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 Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition and ridicule, he began the reform which is now recognized as one of the beneficent movements of the age. Through his exertions as a speaker and lecturer, but above all as a bold worker, in the street, in the court room, before the legislature, the cause he adopted gained friends and rapidly increased in power until it has reached immense proportions and influence. The work of the society covers all cases of cruelty to all sorts of animals, employs every moral agency, social, legislative and personal, and touches points of vital concern to health as well as humanity.

      Henry Bergh was born in New York City in 1823, and was educated at Columbia College. In 1863 he was made secretary of the legation to Russia and also served as vice-consul there. He also devoted some time to literary pursuits and was the author of " Love's Alternative," a drama; "Married Off," a poem; "The Portentous Telegram," "The Ocean Paragon;" "The Streets of New York," tales and sketches. 

Letter/label or barENRY BENJAMIN WHIPPLE, one of the most eminent of American divines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, New York, February 15, 1822. He was brought up in the mercantile business, and early in life took an active interest in political affairs. In 1847 he became a candidate for holy orders and pursued theological studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., afterward professor in Cornell University. He was ordained deacon in 1849, in Trinity church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge of Zion church, Rome, New York, December 1, 1849. In 1850, our subject was ordained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 1857 he became rector of the Church of the Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of Minnesota, and took charge of the interests of the Episcopal church in that state, being located at Faribault. In 1860 Bishop Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the Bishop Seabury Mission, out of which has grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck School and St. Mary's Hall, which have made Faribault City one of the greatest educational centers of the northwest. Bishop Whipple also became noted as the friend and defender of the North American Indians and planted a number of successful missions among them. 

Letter/label or barZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest philanthropists and friends of education the country has known. He was born at Westchester Landing, New York, January 11, 1807. He grew to manhood in his native state and became a prominent figure in business circles as a successful and self-made man. Soon after the invention of the electric telegraph, he devoted his attention to that enterprise, and accumulated an immense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five hundred thousand dollars, he made possible the founding of Cornell University, which was named in his honor. He afterward made additional bequests amounting to many hundred thousand dollars. His death occurred at Ithaca, New York, December 9, 1874. 

Letter/label or barGNATIUS DONNELLY, widely known as an author and politician, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 1831. He was educated at the public schools of that city, and graduated from the



Central High School in 1849. He studied law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at Hastings, resumed the practice of law in partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, and again in 1858, he was defeated for state senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and reelected in 1861. In 1862 he was elected to represent the Second district of Minnesota in congress. He was re-elected to the same office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an abolitionist and warmly supported President Lincoln's administration, but was strongly in favor of leniency toward the people of the south, after the war. In many ways he was identified with some of the best measures brought before the house during his presence there. In the spring of 1868, at the request of the Republican national committee, he canvassed New Hampshire and Connecticut in the interests of that party. E. B. Washburne about this time made an attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor of the house by a fierce phillipic that will long be remembered. Through the intervention of the Washburne interests Mr. Donnelly failed of a re-election in 1870. In 1873 he was elected to the state senate from Dakota county, and continuously reelected until 1878. In 1886 he was elected member of the house for two years. In later years he identified himself with the Populist party.

      In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as an author, publishing his first literary work, "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World," which passed through over twenty-two editions in America, several in England, and was translated into French. This was followed by "Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," which attained nearly as much celebrity as the first, and these two, in the opinion of scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the author as a most capable and painstaking student of the facts he has collated in them. The work by which he gained the greatest notoriety, however, was "The Great Cryptogram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the Shakespeare Plays." "Caesar's Column," "Dr. Huguet," and other works were published subsequently. 

Letter/label or barTEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of Wall Street of national reputation, was born in Chatham county, North Carolina, August I, 1831, and soon afterward removed to Illinois. His home was a log cabin, and until his eighteenth year he worked on the farm. Then after several years of struggle with poverty he graduated from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe house as bookkeeper. He then studied law and worked as a reporter for the ''Missouri Democrat." After his admission to the bar he went to New York, in 1865, and became a member of the banking house of Marvin & White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputation of having engineered the only corner in Wall Street since Commodore Vanderbilt's time. This was the famous Lackawanna deal in 1883, in which he made a profit of two million dollars. He was sometimes called " Deacon" White, and, though a member for many years of the Plymouth church, he never held that office. Mr. White was one of the most noted characters of the street, and has been called an orator, poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist. astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and trapper. He was a lawyer, ex-congressman, expert accountant, art critic and theo-



logian. He laid the foundation for a "Home for Colored People," in Chatham county, North Carolina, where the greater part of his father's life was spent, and in whose memory the work was undertaken. 

