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and Margaret (Short) Fisher, natives of Illinois. Four children blessed this union, namely: Edward F.; John H.; George W., deceased; Elizabeth J. Mr. Brabham was an earnest Christian gentleman, and as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal church he exercised a great influence for good in his community. His political support was always given the Republican party, but he never cared for the honor or emoluments of public office. Mrs. Brabham is an estimable lady, of many sterling qualities, and has a large circle of friends in York county. 

Letter/label or barLPHA DIVAN a prominent representative of the agricultural interests of Seward county and also one of its honored pioneers, was born in Green county, Wisconsin, on the 15th of December, 1854. His father, Walter Divan, was born in Ohio, February 22, 1820, was educated in the public schools of his native state, and learned the carpenter's trade in connection with farming. At the age of twenty he removed to Wisconsin with his parents and there met and married Miss Mary Hackworth. Seven children were born of this union, but only four are now living, two sons and two daughters, namely: Sarah, now the wife of G. W. Donley, a jeweler, of Seward, Nebraska; Ella, wife of Joseph Stall, of Milford, Nebraska, Charley, a resident of Chicago, Illinois; and Alpha, our subject. The parents are now living retired in Seward, the father at the age of sixty-nine years, the mother at the age of seventy-one. It was in 1874 that they emigrated from Wisconsin to Nebraska, arriving in Seward county, July 2, and the father purchased a tract of land from the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, at $8 per acres. To the cultivation and improvement of his place he devoted his energies with marked success until 1881, when he removed to Seward and has since rented the farm-to different parties until six years ago, when our subject took charge of the same. On the arrival of the family in this region the town of Seward had been started, but the homesteaders were living in dugouts and sod houses, while engaged in breaking their land, and the first home of the Divans was a log house. In the quarter of a century they have resided here, however, they have witnessed many changes; the deer no longer roam over the prairies and the rude homes of the pioneers have been replaced by substantial frame residences, and the wild land has been converted into rich and productive farms.

     Alpha Divan is indebted to the common schools of Wisconsin for his educational privileges, and early in life he also obtained an excellent knowledge of every department of agriculture. He was twenty years of age at the time of the removal of the family to this state, and four years later he purchased eighty acres of land at eight dollars per acre and began life for himself. In 1890 he bought a forty acre-tract for thirty dollars per acre, and is now the owner of an excellent farm, which he has placed under a high state of cultivation and improved with good buildings. Politically, he is now a Populist, but cast his first vote for U. S. Grant, the Republican presidential nominee. His father is a supporter of the Republican party.

     At the age of twenty-four years Mr. Divan was united in marriage with Miss Mary C. Neihardt, by whom he has six children: May, Walter, Grace, Bonnie, Fay and Roy, who are being well educated in the schools of Seward county. Mrs. Divan's father, Isaac Neihardt, was a native of Ohio, and in early life married Miss Catherine Rogers, by whom he had three children, two daughters, Emma, a resident of Seward, and Mary C., and one son, who died at the age of three years. The par-



ents are now conducting a hotel in Seward, and the father is sixty-three years of age, the mother fifty-nine, and both enjoy good health. During his early manhood he lived in Arkansas and while there was nominated for congress and only lacked one vote of being elected. He is an ardent Republican in politics; and since coming to Nebraska. has served as sheriff of Seward county for two terms with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of his constituents. He entered the service of his country during the Civil war as a private soldier, and for meritorious conduct on field of battle was promoted to the rank of captain. 

Letter/label or barDWARD D. RUSSELL, a worthy representative of the agricultural interests of York county, has made his home on section 2, Hays township, since August, 1872, and is therefore numbered among its honored pioneers as well as highly esteemed citizens. He was born in Jefferson county, Iowa, April 3, 1850 son of Daniel and Harriet (Eggleson) Russell, natives of Michigan, who removed to Jefferson county, Iowa, at an early day, locating near Glasgow. There the father followed his trade of wagon-making until coming to Nebraska. The family took up their residence here August 20, 1872, the father filing a homestead claim to eighty acres, on which our subject now lives. There he died in 1875, and his wife passed away in 1887. During the first summer here they lived in a dugout, but the following fall a large sod house, eighteen by twenty-two feet, was erected, in which the family lived for several years.

