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Artillery. He passed through the various grades of the service and at the outbreak of the Civil war was appointed colonel of the Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history of General Sherman's conspicuous services would be to repeat a history of the army. He commanded a division at Shiloh, and was instrumental in the winning of that battle, and was also present at the siege of Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, he was appointed brigadier-general of the regular army, and shared with Hooker the victory of Missionary Ridge. He was commander of the Department of the Tennessee from October 27th until the appointment of General Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he was appointed to the command of the Department of the Mississippi, which he assumed in March, 1864. He at once began organizing the army and enlarging his communications preparatory to his march upon Atlanta, which he started the same time of the beginning of the Richmond campaign by Grant. He started on May 6, and was opposed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand men, but by consummate generalship, he captured Atlanta, on September 2, after several months of hard fighting and a severe loss of men. General Sherman started on his famous march to the sea November 15, 1864, and by December 10 he was before Savannah, which he took on December 23. This campaign is a monument to the genius of General Sherman as he only lost 567 men from Atlanta to the sea. After resting his army he moved northward and occupied the following places: Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Bentonville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April 18, he accepted the surrender of Johnston's army on a basis of agreement that was not received by the Government with favor, but finally accorded Johnston the same terms as Lee was given by General Grant. He was present at the grand review at Washington, and after the close of the war was appointed to the command of the military division of the Mississippi; later was appointed lieutenant-general, and assigned to the military division of the Missouri. When General Grant was elected president Sherman became general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded to the command of the army. His death occurred February 14, 1891, at Washington. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER HAMILTON, one of the most prominent of the early American statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, an island of the West Indies, January 11, 1757, his father being a Scotchman and his mother of Huguenot descent Owing to the death of his mother and business reverses which came to his father, young Hamilton was sent to his mother's relatives in Santa Cruz; a few years later was sent to a grammar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, and in 1773 entered what is now known as Columbia College. Even at that time he began taking an active part in public affairs and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper articles on political affairs of the day attracted considerable attention. In 1776 he received a captain's commission and served in Washington's army with credit, becoming aide-de-camp to Washington with rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1781 he resigned his commission because of a rebuke from General Washington. He next received command of a New York battalion and participated in the battle of Yorktown. After this Hamilton studied law, served several terms in congress and was a member of the convention at which the Federal Constitution was drawn up. His work connected with ''The Federalist" at about this time attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton



was chosen as the first secretary of the United States treasury and as such was the author of the funding system and founder of the United States Bank. In 1798 he was made inspector-general of the army with the rank of major-general and was also for a short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton to fight a duel, Burr attributing his defeat to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, though declaring the code as a relic of barbarism, accepted the challenge. They met at Weehawken, New Jersey, July II, 1804. Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, but at Burr's first fire was fatally wounded and died July 12, 1804. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER HAMILTON STEPHENS, vice-president of the southern confederacy, a former United States senator and governor of Georgia, ranks among the great men of American history. He was born February II, 1812, near Crawfordsville, Georgia. He was a graduate of the University of Georgia, and admitted to the bar in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in political life as a member of the state house of representatives, and in 1841 declined the nomination for the same office; but in 1842 he was chosen by the same constituency as state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of the promoters of the Western and Atlantic Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his district to the national house of representatives, which office he held for sixteen consecutive years. He was a member of the house during the passing of the Compromise Bill, and was one of its ablest and most active supporters. The same year (1850) Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state convention that framed the celebrated "Georgia Platform," and was also a delegate to the convention that passed the ordinance of secession, though he bitterly opposed that bill by voice and vote, yet he readily acquiesced in their decision after it received the votes of the majority of the convention. He was chosen vice-president of the confederacy without opposition, and in 1865 he was the head of the commission sent by the south to the Hampton Roads conference. He was arrested after the fall of the confederacy and was confined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state but was released on his own parole. Mr. Stephens was elected to the forty-third, forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and forty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than nominal opposition. He was one of the Jeffersonian school of American politics. He wrote a number of works, principal among which are: "Constitutional View of the War between the States," and a "Compendium of the History of the United States." He was inaugurated as governor of Georgia November 4th, 1882, but died March 4, 1883, before the completion of his term. 

Letter/label or barOSCOE CONKLING was one of the most noted and famous of American statesmen. He was among the most finished, fluent and eloquent orators that have ever graced the halls of the American congress; ever ready, witty and bitter in debate he was at once admired and feared by his political opponents and revered by his followers. True to his friends, loyal to the last degree to those with whom his interests were associated, he was unsparing to his foes and it is said "never forgot an injury." Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, New York, on the 30th of October, 1829, being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred Conkling was also a native of New York,



born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, and became one of the most eminent lawyers in the Empire state; published several legal works; served a term in congress; afterward as United States district judge for Northern New York, and in 1852 was minister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in 1874.

      Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads this article, at an early age took up the study of law and soon became successful and prominent at the bar. About 1846 he removed to Utica and in 1858 was elected mayor of that city. He was elected representative in congress from this district and was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was elected United States senator from the state of New York and was re-elected in 1873 and 1879. In May, 1881, he resigned on account of differences with the president. In March, 1882, he was appointed and confirmed as associate justice of the United States supreme court but declined to serve. His death occurred April 18, 1888. 

Letter/label or barASHINGTON IRVING, one of the most eminent, talented and popular of American authors, was born in New York City, April 3, 1783. His father was William Irving, a merchant and a native of Scotland, who had married an English lady and emigrated to America some twenty years prior to the birth of Washington. Two of the older sons, William and Peter, were partially occupied with newspaper work and literary pursuits, and this fact naturally inclined Washington to follow their example. Washington Irving was given the advantages afforded by the common schools until about sixteen years of age when he began studying law, but continued to acquire his literary training by diligent perusal at home of the older English writers.

      When nineteen he made his first literary venture by printing in the "Morning Chronicle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter Irving, a series of local sketches under the nom-de-plume of "Jonathan Oldstyle." In 1804 he began an extensive trip through Europe, returned in 1806, quickly completed his legal studies and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced the profession. In 1807 he began the amusing serial "Salmagundi," which had an immediate success, and not only decided his future career but long determined the character of his writings. In 1808, assisted by his brother Peter, he wrote "Knickerbocker's History of New York," and in 1810 an excellent biography of Campbell, the poet. After this, for some time, Irving's attention was occupied by mercantile interests, but the commercial house in which he was a partner failed in 1817. In 1814 he was editor of the Philadelphia "Analectic Magazine." About 1818 appeared his "Sketch Book," over the nom-de-plume of ''Geoffrey Crayon," which laid the foundation of Irving's fortune and permanent fame. This was soon followed by the legends of "Sleepy Hollow," and "Rip Van Winkle," which at once took high rank as literary productions, and Irving's reputation was firmly established in both the old and new worlds. After this the path of Irving was smooth, and his subsequent writings appeared with rapidity, including "Bracebridge Hall," "The Tales of a Traveler," "History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus," ''The Conquest of Granada," "The Alhambra," "Tour on the Prairies," '' Astoria," ''Adventures of Captain Bonneville," ''Wolfert's Roost," Mahomet and his Successors," and "Life of Washington," besides other works.

      Washington Irving was never married.



He resided during the closing years of his life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hudson, where he died November 28, 1859. 

Letter/label or barHARLES SUMNER.--Boldly outlined on the pages of our history stands out the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, statesman, lawyer and writer. A man of unimpeachable integrity, indomitable will and with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit leader in troublous times. First in rank as an anti-slavery leader in the halls of congress, he has stamped his image upon the annals of his time. As an orator he took front rank and, in wealth of illustration, rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals anything to be found in history.

      Charles Sumner was born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 6, 1811, and was the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. The family had long been prominent in that state. Charles was educated at the Boston Public Latin School; entered Harvard College in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 1830. In 1831 he joined the Harvard Law School, then under charge of Judge Story, and gave himself up to the study of law with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted to contributing to the American Jurist. Admitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. He published several works about this time, and from 1835 to 1837 and again in 1843 was lecturer in the law school. He had planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave his attention to politics, speaking and working against the admission of Texas to the Union and subsequently against the Mexican war. In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti-slavery question at that time alienated both friends and clients, but he never swerved from his convictions. In 1851 he was elected to the United States senate and took his seat therein December 1 of that year. From this time his life became the history of the anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a masterly argument for the repeal of the fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1856, Preston Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking him over the head with a heavy cane. The attack was quite serious in its effects and kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of senator, passing some twenty-three years in that position, always advocating the rights of freedom and equity. He died March 11, 1874. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS JEFFERSON, the third president of the United States, was born near Charlottesville, Albemarle county, Virginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He received the elements of a good education, and in 1760 entered William and Mary College. After remaining in that institution for two years he took up the study of law with George Wythe, of Williamsburg. Virginia, one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and was admitted to practice in 1767. He obtained a large and profitable practice, which he held for eight years. The conflict between Great Britain and the Colonies then drew him into public life, he having for some time given his attention to the study of the sources of law, the origin of liberty and equal rights.

      Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia house of burgesses in 1769, and served in that body several years, a firm supporter of liberal measures, and, although a slave



holder himself, an opponent of slavery. With others, he was a leader among the opposition to the king. He took his place as a member of the Continental congress June 21, 1775, and after serving on several committees was appointed to draught a Declaration of Independence, which he did, some corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin and John Adams. This document was presented to congress June 28, 1776, and after six days' debate was passed and was signed. In the following September Mr. Jefferson resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, and gave much time to the adapting of laws of that state to the new condition of things. He drew up the law, the first ever passed by a legislature or adopted by a government, which secured perfect religious freedom. June I, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry as governor of Virginia, an office which, after co-operating with Washington in defending the country, he resigned two years later. One of his own estates was ravaged by the British, and his house at Monticello was held by Tarleton for several days, and Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After the death of his wife, in 1782, he accepted the position of plenipotentiary to France, which he had declined in 1776. Before leaving he served a short time in congress at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a bill for establishing our present decimal system of currency, one of his most useful public services. He remained in an official capacity until October, 1789, and was a most active and vigilant minister. Besides the onerous duties of his office, during this time, he published "Notes on Virginia," sent to the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, forwarded literary and scientific news and gave useful advice to some of the leaders of the French Revolution.

      Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia November 18, 1789, having obtained a leave of absence from his post, and shortly after accepted Washington's offer of the portfolio of the department of state in his cabinet. He entered upon the duties of his office in March, 1791, and held it until January 1, 1794, when he tendered his resignation. About this time he and Alexander Hamilton became decided and aggressive political opponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy with the people in the French revolution and strongly democratic in his feelings, while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of the United States. In 1800 he was elected to the presidency and was inaugurated March 4, 1801. During his administration, which lasted for eight years, he having been re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public debt, and was the originator of many wise measures. Declining a nomination for a third term he returned to Monticello, where he died July 4, 1826, but a few hours before the death of his friend, John Adams.

      Mr. Jefferson was married January 1, 1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died September 6, 1782, leaving three children, three more having died previous to her demise. 

Letter/label or barORNELIUS VANDERBILT, known as ''Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the founder of what constitutes the present immense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He was born May 27, 1794, at Port Richmond, Staten Island, Richmond county, New York, and we find him at sixteen years running a small vessel between his home and New York City. The fortifications of Staten and Long Islands were just in course of



construction, and he carried the laborers from New York to the fortifications in his "perianger, " as it was called, in the day, and at night carried supplies to the fort on the Hudson. Later he removed to New York, where he added to his little fleet. At the age of twenty-three he was free from debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1817, with a partner he built the first steamboat that was run between New York and New Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The next year he took command of a larger and better boat and by 1824 he was in complete control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was called, which he had brought up to a point where it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a fourteen years' lease and conducted this on a paying basis. He severed his connections with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in business alone and for twenty years he was the leading steamboat man in the country, building and operating steamboats on the Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the Delaware River and the route to Boston, and he had the monopoly of trade on these routes. In 1850 he determined to broaden his field of operation and accordingly built the steamship Prometheus and sailed for the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to make a personal investigation of the prospects of the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company, in which he had purchased a controlling interest. Commodore Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, a transit route from Greytown on the Atlantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pacific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles over the old route. In 1851 he placed three steamers on the Atlantic side and four on the Pacific side to accommodate the enormous traffic occasioned by the discovery of gold in California. The following year three more vessels were added to his fleet and a branch line established from New Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Commodore sold out his Nicaraugua Transit Company, which had netted him $1,000,000 and built the renowned steam yacht, the ''North Star." He continued in the shipping business nine years longer and accumulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he presented to the government his magnificent steamer "Vanderbilt, " which had cost him $800,000 and for which he received the thanks of congress. In 1844 he became interested in the railroad business which he followed in later years and became on the greatest railroad magnates of his time.

      He founded the Vanderbilt University at a cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over $100,000,000 to his children. 

Letter/label or barANIEL BOONE was one of the most famous of the many American scouts, pioneers and hunters which the early settlement of the western states brought into prominence. Daniel Boone was born February 11, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, but while yet a young man removed to North Carolina, where he was married. In 1769, with five companions, he penetrated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky then uninhabited by white men. He had frequent conflicts with the Indians and was captured by them but escaped and continued to hunt in and explore that region for over a year, when, in 1771, he returned to his home. In the summer of 1773, he removed with his own and five other families into what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, and to defend his colony against the savages, he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough,



on the Kentucky river. This fort was attacked by the Indians several times in 1777, but they were repulsed. The following year, however, Boone was surprised and captured by them. They took him to Detroit and treated him with leniency, but he soon escaped and returned to his fort which he defended with success against four hundred and fifty Indians in August, 1778. His son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male child born in the state of Kentucky. In 1795 Daniel Boone removed with his family to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles west of the present site of St. Louis, where he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits -adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His death occurred September 20, 1820. 

