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the pleasant task of recording that in so large a family, not only the parents survive but all of the children, the eldest being aged forty-two years and the youngest twenty-one. It speaks well for sturdy original stock and wholesome living.
   Frank Deal was four years old when his parents settled in Hamilton county, Nebraska. He grew up on his father's farm and attended the public schools, afterward following the life of farmer and stockman in Hamilton county until 1914, when he came to Morrill county. He secured a homestead of eighty acres situated near Bayard, which he afterward sold to advantage, then purchased three hundred acres, ninety- one of which are irrigated and the remainder is pasture. He has done remarkably well raising and feeding cattle and hogs, turning off sixty head of cattle and a hundred head of hogs annually. He also raises grain and potatoes and other standard vegetables, has some fruit and gives more or less attention to poultry, in fact all the industries that go to carrying on of a fine modern farm, may be found here.
   In 1906, at Aurora, Nebraska, Frank Deal was united in marriage to Miss Ocie Castle, a daughter of Frank and Margaret Castle, the former of whom was born in Iowa and the latter in North Carolina, both being deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Deal have four children, two daughters and two sons: Mildred, Howard, Morris and Fay. Mr. and Mrs. Deal are members of the Baptist church. A good citizen, in the sense of aiding all worthy enterprises in the county to the extent of his ability, Mr. Deal has never found it necessary to identify himself with any particular political party and he votes independently according to his own judgment. Both as a business man and as a neighbor Mr. Deal is highly esteemed.

    JOHN R. EWBANK, a man of large possessions and business and social importance in Kimball county, has been a resident for twenty years, during which time he has been worthy in his citizenship and prominent in many lines of useful activity. He is known in other sections of Nebraska as well as in adjacent states, and wherever he has lived, enterprise and practical progressiveness have marked his way.
   John E. Ewbank was born in Yorkshire, England, August 15, 1856, the fourth in a family of five children born to Thomas and Mary (Falshaw) Ewbank, the others being as follows: Christopher, Robert, Richard and Margaret. All three brothers are deceased. The sister survives and is the widow of John Metcalfe and the mother of four children. Mr. Ewbank's parents died in England. He obtained a fair education and worked in various ways in his native land prior to 1881, when, in company with William Percival, Ernest Stamp and William Metcalfe, he came to the United States. He located first at Bismark, in North Dakota, but found the climate unexpectedly cold, causing him to remove to Wisconsin where he worked for eight months in a meat market in Madison county, learning in the meanwhile of the advantages offered in Nebraska. He came to this state in 1883 and homesteaded a tree claim near Ansley, in Custer county, subsequently selling the same and locating eight miles east, in Laramie county, Wyoming. There he remained about five years, then went to Colorado, where he purchased a homstead (sic), and bought ten thousand acres of ranch land and engaged extensively in the cattle and sheep business.
   In 1899 Mr. Ewbank came to Kimball county and embarked in the same business together with engaging in general farming. He now owns 2,240 acres of fine land, operates it judiciously and raises some of the best stock that is marketed from Kimball county. His improvements have brought his property to a high standard of value, and the family home, with its modern comforts and conveniences, compares favorably with a city residence and has the added advantages of beautiful country surroundings.
   In 1889 Mr. Ewbank was united in marriage to Miss Alice A. Wilkerson, who is a daughter of John Wilkerson, of Pine Bluff, Wyoming, and they have the following children: Mary, who is the wife of Guy Graves, a merchant at Kimball, and they have two children, Elizabeth Ann and Virginia Jane; Isabel, who is the wife of Herbert Linn; Margaret, who is the wife of Arthur E. Atkins, a sketch of whose father appears in this work; John and Robert, who attend to their father's ranch; Avelyn and Helen, who reside at home; and Richard, who is the manager of the home farm. Mr. Ewbank and his family are members of the Episcopal church, attending services at Kimball. Since coming here twenty years ago, Mr. Ewbank has witnessed many remarkable changes in the development of this section and with his progressive ideas, sensible and practical, he has done a useful part in the same and may take justifiable pride in the fact that he has reared sons who are capable and willing to carry on the business he founded. He has additional interests aside



from those mentioned, being a director of the Kimball Lumber and Supply Company, and a stockholder and one of the board of directors of the Citizens Bank at Kimball.