     Reared in the country of his nativity, Edward D. Russell had the advantages of a good common-school education. He accompanied his parents on their removal to this state, and still occupies the old homestead. On their arrival there were many Indians in this region, but were not troublesome, only by their persistent begging. While the family endured many hardships incident to life on the frontier, they still had many enjoyable times, as all the settlers were very neighborly, shucking bees and dancing being quite common, though they usually danced on dirt floors, as the majority were of that kind. The nearest market was at Beaver Crossing, a distance of twenty miles, and our subject has often carried a sack or two of flour or meal from the mill at that place. In 1886 he erected a good frame house upon the farm, and in the fall of 1897 remodeled it, making a most comfortable and attractive home. The farm now comprises one hundred and sixty acres of land under a high state of cultivation.

     In 1878, Mr. Russell led to the marriage altar Miss Mary Hutchinson, a native of Iowa, and a daughter of Jonathan and Abbie (Ableton) Hutchinson, who were also pioneers of York county, homesteading land in Hays township in 1871. To our subject and his wife were born three children: Archie and Frank, and one that is dead. Mr. Russell's first wife died in 1883. He was again married in 1886 to Bell Dulavy, a native of Jefferson county, Iowa. They both belong to the M. E. church at McCool, and Mr. Russell belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen at that place. 

Letter/label or barNDREW J. NEWMAN is the present clerk of the district court of York county, and one of the most popular and able public officials in that part of the state. Mr. Newman was born in Harrison county, Indiana, January 25, 1852, and is a son of John S. and Amanda (Wright) Newman, natives respectively of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and of German descent. John Newman was a merchant and later a river pilot. He died in 1868, at Mauckport, Indiana. Amanda Newman died in Mauck-



port five years later, leaving five children, of whom our subject was the fourth in point of birth. The latter was educated in his native county, and when a young man took up the insurance business at Mauckport, Indiana, where he also became a justice of the peace. He held this office four years, meanwhile accepting all manner of insurance risks in Indiana and Kentucky, and in 1876 removed to southern Kansas, where he remained about a year. In the fall of 1877 he settled in York, Nebraska, and traveled for a mercantile house two years, and then went into the farm machinery trade with Mr. J. H. Hamilton, the firm name being Newman & Hamilton. This partnership continued until 1883, when Mr. Newman was appointed clerk of the district court. The same fall he was elected to this office, and has since been returned to the same position no less than four times, a most gratifying testimonial to his popularity and excellent administration of affairs. Mr. Newman has also served as a justice of the peace and as deputy sheriff, and is politically a Republican.

     On the 6th of September, 1875, Mr. Newman married Miss Newell Gwartney, a resident of Harrison county, Indiana, and a daughter of Thomas and Mary Gwartney. Mr. and Mrs. Newman are the parents of four children--Otis M., Mary A., Anna L., and Wright, all of whom are living. 

Letter/label or barOLLY M. MILLS, M. D., who was the first resident physician of Polk county, is now successfully and extensively engaged in the practice of his profession in Osceola. He has attained to distinction in the line of his profession, is an earnest and discriminating student thereof, and holds a position of due relative precedence among the medical practitioners of this section of the state. His career has been one of signal usefulness and honor, and the success which has crowned his efforts is the merited reward of resolute purpose, untiring energy and laudable ambition.

     Dr. Mills was born in Wayne county, New York, November 13, 1834, a son of Dr. Caleb and Betsey (Pearce) Mills, who were also natives of the Empire state, the father being a well known physician of Wayne county, a representative of the eclectic school. He served as a surgeon in the war of 1812, and his father, Colonel Peter Mills, a native of Scotland, who came to America in colonial days, fought for the independence of the nation in the war of the Revolution. About 1842 Dr. Caleb Mills removed with his family to Calhoun county, Michigan, locating ten miles south of Marshall on a farm which was operated by the sons, while the father engaged in the practice of his chosen profession. He died in Calhoun county, July 24, 1867, and his wife passed away February 21, 1871. They were the parents of eleven children, all of whom reached majority, namely: Ira, Matilda, Riley, George, Huldah, Caleb and Wesley, all now deceased; Holly M.; Alluron; Roland, who was killed in the battle of the Wilderness in 1864; and Alzina, deceased. Three sons loyally served their country in the war of the Rebellion--George, Holly M. and Roland.