Letter/label or barENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, said to have been America's greatest "poet of the people," was born at Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He entered Bowdoin College at the age of fourteen, and graduated in 1825. During his college days he distinguished himself in modern languages, and wrote several short poems, one of the best known of which was the "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns;" After his graduation he entered the law office of his father, but the following year was offered the professorship of modern languages at Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years study in Europe to perfect himself in French, Spanish, Italian and German. After the three years were passed he returned to the United States and entered upon his professorship in 1829. His first volume was a small essay on the "Moral and Devotional Poetry of Spain" in 1833. In 1835 he published some prose sketches of travel under the title of "Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage beyond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to the chair of modern languages and literature at Harvard University and spent a year in Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, cultivating a knowledge of early Scandinavian literature and entered upon his professorship in 1836. Mr. Longfellow published in 1839 "Hyperion, a Romance," and "Voices of the Night," and his first volume of original verse comprising the selected poems of twenty years work, procured him immediate recognition as a poet. "Ballads and other poems" appeared in 1842, the "Spanish Student " a drama in three acts, in 1843, "The Belfry of Bruges" in 1846, "Evangeline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which was considered his master piece. In 1845 he published a large volume of the "Poets and Poetry of Europe," 1849 "Kavanagh, a Tale," "The Seaside and Fireside" in 1850 "The Golden Legend " in 1851, "The Song of Hiawatha" in 1855, "The Courtship of Miles Standish" in 1858, " Tales of a Wayside Inn" in 1863; "Flower de Luce" in 1866;" "New England Tragedies" in 1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; "Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The Hanging of the Crane" in 1874. He also published a masterly translation of Dante in 1867-70 and the "Morituri Salutamus," a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard University in 1854, but continued to reside at Cambridge. Some of his poetical works have been translated into many languages, and their popularity rivals that of the best modern English poetry. He died March 24, 1882, but has left an imperishable fame as one of the foremost of American poets. 

Letter/label or barETER COOPER was in three particulars--as a capitalist and manufacturer, as an inventor, and as a philanthropist connected intimately with some of the most




important and useful accessions to the industrial arts of America, its progress in invention and the promotion of educational and benevolent institutions intended for the benefit of people at large. He was born in New York city, February 12, 1791. His life was one of labor and struggle, as it was with most of America's successful men. In early boyhood he commenced to help his father as a manufacturer of hats. He attended school only for half of each day for a single year, and beyond this his acquisitions were all his own. When seventeen years old he was placed with John Woodward to learn the trade of coach-making and served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily that his master offered to set him up in business, but this he declined because of the debt and obligation it would involve.

      The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune was laid in the invention of an improvement in machines for shearing cloth. This was largely called into use during the war of 1812 with England when all importations of cloth from that country were stopped. The machines lost their value, however, on the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then turned his shop into the manufacture of cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the grocery business in New York and finally he engaged in the manufacture of glue and isinglass which he carried on for more than fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequently he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the city of New York, in which he first successfully applied anthracite to the puddling of iron. In these works, he was the first to roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof buildings. These works grew to be very extensive, including mines, blast furnaces, etc. While in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 1830, after his own designs, the first locomotive engine ever constructed on this continent and it was successfully operated on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also took a great interest and invested large capital in the extension of the electric telegraph, also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; besides interesting himself largely in the New York state canals. But the most cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was the establishment of an institution for the instruction of the industrial classes, which he carried out on a magnificent scale in New York city, where the "Cooper Union" ranks among the most important institutions.

      In May, 1876, the Independent party nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the United States, and at the election following he received nearly 100,000 votes. His death occurred April 4, 1883. 

Letter/label or barENERAL ROBERT EDWARD LEE, one of the most conspicuous Confederate generals during the Civil war, and one of the ablest military commanders of modern times, was born at Stratford House, Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19, 1807. In 1825 he entered the West Point academy and was graduated second in his class in 1829, and attached to the army as second lieutenant of engineers. For a number of years he was thus engaged in engineering work, aiding in establishing the boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, and superintended various river and harbor improvements, becoming captain of engineers in 1838. He first saw field service in the Mexican war, and under General Scott performed valuable and efficient service. In that brilliant campaign he was conspicuous for professional ability as well as gallant and meritorious conduct, winning in quick succession the brevets of major, lieutenant



colonel, and colonel for his part in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city Mexico. At the close of that war he resumed his engineering work in connection with defences along the Atlantic coast, and from 1852 to 1855 was superintendent of the Military Academy, a position which he gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the Second Cavalry. For several years thereafter he served on the Texas border, but happening to be near Washington at the time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 25, 1859, Colonel Lee was placed in command of the Federal forces employed in its repression. He soon returned to his regiment in Texas where he remained the greater part of 1860, and March 16, 1861, became colonel of his regiment by regular promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he resigned upon the secession of Virginia, went at once to Richmond and tendered his services to the governor of that state, being by acclamation appointed commander-in-chief of its military and naval forces, with the rank of major-general.

