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    Robert Garrett, the son of John W. Garrett, was born in Baltimore April 9, 1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. He received a business education in the banking house of his father, and in 1871 became president of the Valley Railroad of Virginia. He was made third vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 1879, and first vice-president in 1881. He succeeded his father as president in 1884. Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 

Letter/label or barARL SCHURZ, a noted German-American statesman, was born in Liblar, Prussia, March 2, 1829. He studied at the University of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in an attempt to excite an insurrection at that place. After the surrender of Rastadt by the revolutionists, in the defense of which Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to America. He resided in Philadelphia three years, and then settled in Watertown, Wisconsin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, where he practiced law. On the organization of the Republican party he became a leader of the German element and entered the campaign for Lincoln in 1860. He was appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but resigned in December of that year to enter the army. He was appointed brigadier-general in 1862, and participated in the second battle of Bull Run, and also at Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had temporary command of the Eleventh Army Corps, and also took part in the battle of Chattanooga.

      After the war he located at St. Louis, and in 1869 was elected United States senator from Missouri. He supported Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in the campaign of 1876, having removed to New York, he supported Hayes and the Republican ticket, and was appointed secretary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he became editor of the "New York Evening Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his opposition to James G. Blaine, and became a leader of the "Mugwumps," thus assisting in the election of Cleveland. In the presidential campaign of 1896 his forcible speeches in the interest of sound money wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz wrote a "Life of Henry Clay," said to be the best biography ever published of that eminent statesman. 

Letter/label or barEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American statesman of national reputation, was born in Richmond, Vermont, February 1, 1828. His education was obtained in the public schools and from the instructions of a private tutor. He was admitted to the bar, practiced law, and served in the state legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three years of that time being speaker of the lower house. He was elected to the state senate and acted as president pro tempore of that body in 1861 and 1862. He became prominent for his activity in the impeachment proceedings against President Johnson, and was appointed to the United States senate to fill out the unexpired term of Solomon Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was re-elected to the senate four times, and served on the electoral commission in 1877. He became president pro tempore of the senate after the death of President Garfield, and was the author of the bill which put an end to the practice of polygamy in the territory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing to impaired health, he retired from the senate and again resumed the practice of law. 

Letter/label or barUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent political leader, statesman and jurist, was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep-




tember 17, 1825. He graduated from Emory College in 1845, studied law at Macon under Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, Mississippi, in 1849, and was elected to a professorship in the State University. He resigned the next year and returned to Coyington, Georgia, and resumed the practice of law. In 1853 he was elected to the Georgia Legislature, and in 1854 he removed to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mississippi, and was elected to represent his district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth congresses. He resigned in 1860, and was sent as a delegate to the secession convention of the state. He entered the Confederate service in 1861 as lieutenant-colonel of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon after made colonel. In 1863 President Davis appointed him to an important diplomatic mission to Russia. In 1866 he was elected professor of political economy and social science in the State University, and was soon afterward transferred to the professorship of the law department. He represented his district in the forty-third and forty-fourth congresses, and was elected United States senator from Mississippi in 1877, and re-elected in 1882. In 1885, before the expiration of his term, he was appointed by President Cleveland as secretary of the interior, which position he held until his appointment as associate justice of the United States supreme court, in 1888, in which capacity he served until his death, January 23, 1894. 

Letter/label or barENJAMIN PENHALLOW SHILLABER won fame in the world of humorists under the name of "Mrs. Partington." He was born in 1841 at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and started out in life as a printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, where he secured employment in a printing office, and from there he went to Demerara, Guiana, where he was employed as a compositor in 1835-37. In 1840 he became connected with the "Boston Post," and acquired quite a reputation as a humorist by his ''Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He remained as editor of the paper until 1850, when he printed and edited a paper of his own called the "Pathfinder," which he continued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber became editor and proprietor of the "Carpet Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, and then returned to the "Boston Post," with which he was connected until 1856. During the same time he was one of the editors of the ''Saturday Evening Gazette," and continued in this line after he severed his connection with the "Post," for ten years. After 1866 Mr. Shillaber wrote for various newspapers and periodicals, and during his life published the following books: "Rhymes with Reason and Without," "Poems," ''Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington," "Knitting Work," and others. His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachusetts, November 25, 1890. 