     The Doctor was reared to manhood in Michigan and became imbued with the true western spirit of progress and enterprise. He was educated at Hillsdale College, and started out in life for himself at the age of. fifteen years, working as a farm hand through the summer months. In the winter season he continued his education, and on the completion of his literary course he prepared for the practice of medicine as a student in the Cincinnati Eclectic College, from which institution he was graduated with the class of 1861. In that year the country became involved in civil war. Like his father and grandfather, Dr. Mills, with pa-



triotic ardor, offered his services to the government, enlisting as a private in Company B, Eleventh Michigan Infantry. Soon, however, he was detailed as hospital steward for the regiment, was promoted brigadier hospital steward, and later general field hospital steward. He served with the army of the Cumberland, and in addition to his regular duties he often aided at the amputating table and in care of the sick. He remained at the front for more than three years, participated in all the battles of his regiment, and at Stone River received a wound in the left side from a spent musket ball, the field hospital being then between the two lines. At that engagement he was captured by General Lidell, of the First Arkansas brigade, but was recaptured within an hour.

     Returning to Michigan at the close of the war, he began the practice of medicine in Branch county, where he remained until his emigration to Nebraska, in 1870. He located and improved a homestead northeast of Osceola, and in 1875 took up his residence in the town where he has since made his home. He was the first resident practicing physician of Polk county and still stands first in point of ability. He has always been a close student of his profession and thereby keeps abreast with the advancement made in the science. Deep humanitarian sympathies and a sincere love of his profession prompt him to respond to every call from the sick and suffering, whether it comes from humble or great, rich or poor, and thus he has won the respect and deep gratitude of many.

     The Doctor was married, October 2, 1895, to Mrs. Anna L. Lathrop, née Webster, a native of Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, born October 22, 1861, and a daughter of Charles S. Webster, a resident of Polk county, Nebraska. By her former marriage Mrs. Mills had a daughter, Clara O., born July 27, 1885, and the Doctor has an adopted son, Hawley H. Mills, who was born September 30, 1880, and is still pursuing his education. Dr. and Mrs. Mills hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church, in which he is a very active worker. He is also an exemplary representative and charter member of the Masonic lodge, of Osceola. His life has been one of signal usefulness and honor. Free from ostentation, he is kindly in manner, genial in disposition and very entertaining and companionable when among his close friends. His history is that of a man who has, step by step, advanced to a high position among the most honored and respected citizens of Polk county. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM BEATTY is one of the old settlers and representative farmers and stock raisers of New York township, York county, and has been quite a conspicuous figure in the development and extension of the agricultural interests of the community in which he has made his home for more than a quarter of a century.

     Mr. Beatty was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, June 6, 1826, a son of George and Mary Ann (Mahlon) Beatty, both of whom were natives of Ireland. The parents came to America in 1820 and settled first in Pennsylvania, but later moved to Illinois and made their home in Marshall county. They afterward moved to Marshall county, Iowa, where they both died. The father was a farmer and followed that occupation all his life. They reared a family of ten sons and one daughter, but only three sons are now living.

     William Beatty, the subject of this sketch, was educated in Illinois, and began working on the farm when quite young. He made his home with his parents until twenty-five years of age, and then began life for himself. He lived in Iowa until 1872 and then moved to York county Nebraska,



took a homestead in New York township and is still making his residence on that farm. Since living here he has placed upon it all of the improvements which now add so much to its appearance and value. His first home, however, was a dug-out, but after a time, in order keep abreast of the advance of civilization, he supplanted this humble domicile with a sod house, and this likewise finally had to give place to a frame house. Although Mr. Beatty has claimed his residence in this township since his first settlement here, he went to the state of Washington in 1889 and spent three years there for the improvement of his health.

     In 1852 Mr. Beatty was married in Marshall county, Illinois, to Miss Lovina Brumsey, a native of North Carolina and a daughter of John and Susanah Brumsey, both natives of North Carolina. The father was a ship builder by occupation, but after moving with his family to Illinois, in 1833, he followed the occupation of farming. Our subject and Mrs. Beatty are the parents of a family of seven children, five sons and two daughters, as follows: Carnie A.; Elmira A., now Mrs. L. Allcock; Benjamin, Mary F., Andrew J., Francis C. and Joshua. The family are all members of the Seventh Day Adventist Church. In political views Mr. Beatty is a Republican, and under that administration served as the second postmaster at Thayer. He is one of the substantial representative men of New York township, having been one of its early settlers, endured the hardships and privations of pioneer life, the devastations of the grasshoppers, but in spite of all he has become one of its prosperous citizens, and has done much to aid in its growth and development. 

