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Letter/label or bar. SANFORD GWALTNEY, M. D., is a popular and talented physician and surgeon, whose home is in Staplehurst, but whose field of practice covers a wide region of Seward county. He is now at the prime of his powers, and applies himself with singular zeal and, enthusiasm to his professional labors. He has won and holds a lucrative practice which is largely among the best people of the community.

      Dr. Gwaltney was born in Warrick county, Indiana, September 30, 1859, and is a son of William and Nancy Gwaltney, who are also natives of Indiana. His father was a farmer, and parents are living. His grandfather came from North Carolina and settled in Indiana at an early day. Dr. Gwaltney spent his youth and early manhood in the state of his nativity. He attended the public school, and for two and a half years was a student in the Normal College at Danville. He was graduated from the teachers' and scientific course of that excellent institution in 1885-88, and following his graduation he taught for some years. In 1889 he undertook to accomplish the dream of years, and began the study of medicine, with Dr. Charles Park, of Boonville. He spent a year under his direction and then matriculated at College of Physicians and Surgeons, a famous Iowa school, completing the course and receiving his diploma in 1891, in the Keokuk Medical College. He came to this county at once and engaged in the profession at Bee, where he remained for six months. Staplehurst presented, however, a more inviting field and he removed to that town, and there he has established a very satisfactory business.

      The Doctor is a member of the Seward County Medical Society, and is widely recognized as a capable and progressive physician. He was married in 1891 to Miss Mary Forseman, who was born and reared in Indiana. This union has proved a fortunate and happy one, and from it have come two children, Bernice and Alice F. They have a pleasant home, that is invested with the atmosphere of culture and refinement. 

Letter/label or barILTON K. WILLIAMS is a man of progressive, enlightened views and his standing as an old settler of the county and a citizen of prominence of York is well known. There are few more energetic or wide-awake men to be found among the population of the state than this gentleman, and he is deservedly held in high esteem and respect by his fellowmen.

      Mr. Williams was born in Onondaga county, New York, July I, 1842, a son of Kinne and Nancy (Rice) Williams. The parents were born in New Hampshire but lived the greater part of their lives and died in New York. The father was a blacksmith by trade and followed that vocation the most of his life. Wilton K. Williams, the subject of our sketch, was educated in the district schools of his native county, and his first position was that of boatman on the Erie canal and while there acquainted himself with some of the various experiences characteristic to "Life on a Canal." He was next employed as collector on this canal, during which time he was stationed at Phoenix, New York, and after severing his connection with the canal company he opened a grocery business which he operated two years. In 1868 he went to Rochelle, Illinois, and took charge of a branch store at that place, but later bought the business and conducted it on his own account for seven years. He next located in Chicago, and, after being engaged in business two years in that place, he moved to Maquoketa, Iowa, and opened a clothing house which he conducted five years and afterward enlarged into a general store. Two years later, in 1885, he moved his stock of clothing to York and has since conducted a clothing business there.



      In 1890 he was elected to the office of mayor of York on the Democratic ticket, and was again elected to that office by the Republicans, after joining that party. He was also vice-president of the York National Bank for four years.

      In the year 1870, Mr. Williams was united in marriage to Miss Lucy Wall, a resident of New York state and the family circle has been completed by the presence of two children, Bert J. and Earl W. Mr. Williams is a Mason and one of the organizers of the K. T. in York, and is the present deputy grand commander of the state. He is also a member of the A. O. U. W. and the I. O. O. F. In his business affairs his character has been beyond reproach and in whatever line his faculties have been directed he has met with eminent success. He is a man of strong character, broad ideas, and has a large circle of warm friends. 

Letter/label or barHARLES RHOADES, a worthy representative of the early pioneers of York county, who has been identified with agricultural interests of Thayer township since 1872, was born in Columbia county. Pennsylvania, April 6, 1840, a son of Jesse and Annie (Hawk) Rhoades, also natives of Pennsylvania. The family have for generations made their home in the Keystone state and have been prominent farming people. Our subject's paternal grandfather was Casper Rhoades, whose brother was a soldier of the Revolutionary war.

      Charles Rhoades was the only child born to his parents, and his educational advantages were such as the common schools of his native state afforded during his childhood. He began work on the home farm, early obtaining a thorough knowledge of every department of farm work, and he was also employed to some extent at carpentering until after the inauguration of the Civil war.

