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served until December 31, 1863, when he was mustered out, but re-enlisting the same day at Brandy Station he became a member of Company A, Eighty-sixth New York Veteran Volunteers, and continued with that regiment until March 31, 1865, when he was wounded in the right thigh by a piece of shell in front of Petersburg. Not only this but from the effect of sciatica-rheumatism he has lost the use of his left leg and side, compelling him to go on crutches the remainder of his life. After a short time spent in the hospital at City Point he rejoined his command and at the close of the war participated in the Grand Review in Washington, D. C., although he had to walk on crutches. He was finally discharged and paid off at Elmira; New York, July 4, 1865, after nearly four years of valiant service, and though twice wounded he was in active duty during the greater part of the time, valiantly defending the starry banner.

      For two weeks after his return home Judge Saunders attempted to work at his trade, but his health was so impaired he found it impossible, and he accepted a position at light work in shop in Spencerport, but again finding himself unequal to the task he removed to a little farm upon which rested an indebtedness of twelve hundred dollars. At length, determining to try his fortune in the west he came to Nebraska in 1871 and as soon as the pontoons were placed so that he could cross the river he located in Polk county. Securing a homestead eight miles north of the town, he built a little cabin twelve by fourteen feet, residing therein for four years. In 1876 he removed to Colfax county, where he purchased a farm, which he operated one year. He then lived in David City for nine months, on the expiration of which period he returned to his present home.

      In 1885 his fellow-townsmen, appreciating his worth and ability, elected him county judge of Polk county, and while serving in that capacity he took up the study of law. Later he studied under the direction of Hon. H. L. King, of Osceola, and was admitted to the bar in 1887 by Judge T. L. Norval. He was also admitted to practice in the supreme court of the state and before all the departments of Washington, District of Columbia, and has been connected with much of the important litigation heard in his district. He has a keenly analytical mind, is a close reasoner, logical in his deductions and his arguments before court and jury are forceful and convincing. Aside from his duties on the bench he served as clerk of the district court for four years, and was doorkeeper in the lower house of the Nebraska legislature in 1879, 1881, 1883 and 1885. He took a very prominent part in political affairs in Monroe county, New York, before coming to the west, and has always been a stalwart Republican since casting his first presidential vote for John C. Fremont when nineteen years of age.

      The judge and his wife are the parents of three children: Horatio B., who is postal clerk on the railroad; Frankie, deceased; and Charlotte. The family is one of marked prominence in this locality and their circle of friends is very extensive. For twenty-eight years the judge has been a local preacher in the Methodist church and is a very prominent Mason, having been identified with that order since February 13, 1864. He belongs to Osceola Lodge, No. 65, in which he has served as Master nine years; Orion Chapter. No. 18, R. A. M., in which he has been Master of the Third Veil; Joppa Commandery, No. 17, K. T., of York, Nebraska. He also belongs to the Odd Fellows Lodge, at Osceola, has passed all its chairs and has been district deputy grand master of the state. He maintains his relations with his old army comrades through his membership in the Grand Army



of the Republic, has served several times as commander of the local post, and is senior vice-commander at the present time. His life has been an industrious, upright and honorable one, devoted to all that tends toward the best development of the country, and his name is closely interwoven with its history. He has justly won the proud American title of self-made man, and while gaining a fair competence he has also won the unqualified regard and respect of all with whom he has been brought in contact. 

Letter/label or bar. H. CARLSON.--The story of the wonderful physical resources of America and of the opportunities offered to honest industry to gain a footing in business and society has attracted hither many natives of the Scandinavian Peninsula. And it affords us great pleasure to devote a few brief paragraphs to the record of the life of one of those sturdy pioneers, who has been instrumental in the building of a nation. Mr. Carlson is successfully pursuing the occupation of a farmer on section 28, of township 14, range 3, in Platte precinct, Polk county, Nebraska. He was born August 31, 1847, in the state of Kalmer, Sweden, and is a son of Charles Johnson, who died in the old country. He was a farmer by occupation and cultivated a farm which he owned there. The mother of our subject is still living and makes her home in Sweden on the old homestead.

