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year by General Schuyler.

      In August, 1777, however, the command of that army was restored to General Gates and September 19 he fought the battle of Bemis Heights. October 7, the same year, he won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, and October 17 received the surrender of General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal point of the war. This gave him a brilliant reputation. June 13, 1780, General Gates was appointed to the command of the southern military division, and August 16 of that year suffered defeat at the hands of Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Carolina. In December following he was superseded in the command by General Nathaniel Greene.

      On the signing of the peace treaty General Gates retired to his plantation in Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived until 1790, when, emancipating all his slaves, he removed to New York City, where he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 

Letter/label or barYMAN J. GAGE.--When President McKinley selected Lyman J. Gage as secretary of the treasury he chose one of the most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruyter, Madison county, New York, and was of English descent. He went to Rome, New York, with his parents when he was ten years old, and received his early education in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage graduated from the same, and his first position was that of a clerk in the post office. When he was fifteen years of age he was detailed as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed regular agents for the route. In 1854, when he was in his eighteenth year, he entered the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dollars per year. Being unable at the end of one year and a half's service to obtain an increase in salary he determined to seek a wider field of labor. Mr. Gage set out in the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and planing mill. He remained there three years as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on account of change in the management. But not being able to find anything else to do he accepted the position of night watchman in the place for a period of six weeks. He then became a bookkeeper for the Merchants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at a salary of five hundred dollars per year. He rapidly advanced in the service of this company and in 1868 he was made cashier. Mr. Gage was next offered the position of cashier of the First National Bank and accepted the offer. He became the president of the First National Bank of Chicago January 24, 1891, and in 1897 he was appointed secretary of the treasury. His ability as a financier and the prominent part he took in the discussion of financial affairs while president of the great Chicago bank gave him a national reputation. 

Letter/label or barNDREW JACKSON, the seventh president of the United States, was born at the Waxhaw settlement, Union county, North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carrickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a tributary of the Catawba. His father, who was a poor farm laborer, died shortly before Andrew's birth, when the mother removed to Waxhaw, where some relatives lived. Andrew's education was very limited, he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 when but thirteen years of age, he and his



brother Robert volunteered to serve in the American partisan troops under General Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hanging Rock. The following year the boys were both taken prisoners by the enemy and endured brutal treatment from the British officers while confined at Camden. They both took the small pox, when the mother procured their exchange but Robert died shortly after. The mother died in Charleston of ship fever, the same year.

     Young Jackson, now in destitute circumstances, worked for about six months in a saddler's shop, and then turned school master, although but little fitted for the position. He began to think of a profession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, entered upon the study of law, but from all accounts gave but little attention to his books, being one of the most roistering, rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he was admitted to the bar and in 1788 removed to Nashville, then in North Carolina, with the appointment of public prosecutor, then an office of little honor or emolument, but requiring much nerve, for which young Jackson was already noted. Two years later, when Tennessee became a territory he was appointed by Washington to the position of United States attorney for that district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Donelson, who was supposed at the time to have been divorced from her former husband that year by act of legislature of Virginia, but two years later, on finding that this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of Separation being granted by the courts of Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. This was used as a handle by his opponents in the political campaign afterwards. Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United States attorney and obtained much influence. He was chosen a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee became a state and was its first representative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen United States senator, but resigned the following year to accept a seat on the supreme court of Tennessee which he held until 1804. He was elected major-general of the militia of that state in 1801. In 1804, being unsuccessful in obtaining the governorship of Louisiana, the new territory, he retired from public life to the Hermitage, his plantation. On the outbreak of the war with Great Britain in 1812 he tendered his services to the government arid went to New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in January, 1813. In March of that year he was ordered to disband his troops, but later marched against the Cherokee Indians, defeating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. Having now a national reputation, he was appointed major-general in the United States' army and was sent against the British in Florida. He conducted the defence of Mobile and seized Pensacola. He then went with his troops to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained the famous victory of January 8, 1815. In 1817-18 he conducted a war against the Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor of the new territory of Florida. In 1823 he was elected United States senator, but in 1824 was the contestant with J. Q. Adams for the presidency. Four years later he was elected president, and served two terms. In 1832 he took vigorous action against the nullifiers of South Carolina, and the next year removed the public money from the United States bank. During his second term the national debt was extinguished. At the close of his administration he retired to the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845.