Letter/label or barASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among painters of American country life. He was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and began his work in drawing at the age of eighteen years. His first works were portraits, and, as he took up his residence in Washington, the most famous men of the nation were his subjects. In 1846 he went to Boston, and there made crayon portraits of Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne and other noted men. In 1849 he went to Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Germany; spent a year at the Royal Academy, and thence to The Hague, where he spent four years, producing there his first pictures



of consequence, "The Card-Players" and "The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, but was called home, after an absence from America of six years. He lived some time in Washington, and then spent two years among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 1858 he produced his famous picture, ''The Old Kentucky Home." He took up his permanent residence at New York at that time. His "Sunday Morning in Virginia" is a work of equal merit. He was especially successful in coloring, a master of drawing, and the expression conveys with precision the thought of the artist. His portrayal of family life and child life is unequalled. Among his other great works are "The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' "Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," "The New Bonnet,", The Drummer Boy," "Childhood of Lincoln," and a great variety of equally familiar subjects. 

Letter/label or barIERCE GUSTAVE TOUTANT BEAUREGARD, one of the most distinguished generals in the Confederate army, was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, May 28, 1818. He graduated from West Point Military Academy in 1838, and was made second lieutenant of engineers. He was with General Scott in Mexico, and distinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, and the battles near the City of Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. After the Mexican war closed he was placed in charge of defenses about New Orleans, and in 1860 was appointed superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point. He held this position but a few months, when he resigned February 20, 1861, and accepted a commission of brigadier-general in the Confederate army. He directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the first engagement of the Civil war. He was in command of the Confederates at the first battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was made general. In 1862 he was placed in command of the Army of the Mississippi, and planned the attack upon General Grant at Shiloh, arid upon the death of General Johnston he took command of the army and was only defeated by the timely arrival of General Buell with reinforcements. He commanded at Charleston and successfully defended that city against the combined attack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he was in command in Virginia, defeating General Butler, and resisting Grant's attack upon Petersburg until reinforced from Richmond. During the long siege which followed he was sent to check General Sherman's march to the sea, and was with General Joseph E. Johnston when that general surrendered in 1865. After the close of the war he was largely interested in railroad management. In 1866 he was offered chief command of the Army of Roumania, and in 1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He declined these offers. His death occurred February 20, 1893. 

Letter/label or barENRY GEORGE, one of America's most celebrated political economists, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 2, 1839. He received a common-school education and entered the high school in 1853, and then went into a mercantile office. He made several voyages on the sea, and settled in California in 1858. He then worked at the printer's trade for a number of years, which he left to follow the editorial profession. He edited in succession several daily newspapers, and attracted attention by a number of strong essays and speeches on political and social questions. In 1871 he edited a pamphlet, entitled "Our Land and Policy," in which he outlined a



theory, which has since made him so widely known. This was developed in "Progress and Poverty," a book which soon attained a large circulation on both sides of the Atlantic, which has been extensively translated. In 1880 Mr. George located in New York, where he made his home, though he frequently addressed audiences in Great Britain, Ireland, Australia, and throughout the United States. In 1886 he was nominated by the labor organizations for mayor of New York, and made a campaign notable for its development of unexpected power. In 1897 he was candidate of the Union Labor party for secretary of state of New York. These campaigns served to formulate the idea of a single tax and popularize the Australian ballot system. Mr. George became a free trader in 1888, and in 1892 supported the election of Grover Cleveland. His political and economic ideas, known as the ''single tax," have a large and growing support, but are not confined to this country alone. He wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in support of his principles, and also published: "The Land Question," "Social Problems," "Protection or Free Trade," ''The Condition of Labor, an Open Letter to Pope Leo XIII.," and " Perplexed Philosopher." 