      C. H. Carlson received his education and grew to manhood in his native land. He emigrated to the United States in the fall of 1868, and settled in Marshall county, Illinois. He secured a position to work by the month, which he retained until 1872, when he located in Polk county, Nebraska. He took up a homestead claim to the farm on which he has resided continuously ever since, which at the time he took possession of it was all wild and unbroken. He kept bachelor's hall on his homestead, in a small frame house 12 x 14 feet, which he built on his land. The first year he raised sod, corn and potatoes, and the second year he raised a crop of eight acres of wheat. In 1874 he received a visit from that terrible pest, the grasshoppers, which took all of his crop, but notwithstanding all the hardships and privations through which Mr. Carlson has gone he is to-day one of the most substantial farmers of this locality. The first two years of his residence in Nebraska he was compelled to work for others, though he had a team of his own. His estate now comprises two hundred acres of excellent land, one hundred and thirty-five acres of which are under the plow and the balance is used for meadow and pasture.

      The neat and comfortable appearance of his place is entirely due to the persistent endeavors of our subject, who has expended many hours of toil upon the same to accomplish the present results. He has followed agricultural pursuits exclusively, and is in all respects a modern and scientific farmer, who takes considerable pride in the improvements and workings of his farm. In 1882 he built his present cosy and comfortable home, which is located near a grove and orchard which he planted himself. He has also added an addition to his home at a cost of $600. Mr. Carlson passed through the terrible blizzard of 1873, and experienced many sufferings in the same.

      Mr. Carlson was married in 1877 to Miss Ida Anderson, who was born in Leincherpin, Sweden, and came to the United States when she was eight years of age. They are the parents of four children, upon whom they bestowed the following names: August F.; Charles Elmer; Erffe Alida; and Lillie H. All of the children are being given the advantages of good educations, which will enable them to battle successfully through life, which, with the aid of the Christian faith, in which they are all firm



believers, will make them respected and exemplary citizens. The family are all members in good standing of the Lutheran church, of which Mr. Carlson is a trustee, and has also been treasurer of the same for six years. He is a member of the Scandinavian Mutual Insurance Company of Polk county, of which he was at one time one of the directors. He uses his elective franchise in the support of the principles of the Republican party. He is well known and highly respected throughout the precinct in which lives for his many sterling traits of character. 

Letter/label or barAMES H. DAVIDSON, one of the best known men in Seward county, Nebraska, and one of its earliest settlers, was born November 26. 1843, in Hardin county, Ohio.

      The parents of our subject were Patrick and Elizabeth (Matthews) Davidson, to whom three children were born, two girls and one boy. James H. received a common school education such as were furnished in those days, and at the age of eighteen years enlisted in the Fourth Iowa Cavalry, under Colonel Porter and Captain Miller, at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, February 24, 1862. He was transferred to the south, and took part in the battles at Port Gibson, also at Jackson, Mississippi, two engagements, and served at the siege of Vicksburg. At the battle of Granada he was taken prisoner by the Confederates and confined in the famous Libby Prison for a period of six weeks, and then was sent to Belle Isle. Here he was kept about three weeks, and then to the horror of himself and his companions they were taken to Andersonville, where they endured all the sufferings and vicious brutality for which that prison has become famous in history. His confinement there dated from March 8, 1864, to September 11 of the same year. Having about this time been put under parole of honor, he escaped his guard during a dark night, with twenty other Union soldiers, traveled about one hundred miles by night, exposed to privations and suffering from hunger and anxiety until, at the end of twelve days, they were recaptured by the use of bloodhounds, and were imprisoned at Milan, Georgia. November 23, 1864, he was released on parole and sent to the Union lines, where he arrived three days later. The stories related of his sufferings and ill-treatment during this unfortunate period are worthy of a place in the annals of the war of the Rebellion. In 1868 he was called to Washington as a witness in the trial of the notorious Henry Wirz, keeper of Andersonville prison, who was convicted and hanged. Mr. Davidson says that his rations consisted of a cup of corn meal which he was compelled to eat without cooking or else starve. His normal weight before his imprisonment was one hundred and sixty-seven pounds. Upon his release his weight was ninety-seven pounds. While at Andersonville he shared his sufferings with forty-two thousand Union soldiers, eighteen thousand of whom died from starvation and ill-treatment during the time.