Letter/label or barNDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manufacturer of pig-iron, steel rails and coke in the world, well deserves a place among America's celebrated men. He was born November 25, 1835, at Dunfermline, Scotland, and emigrated to the United States with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. Two years later Mr. Carnegie began his business career by attending a small stationary engine. This work did not suit him and he became a telegraph messenger with the Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became an operator, and was one of the first to read telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk to the superintendent and manager of the telegraph lines. While in this position he made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie immediately became interested and was one of the organizers of the company for its construction after the railroad had adopted it, and the success of this venture gave him the nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted to the superintendency of the Pittsburg division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and about this time was one of the syndicate that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek which cost forty thousand dollars and in one year it yielded over one million dollars in cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was associated with others in establishing a rolling-mill, and from this has grown the most extensive and complete system of iron and steel industries ever controlled by one individual, embracing the Edgar Thomson Reel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hartman Steel Works; Frick Coke Co.; Scotia Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense iron industries he owned eighteen English newspapers which he ran in the interest of the Radicals. He has also devoted large sums of money to benevolent and educational purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious swimming baths for the people of Dunfermline, Scotland, and in the following year gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 to found what is now called "Carnegie Laboratory," and in 1885 gave five hundred thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public library. He also gave two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for a music hail and library in Allegheny City in 1886, and two hundred and fifty thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scotland, for a free library. He also established free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, and other places for the benefit of his employes. He also published the following works, "An American Four-in-hand in Britain;" " Round the World;" " Triumphant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of the Republic." 

Letter/label or barEORGE H. THOMAS, the "Rock of Chickamauga," one of the best known commanders during the late Civil war, was born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 31, 1816, his parents being of Welsh and French origin respectively. In 1836 young Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Military Academy, at West Point, from which he graduated in 1840, and was promoted to the office of second lieutenant in the Third Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, he went to Florida, where he served for two years against the Seminole Indians. In 1841 he was brevetted first lieutenant for gallant conduct. He remained in garrison in the south and southwest until 1845, at which date with the regiment he joined the army under General Taylor, and participat-



ed in the defense of Fort Brown, the storming of Monterey and the battle of Buena Vista. After the latter event he remained in garrison, now brevetted major, until the close of the Mexican war. After a year spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was ordered to West Point, where he served as instructor until 1854. He then was transferred to California. In May, 1855, Thomas was appointed major of the Second Cavalry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. Although a southern man, and surrounded by brother officers who all were afterwards in the Confederate service, Major Thomas never swerved from his allegiance to the government. A. S. Johnston was the colonel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieutenant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior major, while among the younger officers were Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby Smith. When these officers left the regiment to take up arms for the Confederate cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 1861, crossed the Potomac into his native state, at its head. After taking an active part in the opening scenes of the war on the Potomac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he was promoted to be brigadier-general and transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought him into notice and laid the foundation of his fame. He continued in command of his division until September 20, 1862, except during the Corinth campaign when he commanded the right wing of the Army of the Tennessee. He was in command of the latter at the battle of Perryville, also, October 8, 1862.

      On the division of the Army of the Cumberland into corps, January 9, 1863, General Thomas was assigned to the command of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chickamauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans, firmly held his own against the hosts of General Bragg. A history of his services from that on would be a history of the war in the southwest. On September 27, 1864, General Thomas was given command in Tennessee, and after organizing his army, defeated General Hood in the battle of Nashville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much complaint was made before this on account of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and he was about to be superseded because he would not strike until he got ready, but when the blow was struck General Grant was the first to place on record this vindication of Thomas' judgment. He received a vote of thanks from Congress, and from the legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. After the close of the war General Thomas had command of several of the military divisions, and died at San Francisco, California, March 28, 1870. 

Letter/label or barEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most eminent American historians, was a native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, October 3, 1800, and a son of Aaron Bancroft, D. D. The father, Aaron Bancroft, was born at Reading, Massachusetts, November 10, 1755. He graduated at Harvard in 1778, became a minister, and for half a century was rated as one of the ablest preachers in New England. He was also a prolific writer and published a number of works among which was "Life of George Washington." Aaron Bancroft died August 19, 1839.

    The subject of our present biography, George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 1817, and the following year entered the University of Gottingen, where he studied history and philology under the most eminent teachers, and in 1820 received the de-



gree of doctor of philosophy at Gottingen. Upon his return home he published a volume of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's "Reflections on the Politics of Ancient Greece." In 1834 he produced the first volume of his "History of the United States," this being followed by other volumes at different intervals later. This was his greatest work and ranks as the highest authority, taking its place among the greatest of American productions.

     George Bancroft was appointed secretary of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but resigned in 1846 and became minister plenipotentiary to England. In 1849 he retired from public life and took up his residence at Washington, D. C. In 1867 he was appointed United States minister to the court of Berlin and negotiated the treaty by which Germans coming to the United States were released from their allegiance to the government of their native land. In 1871 he was minister plenipotentiary to the German empire and served until 1874. The death of George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1891. 