    R. F. DURNAL, who carries on extensive agricultural operations in Morrill county, is one of the solid, dependable citizens and successful business men of this section. Mr. Durnal was born in Ohio, December 1, 1863, and is as son of Samuel and Sarah (Johnson) Durnal.
   Samuel Durnal and his wife were born in Ohio. They were farming people there and when they removed to Illinois in 1869, settled on farm land in Clark county, and in the course of time Mr. Durnal became the owner of large farm properties. His death occurred at the age of sixty-six years. His widow still survives and resides in Clark county. Of the family of four children, two sons and two daughters, R. F. of this review was the first born.
   R. F. Durnal atended (sic) the public schools in Clark county, Illinois, and grew up on the home farm. When he determined to seek a permanent home for himself in the western country, his first intention was to locate in Kansas, and with wagon and team crossed the country until he reached his objective point in the Sunflower state. He considered a number of locations, but finding none to altogether satisfy him, drove on into Cheyenne county, now Morrill, homesteaded and still lives on the place which he first pre-empted and secured a tree claim. Mr. Durnal now owns a large tract of land and devotes it to general farming and stockraising. His home place is well improved and his progressive and systematic methods have made his industrial undertakings very profitable. Mr. Durnal is financially interested in the Bayard Bank.
   Mr. Durnal was married to Miss Mary Semiller, and they have four children: Harry, who resides in Morrill county; Fred, who also resides in Morrill county, both sons being married; Mrs. Alta Ericson, who lives at Bayard, Nebraska; and Hazel, who lives with her parents. Mr. Durnal is a member of the order of Modern Woodmen. As a good and intelligent citizen, he has always taken some interest in politics and casts his vote with the Republican party.

    EDWARD M. QUINN, one of the youger (sic) generation of ranchers in Morrill county, has set a pace in his agricultural undertakings that few will exceed, His enterprise and energy have placed him among the prosperous men of the county, and his sterling traits of character have made him universally respected. Mr. Quinn was born June 2, 1892, in the state of Iowa but has spent almost his entire life in Nebraska, as his parents moved here when he was young. Edward M. Quinn grew up on his father's farm in Cheyenne county and had educational advantages there. He remained at home assisting his father and, in 1916, came to Morrill county and in preparation for ranching on a large scale bought two thousand acres of cleared land. He does a limited amount of general farming but devotes the larger part of his attention to raising cattle and horses, and at the present time has on his ranch seven hundred hear of cattle and fifty head of horses.
   In February, 1914, Mr. Quinn was united in marriage to Miss Hazel Thornburg, who was born in Cheyenne county, Nebraska, November 7, 1897, and they have one child, Vivian. The parents of Mrs. Quinn are George A. and Minnie (Hensen) Thornburg, the former of whom was born in Missouri and the latter in Nebraska. They now live comfortably retired, at Potter, Nebraska, Mr. Thornburg having been a farmer and ranchman in that neighborhood for a number of years. Mr. and Mrs. Quinn are members of the Roman Catholic church.

    W. H. RHOADES. -- For more than forty years W. H. Rhoades has been a resident of the state of Nebraska, coming here with his parents in boyhood, and few residents of Morrill county can recall early conditions in this section and vicinity in a more convincing or interesting way, Life in 1919 on an improved, irrigated farm, is very different from what it was in Nebraska forty years ago. Science and progress combined with pioneer enterprise, have brought about remarkable changes all over the state, and Morrill county in particular has been fortunate in attracting agriculturists of experience and good judgment (sic), and one of these is W. H. Rhoades, whose farm is situated on section 6 town 20.
   W. H. Rhoades was born in central Illinois, July 26, 1864, the youngest of six children born to Thomas J. and Lena (O'Neal) Rhoades. The mother was born in Illinois and died in Nebraska, January 10, 1891, aged fifty-nine years. The father was born in Johnson county, Indiana. In his earlier years he worked at coopering but later was a farmer in Illinois, and afterward in Nebraska. He came here and homesteaded in Kearney county, May 15, 1878, and lived on his farm



