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farm on section 21, and to its cultivation and improvement has since devoted his energies with most gratifying results. Before he was able to buy a team, he broke many acres of land with cattle, and he and his wife underwent all the hardships and difficulties incident to life on the frontier, living in rude sod shanties, and having their crops destroyed by drought and grasshoppers. Prosperity has at length crowned their efforts, and they now have a comfortable home and good farm under excellent cultivation.

      Although not active in politics, Mr. Day always supports the Republican party by his ballot. He is an honored member of the Grand Army Post at York, and both he and his wife are connected with the Methodist Episcopal church at that place, and also with the Relief Corps. Wherever known they are held in high regard and have a host of friends in their adopted county. 

Letter/label or barOHN KEEFE, whose home is on section 32, McFadden township, has long resided in York county, and can recount from personal experience many stories of its privations and pleasures. He came to this county in the spring of 1871, and filed a soldier's homestead claim to the southwest quarter of section 32, township 9, range 2. At that time settlers were few and far removed, and only an occasional dug-out could be seen in the distance. He constructed one at first, and broke only about fifteen acres, raising a fairly good crop of sod corn. He still lives here and has a fine farm, with all the usual improvements.

      Mr. Keefe was born in Erie, New York, in 1845, and is a son of Bartholomew and Mary (Kinne) Keefe, natives of Ireland, where they were reared and married. They lived in New York, Massachusetts, Wisconsin and Illinois, and in this last state the widow Keefe is still living, and where she brought up her son John. He enlisted in Company I, Ninth Illinois Volunteer Cavalry, January 8, 1864, and served throughout the closing months of the Civil war. His regiment was in fifty-three battles, and he himself participated in thirty-two. Some of the principal engagements in which he took part were Pontiac, Missouri, Tupello, Missouri, Spring Hill, Nashville and Hurricane Creek, He was discharged at Selma, Alabama, and mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, in i865, when he returned to his home in Boone county, but soon after went to Wisconsin, where he worked in the pineries for two years. He worked on an Iowa railroad for a few months, and came to this county in 1871. He was married in McHenry county, Illinois, to Miss Katie Duggon, who died in 1876, after becoming the mother of one child, William B. In 188o he was married to Miss Maggie Ryan, a native of Walworth county, Wisconsin, and they are the parents of two children, Julia E. and James E. Mr. Keefe is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and he and his wife are members of the Fairmont Catholic church. In politics he is a Republican, and is a man of good character and the best reputation among his friends and neighbors. 

Letter/label or barZRA P. POOL is pleasantly situated on section 27, I precinct, Seward county, where he owns one of the many fine farms for which this locality is so justly celebrated. He was born in Eaton county, Michigan, in 1850, a son of Avery and Sophia Pool. The father died when our subject was quite young, and the mother, who was also a native of Michigan, died at the age of fifty-two years.

      Mr. Pool was educated in the public schools and was reared in the faith of the United Brethren church, to which the family belonged. On attaining his majority he



learned the blacksmith's trade, which he followed for two years in Michigan, four years in Illinois, and two years in Nebraska. On the 14th of November, 1873, he was married in Lee county, Illinois, the lady of his choice being Miss Sophia Binne. Her father, Christian Binne, was a native of Hanover, Germany, and on corning to the new world located in Bedford county, Pennsylvania. He was married in Philadelphia to Miss Mary Kanouse, who died many years ago, leaving three daughters, of whom Mrs. Pool is the second in order of birth. One is now living in Lancaster county, Nebraska, and the other in Oklahoma. The father came to this state in the same fall as his son-in-law, Mr. Pool, and now, in his declining years, having attained the ripe old age of eighty-one, he finds a pleasant home with our subject. To Mr. and Mrs. Pool were born seven children: Elisha, who married Elmeda Snick, and lives on a farm in I precinct, Seward county; Charles, who has attended the Milford high school as did also his older brother; Guy, Elwilda and Aurilla, twins, all at home; and two who died in infancy.