Letter/label or barAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth president of the United States, was born November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza (Ballou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the care of the family devolved upon Thomas, to whom James became deeply indebted for educational and other advantages. As James grew up he was industrious and worked on the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, or anything else he found to do, and in the meantime made the most of his books.

      Until he was about sixteen, James' highest ambition was to become a sea captain. On attaining that age he walked to Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Pennsylvania canal, but quit this after a short time. He attended the seminary at Chester for about three years, after which he entered Hiram Institute, a school started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order to pay his way he assumed the duties of janitor and at times taught school. After completing his course at the last named educational institution he entered Williams College, from which he graduated in 1856. He afterward returned to Hiram College as its president. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1859. November 11, 1858, Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were married.

      In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches, at Hiram and in the neighborhood. The same year he was elected to the state senate.

     On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty-second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a new soldier, was given command of four regiments of infantry and eight companies of cavalry, with which he drove the Confederates under Humphrey Marshall out of Kentucky. January 11, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general. He participated with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh and the operations around Corinth, and was then detailed as a member of the Fitz John Porter court-martial. Reporting to General Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position of chief of staff, and resigned his position, with the rank of major-general, when his immediate superior was superseded. In the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to congress and remained in that body, either in the house or senate, until 1880.

      June 8, 1880 at the national Republican convention, held in Chicago, General Garfield was nominated for the presidency, and was elected, He was inaugurated March 4, 1881, but, July 2, following, he was shot and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for some fancied political slight, and died September 19, 1881. 

Letter/label or barNCREASE MATHER was one of the most prominent preachers, educators and authors of early times in the New England states. He was born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, June 21, 1639, and was given an excellent education, graduating at Harvard in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, two years later. He was ordained a minister, and preached in England and America, and in 1664 became pastor of the North church, in Boston. In 1685 he became president of Harvard University, serving until 1701. In 1692 he received the first doctorate in divinity conferred in English



speaking America. The same year he procured in England a new charter for Massachusetts, which conferred upon himself the power of naming the governor, lieutenant-governor and council. He opposed the severe punishment of witchcraft, and took a prominent part in all public affairs of his day. He was a prolific writer, and became the author of nearly one hundred publications, large and small. His death occurred August 23, 1723, at Boston. 

Letter/label or barOTTON MATHER, a celebrated minister in the '' Puritan times" of New England, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, February 12, 1663, being a son of Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of John Cotton. A biography of his father will be found elsewhere in this volume. Cotton Mather received his early education in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 was ordained as associate pastor of North church, Boston, with his father, having by persistent effort overcome an impediment in his speech. He labored with great zeal as a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the ascendancy of the church and ministry in civil affairs, and in the putting down of witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in which he took an active part and through which he is best known in history. He received the degree of D. D. in 1710, conferred by the University of Glasgow, and F. R. S. In 1713. His death occurred at Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the author of many publications, among which were "Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft," "Wonders of the Invisible World," "Essays to Do Good," "Magnalia Christi Americana," and " Illustrations of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of these works are quaint and curious, full of learning, piety and prejudice. A well-known writer, in summing up the life and character of Cotton Mather, says: '' Mather, with all the faults of his early years, was a man of great excellence of character. He labored zealously for the benefit of the poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and Indians. His cruelty and credulity were the faults of his age, while his philanthrophy was far more rare in that age than in the present." 

Letter/label or barILLIAM A. PEFFER, who won a national reputation during the time he was in the United States senate, was born on a farm in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He drew his education from the public schools of his native state and at the age of fifteen taught school in winter, working on a farm in the summer. In June, 1853, while yet a young man, he removed to Indiana, and opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on account of the war and the unsettled state of the country, he moved to Illinois in February, 1862, and enlisted as a private in Company F, Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, the following August. He was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant in March, 1863, and served successively as quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, judge advocate of a military commission, and depot quartermaster in the engineer department at Nashville. He was mustered out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, during his leisure hours while in the army, studied law, and in August, 1865, he commenced the practice of that profession at Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to Kansas in 1870 and practiced there until



1878, in the meantime establishing and conducting two newspapers, the "Fredonia Journal" and "Coffeyville Journal."

     Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate in 1874 and was a prominent and influential member of several important committees. He served as a presidential elector in 1880. The year following he became editor of the "Kansas Farmer," which he made a prominent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer was elected to the United States senate as a member of the People's party and took his seat March 4, 189 1. After six years of service Senator Peffer was succeeded in March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 

Letter/label or barOBERT MORRIS.--The name of this financier, statesman and patriot is closely connected with the early history of the United States. He was a native of England, born January 20, 1734. and came to America with his father when thirteen years old. Until 1754 he served in the counting house of Charles Willing, then formed a partnership with that gentleman's son, which continued with great success until 1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate to the Continental congress, and, although once voting against the Declaration of Independence, signed that paper on its adoption, and was several times thereafter re-elected to congress. During the Revolutionary war the services of Robert Morris in aiding the government during its financial difficulties were of incalculable value; he freely pledged his personal credit for supplies for the army, at one time to the amount of about one and a half million dollars, without which the campaign of 1781 would have been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 and served until 1784, continuing to employ his personal credit to facilitate the needs of his department. He also served as member of the Pennsylvania legislature, and from 1786 to 1795 was United States senator, declining meanwhile the position of secretary of the treasury, and suggesting the name of Alexander Hamilton, who was appointed to that post. During the latter part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged extensively in the China trade, and later became involved in land speculations, which ruined him, so that the remaining days of this noble man and patriot were passed in confinement for debt. His death occurred at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM SHARON, a senator and capitalist, and mine owner of national reputation, was born at Smithfield, Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared upon a farm and in his boyhood given excellent educational advantages and in 1842 entered Athens College. He remained in that institution about two years, after which he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and commenced practice. His health failing, however, he abandoned his profession and engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, Greene county, Illinois. During the time of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon went to California, whither so many went, and engaged in business at Sacramento. The next year he removed to San Francisco, where he operated in real estate. Being largely interested in its silver mines, he removed to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, and acquired an immense fortune. He became one of the trustees of the Bank of California, and during the troubles that arose on the death of William Ralston, the president of that institution, was largely instrumental in bringing its affairs into a satisfactory shape.



      Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the state of Nevada in the United States senate in 1875, and remained a member of that body until 1881. He was always distinguished for close application to business. Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 

Letter/label or barENRY W. SHAW, an American humorist who became celebrated under the non-de-plume of "Josh Billings," gained his fame from the witticism of his writing, and peculiar eccentricity of style and spelling. He was born at Lanesborough, Massachusetts, in 1818. For twenty-five years he lived in different parts of the western states, following various lines of business, including farming and auctioneering, and in the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began writing humorous sketches for the newspapers over the signature of "Josh Billings," and became immediately popular both as a writer and lecturer. He published a number of volumes of comic sketches and edited an "Annual Allminax" for a number of years, which had a wide circulation. His death occurred October 14, 1885, at Monterey, California. 

Letter/label or barOHN M. THURSTON, well known throughout this country as a senator and political leader, was born at Montpelier, Vermont, August 2!, 1847, of an old Puritan family which dated back their ancestry in this country to 1636, and among whom were soldiers of the Revolution and of the war of 1812-15.

      Young Thurston was brought west by the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver Dam, where John M. received his schooling in the public schools and at Wayland University. His father enlisted as a private in the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while in the service, in the spring of 1863.

      Young Thurston, thrown on his own resources while attaining an education, supported himself by farm work, driving team and at other manual labor. He studied law and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1869, and in October of the same year located in Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a member of the city council in 1872, city attorney in 1874 and a member of the Nebraska legislature in 1874. He was a member of the Republican national convention of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 1888. Taking quite an interest in the younger members of his party he was instrumental in forming the Republican League of the United States, of which he was president for two years. He was then elected a member of the United States senate, in 1895, to represent the state of Nebraska.

      As an attorney John M. Thurston occupied a very prominent place, and for a number of years held the position of general solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad system. 

Letter/label or barOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated American naturalist, was born in Louisiana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an opulent French naval officer who owned a plantation in the then French colony. In his childhood he became deeply interested in the study of birds and their habits. About 1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where he was partially educated, and studied designing under the famous painter, Jacques Louis David. He returned to the United States about 1798, and settled on a farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He married Lucy Bakewell in 1808, and, disposing of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken-



tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. About two years later he began to make extensive excursions through the primeval forests of the southern and southwestern states, in the exploration of which he passed many years. He made colored drawings of all the species of birds that he found. For several years he made his home with his wife and children at Henderson, on the Ohio river. It is said that about this time he had failed in business and was reduced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged him to publish a work on ornithology. Two years later he went to England and commenced the publication of his great work, "The Birds of America." He obtained a large number of subscribers at one thousand dollars a copy. This work, embracing five volumes of letterpress and five volumes of beautifully colored plates, was pronounced by Cuvier "the most magnificent monument that art ever raised to ornithology."