Letter/label or barHOMAS ALEXANDER SCOTT. --This name is indissolubly connected with the history and development of the railway systems of the United States. Mr. Scott was born December 28, 1823, at London, Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was first regularly employed by Major James Patton, the collector of tolls on the state road between Philadelphia and Columbia, Pennsylvania. He entered into the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1850, and went through all the different branches of work until he had mastered all the details of the office work, and in 1858 he was appointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott was the next year chosen vice-president of the road. This position at once brought him before the public, and the enterprise and ability displayed by him in its management marked him as a leader among the railroad men of the country. At the outbreak of the rebellion in 1861, Mr. Scott was selected by Governor Curtin as a member of his staff, and placed in charge of the equipment and forwarding of the state troops to the seat of war. On April 27, 1861, the secretary of war desired to establish a new line of road between the national capital and Philadelphia, for the more expeditious transportation of troops. He called upon Mr. Scott to direct this work, and the road by the way of Annapolis and Perryville was completed in a marvelously short space of time. On May 3, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d of the same month the government railroads and telegraph lines were placed in his charge. Mr. Scott was the first assistant secretary of war ever appointed, and he took charge of this new post August 1, 1861. In January, 1862, he was directed to organize transportation in the northwest, and in March he performed the same service on the western rivers. He resigned June 1, 1862, and resumed his direction of affairs on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Colonel Scott directed the policy that secured to his road the control of the western roads, and became the president of the new company to operate these lines in 1871. For one year, from March, 1871, he was president of the Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1874 he succeeded to the presidency of the Pennsylvania Company. He projected the Texas Pacific Railroad and was for many years its president. Colonel Scott's health failed



him and he resigned the presidency of the road June 1, 1880, and died at his home in Darby, Pennsylvania, May 21, 1881. 

Letter/label or barOBERT TOOMBS, an American statesman of note, was born in Wilkes county, Georgia, July 2, 1810. He attended the University of Georgia. and graduated from Union College, Schenectady, New York, and then took a law course at the University of Virginia. In 1830, before he had attained his majority, he was admitted to the bar by special act of the legislature, and rose rapidly in his profession, attracting the attention of the leading statesmen and judges of that time. He raised a volunteer company for the Creek war, and served as captain to the close. He was elected to the state legislature in 1837, re-elected in 1842, and in 1844 was elected to congress. He had been brought up as a Jeffersonian Democrat, but voted for Harrison in 1840 and for Clay in 1844. He made his first speech in congress on the Oregon question, and immediately took rank with the greatest debaters of that body. In 1853 he was elected to the United States senate, and again in 1859, but when his native state seceded he resigned his seat in the senate and was elected to the Confederate congress. It is stated on the best authority that had it not been for a misunderstanding which could not be explained till too late he would have been elected president of the Confederacy. He was appointed secretary of state by President Davis, but resigned after a few months and was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate army. He won distinction at the second battle of Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, but resigned his commission soon after and returned to Georgia. He organized the militia of Georgia to resist Sherman, and was made brigadier-general of the state troops. He left the country at the close of the war and did not return until 1867. He died December 15, 1885.  

Letter/label or bar USTIN CORBIN, one of the greatest railway magnates of the United States, was born July 11, 1827, at Newport, New Hampshire. He studied law with Chief Justice Cushing and Governor Ralph Metcalf, and later took a course in the Harvard Law School, where he graduated in 1849. He was admitted to the bar, and practiced law, with Governor Metcalf as his partner, until October 12, 1851. Mr. Corbin then removed to Davenport, Iowa, where he remained until 1865. In 1854 he was a partner in the banking firm of Macklot & Corbin, and later he organized the First National bank of Davenport, Iowa, which commenced business June 29, &863, and which was the first national bank open for business in the United States. Mr. Corbin sold out his business in the Davenport bank, and removed to New York in 1865 and commenced business with partners under the style of Corbin Banking Company. Soon after his removal to New York he became interested in railroads, and became one of the leading railroad, men of the country. The development of the west half of Coney Island as a summer resort first brought him into general prominence. He built a railroad from New York to the island, and built great hotels on its ocean front. He next turned his attention to Long Island, and secured all the railroads and consolidated them under one management, became president of the system, and under his control Long Island became the great ocean suburb of New York. His latest public achievement was the rehabilitation of the Reading Railroad, of Pennsylvania, and