      Mr. Davidson returned to Washington county, Iowa, after his army service, and was employed in a vineyard until 1870, when his marriage occurred. The lady of his choice was Miss Emma F. Jobes, a native of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, born September 12, 1852, and being at the date of her marriage to our subject but seventeen years of age.

      Soon after their marriage in the spring of 1870, our subject and his young wife removed to Seward county, Nebraska, where they took up a homestead claim to eighty acres. In 1883 their home was destroyed by fire, this misfortune occurring on our subject's birthday, November 26. They



soon rebuilt their residence, and lived in happy contentment until the spring of 1884, when the death of Mrs. Davidson cast a deep shadow over the home. Her remains rest in the Milford Cemetery, Seward county, Nebraska.

      To Mr. and Mrs. Davidson seven children were born, namely: William Henry, Elmer, Lena May, Edna Lillian, Mary Lucy, Nellie Helen, and Frank Patrick. The last named died in infancy. All the others live in Seward county. Upon their settlement in Nebraska Mr. and Mrs. Davidson experienced all the inconveniences and trials which that state bestowed upon its pioneers, but they overcame all, and the family now live in comfort. Mr. Davidson is an honored member of the G. A. R. 

Letter/label or barUGUST MARKWARTH, whose home is on section 21, of McFadden township, is one of the older settlers of York county, and bears the burden of years and the weight of long and hard labor, but is still strong and vigorous. He was born in Germany, May 22, 1838, and is a son of Ernst and Maria (Uda) Markwarth. They were born, lived and died in Germany.

      His father was a weaver, and devoted himself to the care and nurture of his children, providing for them in every way that was possible within his means. August had a fair education and began the weavers trade at eighteen, and worked at it until his arrival in America. He sailed from Bremen, June 25, 1868, on a sailing vessel and seven weeks and four days were consumed in the passage. The ocean was very rough during the greater part of this protracted voyage. He landed in New York with his wife and one child, and went immediately to the home of his brother-in-law in Carroll county, Illinois. He rented a piece of land in his neighborhood, and farmed it for eleven years. By this time he had saved a little money, and decided to invest in a Nebraska home. His landlord was reluctant to have him go, but his mind was set and he came to York county in 1879 and bought one hundred and sixty acres in McFadden township. He engaged a man to break twenty acres, and went back to harvest his crops in Illinois. He returned with his family in February, 1880, and took up his abode on the farm, where he has since resided. He lived for a time with his brother-in-law, Louis Ebbeka, while he was building a house for his residence. He owns at the present writing two hundred and forty acres, and is one of the substantial farmers of the town.

      Mr. Markwarth was married to Miss Mina Ebbeka in Germany in 1865. They have three children, August, Mary, and Charles. They are all living in this township, and have families of their own. Mrs. Markwarth died July 29, 1895, and since that bereavement her husband has lived upon the homestead, and is still engaged in its cultivation. He is a Democrat, and is a member of the Lutheran church. 