      For two years after his marriage Mr. Pool made his home in Michigan and then returned to Lee county, Illinois, where he spent the same length of time, but the fall of 1876 witnessed his arrival in Seward county, Nebraska, where he has since made his home. This region at that time was but sparsely settled; Lincoln was a small town looking very rough and neglected; and Milford, which now has a population of only eight hundred, was larger and more prosperous than the village of Seward, which now numbers three thousand five hundred souls. As the country became more thickly settled the comforts of civilization were introduced, and the state to-day ranks among the best west of the Mississippi. Mr. Pool bought one hundred and sixty acres of land at six dollars per acre, and ten years later an eighty-acre tract at thirty dollars per acre, making in all two hundred and forty acres in I precinct. It is now under a high state of cultivation and improved with good and substantial buildings. As he arrived here after the grasshoppers had left, he prospered from the start, as the eighties were exceptionally good years for raising abundant crops. His first home here was a small frame house, which was improved and enlarged as his financial resources increased and he now has a very pleasant home. He has been honored with several offices in his township, and for the past twelve years has continuously and most efficiently served as. a member of the school board. He cast his first ballot for U. S. Grant, and at national elections still supports the Republican party, but on local matters endeavors to vote for the best interest, of the people, regardless of party affiliations. 

Letter/label or bar. T. SMITH, D. D. S., is a leading dentist and prominent citizen of Geneva, Nebraska, and for ability, professional knowledge and skill stands very high in the profession. He was born in DeKalb county, Missouri, December 14, 1868, a son of A. C. and S. E. (Ashby) Smith, in whose family were seven children, our subject being the second in order of birth. The father died in Missouri at the age of sixty years and was laid to rest in the cemetery at Berlin, that state. He was one of the influential and popular citizens of his community, was highly respected by all who knew him for his many noble traits of character and sterling qualities, and was often called into public life. He served as sheriff and tax collector of DeKalb county, Missouri, and most ably represented his district in the state legislature. In his death the community realized that it had lost one of its most valued and useful citizens, and his family a devoted husband and loving father. The mother



still living in Missouri, at the age of fifty-five years.

      It has been said that it is useless to give a person a college training without first giving him a common-school education. This being true the doctor's education was started right, for he was for some time a student in the public schools near his boyhood home, at then attended the high school at Berlin, Missouri. His early life was passed on the home farm near Marysville, Missouri, and he remained with his father until attaining his majority. He started out in life for himself as a clerk in a store in Bloomington, Nebraska, but his aims were toward a professional life. At the age of twenty-one, he entered the Dental College at Kansas City, Missouri, from which he was graduated in 1892, and three years later took a postgraduate course at Kaskell College, Chicago, Illinois, graduating from that institution in 1894. He came at once to Geneva, and since 1895 has occupied his pleasant suite of rooms in the Fraternity Block. They are fitted up with all modern appliances for the accomplishment of successful dentistry, and he to-day enjoys an excellent practice. He has attained his present honorable position by his own unaided exertions, earning the means for pursuing his studies in college by his own labors. He is talented and skillful to a marked degree, and as a young man of correct habits and of an upright moral character, an honorable career lies before him in his chosen calling. 

Letter/label or barRANK S. MORRIS, M. D., came to York county, in 1887, and at once located at McCool junction, and began the practice of medicine and surgery. The village had been laid out in February of that year, and the Doctor arrived in March, and was immediately and is still the only practitioner of any prominence in the junction.

      He has had a good practice ever since his location, and is recognized as one of the foremost medical men in the county. In 1892 he purchased the drug store, which had been managed by Sedgwick & Bagnell, and has since operated it to his own profit and the satisfaction of the community.