      Audubon returned to America in 1829, and explored the forests, lakes and coast from Canada to Florida, collecting material for another work. This was his "Ornithological Biography; or, An Account of the Habits of the Birds of the United States, Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and returned in 1839, after which he resided on the Hudson, near New York City, in which place he died January 27, 1851. During his life he issued a cheaper edition of his great work, and was, in association with Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the quadrupeds of North America. 

Letter/label or barOMMODORE THOMAS McDONOUGH gained his principal fame from the celebrated victory which he gained over the superior British squadron, under Commodore Downie, September 11, 1814. Commodore McDonough was born in Newcastle county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and when seventeen years old entered the United States navy as midshipman, serving in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, in 1803-4. In 1807 he was promoted to lieutenant, and in July, 1813, was made a commander. The following year, on Lake Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory above referred to, for which he was again promoted; also received a gold medal from congress, and from the state of Vermont an estate on Cumberland Head, in view of the scene of the engagement. His death occurred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he was returning from the command of the Mediterranean squadron. 

Letter/label or barHARLES FRANCIS HALL, one of America's most celebrated arctic explorers, was born in Rochester, New Hampshire, in 1821. He was a blacksmith by trade, and located in Cincinnati, where later he became a journalist. For several years he devoted a great deal of attention to calorics. Becoming interested in the fate of the explorer, Sir John Franklin, he joined the expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and sailed in the ship ''George Henry," under Captain Buddington, which left New London, Connecticut, in 1860. He returned in 1862, and two years later published his "Arctic Researches." He again joined the expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and sailed in the ship, " Monticello," under Captain Buddington, this time remaining in the arctic region over four years. On his return he brought back many evidences of having found trace of Franklin.

      In 1871 the ''Polaris" was fitted out by the United States government, and Captain



Hall again sailed for the polar regions. He died in Greenland in October, 1871, and the "Polaris" was finally abandoned by the crew, a portion of which, under Captain Tyson, drifted with the icebergs for one hundred and ninety-five days, until picked up by the "Tigress," on the 30th of April, 1873. The other portion of the crew built boats, and, after a perilous voyage, were picked up in June, 1873, by a whaling vessel. 

Letter/label or barLIVER ELLSWORTH, the third chief justice of the United States, was born at Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 1745. After graduating from Princeton, he took up the study of law, and was licensed to practice in 1771. In 1777 he was elected as a delegate to the Continental congress. He was judge of the superior court of his state in 1784, and was chosen as a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1787. He sided with the Federalists, was elected to the United States senate in 1789, and was a firm supporter of Washington's policy. He won great distinction in that body, and was appointed chief justice of the supreme court of the United States by Washington in 1796. The relations between this country and France having become violently strained, he was sent to Paris as envoy extraordinary in 1799, and was instrumental in negotiating the treaty that averted war. He resigned the following year, and was succeeded by Chief Justice Marshall. His death occurred November 26, 1807. 

Letter/label or barELLVILLE WESTON FULLER, an eminent American jurist and chief justice of the United States supreme court, was born in Augusta, Maine, in 1833. His education was looked after in boyhood, and at the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoin College, and on graduation entered the law department of Harvard University. He then entered the law office of his uncle at Bangor, Maine, and soon after opened an office for the practice of law at Augusta. He was an alderman from his ward, city attorney, and editor of the "Age," a rival newspaper of the "Journal," which was conducted by James G. Blaine. He soon decided to remove to Chicago, then springing into notice as a western metropolis. He at once identified himself with the interests of the new city, and by this means acquired an experience that fitted him for his future work. He devoted himself assiduously to his profession, and had the good fortune to connect himself with the many suits growing out of the prorogation of the Illinois legislature in 1863. It was not long before he became one of the foremost lawyers in Chicago. He made a three days' speech in the heresy trial of Dr. Cheney, which added to his fame. He was appointed chief justice of the United States by President Cleveland in 1888, the youngest man who ever held that exalted position. His income from his practice had for many years reached thirty thousand dollars annually. 

Letter/label or barHESTER ALLEN ARTHUR, twenty-first president of the United States, was born in Franklin county, Vermont, October 5, 1830. He was educated at Union College, Schenectady, New York, from which he graduated with honor, and engaged in teaching school. After two years he entered the law office of Judge E. D. Culver, of New York, as a student. He was admitted to the bar, and formed a partnership with an old room-mate, Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing law in the west, but after a few months' search for a location, they returned to New York and opened an office, and at once entered



upon a profitable practice. He was shortly afterwards married to a daughter of Lieutenant Herndon, of the United States navy. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before his nomination for the vice-presidency. In 1856 a colored woman in New York was ejected from a street car and retained Mr. Arthur in a suit against the company, and obtained a verdict of five hundred dollars. It resulted in a general order by all superintendents of street railways in the city to admit colored people to the cars.