during the same time he and his friends purchased the controlling interest of the New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it out of the hands of the receiver, and in three years had it on a dividend-paying basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 4, 1896. 

Letter/label or barAMES GORDON BENNETT, SR., was one of the greatest journalists of America in his day. He was born September I, 1795, at New Mill, near Keith, Scotland. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, but, convinced that he was mistaken in his vocation, he determined to emigrate. He landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1819, where he attempted to earn a living by teaching bookkeeping. Failing in this he went to Boston and found employment as a proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New York about 1822 and wrote for the newspapers. Later on he became assistant editor in the office of the "Charleston Courier," but returned to New York in 1824 and endeavored to start a commercial school, but was unsuccessful in this, and again returned to newspaper work. He continued in newspaper work with varying success until, at his suggestion, the "Enquirer" was consolidated with another paper, and became the "Courier and Enquirer," with James Watson Webb as editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At this time this was the leading American newspaper. He, however, severed his connection with this newspaper and tried, without success, other ventures in the line of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he issued the first number of the "New York Herald." Mr. Bennett wrote the entire paper, and made up for lack of news by his own imagination. The paper became popular, and in 1838 he engaged European journalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 the income derived from his paper was at least one hundred thousand dollars. During the Civil war the ''Herald" had on its staff sixty-three war correspondents and the circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was interested with John W. Mackay in that great enterprise which is now known as the Mackay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, sketches and all manner of information regarding every well-known man, which are still kept in the archives of the "Herald" office. He died in the city of New York in 1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, Jr., one of the greatest and most profitable journals in the United States, or even in the world. 

Letter/label or barLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, a noted American, won distinction in the field of literature, in which he attained a world-wide reputation. He was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. He received a collegiate education and graduated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of twenty, and took up the study of law and later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes attended several years in the hospitals of Europe and received his degree in 1836. He became professor of anatomy and physiology in Dartmouth in 1838, and remained there until 1847, when he was called to the Massachusetts Medical School at Boston to occupy the same chair, which position he resigned in 1882. The first collected edition of his poems appeared in 1836, and his "Phi Beta Kappa Poems," ''Poetry," in 1836; ''Terpsichore,'' in 1843; "Urania," in 1846, and "Astra," won for him many fresh laurels. His series of papers in the "Atlantic Monthly," were;



"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," "Professor at the Breakfast Table," "Poet at the Breakfast Table," and are a series of masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among his medical papers and addresses, are: "Currents and Counter-currents in the Medical Science," and "Borderland in Some Provinces of Medical Science." Mr. Holmes edited quite a number of works, of which we quote the following: "Else Venner," "Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from the Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts and Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," "John L. Motley"--a memoir, "The Iron Gate and Other Poems," "Ralph Waldo Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. Holmes visited England for the second time, and while there the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 7, 1894 

Letter/label or barUFUS CHOATE, one of the most eminent of America's great lawyers, was born October 1, 1799, at Essex, Massachusetts. He entered Dartmouth in 1815, and after taking his degree he remained as a teacher in the college for one year. He took up the study of law in Cambridge, and subsequently studied under the distinguished lawyer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. Choate began the practice of law in Danvers, Massachusetts, and from there he went to Salem, and afterwards to Boston, Massachusetts. While living at Salem he was elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 1841, he was chosen United States senator to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster having been appointed secretary of state under William Henry Harrison.