      Dr. Morris was born in Geauga county, Ohio, June 20, 1865. He was a child of S. U. and Anette (Warner) Morris. His father was a native of Virginia and his mother of Ohio. The senior Morris was an Ohio farmer and operated an extensive dairy. He and his wife now reside in DeWitt, Nebraska. The Doctor spent his early life in Ohio, and had the usual common-school education. His parents moved to DeWitt in 1879, and he followed in 1884. In the meantime he had done considerable traveling in the states. He attended the DeWitt school for a time, and later, while clerking in a drug store, began the study of pharmacy. This year he also began the study of medicine under the supervision of a DeWitt doctor, C. E. Elder, and had previously devoted considerable time to the reading. He took a preparatory course at Butler University, Irvington, Indiana, and in the fall of 1885 entered the Medical College of Indiana, and was graduated in 1887. He came at once to the scene of his present labors, and has been eminently successful. He is an up-to-date physician and alive to the best methods of treatment. To increase his efficiency he took a post-graduate course at the post-graduate school in Chicago and a second term at the Chicago Polyclinic. He is a member of the American Medical Association, the Nebraska State Medical society, and the International Association of Railway Surgeons. He is in the service of St. Joseph and Grand Island railroad. Socially, the Doctor is a man of many pleasant traits and characteristics. He is a member of the Masonic order, blue lodge and chapter, at York, the Ancient



Order of United Workmen, and the Modern Wookmen of America, and is medical examiner for the last two associations. He is a Republican, and during the administration of Cleveland he was appointed to the pension board. He has held various local offices in the village and township.

      The Doctor was married to Miss Minnie McClure, in 1888. She was a native of Hendricks county, Indiana, and he has been a widower since 1894, his wife having died June 8, of that year. 

Letter/label or barELS ANDERSON.--Among the leading and representative agriculturists of Fillmore county, stalwart and sturdy tillers of the soil, there is none who stands a more prominent figure than the gentleman whose name introduces this sketch. He resides on section 22, Bryant precinct, where he owns and operates a fine farm of two hundred and sixty acres, which has been acquired through his own well directed efforts, as he began life for himself empty-handed.

      Mr. Anderson was born in Sweden, February 22, 1844, and is the oldest in a family of eight children, of whom six are still living, their parents being Peter and Annie (Trollson) Anderson. The father was born in Sweden in 1819, and died in Illinois, in 1863, but the mother is still living at the age of seventy-six years and makes her home with her youngest daughter in Moline, Illinois. She recently made our subject a visit.

      In 1853, at the age of nine years, Nels Anderson accompanied his parents on their emigration to America, and grew to manhood in Moline, Illinois, assisting his parents until after the attempt of the south to secede from the Union. He resolved to strike a blow in defense of his adopted country, and in 1862, at the age of eighteen years, enlisted in Company F, Eighty ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, serving under Captain Williams and later under Captain Copp. He was captured by the rebels at the battle of Chickamauga on the 19th of September 1863, and for the long period of one year and four days was confined in Libby prison and at Danville, Virginia, where he suffered untold agonies from privations, being nearly starved to death. He was released on the 24th of September, 1864. He returned to his home in Illinois, and at the close of the war was honorably discharged.

      In 1870, Mr. Anderson was united in marriage with Miss Harriet Smith, who was born in Illinois, January 23, 1853, a daughter of Nathaniel Smith, who during his tong and eventful career was connected with many deeds of heroism. He was born in England, August 26, 1814. He was married in Manchester, England, in 1840, to Harriet Barnett, who was born August 15, 1816. In 1842 they came to America, landing in New York. They then went to Pennsylvania, and after one year returned to New York and took ship for New Orleans. They were shipwrecked in the Gulf of Mexico and landed on the island of Nasau, one of the West Indies, and later went to Baltimore, Maryland, where they lived until 1846. They then went to Rock Island county, Illinois, where he engaged in the coal business. There his wife died in 1879, his eldest daughter in 188o, and his second daughter in 1886, the remains of all being interred in the cemetery at Watertown, Illinois. Mrs. Anderson is the only daughter now living, but there are three sons: Nathaniel T., Thomas and William, all of whom are married and are influential men in the communities where they reside. The father spent his declining years with his daughter in Nebraska and died here January 25, 1893. Thus passed away one whose life had been well spent and who was honored and respected by all who knew



him. He was laid to rest in the Shickley cemetery. To Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have been born ten children, of whom Arthur N., the fifth, in order of birth, died at the age of fifteen years and seven months, and was buried in Shickley cemetery. The others are as follows: Nellie M., Adelia H., N. Franklin, H. Flora, Alfred T., Emma L., Annie E., Lillian C. and Leonard B., all at home.