Letter/label or barOBERT LOCKWOOD is one of the leading farmers of Butler county, and has a fertile and thoroughly cultivated farm of three hundred and sixty acres in Bone Creek township, which takes in the better part of section 35. Like Cesar, he could tell the story of the making of the county, and say, "all of which I saw, and part of which I was." For more than thirty years he has found his home in this county, and through all his experiences has never lost faith in its future. He is prominent and influential, and his neighbors repose much confidence in his good judgment. They elected him as a member of the first county board, and would have used his services for the public good had his own disposition harmonized with their desire. Mr. Lockwood is a Democrat, and takes his part of the common political responsibility, but he neither seeks nor desires office. He is content to follow his own work, and devote himself to his farm, and the honors and rewards of political life fall to those who seek the satisfaction their acquirement brings.

     Mr. Lockwood was born in Erie county, Ohio, in 1828, where his father, Eleazer Lockwood, had long been living. This gentleman was a native of New York, but had accompanied his parents to Canada, when only eight years old. He was married in Canada, and very soon after that interesting event came back to the United States and settled in Erie county, Ohio, where young Robert was born, and where he spent the years of his boyhood and early manhood. There he was married in 1849 to Miss Melinda Smith. The young couple sought a better opportunity in the farther west, and made a brief stop in Indiana. They pushed farther west, and when Mr. Lockwood was twenty-eight years old they found a home in Ogle county, Illinois, near Byron. It was on the Rock river, and was a charming and beautiful location.

     Mr. Lockwood was living on his river home when the Civil war broke out, and without hesitation responded to the call of



his imperilled (sic) country. He enlisted in Company B, Ninety-second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and gallantly served two years with the colors. He participated in a number of the fiercest battles of the west, and passed alive through the horrors of Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Franklin, and Resaca, Georgia. He was with Sherman on that glorious march through Georgia down to the sea, and was throughout the war a valiant and daring soldier. With the dawn of peace Mr. Lockwood came back to Ogle county, and promptly resumed peaceful labors.

     The war-worn soldier concluded that land along the Rock river was too valuable for him to hold at this time, and in 1866 disposed of it at a good price. He left Illinois with a team and wagon and made the journey overland to Butler county bringing with him three cows. It was a weary but pleasant journey for the Lockwood family, and by the time Butler county was entered, they were ready to settle down upon the first inviting tract that fell under their observation. He secured eighty acres under the homestead law, and upon it erected one of the very first log dwellings, with a shingle roof, ever seen in this region. He hauled lumber for it from Plattsmouth and Nebraska City, which was unusually high in price. Cottonwood lumber cost eighty dollars per thouand (sic) feet, and the best grades of timber commanded almost fabulous prices. The first year he planted sod corn and broke up much of the farm. The next year he raised and sold six hundred and fifty-one bushels of wheat, which brought him from one dollar to one dollar and twenty-five cents a bushel. To sell it to dealers in Columbus he had to swim his horses across the Platte river, the country was so lacking in roads and bridges at that time.

     Coming here in an early day, and before the organization of Butler county, Mr. Lockwood was present at the first beginning of the county's history. He served on the first election board, and from the first has taken an active part in every measure for the improvement of the county. Mrs. Lockwood died in March, 1892. They had five children, three of whom are now living Edwin S., Ezra B., and Frances R., now Mrs. W. J. Evans. 

Letter/label or barOSEPH RUNNALLS, who occupies a fine and well-improved farm on section 11, McFadden township, York county, is numbered among the well-to-do farmers of the community, who from a small beginning has built up one of the best homesteads in the township. He is a self-educated as well as a self-made man, but has always made the most of his advantages, has availed himself of the most approved methods of carrying on agriculture and stock-raising, and due success has not been denied him.