      In 1863 he enlisted in Company E, Thirtieth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, for six months, and assisted in driving Lee out of the state. The following year he joined Company M, of the Third Pennsylvania regiment, and remained in active service until the close of the war, taking part in the engagements in and around Petersburg and Richmond. He was wounded in front of the latter city.

      On receiving his discharge, Mr. Rhoades returned to Pennsylvania, and in that state was married December 25, 1870, to Miss Mary J. Hartley, a daughter of Sebastian and Margaret (Unger) Hartley, both natives of Pennsylvania. The children born of this union are Annie, now deceased; Luther; Emma; Samuel; Emanuel; Clara, deceased; George; William and Harry.

      In 1872 Mr. Rhoades emigrated to York county, Nebraska, and took up a homestead on section 2, Thayer township, on which he erected a sod house that continued to be the home of the family for eight years, when it was replaced by a comfortable frame residence. He began breaking and cultivating his land with an ox team, and to the further development of his farm he has devoted his energies until he now has one of the best places of the locality. In religious faith he and his family are Lutherans, and in political sentiment he is independent, always voting for the man whom he believes best qualified to fill the office. Although he has faithfully served as a member of the school board for many years, he has never cared for political preferment, and he enjoys the respect and esteem of all who know him. 

Letter/label or barOHN CALVIN HAGER, the present efficient manager of the W.. A. Wells lumber yards at Bellwood, Butler county, has been an honored resident of that place since January, 1880, and as one of the prominent and influential citizens he has




taken quite an active part in public affairs, filling a number of important offices of honor and trust.

      A native of New York, Mr. Hager was born March 16, 1837, in Schoharie county, and is a representative of one of the oldest families of that state. His grandfather, Tunnis Vrooman Hager, secured the land from the government on which the old Hager homestead in Schoharie county is located, it being taken up by him over one hundred twenty years ago. Upon this farm the birth of our subject occurred, and there his father, Jonas V. Hager, was also born. In the family of the latter were three sons, of whom John C. is the second, the others being William H. and J. F. A. Hager, both residents of Branch county, Michigan.

      At the early age of eleven years John C. Hager left his old home in Schoharie county, New York, and for a time run a ferry boat on the Schoharie creek, and also worked as a mechanic, learning the carriage-maker's trade in New York. In 1855 he removed to Branch county, Michigan, having previously traveled over a large portion of that state. There he was married in 1862 to Mary Jane Welch, who died in September, 1871. Two children were born to them, but Bert is the only one now living. In Butler county, Nebraska, Mr. Hager was again married in 1873, his second union being with Miss Lovica Tower, whose father, Samuel Tower, was killed at the battle of the Wilderness during the Civil war. She died in Bellwood, Nebraska, in 1896, leaving three children, namely: Jennie, Leone and Normie. On the 26th of December, 1897, Mr. Hager was united in marriage with Mary Jane Renwick, his present wife.

      In January, 1880, Mr. Hager emigrated to Butler county, Nebraska, and became one of the pioneer settlers of Bellwood, erecting the first building at that place, with whose development and prosperity he has since been closely identified. At first he was engaged in contracting as a carpenter and builder, but for the past eight years has held his present responsible position, that of manager of the W. A. Wells lumber yard. On locating here he also bought a farm three miles from Bellwood.

      The Democratic party has ever found in Mr. Hager a stanch supporter of its principles, and by his fellow citizens he has been elected to the offices of justice of the peace, town clerk, and mayor of the city, capably discharging the duties of the last named position for three terms. Socially he is a member of the blue lodge and chapter in Masonry. 

Letter/label or barOHN SMITH, a respected resident of McCooI Junction, and now living in retirement, is said to be the oldest settler now living in York county, he being probably the first to take up his residence in that county. He was born in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, May 25, 1832.

      John Smith's parents were John and Susan (Steward) Smith. The father, a native of Pennsylvania, removed to Wisconsin in 1842, and located at Cassville, on the Mississippi river. He was a soldier in the Mexican war, from which he never returned. The mother of our subject married again, her second husband being James Willett.