      Coming to Fillmore county, Nebraska, in 1872, Mr. Anderson took a homestead in Bryant precinct, and the following year the family located thereon, bringing with them all their earthly possessions in one wagon. Their first home here was a dugout, which was later., replaced by a sod house, then a rude frame structure was built, but they now have a fine two-story residence, which is supplied with all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life. They encountered many trials and difficulties during their early residence here, among which were the grasshoppers, droughts and blizzards, but at length prosperity seemed to smile upon their efforts, and they now have a valuable farm of two hundred and sixty acres, under a high state of cultivation and well improved. Politically Mr. Anderson is identified with the Republican party, and he gives an earnest support to all measures which he believes in any way calculated to prove of benefit to the community in which he lives or to the general public. He has manifested the same loyalty in days of peace as in days of war, and all who know him have for him the highest regard. 

Letter/label or barLBERT J. T. KAEMPFER, the well-known editor and publisher of the Rising City Independent, of Rising City, has been a resident of Butler county since October, 1881. He was born in the city of Greifswald, Prussia, February 18, 1856, and in 1867, accompanied the family on their emigration to America. The subject of this sketch secured work on a farm in Michigan, near Mount Clemens, and attended school in that city, and was thus employed for several years. At Mount Clemens, he was married in 1880, the lady of his choice being Miss Albertine L. Sass, a daughter of Charles Sass who was also a native of the old country, but emigrated to the United States. Their, voyage was attended with much hardship and danger. While en route the ship was wrecked in the English Channel, and from the effects of the hardships and exposure, the father and one brother died before reaching this country. The rest of the family continued on their way, and finally, after thirteen weeks, landed on the shores of the new world. They proceeded at once to Mount Clemens, Michigan, where they took up their residence. The following year Mr. Kaempfer, with his wife and child,. started westward, reaching Rising City, Nebraska, with less than a dollar in his pocket. Here he secured whatever work offered, and for the first few years he had a hard struggle to get along. Being energetic, industrious and careful, he never failed to get employment, though others were not so fortunate. Having learned typesetting in Rising City, he finally turned his attention to newspaper work, at first purchasing only a half interest in the Independent, but became sole proprietor five months later, by buying out his partner. He has uniformly conducted the enterprise with consummate skill and ability, and now has one of the best papers in this section of the state. Although Mr. Kaempfer is a stanch Republican, he has made the paper non-partisan. Its circulation is large and its advertising list good. He takes an active interest in civic societies, and is a charter member of the Knights of Pythias; the Ancient Order of United Workmen; and the Modern Woodmen of America; while he also belongs to



the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Degree of Honor, and Royal Neighbors of America. He is a prominent and honored member of these fraternities, and has served as secretary in most of them.

      Mr. Kaempfer was educated in Germany before coming to America, and now reads, writes and speaks both languages fluently. 