     Mr. Runnalls was born in Cornwall, England, in November, 1840, a son of William and Mary (Thomas) Runnalls, also natives of England, where they lived and died, the former being a blacksmith by trade. As his parents were in limited circumstances, our subject was obliged to earn his own livelihood at an early age, and was unable to read or write when he left England at the age of eighteen years to seek his fortune in the new world, where he believed better opportunities were afforded ambitious and industrious young men. He first went to Canada, locating at Brockville, near Montreal, and afterward learned the miller's trade, which he followed in that country and the United States for nineteen years. In June, 1873, he settled in Seward county, Nebraska, and worked at his trade at Beaver Crossing, one of the first mills in that section of the state. Subsequently he worked at several other places in Nebraska and Kansas, and in the meantime purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land on which



he now resides, but, not having money to improve it, he continued to engage in milling until 1875, when he located upon the place, to the improvement and cultivation of which he devoted his energies during the summer months for several years, while during the winter he continued to follow milling. He now has a fine farm under a high state of cultivation and improved with good buildings.

In 1866, Mr. Runnalls was married in Canada to Miss Elizabeth Pelfrey, a native of England, whose parents died in Canada when she was quite young. Mr. Runnalls is independent in politics, voting for the best man at local elections, but at national elections generally supports the Democratic ticket. 

Letter/label or barMANUEL LINDEBLAD.--Among the influential and prominent agriculturists of Polk county, who are indebted for their present prosperous condition to their own industry and energy, and who have raised themselves in the world from a state of comparative penury to that of ease and comfort, is the gentleman whose name introduces this article. He is engaged in farming, with the attendant stock raising, and is meeting with a well deserved success. His farm is on section 10, township 14, range 3.

     Mr. Lindeblad was born July 16, 1840, in Guttenburg, Sweden, where he grew to manhood, acquiring during his youth a fair education in his native tongue, and also a knowledge of the tailor's trade, at which he worked from the age of eleven years until coming to America in 1861. Landing in New York, he remained in that city for six months and then went to Buffalo, where he worked at his trade for about a year. The following three months were spent in Quebec, Canada, and from there he removed to Henry, Marshall county, Illinois, where he was employed at his trade for two years.

     While living there Mr. Lindeblad was married in 1867, to Miss Hannah Jensen, a native of Stockholm, Sweden. In 1869 he came to Nebraska, and after working at his trade in Lincoln for two years, he took up his residence in Polk county, upon land where he still continues to reside. His first home here was a little frame house, the lumber of which cost forty dollars per thousand, and had to be hauled a distance of forty miles with a yoke of cattle. In 1871 he broke forty acres of land and raised some sod corn; the following year raised sod corn and some wheat; in 1873, raised a fair crop; but in 1874 the grasshoppers took everything. During the heavy snow of April, 1873, he was in Lincoln, and his wife being alone on the farm had to take the cattle into the bedroom and kept them there for three days. During their early residence here she would attend to the cattle, and haul the water in a bucket, and help her husband in other ways upon the farm, while he would work by day in the fields, and at night would do tailoring in order to support the family. Prosperity at last crowned their united efforts, and today they are the owners of an excellent farm of three hundred and sixty acres, of which all but forty acres have been placed under the plow. Their pleasant residence was erected in 1880.

     Mr. and Mrs. Lindeblad have an interesting family of eight children, namely: Alice Amelia, Minnie Constantine, Hilding Junata, Ellen Hannah, Etra Edwina, Joseph Ephraim, Arthur Oliver and Esther Oleda. They have attended both English and Swedish schools, are good scholars in both languages, and the family is one of social prominence. Parents and children hold membership in the Lutheran church at Swede Home, with which Mr. Lindeblad has been officially connected. He is a member of the Scandinavian Mutual Insurance Company, and is an ardent Republican in politics. He is one of the honored pioneers.



of the county, his nearest neighbors being nine miles away when he located upon his present farm. With four others he made a trip in a wagon, viewing the country between Seward and Central City, when not a house was to be seen for fifty or sixty miles. Those early days were filled with many hardships and privations, water had to be hauled a distance of seven miles, but, with the aid of his estimable wife, Mr. Lindeblad overcame all obstacles in his path to success, and is now one of the well-to-do and highly respected citizens of his community. 

Letter/label or barENRY SCHMIDT--Many of the most enterprising and prosperous farmers of York county have come from the land beyond the sea, and especially is this true of the many who have left their homes in the German empire and taken up their residence here, knowing that in this country better opportunities for advancement were furnished ambitious and industrious young men. Among these quite a prominent figure is the gentleman whose name heads this sketch, and who makes his home on section 22, Leroy township.