      After the death of Webster, Mr. Choate was the acknowledged leader of the Massachusetts bar, and was looked upon by the younger members of the profession with an affection that almost amounted to a reverence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator were of the rarest order, and his genius made it possible for him to enchant and interest his listeners, even while discussing the most ordinary theme. He was not merely eloquent on the subjects that were calculated to touch the feelings and stir the passions of his audience in themselves, but could at all times command their attention. He retired from active life in 1858, and was on his way to Europe, his physician having ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when he died, July 13, 1858. 

Letter/label or barWIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most noted and effective pulpit orators and evangelists America has produced, was born in Northeld, Franklin county, Massachusetts, February 5, 1837. He received but a meager education and worked on a farm until seventeen years of age, when he became clerk in a boot and shoe store in Boston. Soon after this he joined the Congregational church and went to Chicago, where he zealously engaged in missionary work among the poor classes. He met with great success, and in less than a year he built up a Sunday-school which numbered over one thousand children. When the war broke out he became connected with what was known as the "Christian Commission," and later became city missionary of the Young Men's Christian Association at Chicago. A church was built there for his converts and he became its unordained pastor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church and Mr. Moody's house and furniture, which had been given him, were destroyed. The



church edifice was afterward replaced by a new church erected on the site of the old one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and excited great religious awakenings throughout England, Ireland and Scotland. In 1875 they returned to America and held large meetings in various cities. They afterward made another visit to Great Britain for the same purpose, meeting with great success, returning to the United States in 1884. Mr. Moody afterward continued his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere with a warm reception and success. Mr. Moody produced a number of works, some of which had a wide circulation. 

Letter/label or barOHN PIERPONT MORGAN, a financier of world-wide reputation, and famous as the head of one of the largest banking houses in the world, was born April 17, 1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He received his early education in the English high school, in Boston, and later supplemented this with a course in the University of Gottingen, Germany. He returned to the United States, in 1857, and entered the banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., of New York, and, in 1860, he became agent and attorney, in the United States, for George Peabody & Co., of London. He became the junior partner in the banking firm of Dabney, Morgan & Co., in 1864, and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. This house was among the chief negotiators of railroad bonds, and was active in the reorganization of the West Shore Railroad, and its absorption by the New York Central Railroad. It was conspicuous in the reorganization of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, in 1887, which a syndicate of capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed on a sound financial basis. After that time many other lines of railroad and gigantic financial enterprises were brought under Mr. Morgan's control, and in some respects it may be said he became the foremost financier of the century. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS BRACKETT REED, one of the most eminent of American statesmen, was born October 18, 1839, at Portland, Maine, where he received his early education in the common schools of the city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 1860, and won one of the highest honors of the college, the prize for excellence in English composition. The following four years were spent by him in teaching and in the study of law. Before his admission to the bar, however, he was acting assistant paymaster in the United States navy, and served on the ''tin-clad' Sybil, which patrolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 1865, he returned to Portland, was admitted to the bar, and began the practice of his profession. He entered into political life, and in 1863 was elected to the legislature of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he was re-elected to the house, and in 1870 was made state senator, from which he passed to attorney-general of the state.

     He retired from this office in 1873, and until 1877 he was solicitor for the city of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to the forty-fifth congress, which assembled in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence in that body by one of the first speeches which he delivered, and his long service in congress, coupled with his ability, gave him a national reputation. His influence each year became more strongly marked, and the leadership of his party was finally conceded to him, and in the forty-ninth and fiftieth



congresses the complimentary nomination for the speakership was tendered him by the Republicans. That party having obtained the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he was elected speaker on the first ballot, and he was again chosen speaker of the fifty-fourth and fifth-fifth (sic) congresses. As a writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the magazines and periodicals, and his book upon parliamentary rules is generally recognized as authority on that subject. 