until his death, on February 5, 1903, being seventy-eight years old. His six children all survive: Mary Ellen, who is the wife of Nelson Basye; Cora, who is the wife of George Basye; Joseph, who lives at Alliance; William, who lives in Colorado; and Charles and W. H., both of whom are farmers in Morrill county. W. H. Rhoades accompanied his parents to Nebraska and assisted his father in Kearney county until 1887, when he came to Morrill county. He now owns a hundred and sixty acres of fine land, irrigated and substantially improved, and devotes himself to general farming.
   Mr. Rhoades was married to Miss Lena Albeishardt, who was born July 27, 1874, in Delaware. Her parents were born and died in Germany, where her father followed the trade of cigarmaker. Mr. and Mrs. Rhoades have had the following children: Grace, who is the wife of Fred Durnal, of Morrill county; Charles, who is a farmer in this county; Mattie, who is the wife of Samuel McCormick; Moses, Louie, Walter, Ida, Kermit and Hazel, all of whom live at home; and three who are deceased. Mr. Rhoades is a Republican in politics, and is a widely known and respected citizen.

    JOSEPH C. CHRISTENSEN, whose business is general farming and ranching, is one of the substantial men of Morrill county. He was born February 6, 1879, in South Dakota. His parents were Nels and Hannah Hansen Christensen, who were born in Wisconsin. They had a family of four sons and one daughter.
   Joseph C. Christensen grew up on his father's pioneer farm in South Dakota. His father died at the age of forty-six years and his mother came to Morrill county, Nebraska, and homesteaded the place on which Mr. Christensen now lives. He took a Kinkaid homestead in 1911, six hundred and forty acres, and owns additionally several large tracts near the homestead. During the first three years that he lived in Morrill county, he worked at ditch contracting and put in nearly all the ditches in this section of the county.
   Mr. Christensen married a Miss McKenna, who was born in Ireland and came to the United States when eight years old. They have no children.

    LORENZO FLOWER, who is one of Scottsbluff county's representative men and an early settler, was born in New Hampshire, October 23, 1864, and is a son of A. C. and Mary Flower. Mr. Flower has one brother, Louis C.
   When the parents of Mr. Flower came to Nebraska they lived in Madison county until 1887. Then removal was made to Cheyenne, now Scottsbluff county, but one year later Mr. Flower returned to Madison county and engaged in farming there for two years, removing then to Box Butte county, where he remained in the farm and stock business near Alliance, for nine years. Mr. Flower then returned to Scottsbluff county and pre-empted land and still owns his homestead right. He has made other investments here and at present owns three hundred and forty-four acres of irrigated land, a large part of it being as productive as any in this part of the state. Mr. Flower is a careful, methodical farmer and good business man, and is well and favorably known all through this section.
   In Madison county, Nebraska, Mr. Flower was married to Miss Eva Cunningham, who was born in Indiana and was one year old when her parents brought her to Nebraska. Her father, Oliver Cunningham, homesteaded in Madison county and both parents still live there. Her mother, Mary (Mangle) Cunningham was born seventy-five years ago, in the state of New York. Mr. and Mrs. Flower have four children: Charles, who lives on the homestead; Mrs. Mary Willard, who lives in Montana; Mrs. Blanche Bradley, who lives in Scottsbluff county; and William, who is a rancher in Wyoming. All the children have enjoyed educational advantages and are useful and respected members of the communities in which they live. Mr. and Mrs. Flower are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. For many years he has been a member of the order of Odd Fellows.