Letter/label or barOHN ARCHER, who resides on Section 10, Chelsea township, is one of the representative farmers of Fillmore county. He was born January 9, 1845, in Coles county, Illinois, and is a son of Ellison and Elizabeth (Street) Archer, who were farmers of Coles county. He was reared and educated in the common schools of his district, acquiring such an education as the schools of that time afforded. He lived with his parents until he was twenty years of age, when he was married April, 1864, to Miss Rachel J. Raines, a daughter of Samuel and Lydia (Young) Raines who was also farmers of Coles county. After his marriage he rented a part of his fathers farm, and by carefully saving his money, he was enabled the next autumn to buy forty acres of land, paying five hundred dollars in cash, and get-



ting time on the balance. They then moved on their own farm, but only lived there a few months, when the house was completely destroyed by fire, and they barely escaped with their lives. This loss embarrassed him so much financially that he was compelled to sell his land in order to relieve the indebtedness that was hanging over it. Truly life was not opening very promising for them, and he was very much discouraged, but it seems that the darkest clouds always have a silver lining, and it is always darkest just before the break of day. Just at this critical time in their affairs, Mrs. Archer opportunely received her portion of her deceased fathers estate, and she came heroically to the assistance of her husband. With this money they bought a small but extremely valuable tract of land, and after a few years of hard work and carefully saving their money, they were enabled to buy an additional twenty acres of land. They lived on this farm until 1871, when they determined to try their fortune in the west. They loaded all their goods in a canvas covered wagon and started for Nebraska, and after a long and tiresome journey they finally reached Fillmore county, and purchased a farm in section 10, Chelsea township. Here they erected a sod house and stable, and covered them with shingle roofs. The land was unbroken and they set to work with a will to convert the rolling prarie (sic) into a cultivated farm. Fortune finally smiled on them, and in a few years they were able to add an addition of eighty acres to their farm, and they now have a good, fertile and well cultivated farm of one hundred and sixty acres of land, which is well improved in every respect.

      To their marriage have been born sixteen children, eleven of whom are still living. George B., who married Miss Jennie Falkton, Samuel E., who married Miss Carrie Tuttle, Lydia M., who married Henry Hennecamp, Ellen J., who married Frank Brewer, Emery, who married Miss Grace Bland, Mary B., who married Relphkin Shuffler, John W., Arthur, Anna May, Hattie Eva, Minnie Viola. Five died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Archer are both members of the United Brethren Church, and are active workers in church matters. Politically he is a member of the Populist party, and is an ardent believer in its principles 

Letter/label or barDAM HALL, one of the oldest settlers of Butler county, was born in Ross county, Ohio, near Chillicothe, October 2, 1830. He was the son of Elisha Hall, of English and German descent, a native of New York, who was an early settler of Ross county, Ohio, and also a pioneer of Pulaski county, Indiana, having moved near Logansport in 1831, when our subject was one year old.

      He was the son of Hannah Kilbourne, a native of New York, in which state she grew up, and her parents were both Americans. Both of his parents lived long and useful lives, his father dying at the age of sixty-five years, in Iowa county, Iowa, to which place he had gone in 1853. His mother lived to the age of seventy-eight years.

      Mr. Hall was the youngest of seven children, and when one year old removed with his parents to Cass county, Indiana, where he grew up and was educated in the common schools of that county.

      In 1853 he was married to Rosanna Bowers, who was also a native of New York, but had spent most of her life in Ohio. She was the daughter of Jacob and Melissa Bowers. She was the mother of four children, only two of whom are now living, Henry C., of Salt Lake City, Utah, and George N., of David City. In 1853, the year of his marriage, Mr. Hall removed to Iowa county, Iowa, where he purchased a farm



from the government, paying one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre for the same. He made great improvements upon the place and remained there engaged in general farming until 1865, when he went to West Liberty, Muscatine county, Iowa, still continuing in the occupation of general farming, and afterward engaging in the lumber and butcher business.

      In 1870 he transferred his interests to Butler county, Nebraska, and took up a homestead in section 25, Oak Creek township. On this land he erected a house, considered the finest in the county at that time, one and one-hall stories high, the main part 16x26 feet, with a wing 16x16 feet. He steadily improved the place and continued to reside here for ten years, enaged in general farming and stock raising, at the end of which time he removed to David City, where he went into the livery business, which business he has followed in this place ever since, with the exception of five years, when he retired temporarily.