     Mr. Schmidt was born in Prussia, December 9, 1834, a son of Gotfreid and Concortia (Schmidt) Schmidt, also natives of that country, where the mother died about 1838. The father afterward married a Mrs. Kernstein, and in June, 1857, they emigrated to America, with his family, locating on a farm in Lewis county, New York, where both he and his wife lived until their deaths.

     Our subject was but four years old when he lost his mother, and in his native land, at the age of fourteen years, he was bound out as a shoemaker's apprentice, serving four years in that capacity. At the end of that period he came to the United States, embarking at Liverpool, England, in a sailing vessel, and after five weeks upon the ocean, he landed in New York, July 16, 1853. Although alone among strangers and without money, he was not discouraged, for he possessed a great amount of energy and a determination to succeed. He had no trouble in securing work at his trade; in fact, he arrived in the afternoon of one day and was working the next morning. He remained in New York city until January, 1854, when he went to Watertown, Jefferson county, the same state, but shortly afterward removed to Lowville, Lewis county, New York, where he remained about four years working at his trade. In March, 1857, he located in Chicago, but after a short time spent in the city he took up his residence at Blue Island, Cook county, Illinois, where he worked as a journeyman for several years.

     On the 24th of April, 1862, in Chicago, Mr. Schmidt wedded Miss Mary Waniata, who was born in Bohemia, Austria, June 9, 1844, Her parents, Wenzel and Fannie (Critofield) Waniata, were also natives of Bohemia, whence they came to America in 1853, and settled near Blue Island, Cook county, Illinois. Both died in that county. By trade the father was a tanner. Mr. and Mrs. Schmidt are the parents of eleven children: Henry J., who married Ida Apply, of Kansas, and now lives in Washington county, that state; Albert G., who married Ida Kirkendahl and resides in Stockville, Frontier county, Nebraska; Wenzel J., who married Ida Allen and makes his home in Curtis, Nebraska; Tena E., wife of Frank Miller, of Valley Junction, Iowa; Anna B., who died at the age of thirteen years; Fannie R., wife of John Whisler, of Sydney, Nebraska; Lillie M., who lives with her sister in Iowa; Charley, who died at the age of six years; Minnie, wife of Thomas Hall, of Nuckolls county, Nebraska, and Carrie A. and William F., both at home. The first six were born in Illinois, and the others in York county, Nebaska (sic).

     After his marriage Mr. Schmidt removed



to Reading, Livingston county, Illinois, where he conducted a shoe shop until coming to Nebraska in the fall of 1872, and after pre-emting eighty acres of land in Leroy township, York county, he returned to Illinois for his family, who arrived on the 18th of February, 187 3. The land was all raw prairie, on which he erected a board shanty 12 x20 feet and 6 feet in height, and in this the family lived until the frost was out of the ground and a more commodious dwelling could be constructed from sod. A sod stable and granary were also built. Mr. Schmidt's live stock at this time consisted of fourteen chickens, five pigs and a faithful dog, which he brought with him from Illinois. By hard work, economy and good management, he has accumulated a competence, and now has a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres under excellent cultivation and improved with a good residence and substantial outbuildings.

     Mr. Schmidt has been closely indentified with the best interests of his township, is public spirited and enterprising, and for many years has acceptably served as township clerk, and also on the school board. His political support is always given the Republican party, and in his social relations he is a Mason, belonging to the blue lodge in York. He and his wife are also connected with the Presbyterian church of that city, were among its first members, and have always taken an active and prominent part in all church work, giving their influence to all objects for the betterment of their fellow men. 

Letter/label or barSAIAH W. WATT, a leading agriculturist of Baker township, has his residence on section 8, and is surrounded with the comforts of modern farm life. Mr. Watt was born December 18, 1846, in Perry county, Ohio, son of Isaac and Ann (Tracy), Watt, both natives of Maryland. Isaac Watt, our subject's father, removed to Perry county, Ohio, with his parents, Joseph and Mary (Hitchcock) Watt, when he was but three years of age. Joseph Watt was of Welsh descent, and was a pioneer of Perry county, Ohio, where he was engaged in farming and where he died. He served as captain of a company in the war of 1812. Isaac Watt, the father of our subject was reared in Perry county, Ohio, where he was engaged in farming until 1856. At that time he removed to Tazewell county, Illinois, where he died December 24, 1895. His wife survives him and still resides in Tazewell county.