    CLARENCE E. ROBERTS, who is one of Morrill county's successful farmers and dependable citizens, was born in the western part of Iowa, September 15, 1872. He is a son of Thomas and Mary (Bateman) Roberts, both of whom were born in Canada. The father was nine years old when he was brought across the boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States, and grew up in Iowa. He was a general farmer there until he retired from active life, and now resides in Morrill county, being in his eighty-fourth year. The mother died in Iowa at the age of sixty-nine years.
   Clarence E. Roberts was educated in Iowa and was a farmer there until 1887, when he came to Nebraska and homesteaded in Morrill



county. Like other pioneer settlers of that date, he met with many hardships and some losses, but he kept up his courage, as is very likely to be the way with the descendents of Canadians, and in the course of time changes came about that made his one unproductive homestead as valuable land as can be found in the county. Mr. Roberts now owns an entire half section, all of which is irrigated. The fine improvements he placed here himself. General farming and some stockraising keep Mr. Roberts a busy man.
   Mr. Roberts was united in marriage to a daughter of Stephen Smith, and they have three children: Ila, Elmer and Velma. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts are members of the church of the Latter Day Saints. In political sentiment he is a Democrat.

   CHARLES SCHNIEDER, who is a substantial and highly respected citizen of Morrill county, has devoted himself closely to agricultural pursuits since his school days ended. Since coming to this county he has purchased and improved a large body of land and is proving that this section of the state is particularly well adapted to stockraising.
   Charles Schnieder was born in Grant county, Wisconsin, October 31, 1877, and is a son of John and Susan (Grass) Schnieder. John Schneider (sic) was born in Germany. He came to the United States when twenty-one years old and became a worthy citizen. After locating in Missouri he followed merchandising for a time and also dealt in livestock. He was married to Susan Grass, who was born in Missouri, and they moved to Grant county, Wisconsin, where he engaged in general farming until his death. His widow still resides in Grant county.
   Charles Schnieder remained on the home farm and had considerable farm experience in Wisconsin before he came to Morrill county in 1909. Here he purchased a quarter section of unimproved land and immediately began the work of development. In this section as in every other pioneer territory, the early settlers have had to endure some hardships, but Mr. Schnieder had expected them and never became discouraged. He made the best of things, accepted a few losses of crops and stock, but in the main has been exceedingly successful. He carries on general farming and stock-raising, at the present time having about a hundred head of fine cattle, fifty head of hogs and the same number of lambs. Mr. Schnieder has always been a steady worker and is making his work count for much in the way of production.
   In Minnesota, in 1909, Mr. Schnieder was married to Miss Etta Lipski, who was born in Grant county, Wisconsin, November 6, 1886, a daughter of Henry and Mary (Whitesh) Lipski. The father of Mrs. Schnieder was and (sic) early homesteader in Morrill county. He met an accidental death, being killed by a lightning stroke on his farm. The mother lives in Montana. Mr. and Mrs. Schnieder have two sons: Henry and John. The family belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Schnieder votes the Republican ticket but has never desired a public office, although well qualified for many.

    HENRY NIEHUS, one of Morrill county's hard-working, successful farmers and cattlemen, was well known all through this section of the country and was very well thought of. He was born in Germany, came to the United States in 1871, and died at Redington, Nebraska, aged fifty-eight years. His parents were Claus and Jerusha (Dulling) Niehus, both of whom died in Germany.
   Henry Niehus was born December 24, 1855, hence was only sixteen year old when he came to America.. He was strong and willing and after he reached Grand Island, Nebraska, found no difficulty in finding employment on farms in Hall county, and as he was careful with his money, before long had accumulated enough to buy some land for himself and did very well as a general farmer. In 1881, he went to Wyoming and for the next nine years was connected with ranches there. In 1890, he came to Morrill county and homesteaded a quarter section, which he improved, and later bought more land until he owned four hundred and eighty acres.
   In 1879, Mr. Niehus was married at Grand Island, to Dora Foellmer, who was born in Germany, July 25, 1860. Her parents were Werner and Drusilla (Deitrick) Foellmer natives of Germany, who came to the United States in 1870, and homesteaded near Grand Island, Nebraska. The mother of Mrs. Niehus still survives, being in her eighty-fifth year, but the father died when aged sixty-five years. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Niehus, as follows: Anna, who is the wife of R. H. Willis, of Bridgeport; Hilda and Joseph, both of whom are married and live at Redington; Dessie, who is the wife of William Barton, of Bayard, Nebraska; and Clause, who is deceased.

   VERNON WAITMAN, who is a representative citizen of Morrill county and an extensive raiser of fine cattle, is well known over

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