      At the age of fourteen John Smith left home, and after several moves finally located in Missouri, where he entered the employ of a stage company. A few years later he was employed by the Southern Overland Company, and drove stage through the state of Arkansas. While thus engaged he met with a serious misfortune, having dislocated his hip, and falling into the hands of an unskillful surgeon the case was so badly handled that Mr. Smith has been a cripple ever since. At the close of the Civil war, he went to Nebraska, and



in May, 1865, located in York county, about three miles east of the site of the present city of York. Here for over one year he had charge of the Beaver Dam stage station. In September, 1866, he resigned his position and filed upon a homestead claim of one hundred and sixty acres, being the southeast quarter of section 18, township 9, range 2, in what is now known as McFadden township. He built a log cabin fourteen by eighteen feet, with a dirt roof. The necessary lumber for doors and windows he brought from Nebraska City, over one hundred miles, paying seventy dollars per thousand feet for it. Some time later a sawmill was located at Seward, and from this he got enough lumber to put a floor in his cabin. He broke part of his land in the spring of 1867 and raised about twenty-five bushels of sod corn to the acre that season. Game was plentiful, so that it was not difficult for him to supply himself with meat. Buffalo, elk, wild turkey, etc., furnished a variety, and in the fall he laid in a supply of buffalo meat sufficient to last all winter. Indians were numerous, but were troublesome only as beggars. Settlers soon began to arrive, and this furnished a good market for all surplus products. Mr. Smith improved his farm, adding needed buildings and conveniences from time to time, until it was regarded as one of the most valuable pieces of farm property in York county. In 1888 Mr. Smith sold his farm and purchased residence property in McCool junction, where he has since lived in practical retirement.

      In 1861 Mr. Smith was united in marriage with Sarah Byby, a native of Kentucky. They have no children of their own but gave shelter and a home to two adopted children whom they raised to maturity, and they now have an adopted daughter, Florence. Mr. Smith is a Democrat in political views, and is a member of the M. W. A. lodge at McCool Junction. 

Letter/label or bar. FRED CARLSON is one of the prominent agriculturists of Platte precinct, Polk county, Nebraska, where, on section 28, of township 14, range 3, he has an excellent farm. He is one of the first settlers of the region, and has taken an active part in the development of the resources of the county. He runs his farm according to the most improved and scientific methods, which have been adopted by the modern agriculturists. Mr. Carlson was born December 28, 1852, at Kalmer, Sweden, and is a son of Charles Nelson, who was a farmer by occupation and died in Sweden in 1859.

      Mr. Carlson grew to manhood and was educated in his native land, and came to the United States in 1869. He first located in Marshall county, Illinois, where he remained for one winter, and then removed to Putnam county in the same state. He worked out as a farm hand there until the spring of 1872, when he came to Polk county, Nebraska, in company with his mother and stepfather, Carl Parson, who are now residents of the county. Mr. Carlson located on his homestead in section 28, and built a frame shanty 12 x 14 feet, in which he made his home until he built his spacious residence, which is now the place of his abode. He labored incessantly on his farm to bring the same to a high state of cultivation, which it afterward attained, under his well directed efforts, though the first three years of labor were in vain, as he did not raise a crop until 1877. His estate consists of seven hundred and twenty acres of land, all of which is under cultivation, with the exception of forty-five acres, and the same is adorned with all the modern improvements, necessary in the running of a well regulated farm. The place is further adorned with a fine grove of trees planted by our subject, and he also has it well stocked with a fine line of high grade animals. He does a general farming and stock



raising business, in which he has been very successful, and has accumulated a cheerful competency. He has added largely to his original homestead by purchase, a part of which he bought of his step-father.

      Mr. Carlson was united in the bonds of matrimony to Miss Mary A. Peterson, a native of Henry county, Illinois, in 1890. There have been three children born to bless this congenial union, who have been named as follows: Charles E. ; David F.; and Reinholt A. The family are members of the Lutheran church at Swede Home, of which Mr. Carlson has been a trustee. He is a member of the board of directors of the Scandinavian Mutual Insurance Company, of Polk county. He has taken quite an interest in local political matters and has held many minor offices. He is a stanch Republican and has been a delegate to the county convention of that party. He has also held the office of road overseer, and has served as judge of the elections. He is well known and highly esteemed, and is always willing to lend his influence to anything that will advance the interests of the community in which he resides. 