      Mr. Arthur was a delegate to the first Republican national convention, and was appointed judge-advocate for the Second Brigade of New York, and then chief engineer of Governor Morgan's staff. At the close of his term he resumed the practice of law in New York. In 1872 he was made collector of the port of New York, which position he held four years. At the Chicago convention in 1880 Mr. Arthur was nominated for the vice-presidency with Garfield, and after an exciting campaign was elected. Four months after the inauguration President Garfield was assassinated, and Mr. Arthur was called to take the reins of government. His administration of affairs was generally satisfactory. At its close he resumed the practice of law in New York. His death occurred November 18, 1886.  

Letter/label or bar SAAC HULL was one of the most conspicuous and prominent naval officers in the early history of America. He was born at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775, being the son of a Revolutionary officer. Isaac Hull early in life became a mariner, and when nineteen years of age became master of a merchant ship in the London trade. In 1798 he became a lieutenant in the United States navy, and three years later was made first lieutenant of the frigate "Constitution." He distinguished himself by skill and valor against the French on the coast of Hayti, and served with distinction in the Barbary expeditions. July 12, 1812, he sailed from Annapolis, in command of the "Constitution," and for three days was pursued by a British squadron of five ships, from which he escaped by bold and ingenious seamanship. In August of the same year he captured the frigate "Guerriere," one of his late pursuers and for this, the first naval advantage of that war, he received a gold medal from congress. Isaac Hull was later made naval commissioner and had command of various navy yards. His death occurred February 1, 1843, at Philadelphia. 

Letter/label or barARCUS ALONZO HANNA, famous as a prominent business man, political manager and senator, was born in New Lisbon, Columbiana county, Ohio, September 24, 1837. He removed with his father's family to Cleveland, in the same state, in 1852, and in the latter city, and in the Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, received his education. He became an employe of the wholesale grocery house of Hanna, Garrettson & Co., his father being the senior member of the firm. The latter died in 1862, and Marcus represented his interest until 1867, when the business was closed up.

      Our subject then became a member of the firm of Rhodes & Co., engaged in the iron and coal business, but at the expiration of ten years this firm was changed to that of M. A. Hanna & Co. Mr. Hanna was long identified with the lake carrying business, being interested in vessels on the lakes and in the construction of them. As a director of the Globe Ship Manufacturing Company, of Cleveland, president of the



Union National Bank, of Cleveland, president of the Cleveland City Railway Company, and president of the Chapin Mining Company, of Lake Superior, he became prominently identified with the business world. He was one of the government directors of the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed to that position in 1885 by President Cleveland.

     Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the national Republican convention of 1884, which was his first appearance in the political world. He was a delegate to the conventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elected chairman of the Republican national committee the latter year, and practically managed the campaign of William McKinley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna was appointed senator by Governor Bushnell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Sherman. 

Letter/label or barEORGE PEABODY was one of the best known and esteemed of all philanthropists, whose munificent gifts to American institutions have proven of so much benefit to the cause of humanity. He was born February 18, 1795, at South Danvers, Massachusetts, which is now called Peabody in honor of him. He received but a meager education, and during his early life he was a mercantile clerk at Thetford, Vermont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 1814 he became a partner with Elisha Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, and in 1815 they moved to Baltimore, Maryland. The business grew to great proportions, and they opened branch houses at New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody made several voyages to Europe of commercial importance, and in 1829 became the head of the firm, which was then called Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he removed to London, England. He retired from the firm, and established the celebrated banking house, in which he accumulated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grinnell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic expedition, in 1852, and founded in the same year the Peabody Institute, in his native town, which he afterwards endowed with two hundred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited the United States in 1857, and gave three hundred thousand dollars for the establishment at Baltimore of an institute of science, literature and fine arts. In 1862 he gave two million five hundred thousand dollars for the erecting of lodging houses for the poor in London, and on another visit to the United States he gave one hundred and fifty thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a museum and professorship of American archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for the endowment of a department of physical science at Yale, and gave the "Southern Educational Fund" two million one hundred thousand dollars, besides devoting two hundred thousand dollars to various objects of public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final visit to the United States in 1869, and on this occasion he raised the endowment of the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thousand dollars to Washington College, Virginia; fifty thousand dollars for a "Peabody Museum," at North Danvers, thirty thousand dollars to Phillips Academy, Andover; twenty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody also endowed an art school at Rome, in 1868. He died in London, November 4, 1869, less then a mouth after he had returned from the United States, and his

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