Letter/label or barEORGE GORDON MEADE, a famous Union general, was born at Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 1815, his father being United States naval agent at that port. After receiving a good education he entered the West Point Military Academy in 1831. From here he was graduated June 30, 1835, and received the rank of second lieutenant of artillery. He participated in the Seminole war, but resigned from the army in October, 1836. He entered upon the profession of civil engineer, which he followed for several years, part of the time in the service of the government in making surveys of the mouth of the Mississippi river. His report and results of some experiments made by him in this service gained Meade much credit. He also was employed in surveying the boundary line of Texas and the northeastern boundary line between the United States and Canada. In 1842 he was reappointed in the army to the position of second lieutenant of engineers. During the Mexican war he served with distinction on the staff of General Taylor in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de Ta Palma and the storming of Monterey. He received his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter action. In 1851 he was made full first lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, and major soon after. At the close of the war with Mexico he was employed in lighthouse construction and in geodetic surveys until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in which he gained great reputation. In August, 1861, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers and placed in command of the second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, a division of the First Corps in the Army of the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, under McClellan, Meade took an active part, being present at the battles of Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the latter of which he was severely wounded. On rejoining his command he was given a division and distinguished himself at its head in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. During the latter, on the wounding of General Hooker, Meade was placed in command of the corps and was himself slightly wounded. For services he was promoted, November, 1862, to the rank of major-general of volunteers. On the recovery of General Hooker General Meade returned to his division and in December, 1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack which penetrated Lee's right line and swept to his rear. Being out-numbered and unsupported, he finally was driven back. The same month Meade was assigned to the



command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chancellorsville in May, 1863, his sagacity and ability so struck General Hooker that when the latter asked to be relieved of the command, in June of the same year, he nominated Meade as his successor. June 28, 1863, President Lincoln commissioned General Meade commander-in-chief of the Army of the Potomac, then scattered and moving hastily through Pennsylvania to the great and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at which he was in full command. With the victory on those July days the name of Meade will ever be associated. From that time until the close of the war he commanded the Army of the Potomac. In 1864 General Grant, being placed at the head of all the armies, took up his quarters with the Army of the Potomac. From that time until the surrender of Lee at Appomatox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, and his tact in the delicate position in leading his army under the eye of his superior officer commanded the respect and esteem of General Grant. For services Meade was promoted to the rank of major-general, and on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, was assigned to the command of the military division of the Atlantic, with headquarters at Philadelphia. This post he held, with he exception of a short period on detached duty in Georgia, until his death, which took place November 6, 1872. 

Letter/label or barAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter and scout, and also one of the earliest of American humorists. He was born August 17, 1786, in Tennessee, and was one of the most prominent men of his locality, serving as representative in congress from 1827 until 1831. He attracted considerable notice while a member of congress and was closely associated with General Jackson, of whom he was a personal friend. He went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan army at the time of the revolt of Texas against Mexico and gained a wide reputation as a scout. He was one of the famous one hundred and forty men under Colonel W. B. Travis who were besieged in Fort Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by General Santa Anna with some five thousand Mexicans on February 23, 1836. The fort was defended for ten days, frequent assaults being repelled with great slaughter, over one thousand Mexicans being killed or wounded, while not a man in the fort was injured. Finally, on March 6, three assaults were made, and in the hand-to-hand fight that followed the last, the Texans were wofully (sic) outnumbered and overpowered. They fought desperately with clubbed muskets till only six were left alive, including W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James Bowie. These surrendered under promise of protection; but when they were brought before Santa Anna he ordered them all to be cut to pieces. 

Letter/label or barENRY WATTERSON, one of the most conspicuous figures in the history of American journalism, was born at Washington, District of Columbia, February 16, 1840. His boyhood days were mostly spent in the city of his birth, where his father, Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the "Union," a well known journal.

     Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which interfered with a systematic course of study, young Watterson was educated almost entirely at home. A successful college career was out of the question, but he acquired a good knowledge of music, literature and art from private tutors, but the most valuable part, of the training he received was by associating with his father and the throng of



public men whom he met in Washington in the stirring days immediately preceding the Civil war. He began his journalistic career at an early age as dramatic and musical critic, and in 1858, became editor of the "Democratic Review" and at the same time contributed to the ''States," a journal of liberal opinions published in Washington. In this he remained until the breaking out of the war, when the "States," opposing the administration, was suppressed, and young Watterson removed to Tennessee. He next appears as editor of the Nashville "Republican Banner," the most influential paper in the state at that time. After the occupation of Nashville by the Federal troops, Watterson served as a volunteer staff officer in the Confederate service until the close of the war, with the exception of a year spent in editing the Chattanooga "Rebel." On the close of the war he returned to Nashville and resumed his connection with the "Banner." After a trip to Europe he assumed control of the Louisville ''Journal," which he soon combined with the "Courier" and the ''Democrat" of that place, founding the well-known "Courier-Journal," the first number of which appeared November 8, 1868. Mr. Watterson also represented his district in congress for several years. 

Letter/label or barATRICK SARSFIELD GILMORE, one of the most successful and widely known bandmasters and musicians of the last half century in America, was born in Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. He attended a public school until apprenticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlone, of the brass band of which town he soon became a member. His passion for music conflicting with the duties of a mercantile life, his position as clerk was exchanged for that of musical instructor to the young sons of his employer. At the age of nineteen he sailed for America and two days after his arrival in Boston was put in charge of the band instrument department of a prominent music house. In the interests of the publications of this house he organized a minstrel company known as "Ordway's Eolians," with which he first achieved success as a cornet soloist. Later on he was called the best E-flat cornetist in the United States. He became leader, successively, of the Suffolk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. During his connection with the latter he inaugurated the famous Fourth of July concerts on Boston Common, since adopted as a regular programme for the celebration of Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore founded the organization famous thereafter as Gilmnore's Band. At the outbreak of the Civil war this band was attached to the Twenty-Fourth Massachusetts Infantry. Later, when the economical policy of dispensing with music had proved a mistake, Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organization of state military bands, and upon his arrival at New Orleans with his own band was made bandmaster-general by General Banks. On the inauguration of Governor Hahn, later on, in Lafayette square, New Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of Confederate parents, rose to the baton of Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred instruments, thirty-six guns and the united fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the Star-Spangled Banner, America and other patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. Gilmore conceived a national musical festival, which was denounced as a chimerical undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15, 1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the occasion, and in the presence of over fifty



thousand people lifted his baton over an orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, he opened a still greater festival in Boston, when, in addition to an orchestra of two thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, were present the Band of the Grenadier Guards, of London, of the Garde Repubicaine, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and many other soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's death occurred September 24, 1892. 

Letter/label or barARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth president of the United States, 1837 to 1841. He was of Dutch extraction, and his ancestors were among the earliest settlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was born December 5, 1782, at Kinderhook, New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the study of law at the age of fourteen and took an active part in political matters before he had attained his majority. He commenced the practice of law in 1803 at his native town, and in 1809 he removed to Hudson, Columbia county, New York, where he spent seven years gaining strength and wisdom from his contentions at the bar with some of the ablest men of the profession. Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state senate, and from 1815 until 1819 he was attorney-general of the state. He was re-elected to the senate in 1816, and in 1818 he was one of the famous clique of politicians known as the "Albany regency." Mr. Van Buren was a member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution, in 1821. In the same year he was elected to the United States senate and served his term in a manner that caused his reelection to that body in 1827, but resigned the following year as he had been elected governor of New York. Mr. Van Buren was appointed by President Jackson as secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned in 1831, and during the recess of congress he was appointed minister to England. The senate, however, when it convened in December refused to ratify the appointment. In May, 1832, he was nominated by the Democrats as their candidate for vice-president on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, and he was elected in the following November. He received the nomination to succeed President Jackson in 1836, as the Democratic candidate, and in the electoral college he received one hundred and seventy votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, and was inaugurated March 4, 1837. His administration was begun at a time of great business depression, and unparalled (sic) financial distress, which caused the suspension of specie payments by the banks. Nearly every bank in the country was forced to suspend specie payment, and no less than two hundred and fifty-four business houses failed in New York in one week. The President urged the adoption of the independent treasury idea, which passed through the senate twice but each time it was defeated in the house. However the measure ultimately became a law near the close of President Van Buren's term of office. Another important measure that was passed was the pre-emption law that gave the actual settlers preference in the purchase of public lands. The question of slavery had begun to assume great preponderance during this administration, and a great conflict was tided over by the passage of a resolution that prohibited petitions or papers that in any way related to slavery to be acted upon. In the Democratic convention of 1840 President Van Buren secured the nomination for reelection on that ticket



without opposition, but in the election he only received the votes of seven states, his opponent, W. H. Harrison, being elected president. In 1848 Mr. Van Buren was he candidate of the "Free Soilers," but was unsuccessful. After this he retired from public life and spent the remainder of his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where he died July 24, 1862. 