Letter/label or barOHN B. HAMILTON, a leading business man of Tamora, has for fifteen years been prominently identified with the agricultural or commercial interests of Seward county, and now gives his attention exclusively to the grain and coal business. By his energy, perseverance and fine business ability he has been enabled to secure a comfortable competence. Systematic and methodical, his sagacity, keen discrimination and sound judgment have made him one of the prosperous citizens of the community.

      Mr. Hamilton was born in Harrison county, Ohio, in 1862, and is a son of Alexander and Nancy (Hilton) Hamilton, the former a native of Pennsylvania, and the latter of Ohio. The father, who was a farmer by occupation, removed to Ohio at an early day, and there made his home until coming to Seward county, Nebraska, in 1883. Here his death occurred five years later. Of his seven children, five sons and two daughters, only our subject and one sister are residents of Seward county. The mother is still living and makes her home in this state.

      John B. Hamilton spent his early life in Ohio like most farmer boys, attending the district schools and aiding in the labors of the field, and on starting out in life for himself he continued to engage in agricultural pursuits in that state until the emigration of the family to Nebraska in 1883. He purchased a farm near Tamora, but gave the greater part of his attention to the buying of grain in the village in company with George N. Lowery, the firm being the first to engage in that business here and the second to erect an elevator. Our subject now devotes his time wholly to the grain and coal business, and is meeting with a well deserved success.

      In 1889 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Hamilton and Miss Eleanora Welch, a native of Ohio and a daughter of George and Kate Welch, who now reside in York county, Nebraska. Three children have been born of this union: Clifford and Lloyd still living, and one deceased. In politics, Mr. Hamilton is a pronounced Republican, but he has never cared for the honors or emoluments of public office, and in his social relations is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. 

Letter/label or barRMSTRONG HUSTON, a well-known and prominent farmer residing on section 17, Chelsea township, Fillmore county, Nebraska, is one of America's loyal sons who devoted the opening years of his man-




hood to the service of his country, and made for himself a war record both honorable and glorious during the dark days of the Rebellion. In times of peace, too, his patriotism has never been doubted for his support is never withheld from any enterprise calculated to prove of public benefit.

      Mr. Huston was born in Washington county, Indiana, December 15, 1840, a son of David M. and Elizabeth (Thompson) Huston, and grandson of Alexander Huston and Thomas Thompson. On both sides his ancestors are of Scotch-Irish descent, and members of the family have followed various occupations but principally farming. The Hustons are supposed to belong to the same family as Gen. Sam Houston, of Texan fame.

      During his boyhood and youth our subject attended the district schools near his home, where he learned to read, write and spell and also became quite proficient in Ray's arithmetic. He was nearly twenty years of age at the time of the battle of Bull Run, and the defeat of the Northern army roused the patriotism in him so that he could not remain quietly at home. Accordingly one July morning, in 1861, found him on his way to the city of Salem, Indiana, where he enlisted. He was sworn in August 24, becoming a member of Company D, Thirty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and with his regiment went into camp at New Albany, where they drilled until September and were then sent to Kentucky to protect Louisville from a threatened raid. Under the command of General Buell they went from Muldraugh Hill to Bowling Green, Kentucky, and thence to Nashville, Tennessee. In the summer of 1862 they were set to guarding railroad stations and commissary supplies, with headquarters at Shelbyville, from which place they raided Florence on the Tennessee river. By forced marches they were sent to threaten Chattanooga, and on the return crossed the mountains by way of Altamont, reaching headquarters some time in June. Ten days later they were ordered to Athens, Alabama, by way of Pulaski, and from Athens proceeded by train to Huntsville, it being the only railroad ride Mr. Huston had during his four years' service. The regiment was next on picket duty along the river and later guarded the railroad between Chattanooga and Nashville. When General Buell's army returned they went to Louisville, and a few days later were sent in pursuit of General Bragg, whom they overtook at Perryville, where a hotly contested battle was fought, Company D losing twenty-eight of their fifty men. They followed Bragg to Crab Orchard, and when, they became sure he had passed through the Gap they returned to Bowling Green and later to Nashville. They were sent on a foraging expedition to Springfield, Kentucky, where they found a large supply of flour and bacon, which they sent back to the army at Nashville. They next went into camp Andy Johnson, where they remained until the last of December, when General Rosecrans made a move which brought on the battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862, and continued through the 1st and 2nd of January, 1863. They remained at Murfreesboro until General Rosecrans started for Tullahoma on the Chattanooga campaign. At the battle of Chickarnauga, Mr. Huston was wounded after dark on the night of September 19, 1863, being struck by a minie ball which lodged under the right shoulder blade. It was eight days before he reached the hospital and his wound was dressed, and after remaining there for six weeks he was granted a thirty days furlough and returned home.

