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low Canyon, northeast of Bayard. He also hauled wood out of the hills, making sixteen trips one year, and sold at Bayard and Minatare. Then corn was so cheap it sometimes was used as fuel.
   Mr. Jessup homesteaded on section 30-20-53, on which land he now lives, owning, as mentioned above, two hundred acres of fine farming land. For three years Mr. Jessup was a resident of Melbeta, then sold his lumber interest to Cox & Company and for three years was with the Proudfit Lumber Company at Minatare. Since he has given his entire attention to his farm industries and has been very successful.
   On April 4, 1904, Mr. Jessup was married to Miss Flossie M. Learned, who is a daughter of Orlando and Lucy A. (Davis) Learned who came here in 1888. The mother of Mrs. Jessup died in November, 1916, but the father, who is a Civil War veteran, lives in the Soldiers' Home at Grand Island. He was nineteen years old when he enlisted at Quincy, Illinois, in Company G, Sixteenth Illinois volunteer infantry, in which he served four years and three months, and was wounded March 19, 1865. He took part in many of the serious battles of the war. In April, 1888, he homesteaded in Banner and Scottsbluff counties, and still owns the land. Mr. and Mrs. Jessup have two children, namely: Mildred O., who was born July 28, 1905; and James Loren, who was born May 6, 1912. Mr. and Mrs. Jessup are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is an independent voter and has never accepted a political office. He belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America.

    ELMER WALLAGE. --The vigorous and progressive population of Scottsbluff county is made up largely of successful exponents of the agricultural and livestock industries. In every part of the county farmers seem to thrive, and as an able and honored representative of this oldest of industries, as well as being entitled to pioneer honors in Nebraska, Mr. Wallage is specially entitled to consideration in this history. He is descended from a long and honored line of ancestors who played an important part in the history of the Old Dominion, as his father was a native of Virginia who emigrated from the eastern part of the United States and became one of the hardy and rugged pioneers of the eastern part of Illinois, when the middle west was being settled up. As a young man David Wallage located on a homestead just west of the Indiana line and there conducted general farming operations as his land was cleared and he was able to put the rich soil under cultivation. Not confining his operation to one line, Mr. Wallage also raised stock and for many years was one of the representative agriculturists of the eastern section of Illinois, where he engaged in business until his death at the advanced age of seventy-two years. David F. Wallage married Louisa Tweedy, born in Indiana, who was his faithful helper and devoted wife and survived him for some years, passing away after a long and worthy career at the age of eighty-eight years. Elmer Wallace was born on his parents' farm in Illinois, May 9, 1875. He was reared in the healthy atmosphere of the country, attended the excellent public schools afforded by the state and as soon as his age and strength permitted began to assist his father in the farm work and thus at an. early age was a good practical farmer, fully able while yet a youth, to conduct many of the enterprises carried on by the older members of the family. He learned when to plant crops that were best suited to the climate and soil of the rich river bottom lands, what kinds of livestock brought the greatest returns and was an all-around business man. For some years after attaining his majority Mr. Wallage remained in Illinois, but he was ambitious, and hearing of the free lands and the many advantages afforded farther west, determined that he, too, would share in the bounty of the government and in 1904 came to Nebraska, locating in Sioux county, where he at once began his promising career as a cattle man, for the great plains at that time were the Mecca of all the livestock men of the country. Putting his knowledge of farming and the animal industry to excellent use, Mr. Wallage soon was engaged in an extensive business that brought him well earned and well deserved success. He soon became the proprietor of a well developed and cultivated landed estate on which he had an attractive and practical home, and through his association with the varied farm industries of the region was known as a vigorous and progressive farmer and stock raiser. By hard work, keen foresight in calculating the cattle market and the progressive methods he inaugurated on-this western land, Mr. Wallage achieved his own financial success and had the satisfaction of knowing that all his fortune was of his own making as he had no assistance of any kind. From first coming to the west, he had studied on the great agricultural problems of the day and in his wide reading soon became interested in the question of irrigated land, and being a man of vision soon came to believe that the man who could have a plentiful supply of water on the high plains with the never-fail-