Letter/label or barINFIELD SCOTT, a distinguished American general, was born June 13, 1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddie county, Virginia, and was educated at the William and Mary College. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, and in 1808 he accepted an appointment as captain of light artillery, and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 1812, he was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel, and on application was sent to the frontier, and reported to General Smyth, near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-general with the rank of a colonel, in March, 1813, and the same month attained the colonelcy of his regiment. He participated in the principal battles of the war and was wounded many times, and at the close of the war he was voted a gold medal by congress for his services. He was a writer of considerable merit on military topics, and he gave to the military science, "General Regulations of the Army" and "System of Infantry and Rifle Practice." He took a prominent part in the Black Hawk war, and at the beginning of the Mexican war he was appointed to take the command of the army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled his troops at Lobos Island from which he moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which he took March 29, 1847, and rapidly followed up his first success. He fought the battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo where he was preceded by Worth's division which had taken the town and waited for the coming of Scott. The army was forced to wait here for supplies, and August 7th, General Scott started on his victorious march to the city of Mexico with ten thousand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and San Antonio were fought August 19-20, and on the 24th an armistice was agreed upon, but as the commissioners could not agree on the terms of settlement, the fighting was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and the Heights of Chapultepec were carried by the victorious army of General Scott. He gave the enemy no respite, however, and vigorously followed up his advantages. On September 14, he entered the City of Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. General Scott was offered the presidency of the Mexican Republic, but declined. Congress extended him a vote of thanks and ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of his generalship and bravery. He was candidate for the presidency on the Whig platform but was defeated. He was honored by having the title of lieutenant-general conferred upon him in 1855. At the beginning of the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge of the army, but did signal service in behalf of the government. He retired from the service November 1, 1861, and in 1864 he published his "Autobiography." General Scott died at West Point, May 29, 1866. 

Letter/label or barDWARD EVERETT HALE for many years occupied a high place among the most honored of America's citizens. As a preacher he ranks among the foremost in the New England states, but to the general public he is best known through his writings. Born in Boston, Mass., April 3,



1822, a descendant of one of the most prominent New England families, he enjoyed in his youth many of the advantages denied the majority of boys. He received his preparatory schooling at the Boston Latin School, after which he finished his studies at Harvard where he was graduated with high honors in 1839. Having studied theology at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post which he occupied about ten years. He then, in 1856, became pastor of the South Congregational church in Boston, over which he presided many years.

     Mr. Hale also found time to write a great many literary works of a high class. Among many other well-known productions of his are "The Rosary," "Margaret Percival in America," "Sketches of Christian History," "Kansas and Nebraska," "Letters on Irish Emigration," "Ninety Days' Worth of Europe," "If, Yes, and Perhaps," "Ingham Papers," "Reformation," "Level Best and Other Stories," "Ups and Downs," "Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," ''In His Name," "Our New Crusade," "Workingmen's Homes," "Boys' Heroes," etc., etc., besides many others which might be mentioned. One of his works, "In His Name," has earned itself enduring fame by the good deeds it has called forth. The numerous associations known as "The King's Daughters," which has accomplished much good, owe their existence to the story mentioned. 

Letter/label or barAVID GLASCOE FARRAGUT stands pre-eminent as one of the greatest naval officers of the world. He was born at Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 5, 1801, and entered the navy of the United States as a midshipman. He had the good fortune to serve under Captain David Porter, who commanded the "Essex," and by whom he was taught the ideas of devotion to duty from which he never swerved during all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut took part in a severe fight, the result of which was the suppression of piracy in the West Indies. He then entered upon the regular duties of his profession which was only broken into by a year's residence with Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who was afterwards a distinguished professor at Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best linguists in the navy. He had risen through the different grades of the service until the war of 1861-6 found him a captain residing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and hastened to offer his services to the Federal government, and as the capture of New Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut was chosen to command the expedition. His force consisted of the West Gulf blockading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. In January, 1862, he hoisted his pennant at the mizzen peak of the "Hartford" at Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 3rd of February and reached Ship Island on the 20th of the same month. A council of war was held on the 20th of April, in which it was decided that whatever was to be done must be done quickly. The signal was made from the flagship and accordingly the fleet weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of April 24th, and at 3:30 the whole force was underway. The history of this brilliant struggle is well known, and the glory of it made Farragut a hero and also made him rear admiral. In the summer of 1862 he ran the batteries at Vicksburg, and on March 14. 1863, he passed through the fearful and destructive fire from Port Hudson, and opened up communication with Flag-officer Porter, who

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