Letter/label or barLARA BARTON is a celebrated character among what might be termed as the highest grade of philanthropists America has produced. She was born on a farm at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated at Clinton, New York. She engaged in teaching early in life, and founded a free school at Bordentown, the first in New Jersey. She opened with six pupils, but the attendance had grown to six hundred up to 1854, when she went to Washington. She was appointed clerk in the patent department, and remained there until the outbreak of the Civil war, when she resigned her position and devoted herself to the alleviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, serving, not in the hospitals, but on the battle field. She was present at a number of battles, and after the war closed she originated, and for some time carried on at her own expense, the search for missing soldiers. She then for several years devoted her time to lecturing on ''Incidents of the War." About 1868 she went to Europe for her health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the outbreak of the Franco-German war she accepted the invitation of the grand duchess of Baden to aid in the establishment of her hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward followed the German army She was decorated with the golden cross by the grand duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by the emperor of Germany. She also served for many years as president of the famous Red Cross Society and attained a worldwide reputation. 

Letter/label or barARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, one of the most eminent Catholic clergymen in America, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, July 23, 1834. He was given a thorough education, graduated at St. Charles College, Maryland, in 1857, and studied theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Maryland. In 1861 he became pastor of St. Bridget's church in Baltimore, and in 1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of North Carolina. In 1872 our subject became bishop of Richmond, Virginia, and five years later was made archbishop of Baltimore. On the 30th of June, 1886, he was admitted to the full degree of cardinal and primate of the American Catholic church. He was a fluent writer, and his book, "Faith of Our Fathers," had a wide circulation. 

Letter/label or barHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW.--This name is, without doubt, one of the most widely known in the United States. Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew family for two hundred years. He attended the common schools of his native place, where he prepared himself to enter college. He began his collegiate course at Yale at the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. He early took an active interest in politics and joined the Republican party at its formation. He then took up the study of law and went into the office of the Hon. William Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar.



He was sent as a delegate by the new party to the Republican state convention of that year. He began the practice of his profession in 1859, but though he was a good worker, his attention was detracted by the campaign of 1860, in which he took an active part. During this campaign he gained his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 from a Democratic district. In 1863 he secured the nomination for secretary of state, and gained that post by a majority of thirty thousand. In 1866 he left the field of politics and entered into the active practice of his law business as attorney for the New York & Harlem Railroad Company, and in 1869 when this road was consolidated with the New York Central, and called the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, he was appointed the attorney for the new road. His rise in the railroad business was rapid, and ten years after his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as attorney for a single line, he was the general counsel for one of the largest railroad systems in the world. He was also a director in the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & Northwestern, St. Paul & Omaha, West Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of the State University, and a member of the commission appointed to superintend the erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt from the presidency of the New York Central and the accession to that office by James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made second vice-president, and held that position until the death of Mr. Rutter in 1885. In this year Mr. Depew became the executive head of this great corporation. Mr. Depew's greatest fame grew from his ability and eloquence as an orator and "after-dinner speaker," arid it has been said by eminent critics that this country has never produced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 

Letter/label or barHILIP KEARNEY.--Among the most dashing and brilliant commanders in the United States service, few have outshone the talented officer whose name heads this sketch. He was born in New York City, June 2, 1815, and was of Irish ancestry and imbued with all the dash and bravery of the Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia College and studied law, but in 1837 accepted a commission as lieutenant in the First United States Dragoons, of which his uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was then colonel. He was sent by the government, soon after, to Europe to examine and report upon the tactics of the French cavalry. There he attended the Polytechnic School, at Sarnur, and subsequently served as a volunteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the Legion of Honor. He returned to the United States in 1840, and on the staff of General Scott, in the Mexican war, served with great gallantry. He was made a captain of dragoons in 1846 and made major for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. In the final assault on the City of Mexico, at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an arm. He subsequently served in California and the Pacific coast. In 1851 he resigned his commission and went to Europe, where he resumed his military studies. In the Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volunteer on the staff of General Maurier, of the French army, and took part in the battles of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery was, for the second time, decorated with the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the opening of the Civil war he hastened home, and, offering his services to the general gov-

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