ing sunshine, would be the great factor in food production of the future. With this in mind, Mr. Wallage disposed of his large holdings in Sioux county, and in 1911, came to Scottsbluff county, purchasing eighty acres of land under ditch. This farm has been raised to a high state of cultivation under his careful management, is all irrigated and today is one of the finest farming estates in this section, noted for its progressive and prosperous business men. For this section is known not only in the middle west, but all over the country as the "Garden Spot" of Nebraska, which is one of the richest farming states in the Union. Since locating in this far western section with the never-failing water, Mr. Wallage has been engaged in diversified farming, which he believes pays the best, as large crops of all products find a ready market.
   Mr. Wallage married Ella Wendle, a native of Indiana, who was born in Parke county, that state, on March 14, 1882. She was the daughter of a substantial Indiana farmer, who now lives retired in Parke county, her mother having died some years ago. Mrs. Wallage received her educational advantages in the public schools of her native county, grew to womanhood there and after her marriage accompanied her husband to the new home in the west, taking an energetic and active part in the upbuilding of the comfortable fortune which has been the reward of their joint labors and today is regarded as one of the broadest, and most worthy women of the community in which she and her family make their home. Three children have blessed this union: Oather W., Jarvis W., and Juanita, all of whom are still at home and are fortunate children, as their parents have determined that each one of them shall have every advantage in an educational way that county and state afford to equip them for whatever their life work may be.
   The family are members of the Baptist church, of which they are generous supporters, while Mr. Wallage is a staunch supporter of the principles of the Democratic party.

    JOHN McNETT, who is one of Banner county's most respected and best known pioneers, still lives on his ranch on section thirty, township twenty, range fifty-three, land which he pre-empted thirty-five years ago. Coming to this section originally in search of health, he not only long since attained his object, but at the present time is an example of vigorous robustness for his years, that reflects great credit on Nebraska's climate. He was born February 8, 1855, on the river Raisin, on the old Tecumach camping ground, Michigan.
   The parents of Mr. McNett were William and Jane (Deming) McNett, the former of whom was born in Gattaraugus (sic) county, New York, in 1817, the latter of whom was born at Troy, New York, in 1820. As long as she lived she took pride in the fact that when a child of five years General La Fayette, shook her hand and that her grandfather was an aide on the staff of the great French commander during the Revolutionary War. Her father had charge of the Continental fleet and her mother was a niece of Benedict Arnold. The paternal grandfather was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and John McNett, an uncle, was made a guard at Buffalo, when he was but twelve years old, and Mr. McNett of Banner county was named for this uncle.
   In 1883 the father of Mr. McNett located in Michigan. He was a cooper by trade. He grew up in hatred of human slavery and was a pronounced Abolitionist prior to the organization of the Republican party in 1857, at which time he united with it. When the Civil War came on he enlisted and has the unique record of serving one day. He was delegated a mechanic in the Fusileers, an organization that existed one day and was disbanded on the next. Thereafter, during the continuance of the war, he exerted his influence as a civilian. He survived until 1873, dying while on a visit to New York state, when aged fifty-three years. The mother of Mr. McNett lived into old age, passing away at Gothenburg, Dawson county, Nebraska, in 1911, having passed her ninety-first birthday. Of their seven children, three are living: a son and a daughter in California, and Mr. McNett, and his sister, Anna Miller, died in August, 1919, in Nebraska.
   John McNett had educational opportunities in the common schools of both Michigan and Indiana. He remained at home and was the mainstay of the family, assuming responsibilities and over taxing his strength until twenty-eight years old. It was then he came to Nebraska, locating in Cheyenne county in 1886, now Banner county. He pre-empted land and now owns ten hundred and thirty three acres, much of it range land but two hundred acres in timber and farm land. He has raised as many as twenty head of calves a year, but is not as active in the stock business as at one time.
   As noted above, Mr. McNett came to this section for his health and for some years hunting was engaged in both as, a sport and for the wild game diet. He lived in a tent for a time. He tells of an early hunting expedition