     Isaiah W. Watt born (sic) ten years of age when his parents removed to Tazewell county, Illinois. He received his education in the public schools, and supplemented it with a two years' course in the State Normal School at Normal, Illinois. He then followed teaching several years, and in the fall of 1872 removed to Nebraska. He spent the first winter in Pawnee county, and the following summer in Saunders county. In the fall of 1873 he went to York county and purchased 160 acres of railroad lands in section 9, Baker township. This land was all wild and unimproved, and he set vigorously to work to put it in a state of cultivation. He later homesteaded eighty acres in section 8, of the same township, and on this tract he now resides. He has since purchased an additional eighty-acre tract, and now owns three hundred and twenty acres of land in value second to none in York county.

     Mr. Watt was married July 4th, 1870, to Mary Boblett, who was born near Chilicothe, Ohio, in Ross county. She is a daughter of Noah and Mary (Whipple) Boblett. To Mr. and Mrs. Watt six children have been born, as follows: N. Perley, Agnes A., I. Wesley, John C., Isaiah H. and Ralph M. All the children are receiving the best educational advantages, Agnes having



graduated from the State Normal School at Peru in 1896, and the four youngest children are now attending that institution.

     In political faith Mr. Watt is a free-silver Republican. He is well-known throughout the county, and has served on the county board of supervisors, and as township assessor for several years. 

Letter/label or barOHN Q. OHLWILER, a public-spirited and enterprising member of the farming community of Seward county, has devoted the greater part of his life to agriculture, in the pursuit of which he has been very fortunate. He is the owner of one of the finest farms in H precinct and enjoys the comfort of a happy household and home.

     Mr. Ohlwiler was born November , 1843, in Erie county, Pennsylvania, and was educated in the common schools of that county. At the age of eighteen years, he entered the United States Navy under Commodore Porter and remained therein about one year. He then returned to his home in Pennsylvania and enlisted in the Sixth Pennsylvania artillery and served until July, 1865. He then went to western Pennsylvania and worked for two years in the oil regions, and from thence migrated to Nebraska in the fall of 1867. In the following July he filed a homestead claim to eighty acres in section 8, H precinct, erected a small frame shanty in which he lived the life of a bachelor during the first few years of his stay in Nebraska, or until he got his new farm cultivated and improved.

     After attaining the age of twenty-eight years, and developing his farm into a fine state of cultivation, and furnishing it with a cozy and attractive home, he invited Miss Margarette Luft to share it with him, and she became his wife March 31, 1872. To this congenial union have been born three children, two of whom, Edith E. and Nellie, are now living.

     Mr. Ohlwiler's farm now comprises one hundred and sixty acres and the improvements on it are above the average. He is a man of strong character and of good business ability which is the secret of his success in life. Politically he is a Republican, casting his first ballot for Abraham Lincoln, and socially he affiliates with the Modern Woodmen of America.

     Frederick and Maryanna (Kuhl) Ohlwiler, our subject's parents, were also both natives of the state of Pennsylvania, the former born in Lancaster and the latter in York county. Later they moved to Erie county, of the same state, where they spent the remaining years of their lives on a farm. Mrs. Ohlwiler's parents were born in Germany. Her father, John Luft, was fourteen years of age when he migrated to America and located in Ohio. He at once began the occupation of farming, and was thus engaged in that state for several years. While in Ohio, he made the acquaintance of Miss Lena Rasp, who afterward became his wife, and they subsequently moved to Seward county, Nebraska, where the evening of their life was passed. 

Letter/label or barAVID KUNS, one of the most prosperous, enterprising and extensive farmers of York county, was born in Clinton county, Indiana, November 23, 1850. He was a son of Henry and Caroline (Spidle) Kuns, who were born near Dayton, Ohio. Henry Kuns removed to Indiana when he was very young, locating near Delphi, on a farm. They were among the pioneers in that region. They cleared a woodland farm, sold it, moved to Clinton county. and still later to Piatt county, Illinois. Henry Kuns became a prosperous farmer in that state, and in 1890 he removed to California, in the company of his brother David, and spent the remainder of his life in well-merited retirement in that state,

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