Letter/label or barARL KREH.--Germany has furnished to York county many of its best and most progressive citizens, and none stand higher in the esteem of their fellow men than the gentleman whose name introduces this article. He was born in the Fatherland, October 12, 1836. He worked as a farm laborer until he was married, at the age of twenty-six years, to Miss Mina Smaltz, who at that time was twenty-four. Subsequently he was employed as a shepherd, but not liking the occupation, he concluded to come to America, so when he and his wife had saved enough to pay their passage, they embarked on a sailing vessel, March 1, 1865, and finally landed in Iowa, May 10, of that year. There he hired out to a farmer, but after working about two months he received a sunstroke while plowing corn, and was unable to perform any labor in the sunshine until October, 1866. When he had sufficiently recovered, he worked at anything which he could find to do for two years, and then was sent into the timber to herd sheep. At the end of five years' residence in Iowa, he had managed to save one hundred dollars and also owned a good team and wagon. Loading his wagon with household effects, he started for York county, Nebraska, a distance of four hundred miles, and on his arrival filed a claim of eighty acres. After living upon that place for five years, he received his title to the land and sold it, buying the southwest quarter of section 2, township 9, range 4 west, upon which he has since made his home. Not a tree had been planted upon the place nor a furrow turned by the plow, but with characteristic energy he soon transformed the wild land into rich and productive fields, which now yield a golden tribute in return for the care and labor he has bestowed upon them.

      Mr. and Mrs. Kreh have become the parents of three children: Amelia, now the wife of Herman Smith, who lives upon a part of the home farm; Paulina, wife of Ferdinand Keiser, whose farm is in the same neighborhood; and August, who is single and lives with his parents on the home farm. They have all been well educated and the family all hold membership in the Lutheran church. Politically Mr. Kreh has always been a pronounced Republican, casting his first presidential vote for General Grant, his last for William McKinley. 

Letter/label or barORNELIUS CASEY, deceased, was for several years a leading farmer and highly respected citizen of precinct C, Seward county, and materially aided in its early development and prosperity. He was a native of Ireland, born in county Cork, about 1830, but during his infancy was brought to America by his parents, who settled in Boston, Massachusetts, and there died. Our subject was indebted to the public schools of that city for his educational privileges.

      When a young man, Mr. Casey left Boston and removed to Glenwood, Iowa, where he opened a bakery, being a baker by trade, but later bought land and turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. It was in 1862 that he first came to Nebraska, and settled near Nebraska City, where he took up a homestead and lived for five years. He then moved to jasper county, Missouri, where he made his home until 1870, when he went to California, spending one year in



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traveling through the west. Returning-to Nebraska in 1871, he located in Lincoln, where he purchased a bakery and carried on business along that line for two years. On selling out in 1872, he came to Seward county and bought a homestead in precinct C, on which he erected a house. To the development and cultivation of his land he then gave his entire attention and successfully operated the same until his untimely death, which occurred in 1880, being killed by a train near Ulysses, owing to deafness. He had lost his hearing from an attack of cholera when a young man.

      In 1865 Mr. Casey was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Dobson, a native of county Leitrim, Ireland, who came to America with her parents in 1862, when twelve years of age and was reared in Nebraska. To this union seven children were born, all still living, namely: Park J., William H., Mollie F., Frederick C., Robert E., Alice E. and Anna E.

      In religious faith Mr. Casey was a Catholic and in political sentiment he was a Democrat. He started out in life for himself without means, but by industry, perseverance and economy succeeded in his undertakings, and at the time of his death had a good farm, well improved. He was a kind and indulgent husband and father, and at all times and under all circumstances proved true to every trust reposed in him, thus winning the confidence and high regard of those he came in contact with. On another page of this volume is presented a portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Casey. 

Letter/label or barOHN WESLEY FOSTER, a valued and highly esteemed agriculturist of York county, resides on section 8, Henderson township, where he has a fine farm under excellent culture and well improved. The buildings upon his place are of a neat and substantial character, and betoken thrift and prosperity. He has met with a merited success in his farming operations, and is now quite well-to-do.