when he and his brother covered seventeen mountain sheep in a pocket, as they supposed, as the cliffs were so steep it did not seem possible the sheep could climb out, but since then he has learned more about the agility of mountain sheep, for when he returned in a few moments with his gun the sheep had vanished, having climbed an almost perpendicular bluff one hundred feet high. Another hunting experience that Mr. McNett tells of might have resulted fatally. It was his early ambition to kill a mountain lion and one day after his skill as a marksman had been pretty well established, he discovered the tracks of a lion in the snow, followed them into a gulch in the Horseshoe Horn and climbed the ridge. He found his game so suddenly and unexpectedly that he had no opportunity to hide. The lion emitted a yell that was very threatening and the situation was made worse by Mr. McNett discovering that the snow had dampened the caps in his old-style rifle. He had no time to replace, but with remarkable presence of mind raised the weapon in firing position and slowly retreated, in the meanwhile keeping a careful eye on the lion. For some reason the animal did not take advantage of the encounter, but the occurrence was sufficiently alarming and Mr. McNett was completely cured of desire to hunt mountain lions.
   During those early days in Banner county Mr. McNett assisted in the digging of many wells, owning a regular outfit. He had many experiences in this work, some of them being amusing and others partaking of tragedy. He has been concerned in many movements of a public nature and at one time was appointed a justice of the peace. He qualified but afterward, finding that a large measure of his official duties consisted of performing marriage ceremonies. in which the happy bridegrooms took refuge in scarcity of money in the country to avoid paying a fee, and that cost Judge McNett, twenty-five cents to register, he resigned the office with its doubtful emoluments, and retired to private life.
   In 1886 or 1887 when the county seat fight came up, Mr. McNett, as a resident of the north part of the county favored Ashford instead of Harrisburg. Ashford was a village with a store and flour mill, named for William Ashford, who had established it, and the latter would have been pleased to have his village accepted and before the decision was not above diplomatically distributing a few deeds for land among those whom he considered would advance his ambitions. When his town was not chosen he made no secret of the fact that he would like those deeds returned. Finally a proper occasion arose and Mr. McNett returned the deed he had received but never profited from.
   There is a grotto on Mr. McNett's land that has a notoriety extending far beyond local circles. It is not a cave although the sun never shines into it, but seemingly a natural configuration of the land. For years visitors have come from far and near and among the many names and dates therein inscribed may be found notable signatures, and dates as far back as 1861. Mr. McNett has never married. He lives a contended, independent life, looking after his ranch as suits his convenience. A worthy visitor with proper credentials will meet a generous hospitality and find in McNett a jovial, genial host, whose natural friendliness has brought him a wide circle of well wishers. In politics he has always been a Republican and his influence in county affair's is considerable.

    JOHNNIE T. WYNNE, who is one of the enterprising and independent farmers of Banner county, is a native of Nebraska, and was born in Adams county, March 22, 1885. He is one of a family of nine children born to John and Winifred (Marn) Wynne, who came to Banner county March 22, 1886. The father homesteaded and for many years lived on his land, afterward retiring to Pine Bluffs, Wyoming. The family has been of recognized prominence for a long period.
   Johnnie F. Wynne obtained his education in the public schools of Banner county. On October 20, 1910, he was united in marriage to Miss Ethel Gwartney, who is a daughter of Thomas and Mable (Rice) Gwartney, and they have three engaging children, namely: Elmer, Kenneth and Leon.
   Mr. Wynne and his family reside on the Kinkaid claim on which he filed in 1906, and he now owns six hundred and forty-eight acres, mostly range land. His industries are managed systematically and profitably. He raises from forty to fifty head of cattle yearly and thirty head of pure Duroc-Jersey hogs. He and wife are members of the Roman Catholic church. In politics he is a staunch Democrat but has never entertained the thought of seeking public office. Mr. Wynne like all other members of his family, is held in high regard in Banner county.

