florida; Ralph W., a farmer in southwestern Missouri; E. H., a farmer near Grinnell, Iowa; Alice C., the wife of J. R. Hannay, a farmer near Grinnell, and Mary Cornelia, who still lives in the old home at Grinnell, Iowa.
   Edward C. Dunham was educated in Iowa and carefully trained by his intellectual father. From 1876 until 1896 he had entire charge of his father's farm and afterward bought a part of the old home place. In 1896 he moved to Arkansas and was interested there until 18.. (sic) in growing strawberries and apples, after which he came to Scottsbluff county and bought land in Pleasant Valley. In 1917 the family left the farm and came into the city, where they have a wide social circle and Mr. Dunham gives time, as indicated above, to the affairs of the Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, that does business in five counties in the western part of the. state. He is also city assessor. Mr. Dunham located in this county on a government unit as did his daughter, so the family really owns two units. The farm on which the family lived is now devoted to grain and sugar beets and Mr. Dunham also owns 173 acres, all of irrigated land, and an additional tract near the city limits.
   In 1881 Mr. Dunham was united in marriage to Miss Hannah M. Mann, who was born in Oswego county, New York, a daughetr (sic) of John H. and Susan (Willis) Mann, natives of New York, who moved to a farm in Iowa in 1871, later to Iowa City for three years and still later to Grinnell. Mrs. Dunham was the fourth born in a family of six children, five of whom are living. Mr. and Mrs. Dunham have two sons and one daughter, namely: Dwight Mann, who homesteaded in South Dakota; Robert E., who homesteaded in Nebraska, has been rural mail carrier out of Scottsbluff for seven years, and Mary Florence, who, lives at home. Mr. Dunham and his family belong to the Presbyterian church. At one time while living in Iowa, Mr. Dunham was quite active in the Populist party but now he casts an independent vote. He is a broad-minded, thoughtful man and has always had the best interests of his country at heart.

   WILLIAM W. EMICK, who is secretary and treasurer of the Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, has been identified with this important business enterprise since January, 1915, since which time he has devoted himself largely to its concerns, although he has many additional personal interests. He came to Nebraska in early manhood, invested in land in Scottsbluff county in 1909, and has been a resident of Scottsbluff since 1918.
   William W. Emick was born in Wayne county, Ohio, April 22, 1872, and is a son of Adam and Catherine (Sweigert) Emick, the former of whom was born in Germany and the latter in Pennsylvania. Adam Emick was brought to the Uited (sic) States when two years old, was reared in Ohio and married there.
   Of his twelve children seven are living, two of these being in Nebraska, William W. and Charles, the latter of whom is a merchant at Creighton. Adam Emick was a hard-working man, was a farmer and a carpenter, whereby he accumulated a competency. After his first wife died he married Alice Okehauf and they had three children, two of whom live in Ohio and one at Chadron, Nebraska. In politics Adam Emick was a Democrat, and all his life he was a member of the German Lutheran church. He lived to, be ninety-four years old.
   William W. Emick obtained his education in the public schools in his native state and remained assisting his father on the farm until he was twenty years of age. He then came to Knox county, Nebraska, and for three years was a clerk in a store at Bazile Mills and afterward at other points, also traveled as a

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