      He at once set to work to organize and develop the defensive resources of his state and within a month directed the occupation in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile Virginia having entered the confederacy and Richmond become the capitol, Lee became one of the foremost of its military officers and was closely connected with Jefferson Davis in planning the moves of that tragic time. Lee participated in many of the hardest fought battles of the war among which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, Cold Harbor, and the Chickahominy, Manassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Gettysburg, the battles of the Wilderness campaign, all the campaigns about Richmond, Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's surrender at Appomatox brought the war to a close. It is said of General Lee that but few commanders in history have been so quick to detect the purposes of an opponent or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, if ever equaled, in the art of winning the passionate, personal love and admiration of his troops, he acquired and held an influence over his army to the very last, founded upon a supreme trust in his judgment, prescience and skill, coupled with his cool, stable, equable courage. A great writer has said of him: "As regards the proper measure of General Lee's rank among the soldiers of history, seeing what he wrought with such resources as he had, under all the disadvantages that ever attended his operations, it is impossible to measure what he might have achieved in campaigns and battles with resources at his own disposition equal to those against which he invariably contended."

      Left at the close of the war without estate or profession, he accepted the presidency of Washington College at Lexington, Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870 

Letter/label or barOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the United States, was born in New York, December 12, 1745. He took up the study of law, graduated from King's College (Columbia College), and was admitted to the bar in 1768. He was chosen a member of the committee of New York citizens to protest against the enforcement by the British government of the Boston Port Bill, was elected to the Continental congress which met in 1774, and was author of the addresses to the people of Great Britian and of Canada adopted by that and the succeeding congress. He was chosen to the provincial assembly of his own state, and



resigned from the Continental congress to serve in that body, wrote most of its public papers, including the constitution of the new state, and was then made chief-justice. He was again chosen as a member of the Continental congress in 1778, and became president of that body. He was sent to Spain as minister in 1780, and his services there resulted in substantial and moral aid for the struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with Great Britain in 1782, and Jay was appointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, and held the position until the adoption of the Federal constitution. During this time he had contributed strong articles to the "Federalist" in favor of the adoption of the constitution, and was largely instrumental in securing the ratification of that instrument by his state. He was appointed by Washington as first chief-justice of the United States in 1789. In this high capacity the great interstate and international questions that arose for immediate settlement came before him for treatment.

     In 1794, at a time when the people in gratitude for the aid that France had extended to us, were clamoring for the privilege of going to the aid of that nation in her struggle with Great Britain and her own oppressors, John Jay was sent to England as special envoy to negotiate a treaty with that power. The instrument known as ''Jay's Treaty" was the result, and while in many of its features it favored our nation, yet the neutrality clause in it so angered the masses that it was denounced throughout the entire country, and John Jay was burned in effigy in the city of New York. The treaty was finally ratified by Washington, and approved, in August, 1795. Having been elected governor of his state for three consecutive terms, he then retired from active life, declining an appointment as chief-justice of the supreme curt, made by John Adams and confirmed by the senate. He died in New York in 1829.

Letter/label or barHILLIP HENRY SHERIDAN was one of the greatest American cavalry generals. He was born March 6, 1831, at Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated and was assigned to the First Infantry as brevet second lieutenant July 1, 1853. After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, in Washington and Oregon territories until the fall of 1861, he was recalled to the states and assigned to the army of southwest Missouri as chief quartermaster from the duties of which he was soon relieved. After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quartermaster in the Corinth campaign, and on May 25 he was appointed colonel of the Second Michigan Cavalry. On July 1, in command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated a superior force of the enemy and was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. General Sheridan was then transferred to the army of the Ohio, and commanded a division in the battle of Perrysville and also did good service at the battle of Murfreesboro, where he was commissioned major-general of volunteers. He fought with great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, under whom Sheridan fought the battle of Chattanooga and won additional renown. Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant-general, he applied for the transfer of General Sheridan to the east, and appointed him chief of cavalry in the army of the Potomac. During the campaign of 1864 the cavalry covered the front and flanks of the infantry until May 8, when it was with

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