   CLARENCE WYNNE, farmer and rancher, who belongs to one of the fine old pionneer (sic) families of Banner county, was born in



this county May 11, 1888, and is one of nine children born to John and Winnefred (Marn) Wynne, extended mention of whom will be found in this work. The parents of Mr. Wynne now live retired at Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, but were residents of Banner county for many years, the father homesteading here in 1886.
   Clarence Wynne was educated in the public schools of Banner county and remained with his parents until his own marriage which took place February 14, 1912, to Miss Alta Houser. The mother of Mrs. Wynne died when she was three months old but her father Nicholas Houser who was a homesteaded (sic) in Banner county, resides near Bushnell, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Wynne have three children: Kenneth, Alta Loretta, and an infant.
   Mr. Wynne owns. six hundred and forty acres of land, mainly ranch land, and he puts it to good purpose. He breeds the best cattle, horses and hogs, Shorthorn, Percheron and Duroc-Jersey, and annually turns off from forty to fifty head of cattle, twenty-five head of horses and twenty head of hogs. Mr. Wynne takes a deep interest in his work and has been exceedingly successful. He and wife are members of the Roman Catholic church. In politics he is a Democrat and he belongs to the Farmers Union.

   EDD S. CROSS, an enterprising, industrious, ambitious, young farmer and ranchman of Banner county, is meeting with deserved success through his well directed agricultural efforts. He was born in Jasper county, Iowa, March 1, 1884, the only child of his parents, John W. and Carrie (Scoville) Cross, the latter of whom died when he was two years old. From that time until he was eight years old, Mr. Cross lived with his grandparents.
   John W. Cross, father of Edd S., was born in Iowa, grew up in that state and followed farming there until 1887. He came then to Banner county, Nebraska, and homesteaded northwest of Harrisburg and remained on that property for five years and still owns it. He went back then to Iowa but in 1909 returned to Banner county and now owns and operates the Clay Springs ranch, a large estate situated seven miles west of Harrisburg. He is active to some extent in Democratic political circles but has never consented to. hold office. His second marriage was to a Miss Hunt, who was born in eastern Nebraska, and they have had seven children, namely: Philip, Fred, John, Carrie, Lydia, Harvey and Benjamin.
   Edd S. Cross obtained a country school education in Iowa. When eight years old he returned to his father and remained with him until his own marriage which took place October 26, 1909, to Miss Lillie M. Marshall. Her mother, like Mr. Cross's mother died when she was young, and her father, Stanley Marshall, is also now deceased. Mrs. Cross homesteaded where she and Mr. Cross now reside and they own two hundred and forty acres of fine land. Mr. Cross leases twelve hundred and eighty acres, and does an extensive business in livestock, raising fifty head of cattle yearly. In commenting on changed conditions that have effected every industry, Mr. Cross mentions that when he was seventeen years old he worked for farmers for fifteen dollars a month and now, even when offering seventy-five dollars a month, he is unable to secure sufficient help. He has always been a hard worker himself and obtained his first financial start by working on the government ditch at Torrington, Wyoming. Both he and Mrs. Cross have a wide acquaintance in the county and they are respected and esteemed by all who know them.

    BERT WARNER, who was born in Henry county, Missouri, January 7, 1882, has spent the greater part of his life in Nebraska, and few native sons are more devoted to the best interests of this state. Mr. Warner and his people have grown prosperous here, while they, in turn, have been most worthy citizens.
   The parents of Mr. Warner, Isaiah and Aletha (Smith) Warner, now live retired at Mitchell, Nebraska. The father was born in Michigan, in June, 1852, and the mother in Virginia, in 1851. From the time the father homesteaded in Banner county in the fall of 1887, he has been a man of prominence in this section. The family settled on the homestead in March, 1888, and that remained the family home until 1912, when the father and mother moved to Mitchell. The father still owns two thousand acres of land in Banner county and has property also in Michigan. Always a Republican in politics, while living in this county he frequently served in local offices and at all times was a man to be depended upon. He is a member of the Farmers Union and belongs to the fraternal order of Modern Woodmen of America. Both parents of Mr. Warner are active members of the Methodist Episcopal church. When Mr. and Mrs. Warner came to Banner county they were in better financial circumstances than many of the early settlers. They brought with