      In the meantime his regiment had veteranized, and when he reported for duty at New Albany, Indiana, he re-enlisted. In thirty days more they were all back in Chattanooga, where they remained until May 7, when they started with General Sherman on



the celebrated march to the sea. They marched to Savannah, then up the coast to Columbia and on to Goldsboro. At the battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, the captain of Company D was killed, and Mr. Huston was promoted from color-bearer; over the orderly sergeant, to second lieutenant of the company, serving as such until mustered out at Indianapolis, Indiana, in July, 1865. From Raleigh the regiment proceeded to Richmond, Virginia, and thence to Washington, District of Columbia, where it participated in the grand review at the close of the war.

      Returning to his father's farm in Indiana, Mr. Huston worked in that vicinity until 1867. He was married on the 17th of December, of that year, to Miss Amanda J. Gray, a daughter of Dennis and Catherine (Mitchell) Gray. They had played together as boy and girl while at school and the friendship there formed soon ripened into love. They began their domestic life on a little farm in Indiana, where she died May 25, 1875, leaving one child, Augusta E., who married George Wellman, a farmer of Geneva township, Fillmore county, Nebraska, and has two children, Clara and Lynn. Mr. Huston was again married September 16, 1877, his second union being with Miss Margaret Mitchell, a daughter of John and Mary J. (Herron) Mitchell, the former of Irish, the latter of Scotch descent. By this marriage there are two children, Dora and Nellie, who are being well educated, and it is the intention of their parents after they have completed the course in the district schools to send them to higher institutions of learning.

      After his second marriage, Mr. Huston spent three years in California, and then returned to Indiana and took his wife and children to the far west, remaining two and a half years engaged in railroad work. Since then he has made his home in Fillmore county, Nebraska, and has devoted his time to agricultural pursuits with good success. Politically he is a radical Republican, casting his first vote for General Grant, his last for Major McKinley. Although not a member of any religious denomination, he has led an honorable and upright life, and is a believer in Christianity. His wife holds membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Letter/label or barVAN A. THOMAS is a leading representative of the business interests of Thayer, York county, where he owns and operates a good mill. Of excellent business ability and broad resources, he has attained a prominent place among the substantial citizens of this part of the county, and has won success by his well-directed, energetic efforts, the prosperity that has come to him being certainly well deserved.

      Born in Portage county, Ohio, January 25, 1840, Mr. Thomas is a son of Francis and Ann (Evans) Thomas, who were both natives of Wales, where their marriage was celebrated. The paternal grandfather, David Thomas, spent his entire life in that country, engaged in farming. For several generations the Evans family followed the occupation of milling, and during her girlhood Mrs. Thomas often assisted her father in the mill, doing the bolting.

      In 1835 the parents of our subject crossed the Atlantic to the New World and first located in New York state, where they made their home for three years. Subsequently they lived in Portage county, Ohio, and from there removed to Rock county, Wisconsin, and later in life to Freeborn county, Minnesota, where the father died at the extreme old age of ninety-six years. As a life work he engaged in agricultural pursuits. Of their eight children, five were born in Wales, and three after the emigration of the family to America.

      The district schools of Wisconsin fur-



nished Evan A. Thomas his educational advantages, and when old enough he began to work on the home farm, remaining with his parents until he attained the age of twenty years, when he started out to make his own way in the world. He commenced learning the millwright's trade, and served a five years' apprenticeship at that occupation and milling, at which he continued to work until 1868, when he removed to Mitchell, Iowa, where he resided for three years, following farming.