      In 1863 he was married for the second time to Nannie Bozarth, a native of Virginia, who has spent most of her life in West Liberty, Iowa, her parents having removed there when she was three years of age. They were the parents of three children: Jessie, who is now teaching in the high school in David City; Artie, wife of Philip Krofft, of David City, and Bert, who married Miss Aggie Miller and resides in David City.

      In 1862 he enlisted in Company B, Twenty-eighth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, as a private, but was at once promoted to the office of sergeant and served until 1863, when he received his honorable discharge on account of disability. He was the witness, during this year, of many fierce skirmishes, and was with General Smith on his expedition up the Red River.

      Mr. Hall was twice a commissioner of Butler county and has been a member of the town board a number of times. He is a member of the Prohibition party, a member of G. A. R. Post, No. 10, also of I. O. O. F., Harmony lodge, No. 31, of David City, and has always taken an active interest in local affairs and is highly esteemed and honored as a worthy citizen and promoter of the interests of his fellow men. 

Letter/label or barLLWOOD THOMPSON is one of the leading farmers of Baker township, and his farm shows what York county farmers can do in the way of admirable and successful tillage of the soil. It is managed in the latest fashion, and is equipped with all the economical appliances for the saving of time and labor. He has done well in the years that are passed, and is to-day enjoying the fruits of industry, economy and an intelligent administration of his time and strength.

      Mr. Thompson was born in Morgan county, Ohio, November 4, 1847, and attained his manhood in the home of his parents, William B. and Eleanor (Thorp) Thompson. His father was born in Harrison county, Ohio, and was a farmer all his life. He died at the home of his son, the subject of this article, in York county, in 1890. Mrs. Eleanor Thompson was born in Pennsylvania, and died at her Ohio home in 1870. Her son Ellwood received such advantages as the public schools of his neighborhood afforded, and took his place as a worker on his father's farm when he reached the age of labor. When he reached his twenty-first year he struck out for himself, and worked by the month for five years among the farmers of Clark county, Ohio. By this time he had accumulated funds enough to warrant the rental of a farm and its operation on his own account. In 1883 he bought a quarter section of as good land as may be found in York county. It was just west of Brad-



shaw, and under his intelligent management yielded rich returns. He sold it in 1892, and with his family spent a year or more visiting in his old Ohio home, taking in the World's Fair on the way. On his return to this county in the fall of 1893 he bought two hundred and forty acres in Baker township, and here he has an elegant country home. The family residence is a modern structure, and the farm is provided with the necessary farm buildings that satisfy every need of an advanced and progressive agriculture.

      Mr. Thompson was married in 1873 to Miss Sarah Weymer. She is of German nativity, and is a daughter of Jacob and Margaret Weymer. She came to America with her parents when only four years old, and her first home was in the city of New Orleans. She was left an orphan when only seven years old, and was taken into the home of relatives who lived in Ohio. She is the mother of the following named children: Abbie L., Edgar, and Arthur, and one dead, Walter H. Mr. Thompson is a member of the order of the Home Forum, and is a Republican. He has been an honest, hard-working man, and is universally respected. 

Letter/label or barOBERT W. HOPPER, a well-to-do farmer and highly respected citizen of New York township, is one of the early settlers of York county, who has been an important factor in its upbuilding and prosperity. He is a native of Belmont bounty, Ohio, and made his first appearance upon the scenes of this life May 18, 1829. His parents, William and Phebe (Lewis) Hopper, were both born in Pennsylvania, but the grandfather, Robert Hopper, was a native of Ireland, and was a farmer and weaver by occupation. As early as 1798 William Hopper removed to Ohio, where he engaged in agricultural pursuits until called to his final rest in 1872. He reared a family of nine children, five sons and four daughters, of whom three sons and three daughters are still living.