them four milch cows and six head of horses, had wagons, farm implements and household goods, and had the forethought to bring along seventy-five bushels of shelled corn. Later, however, Mr. Warner rode on horseback to Wyoming in order to secure work in the hay fields as at that time there was nothing in this section with which an active man might connect himself and thereby earn even a small wage. Industry, resourcefulness and good management, finally brought adequate reward.
   Of the ten children born to his parents, Bert Warner was the second in order, the others being as follows: Vernie, who met death some twenty-five years ago from a stroke of lightning; Roland, who lives in Banner county; Bertha, who is the wife of Chester Cronn, of Kimball, Nebraska; Lawrence, who lives in Banner county, married Mabel Walker; William, who lives in Banner county, married Minnie Palm; Jay, who lives in Baker City, Oregon, married Hazel Parker; Arthur, who lives in Banner county, married Vina Mitchell; Mollie, who died in childhood; and Alice, who is the wife of Roy Hamilton.
   Bert Warner attended the public schools in Banner county until he was sixteen years old, then spent one year in Mitchell valley and two years at Gering. After teaching one term of school at Gabe Rock, he worked on his father's farm near Gering for a year. Then, in association with a brother, he leased and operated the home farm for a year, In 1904 he homesteaded the one hundred and sixty acre tract on which he lives and took a Kinkaid claim in 1906. Mr. Warner now owns and operates sixteen hundred and twenty acres, all of which is good, arable land suitable for farm purposes, but he only farms a small portion as he desires an extended range, being greatly interested in his fine stock. He breeds Aberdeen Angus cattle, the only breeder of this variety in this section. He finds them profitable and has about one hundred head the year round. He keeps fifteen head of horses and has a fine flock of handsome Rhode Island Red chickens. His industries are all attended to in a careful way Mr. Warner approving of regular discipline and routine on the farm just as in any other business.
   Mr. Warner was married May 15, 1905, to Miss Lela Huffman, who is a daughter of Miles J. and Julia (Armor) Human, the former of whom died at Gering, where he was a very prominent attorney. The mother of Mrs. Warner still resides there. Mr. and Mrs. Warner have two children namely: Albert J., who was born June 16, 1906; and Rowena, who was born September 9, 1913. They maintain a hospitable home and have a wide social circle. Mr. Warner has always been dentified (sic) politically with the Republican party.

   WILLIAM E. DUNN, who came as a homesteader to Banner county in the fall of 1888, did not live long enough afterward to fully realize how wise he had been in the choice of a permanent home for his wife and children. His original homestead and tree claim have become valuable property. Mr. Dunn was born in Jasper county, Iowa, January 31, 1850, and died in Banner county, Nebraska, December 28, 1894.
   The parents of Mr. Dunn were Philip G. and Rachel (Culver) Dunn, the latter of whom died in February, 1899. The father died October 7, 1899. He was born in Ireland and in early life was a sailor. He came to the United States and served in the Mexican War from beginning to end. Afterward he went to Iowa and followed farming there, was married in that state and died there. Three of his sons and one of his daughters are living, Sarah Plumer died in 1914.
   William E. Dunn had good educational opportunities in Iowa, for his father was an intelligent, well read man, and he remained on the home farm until his marriage, which took place December 6, 1873, to Miss Elizabeth Owens. She is a daughter of Ryan and Elizabeth (Huff) Owens, who were natives of Indiana. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Dunn, as follows: Othello M., who resides in Banner county; John H., who also lives in Banner county; Mary E., who is the wife of Emerson Faden, of Banner county; Philip, who is a resident of Banner County; Nellie G., who is the wife of Frank Faden, of Banner county, all of whom were born in Iowa except the two youngest.
   In the fall of 1888 Mr. and Mrs. Dunn came to Banner county and homesteaded on the place now owned by Mrs. Dunn. The original holdings consisted of a homestead and tree claim. She now has several sections well stocked and well improved. Her ranch is operated by her sons and she spends her summers here and her winters with her married daughters. When Mr. Dunn died she found herself at first in hard circumstances with little children to rear alone, but in her older sons she had strong, willing, industrious helpers. Mr. Dunn was a great believer in the value of churches in a community and he and Mrs. Dunn assisted greatly in building up