     At the end of that period Mr. Thomas located in Rockford, Illinois, where he engaged in milling, and was similarly employed at Kirkwood, that state, where the death of his mother occurred. In the spring of 1878 he removed to Seward, Nebraska, but soon afterward came to York county, working in the mill at Thayer for about a year as millwright. He then purchased the plant, which had been started by Cowgill & Harris, but was never conducted by them. After operating the mill for about four years, Mr. Thomas sold it and built a mill at Stromsburg, which he conducted until his removal to Sioux City, Iowa, in 1887. At that place he carried on milling for three years and then returned to Stromsburg, but in April, 1897, re-purchased his first mill in Thayer, which he now owns and successfully operates. Many improvements having been made in the plant, it is now one of the best mills in the county, and the product turned out is first-class in every particular.

      Mr. Thomas was married on the 18th of October, 1866, to Miss Jane Davies, a native of Oneida county, New York, and a daughter of David and Mary (Williams) Davies, who were born in Wales and are now deceased, the father dying in Rockford, Illinois, the mother in Stromsburg, Nebraska. Besides Mrs. Thomas they had four other daughters, namely: Elizabeth A., now Mrs. Underhill, of Stromsburg; Mary E., deceased; Sarah, who died in infancy; and Catherine E., also deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas have three children living: David A., William E. and Lula J. Those deceased are Mary G. and Daisy M., who both died in infancy.

      In politics, Mr. Thomas is a pronounced Republican, and he has creditably served in a number of minor offices in the communities where he has at different times made his home. He and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church, and enjoy the hospitality of many of the best homes in York county. He has made for himself an honorable record in business, and as a citizen, friend and neighbor he is true to every duty, justly meriting the esteem in which he is held. 

Letter/label or barOHN BUSH.--In the career of this gentleman we find an excellent example for young men just embarking in the held of active life, of what may be accomplished by a man beginning poor, but honest, prudent and industrious. Although he came to Polk county in limited circumstances he is now the owner of a fine farm pleasantly situated on section 19, township 14, range 3, Platte precinct.

      A native of Coshocton county, Ohio, Mr. Bush was born November 18, 1842, a son of David and Fredericka (Nellinger) Bush, the former a native of Maryland, the latter of Germany. They were married in Maryland, became early settlers of Ohio, and later removed to Indiana, settling in Owen county, where they spent their last days amid pioneer scenes. The mother was a consistent member of the Methodist church, and both were highly respected by all who knew them. In their family were the following children who reached years of maturity: Andrew, who was sergeant in Company H, Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the Civil war, and



is now a resident of Hamilton county, Nebraska; Jacob, who also makes his home in that county; George E., who was a sergeant in Company I, Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, and is still living in Owen county, Indiana; David, a resident of Hamilton county, Nebraska, who was also a member of Company I, Nineteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and at the battle of Gettysburg was shot through the back of the neck, and twice wounded at Antietam; John, the next of the family; James, a soldier in the Fifteenth Indiana Light Battery, and now a resident of Hamilton county, Nebraska; and Sophia, deceased.

      At the pioneer home of the family in Owen county, Indiana, John Bush grew to manhood with but little opportunity to attend school; in fact he did not learn his letters until after he entered the army. It was on the twenth (sic)-seventh day of June, 1861, that he joined the boys in blue as a member of Company I, Nineteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was first sent to Washington, D. C., where he assisted in building Fort Craig, and remained all winter. Then under General McDowell he took part in the engagement at Gainesville, Virginia, second battle of Bull Run, and the battles of South Mountain, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. At the last named he was wounded July 1, 1863, by a gunshot through the right shoulder, and after being sent to the hospital at West Philadelphia, gangrene set in, but he was finally able to rejoin his regiment at Belle Plains, Virginia. Later he participated in the battles of Mine Run, the Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Bethseda Church, the siege of Petersburg, and the battle of Appomattox, where Lee surrendered. He belonged to the celebrated "Iron Brigade," composed of the Seventh, Sixth, and Second Wisconsin regiments, the Twenty-fourth Michigan, and the Nineteenth Indiana, which under command of Colonel Meredith opened the battle of Gettysburg and also captured Archer's Confederate brigade. Mr. Bush took part in the grand review at Washington, District of Columbia, and was later discharged at Jeffersonville, Indiana, July 15, 1865, after four years and one month of faithful and arduous service. He was a brave and fearless soldier, always found at his post of duty, and in July, 1864, was promoted to the rank of corporal. After being wounded at Gettysburg, he was captured by the enemy and held as a prisoner for three days.