      Born in Randolph county, Indiana, June 26, 1848, Mr. Foster is a son of James Robert and Rebecca (Farrens) Foster, and grandson of John and Folly (Adams) Foster, the latter belonging to the same family as President John Adams. The Fosters were from Cork, Ireland while the Adams family is of Scotch and English descent. Our subject's maternal grandfather, Samuel Farrens, was a native of Germany, and in this country married Cynthia McCally, who was born in Tennessee. George Foster, the great-grandfather on the paternal side, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war from the beginning to the end of that struggle, while the grandfather, John Foster, aided in the defense of the country in the war of 1812, and an uncle of our subject, Joseph Adams Foster, served for three years in the Civil war, as a member of the Fifteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. It will thus be seen that the family has always been a patriotic and loyal one, true to the interests of their country at all times and under all circumstances.

      James R. Foster, our subject's father, completed his education by graduating from Girard College in 1845, and for some time he successfully engaged in teaching in Indiana, in which state he married Miss Rebecca L. Farrens. On moving west he first located in Page county, Iowa, but later settled in Taylor county, that state, where he engaged in farming for twenty-one years. He then made his way still farther west, landing in York county, Nebraska, in September, 1874, and here he homesteaded the southwest quarter of section 32, Brown township, where he followed farming until 1886, since which time he and his wife have made their home in Whatcom county, Washington. They have now reached the ages of seventy-eight and seventy-six years, respectively,



and are honored and respected by all who know them.

      John W. Foster, of this review, is their eldest child, and was twenty-six years of age when he came to Nebraska, preceding the family a few months. He filed a claim to the east half of the northwest quarter of section 8, Henderson township, York county, where he now resides, and constructed a commodious dug-out on the side of the ravine, in which he lived alone for over four years. He then married Miss Julia Anna Green, a daughter of Gilbert and Charlotte Green, who trace their ancestry back to General Green, of Revolutionary fame. Mr. and Mrs. Foster have a family of four children: Minnie B., James Gilbert, Julia Iona and John Wesley. Miss Minnie is a graduate of the public schools of Henderson, Nebraska, and has just returned home after spending one term at the Fremont Normal and Business College, a school of good repute in Dodge county, Nebraska. She has taught two terms in the public schools of Henderson to the perfect satisfaction of the school officers and patrons in that village. The other children are attending the village schools, and the family is a source of comfort and pride to their parents.

      For the reception of his bride, Mr. Foster erected a good sod house, in which they lived for thirteen years, when it was replaced by a comfortable frame residence. With their oldest daughter they hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church of Stockham, and socially Mr. Foster is a charter member of York Lodge, No. 56, F. & A. M. He cast his first presidential vote for Horatio Seymour and Blair, and has always been identified with the Democratic party, but believing the course adopted by the Republican party in erecting an English standard for Americans to worship to be on American, he pledges himself to vote with any party which agrees to return silver to its old place in the finances of the government. He has been a member of the school board for several years, was postmaster of Henderson under President Cleveland, was assessor at one time, and notary public for five years. 

Letter/label or barRS. MARIA ARTLYSIA BOBLIT TRACY is very highly regarded in the county of York. She is one of those Nebraska women who have come through great tribulations, and enjoys peace and rest at last, with the prospect of faith beyond. She has raised a numerous family, has parted from her husband, who was first to hear the angel's call, and has great riches laid up on high.

     Mrs. Tracy was born in Athens county, Ohio, October 27, 1842, and was four years old when her parents, Noah and Mary Boblit, moved to Ross county, in that state, where the remaining years of their life were spent. Her father died at the age of seventy-seven, outliving her mother by three years. It was there that the subject of this sketch first met John Edward Tracy. He was the seventh child of Joshua and Rachel Tracy, and traced his ancestry in a direct line to the Mayflower colony. They were married from her father house, in 1857, and immediately moved on a rented farm close by and labored there for the next three years. Mr. Tracy, who had been a teacher, collected money which he had invested, and bought the farm. He held it for a year, and then sold out at good advantage, and moved to Illinois, where he rented a farm in McLean county. This was in February, 1865, and for the next seven years he continued the cultivation of the black Illinois loam. By that time he had accumulated a considerable sum of money, which he thought would render him quite independent in a new country. He accordingly sold out a second time and came

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