the Pleasant Hill Christian church, near Hull. He was interested also in the public schools and at all times used his influence to forward movements that would be of permanent benefit to the community. Mr. Dunn was a Democrat in politics. He was never a seeker for office but served as assessor and for many years was a school director. He was a man whose hearty good will toward everyone, brought him many friends and his death was considered a loss to his community.
   Othello M. Dunn, the eldest son of the late William E. Dunn, was born March 28, 1876, in Iowa, and was educated in the schools of Burt and Banner counties. He accompanied his parents to Nebraska and homesteaded on the land he lives on, and in partnership with his brothers is operating his mother's ranch as well as his own land. On November 25, 1908, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Craton, who is a daughter of James and Almira (Sterns), Craton. Mr. and Mrs. Dunn have one daughter, Elva, who was born August 5, 1915. Mrs. Dunn is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics Mr. Dunn is a Republican. Like all other members of his family, he is a man of sterling character and has the respect and esteems of his neighbors.
   John H. Dunn, the second son of the late William I. Dunn, was born in Mills county, Iowa, May 28, 1879. He was educated in the country schools in Nebraska and remained at home until fifteen years old, then adventured forth for himself, and during some years worked in Wyoming, Montana, and in North and South Dakota. In 1907 he homesteaded in Banner county but lives on the homestead adjoining, which belongs to his wife. He is interested with his two brothers in operating his mother's ranch of over thirty-six hundred acres. On April 3, 1912, he was married to Cecil Ogg, at Kimball, Nebraska, but her home was at Geneva. Her people still live there. Mr. and Mrs. Dunn have three children, namely: Willam (sic), born November 15, 1914; Mildred, born July 8, 1916; Warren, born August 22, 1918. In politics John H. Dunn is a staunch Republican. He is considered a man of solid worth like his father.
   Philip G. Dunn, the youngest son of the late William I. Dunn, was born in Burt county, Nebraska, August 23, 1882. He attended school in Banner county and in the city of Scottsbluff, and lived at home with his parents until his marriage, on April 28, 1910, to Miss Nora Adcock, who is a daughter of George and Ida (Evans) Adcock, very early settlers in their section of Wyoming, where they still live. Mr. and Mrs. Dunn have one daughter Helen, who was born September 5, 1914. Mr. Dunn homesteaded where he now lives, in 1906, and in partnership with his brothers, operates about six sections of land, raising annually many cattle. He recalls the journey in the covered wagon from Burt to Banner county across the unfenced prairie. Although his admirable mother tried to be courageous, there was much in the surroundings to discourage her, although by that time the dangerous wild horses had been mainly driven off the range. She found the sand storms and the high winds hard to get accustomed to, but finally, in helping others, she apparently forgot her own annoyances. The sons revere the memory of their father, and they tenderly cherish one of whom they speak as "the best of mothers." Like his brothers, Mr. Dunn is an industrious, competent business man and good citizen.

    WILLIAM C. SPAHR, whose personal recollections of Nebraska reach back thirty-three years, is one of Banner county's representative citizens and substantial farmers and ranchers. He is widely known for he has been active in public development in many ways and has been a useful factor in bringing about the acknowledged high standard of Banner county's citizenship. He is a native of Indiana, born at Portland, in Jay county, September 14, 1854.
   The parents of Mr. Spahr were John and Exie (Hildreth) Spahr, both of whom were born near Xenia, Ohio. Of their nine children William C. and his sister Catherine are the only ones in Nebraska, the latter being the wife of William Louck of Loup City. Early in their married life the parents of Mrs. Spahr accompanied the Hildreth family when they removed to Indiana from Ohio because the latter state had become thickly settled and land had increased in price. They found cheap land in Jay county, Indiana, and seemingly none of the family would ever have need to go farther west to find either land or opportunity. The father became a farmer and stockman there, prospered and developed Into a citizen of prominence. On the Republican ticket he was elected county commissioner, county assessor and county treasurer, and was held trustworthy in both public and private life. He and wife were earnest and willing workers in the Methodist Episcopal church. He, assisted by his son William C., cut and hewed the logs from which the first church

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