      When the war was over Mr. Bush returned to his home in Indiana, but in 1869 removed to Christian county, Illinois, where he engaged in farming until coming to Polk county, Nebraska, in 1873. Here he secured a homestead consisting of the northwest quarter of section 30, township 14, range 3, and to the cultivation and improvement of the wild prairie land at once turned his attention, his stock at that time consisting of only a team of mules and one cow. The first year he raised a small crop of sod corn, and half of first ten acres of wheat which he raised he gave to the man who had furnished the seed. He endured all the hardships and privations of frontier life, the grasshoppers destroyed his crops, and what was to him a great trial was the lack of tobacco. In order to support his family he was obliged to work for others in addition to the cultivation of his own land; but now things have changed,-two hundred and forty acres of his four-hundred-acre farm are under a high state of cultivation, yielding bountiful harvests in result for the care and labor bestowed upon it. The little sod house, which was the home of the family for nine years, has been replaced by a comfortable frame residence, and everything about the place testifies to the industry and progressive spirit of the owner.

      On the 8th of April, 1868, Mr. Bush was united in marriage with Miss Mary E.



Hillegas, who was born in Coshocton county, Ohio, October 18, 1848, and they have become the parents of seven children, namely: Horatio, Mrs. Ida Luena Wilson, Dora, Rettie, George, Walter and Glenn. Fraternally Mr. Bush is a worthy member of the G. A. R. post, at Clarks, Nebraska; politically is independent, and has served as an efficient member of the school board. 

Letter/label or barOHN GROVES.--Among the honored pioneers of Nebraska, this gentleman is especially worthy of notice in a work of this kind. He was one of the first men to locate within its borders, and being posessed (sic) of a rare amount of energy, proved a most valuable member of the young and rapidly growing state. Here he has made his home since the spring of 1859, and in the spring of 1867 located on section 22, Oak Creek township, Butler county, where for many years he successfully engaged in farming. At the present time, however, he is living retired in Brainard, enjoying a well-earned rest.

      A native of Ireland, Mr. Groves was born in County Monaghan, in 1817, but when only four years old was brought to this country by his parents, Edward and Mary Groves, who located in Canada near the Vermont line. Upon the home farm our subject grew to manhood and at Barneston, Stanstead county, Canada, was married, in 1841, to Miss Dorcas M. Hanson, a daughter of Benjamin Hanson, of that place. Her grandfather, Charles Hanson, had removed to Canada from New Hampshire. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Groves are as follows: Lucy Jane, the wife of Solomon Henry; Susan Eliza; Mary E., wife of Trimble Biggs; William H. H.; Lois Olivia, wife of William Biggs; Helen M.; Henrietta, wife of Benjamin Fleek; and Abby A., wife of William McElvain.

      During early life Mr. Groves learned the mason's trade, which he followed for two years in Jefferson, Wisconsin, having removed to that place in 1857. He then came to Nebraska, stopping first at Plattsmouth, where he followed farming in connection with work at his trade. From there he removed to Pawnee Village, where he established a ranch and also started a hotel as that place was on the Pike's Peak trail, which was then in constant use by the gold seekers of Colorado. After a residence there of two and a half years, the Indians became so troublesome that the family were forced to leave, and their next home was in Ashland, Saunders county, Nebraska, where Mr. Groves erected the first brick building in the town, it being for the use of the firm of Snell Brothers.

      After many years of arduous labor, Mr. Groves laid aside all business cares and removed to the village of Brainard in 1885, having previously come to Butler county, as before stated, in the spring of 1867. Here he successfully followed agricultural pursuits until his retirement, and through his own unaided efforts in life has secured a comfortable competence for himself and family. His youthful dreams of prosperity have been realized, and in their happy fulfillment he sees the fitting reward of his earnest toil. For five years he has most capably served as justice of the peace in Brainard, and in the Methodist Episcopal church of that place he holds a membership. 

Letter/label or barEORGE HENTON, a prosperous agriculturist living on section 34 Baker township, is one of the pioneers of York county. He was born August 30, 1844, at Logansport, Indiana. He is one of York county's old soldiers, and has an enviable war record.

     Mr. Henton's parents were John R. and Mary (McCurry) Henton, the father a native

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