      The subject of this sketch began his education in a little old log school-house, which had been constructed without the use of a single nail, and the furniture was also of the most primitive kind. When his school-days were ended he turned his attention to farming, and assisted his father in raising tobacco. Leaving the Buckeye state in 1856, he removed to Christian county, Illinois, where he worked as a farm laborer until after the inauguration of the Civil war. In response to the President's call for volunteers to aid in putting down the rebellion, he enlisted at Taylorville, Ill., in July, 1861, and the following August was mustered into the United States service at Decatur, that state, as a member of Company G, Forty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry. For three years and one month he was in the service, and participated in the battle of Fort Dondelson (sic), where he was wounded in the foot, disabling him from active duty for sixty days. On rejoining his regiment he took part in the battles of Coldwater and Big Hatchie the siege of Vicksburg, and went with Sherman as far as Marietta, Ga., where he was stationed when his term of enlistment expired. At the battle of Jackson, Miss., he was a second time wounded.

      Returning to civil pursuits Mr. Hopper continued to reside in Illinois, until 1871, when he came to York county, Nebraska, and secured a homestead--the northeast quarter of section 12, New York township--being among the first to settle in this section of the state. This wild tract he has transformed into an excellent farm, whose well tilled fields and substantial improvements indicate the supervision of a systematic, industrious and progressive owner.

      Mr. Hopper was married in Illinois, February 18, 1866, the lady of his choice



being Miss Kate Cowgill, a daughter of John and Catherine Cowgill, natives of Delaware and Maryland, respectively, who, in 1854, had emigrated to Illinois. Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hopper, namely: Pehbe (sic) M., Charles L., Helen, Grace and Maggie. The family are regular in their attendance on church services, some belonging to the Presbyterian and others to the Methodist Episcopal church. Politically Mr. Hopper is identified with the Republican party, but has never sought official preferment, though he takes an active interest in public affairs. He has achieved success by unremitting toil, directed by sound business principles, and has accumulated a comfortable property. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS H. BISHOP, a wealthy and prosperous farmer residing on section 10, precinct P, Seward county, was born in Troy, Rensselaer county, New York, August 23, 1842, but when only two years old was taken to Wisconsin by his parents, Joseph and Emeline (Potter) Bishop. The father was born in England, but the paternal grandfather, Thomas Bishop, was a native of the north of Ireland. The Bishop family emigrated to the United States and located in Rensselaer county, New York, at an early day.

      In the public schools of Wisconsin the subject of this sketch acquired his literary education, while his business training was obtained upon the home farm, becoming thoroughly familiar with all the duties which fall to the lot of the agriculturist. His love of country was manifest in August, 1862, when he enlisted in Company H, Thirty-third Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. He participated in the siege of Vicksburg, under General Sherman, was in the engagements at Jackson and Holly Springs, and under A. J. Smith was in the Red river expedition. When the war ended he was stationed at Mobile, Alabama, and was there mustered out. Returning to his home in Wisconsin, he remained a resident of that state until coming to Seward county, Nebraska, in the fall of 1873, being influenced to locate in this region by his cousins, Thomas and Edward Healey. After securing a homestead he returned to Kenosha county, Wisconsin, where he was married that winter to Miss Annie E. Smith, by whom he has nine children: Carlton O., Clarence P., Nelson E., Julia May, Emery M., Florence, Rufus R., Maud R. and Ralph S., all born in Nebraska.

     After his marriage, Mr. Bishop brought his bride to the home he had secured, and in Seward county has since successfully engaged in general farming and stock raising. He now has one of the most attractive and best cultivated farms in the county, comprising four hundred and forty acres of rich and arable land, improved with excellent buildings, which stand as monuments to his thrift and enterprise. He is widely and favorably known throughout this section of the state, and has the respect and confidence of all with whom he comes in contact either in business or social life. His political support is always given the men and measures of the Republican party, and he has ably served as a member of the county board. Socially he affiliates with the Masonic fraternity, the Modern Woodmen of America and the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Letter/label or barLI L. SHOTWELL, an old settler of Butler county, and a farmer living on section 21, Franklin township, was born in Genesee county, New York, November 29, 1847, a son of Zachariah P. Shotwell, a native of the same county, in New York, and a farmer by occupation. The father was reared and married in his native county, and in 1849 he moved to Canada, and settled on


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